WorldWideScience

Sample records for beverage penentuan kadar

  1. Penentuan Kadar COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Pada Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit, Pabrik Karet Dan Domestik

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhasanah

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar COD pada limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit, industri karet, dan domestik dengan metode titrimetri. Dari hasil analisa COD diperoleh kadar limbah kelapa sawit sebesar 206,33mg/l, limbah industri karet sebesar 31,74 mg/l, dan limbah domestik sebesar 162,68 mg/l. dimana menurut Standart baku mutu yang telah ditetapkan oleh Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Nomor: Kep-51/MENLH/10/1995, kadar maksimum COD dalam air limbah industri kelapa sawit sebesar 350 mg/l, dalam indust...

  2. Penentuan Kadar Kesadahan Total Dalam Air Baku Dan Air Bersih Dengan Titrasi Kompleksiometri Di PT Inalum Kuala Tanjung

    OpenAIRE

    Irmaliasari Banurea

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar kesadahan total air sungai Tanjung yang merupakan sumber air baku yang diolah menjadi air bersih di PT INALUM KUALA TANJUNG. Analisis air ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode titrasi kompleksiometri dengan menggunakan larutan EDTA dan indikator EBT. Air baku dari sungai dan air bersih yang dianalisa masing-masing 10 sampel dan pengolahan air sungai ini memberikan kadar kesadahan total seperti ditetapkan menurut KEP MENKES RI NO. 416/ MENKES/ PER/ IX/ 1990.

  3. Identifikasi dan Penentuan Kadar Boraks dalam Lontong yang Dijual di Pasar Raya Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Amelia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKeamanan makanan merupakan salah satu masalah yang harus mendapatkan perhatian terutama di negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, karena bisa berdampak buruk terhadap kesehatan. Penyebabnya adalah masih rendahnya pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan tanggung jawab produsen pangan terhadap mutu dan keamanan makanan terutama pada industri kecil atau industri rumah tangga. Hal ini menyebabkan produsen sering menambahkan bahan kimia ke dalam produk makanan, salah satunya boraks. Konsumsi boraks dapat menyebabkan mual, muntah, kanker bahkan kematian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi dan penentuan kadar boraks pada lontong yang dijual di Pasar Raya Padang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang dilakukan di Laboratorium FMIPA Universitas Andalas Padang dari bulan Januari sampai bulan Desember 2013. Identifikasi dan penentuan kadar boraks dilakukan terhadap 10 sampel lontong yang diambil secara random. Metoda yang digunakan adalah metoda titrasi dan menggunakan larutan standar NaOH. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap 10 sampel, didapatkan tidak ada satupun sampel lontong yang mengandung boraks.Kata kunci: boraks, lontong, titrasiAbstractThe food safety is one of problems that should get attention, especially in developing countries like Indonesia, because it can gives a negative impact for health. The cause is lack of knowledge, skill, and responsibility for the quality and safety of food, especially in small industries or home industry. It causes producers often add chemicals to food products, one of which borax. Consumption of borax can cause nausea, vomiting, cancer and even death. This research was to identify and determination of borax in lontong which sold at Pasar Raya Padang. This was a descriptive study at The Chemistry Laboratory, Andalas University Padang from January to December 2013. The identification and determination of borax on 10 samples of lontong taken by random. The method used is titration

  4. Penentuan Kadar Air Pada Cake Brownies Dan Roti Two In One Nenas Dan Es

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Indah Pratiwi

    2011-01-01

    In indonesia, food industry is growing rapidly and product various kinds of snack foods and beverages. With technological advances, the food industry produces snacks such as bread, cake (sponge). By using raw materials of carbohydrate, fats, protein, produced must have the value of good nutrition to support health. To know the nutritional value is one of them by analyzing the water content of the product. Analyzed the water content made in kinds of snack foods such as Brownies and bread Two I...

  5. Penentuan Kadar Nitrogen Total Dan Kadar Amoniak Pada Libah Cair Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Jatu

    2011-01-01

    Liquid waste of Coconut sawit represent the result from processing of coconut sawit become the oil. In liquid waste of coconut sawit contain total [of] dangerous ammonia and nitrogen if melewati of standard boundary which have been specified so that can contaminate the body irrigate and environmental. To determine the total nitrogen rate and ammonia in liquid waste of coconut sawit, Environmental Impact Operation Body [of] Area [of] North Sumatra use the spectrophotometer appliance. From...

  6. PENETAPAN KADAR IBUPROFEN DALAM TABLET SERTA APLIKASINYA PADA PLASMA TIKUS JANTAN WISTAR SECARA IN VITRO DENGAN METODE KCKT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengembangan metode KCKT dalam penetapan kadar tablet ibuprofen dalam plasma darah tikus jantan wistar secara in vitro. Metode divalidasi berdasarkan parameter linearitas, akurasi, dan presisi. Kondisi KCKT yang digunakan adalah fase terbalik dengan kolom shim pack CLC ODS dan fase gerak asetonitril:bufer fosfat (35:65 v/v, laju alir 0,8 mL/min. Hasil uji linearitas menunjukan nilai r = 0,993 pada kisaran konsentrasi 0,5-5 μg/mL, presisi 0,93 (%RSD, dan perolehan kembali 92,9%. Penentuan ibuprofen dalam tablet generik dan merek pada matriks plasma tikus jantan wistar menghasilkan persen kadar pada kisaran antara 80-100%. Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengembangan metode KCKT dalam penetapan kadar tablet ibuprofen dalam plasma darah tikus jantan wistar secara in vitro. Metode divalidasi berdasarkan parameter linearitas, akurasi, dan presisi. Kondisi KCKT yang digunakan adalah fase terbalik dengan kolom shim pack CLC ODS dan fase gerak asetonitril:bufer fosfat (35:65 v/v, laju alir 0,8 mL/min. Hasil uji linearitas menunjukan nilai r = 0,993 pada kisaran konsentrasi 0,5-5 μg/mL, presisi 0,93 (%RSD, dan perolehan kembali 92,9%. Penentuan ibuprofen dalam tablet generik dan merek pada matriks plasma tikus jantan wistar menghasilkan persen kadar pada kisaran antara 80-100%.

  7. Penentuan Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas Dalam Minyak Goreng Yang Berasal Dari Minyak Jagung

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Determination has been made of free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the corn oil in PT.Palmcoco Laboratories, Medan. The corn oil are generally got it extraction sprout of corn is usually using mechanical expression and solvent extraction. The results of research on the average content of Free Fatty Acid(FFA) in refined corn oil is derived from Belawan 0.0857 %andthe average content ofFree Fatty Acid(FFA) in refined corn oil is derived from the Medan market 0.0678 %. 102401029

  8. Penentuan Kualitas Aluminium Ingot Dengan Pengukuran Kadar Fe, Si Dan Cu, Menggunakan Optical Emission Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Andika

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research results were found: for the first aluminum has a purity of Al =99,81% (Fe 0,1445%, Si 0,0473% and Cu 0,0003%), the second almunium has purity of Al = 99.92%, (Fe 0,0521%, Si 0,0335% and Cu 0,0002%),the third aluminum has purity of Al = 99.81%,(Fe 0,1475%, Si 0,0442% and Cu 0,0002%), the fourth alumunium has purity of Al = 99.91% , (Fe 0,0463%, Si 0,0373% and Cu = 0,0001%), the fifth aluminum has purity of Al = 99.82%, (Fe 0,1406%, Si 0,0421% and Cu 0,0003%), t...

  9. PENENTUAN WAKTU PENYULINGAN DARI SEREH WANGI (CYMBOPOGON NARDUS L. Rendle UNTUK MEMPEROLEH KADAR MAKSIMAL MINYAK ATSIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Diana Sari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conduct to determination of Volatile Oil and citral level from lemon grass (Cymbopogon nardus L. Rendle in the based of refening destillation time (1 to 4 hours. Destillation of Volatile Oil had been carried but by direct steam destillation and citral level was measured by Chromatography Gas. The results showed that refining destillation time give significant differential of Volatile Oil and citral level. Whereas the highest Volatile Oil (0,32% and citral level (36,70% showed at the first, and the lowest showed in the fourth (0,02% and 18,70% of refining destillation time hours. In this observation showed that the increase of refining destillation time, give decrease of Volatile Oil and citral level.   Keyword : Cymbopogon nardus L. Rendle, Poaceae, destillation time, Volatile Oil, Citral

  10. Pengembangan Sistem Aquisisi Data Kadar Nitrogen Tanah Berbasis Sensor Infra Merah Sebagai Pedoman Penentuan Dosis Pemupukan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Roni Angkat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Site specific nitrogen fertilizing needs an accurate map of soil nitrogen content. The use of sensors operated upon the soil is a promising method since the accurate soil sampling methods are costly and time consuming. The objectives of this research are to determine the relation between soil nitrogen level and near infrared spectrum using artificial neural network (ANN and to develop soil nitrogen content data acquisition system for static dan dynamic measurement. The results showed that the 1506 nm wavelength can be used to estimate the soil nitrogen content. Furthermore it was found that static measurement showed a better correlation (R2= 0.6286 than the dynamic measurement (R2=0.3111. Combined with the developed ATMega32 microcontroller based display recorder, the precision of N content measurement achieved 0.12% wb with 0.1% wb noise.

  11. Penentuan Kadar Protein dari Bungkil Sawit dengan Alat Kjeldahl di Kantor Pusat PTPN IV Persero Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Satria Darma

    2015-01-01

    Have been done determination of protein value from scap of palm at PTPN IV Ltd Medan. Determination of protein value from scap of palm with Kjehdalh apparatus methode, There are three steps, those are destrucktion with added H2SO4 (pure) untill divide the compounds in the samples become the atoms (C, H, O, N, P, S, Cu and Fe), destilation with added NaOH and aquadest to divide NH3SO4 become NH3 and titration with using borax acid bowl, NH3 that in bowl, added green brom cresol with with tritr...

  12. Penentuan Kadar Phosfor dari Crude Palm Oil (CPO) dan Refened Of Bleached Deodorized Palm Olein (RBDPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulfah, Afhami

    2015-01-01

    Analysis has been performed Determination of Phosphorus Levels on Crude Plam Oil (CPO) and Refened Bleaching Deodorized Plam Olein (RBDPO) in PT.SMART.Tbk Medan-Belawan. Determination of phosphorus content in CPO and RBDPO is performed using UV-Visible Spectofotometry. Result obtained phosphorus levels on CPO is 11, 1243 ppm and phosphorus levels on RBDPO is 2, 5837 ppm. This result indicates that the phosphorus in the CPO and RBDPO standards are a maximum of 30 ppm for CPO ...

  13. Penentuan Kadar Kalium Dalam Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guinensis Jack ) Dengan Metode Flame Photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Research on the determination of potassium in the oil palm empty fruit bunches have done Flame Photometry. The samples were taken at random method from five areas in Northen Sumatera with a height difference is Datuk Bandar district at Tanjung Balai < 25 m asl, Meranti district at Kisaran 50-100 m asl, Bosar Maligas district at Simalungun 150-200 m asl, Simarimbun district at Pematang Siantar 250-300 m asl, and Sari Matondang district at Sidamanik 350-400 m asl. The sample digested destructi...

  14. Penentuan Kadar Seng (Zn) Pada Limbah DI PT. Industri Karet Nusantara

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Khairun Nisya

    2010-01-01

    Zink is a heavy metal wich find in liquid effluent. Where the zink is a anorganic compound to influence chemistry characteristic in effluent. And there was the test Zink compound to do for to know how far the water effluent can out for to society around and to complete quality at rubber thread factory to match with standart and influence poisoning in treatment. From the result of analisys,to find if the Zink quality in liquid effluent is 0.921 ppm. and The Zink quality at rubber thread f...

  15. Penentuan Kadar Klorida Pada Air Sumur Dan Air Limbah Dengan Spektrofotometer Portable DR/2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Wulan Juraida

    2015-01-01

    The liquid waste is wastewater from households, industry, and the other place. If wastewater too much thrown into the land, river, lake, and the sea, it can make negative effect to quality of environment. One of chemical contains in the water and wastewater is chloride. Chloride is one of the ingredients that are very dangerous to survival if it exceeds a defined threshold. It is necessary for determination of chloride in water and wastewater. Determination of chloride content ...

  16. Penentuan Kadar Amoniak (NH3) Pada Lateks Kompon Terhadap Benang Karet Di PT. Industri Karet Nusantara

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Winny Mustika

    2010-01-01

    Condensed latex represent the raw material most compared to flexible rubber industry by sit, or crumb rubber but this latex have to be condensed beforehand till have the rate of crumb rubber 60% or more. one of the chemicals used for the materials of rubber processing is ammonia ( NH3) have the character of as compound antikoagulan as well as desinfektan , what is enhanced by indicator BTB 0,04N and later;then titration by H2SO4 0,1N by volumetri methods, happened by the colour change from tu...

  17. Analisa Kadar Unsur Hara Karbon Organik Dan Nitrogen Di Dalam Tanah Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Bengkalis Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fauzi

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisa kadar unsur hara Karbon Organik dan Nitrogen di dalam tanah perkebunan kelapa sawit Bengkalis Riau di Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit (PPKS) Medan. Kadar Karbon Organik di analisa dengan cara Walkley And Black, sedangkan kadar Nitrogen di analisa dengan cara Kjeltec Auto Destilation. Dari hasil analisa di dapat rata-rata kadar Karbon Organik yang rendah yaitu 0,732% atau < 1,0%. Sedangkan hasil analisa kadar Nitrogen didapatkan rata-rata kadar Nitrogen yang rendah yaitu ...

  18. Penentuan Kadar Hidrokortison Asetat Dalam Krim Hidrokortison 2,5% Di PT. Kimia Farma (Persero) TBK. Plant Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Samosir, Maslin Khairani

    2015-01-01

    Has been performed in the determination of hydrocortisone acetate Hydrocortisone cream 2.5% in PT. Kimia Farma ( Persero ) TBK. Plant Medan with High Performance Liquid chromatography method or HPLC. From the analysis obtained Hydrocortisone Acetate levels in the samples I of 105.36 % and 105.32 % of the sample II. Hidrocortisone results in a cream Hydrocortisone Acetate 2.5 % in accordancthe Indonesian Pharmacopoeia edition IV that is 90-110 % . 122401075

  19. Penentuan Kadar Nitrogen Dioksida di Udara Ambien dengan Metode Griess Saltman dengan Menggunakan Spektrofotometer UV-Visbel

    OpenAIRE

    Melidya

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the amount of Nitrogen Dioxide at the ambient air by Griess Saltzman method using UV-Visible spectrophotometer with a wavelength of 550 nm. The concentration of nitrogen dioxide obtained from sample i, ii, iii, and iv, are -0.0034 mg/L, -0.0035 mg/L, -0.0036 mg/L, and -0.0034 mg/L. Based on the rule of Ministry of Health of the Republic of the Indonesia No.1405/MENKES/SK/XI/2002 at 19th November 2002, that the concentration had been mentional above are still lower compare...

  20. MODEL PENENTUAN UKURAN LOT PRODUKSI DENGAN POLA PERMINTAAN BERFLUKTUASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docki Saraswati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of varying demand on the production lot size and the schedule of delivery in the integrated inventory system. This system is consisted of a single manufacturer as the supplier and a single buyer. Mostly, the problems on the economic lot size model are assumed that demand is continuous with time. Actually, demand occurs are varying in time rather than continuously over the planning time horizon. In this case, the buyer has decided the amount of order for each period is varied, because of the changing market environment. The integrated inventory system model between a supplier and a buyer are developed and implemented under the condition with varied demand. Forward dynamic programming is implemented for searching the solution. The objective is to minimize the total cost, associated with a single product for a deterministic varying demand. Two conditions are examined here, i.e., the integrated model with uncapacitated and capacitated production system. The difference between these two models is in the constraints formulation. The capacity constraints will give higher total cost, especially if the setup cost higher than the holding cost. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the implementation of the solution algorithm. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada makalah ini diteliti pengaruh permintaan yang berfluktuasi terhadap penentuan ukuran lot produksi dan jadwal pengiriman pada sistem persediaan terintegrasi, dengan total ongkos persediaan melibatkan sistem persediaan pemanufaktur dan pembeli secara bersama. Sistem terdiri atas pemanufaktur tunggal dan pembeli tunggal untuk pemesanan satu jenis produk.Umumnya permasalahan penentuan ukuran lot produksi memiliki asumsi bahwa permintaan bersifat kontinu terhadap waktu. Penentuan ukuran lot pada model integrasi sistem persediaan antara pemanufaktur dan pembeli dengan kondisi permintaan berfluktuatif bertujuan meminimasi total ongkos. Pencarian

  1. Penentuan Arah Teleskop Digital Melalui Komunikasi Wi-Fi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Kurniawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Teleskop bintang adalah sebuah perangkat instrument yang digunakan untuk melihat benda-benda langit yang jaraknya sangat jauh menjadi terasa dekat. Teleskop yang tersedia pada umumnya belum dilengkapi dengan sistem digital untuk pencitraannya dan otomatisasi untuk penentuan arahnya. Pada tugas akhir ini dibuat suatu sistem digital dan otomatisasi pada teleskop konvensional. Sistem digital digunakan untuk perekaman hasil yang didapatkan oleh teleskop dan ditampilakan pada komputer. Sistem otomatisasi dibuat untuk menentukan pergerakan sudut teleskop dengan sebuah GUI. Mekanik pergerakan teleskop diberikan 2 motor dc sebagai penggerak. Masing-masing motor dc berfungsi untuk menggerakkan tiap sumbu X dan sumbu Y. Digunakan sebuah sistem mikrokontroler menggunakan ATmega 32 sebagai pengolahan data. Fitur ADC mikrokontroler digunakan untuk mengubah data analog perubahan tegangan yang terjadi pada potensiometer menjadi perubahan data digital yang akan dikonversi menjadi nilai pergerakan perubahan sudut. Sistem ini ditambahkan sebuah router yang berfungsi sebagai akses poin untuk jalur pengiriman dan penerimaan data antara komputer dengan mikrokontroler. Ditambahkan sebuah wiznet yang mampu mengkonversi data dari komunikasi serial ke data protokol TCP/IP dan sebaliknya. Pengujian pergerakan sudut sumbu X dilakukan pada sudut 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 255, 270, 315, dan 360 sedangkan pergerakan sumbu Y dilakukan pada sudut 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, dan 90. Hasil pengujian pada sumbu X dan Y didapatkan beberapa error pada titik-titik tertentu dengan tingkat kesalahan mencapai 3.8% untuk sumbu x dan 2.5% untuk sumbu y. Penentuan pergerakan sudut dilakukan melalui komputer dengan menggunakan komunikasi wi-fi.

  2. Sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made with artificial (man-made) or non-nutritive sweeteners. You can also add flavor to plain water ... AMA Adopts Policy Addressing Obesity, Beverages with Added Sweeteners. www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/news/news/ ...

  3. PENENTUAN RUTE TRUK PENGUMPULAN DAN PENGANGKUTAN SAMPAH DI BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisye Fitria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The garbage collection constitutes the main contributor in terms of the garbage cost management. Garbage collection scheduling model is a variable that determine cost center. Regarding to the existing condition, scheduling model could be designed concerning to the constraints, such as: amount of vehicles, transportation time, and transport system. This research develops a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP model for determining the optimal route in garbage gathering collection. The VRP model utilizes intermediate facility. This model is called the Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Trips and Intermediate Facility (VRPMTIF. The VRPMTIF is solved by using a Sequential Insertion Algorithm. The algorithm applied to the determine garbage collections routes in Bandung with result as follows: 28 vehicles for West Bandung, 41 vehicles for Central Bandung, and 68 vehicles for East Bandung where there are different accomplishment time for each scenario. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Proses pengumpulan sampah merupakan kontributor terbesar dalam biaya pengelolaan sampah. Rute pengumpulan sampah adalah faktor penentu biaya pengelolaan sampah. Rute pengumpulan sampah dapat dibuat dengan memperhatikan keterbatasan yang ada seperti: jumlah kendaraan, waktu angkut dan sistem pengangkutan yang dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan rute pengumpulan dan pengangkutan sampah. Kondisi pengumpulan sampah dapat dianalogikan dengan model Vehicle Routing Problem dengan menambahkan intermediate facility pada akhir rute, yakni tempat pembuangan sampah akhir. Model ini disebut Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Trips and Intermediate Facility (VRPMTIF. Penentuan rute pengumpulan sampah VRPMTIF diselesaikan dengan menggunakan algoritma sequential insertion. Algoritma tersebut diterapkan pada penentuan rute pengumpulan sampah di Kota Bandung dengan hasil sebagai berikut: 28 tur untuk Bandung Barat, 41 tur untuk Bandung Tengah, dan 68 tur untuk Bandung Timur

  4. KADAR ZAT GIZI DALAM TEMPE BENGUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Gandjar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disamping kacang kedele dan kacang tanah sejumlah kacang-kacangan yang kurang dikenal juga dimakan penduduk daerah-daerah tertentu di Pulau Jawa. Diantaranya biji-biji koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil fermentasi dari biji-biji ini dikenal sebagai tempe benguk.Dalam penelitian ini telah digunakan campuran biji koro benguk varitas abu-abu dan varitas hitam dalam perbandingan 1:1.Hasil isolasi mikroflora dari contoh-contoh tempe benguk yang dijual belikan ialah species dari marga (genus Rhizopus. Strain 90 II/3 dari desa Donomulyo Malang Selatan yang diidentifikasi sebagai R. arrhizus menghasilkan tempe benguk yang baik dan dipakai dalam penelitian ini.Telah dilakukan analisa zat gizi kedua varitas biji-biji koro benguk mentah, begitu pula dari substrat sebelum fermentasi dan tempe benguknya. Kadar protein dari tempe benguk dengan strain 90 II/3 ialah 14.1%.Proses perebusan, perendaman dan pengukusan telah menghilangkan seluruh HCN dalam substrat. Dari segi kandungan aflatoksin tempe benguk dalam penelitian ini tidak membahayakan karena kandungannya hanya 1.04 ppb.Hasil fermentasi biji-biji koro benguk dapat merupakan suatu sumber protein murah bagi penduduk yang makanan pokoknya terutama serealia dan umbi-umbian.

  5. Penentuan Bilangan Iodin Dalam Refined Bleached Deodorized Coconut Oil (RBD CNO) Dan Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Aurora Khairani

    2011-01-01

    Bilangan iodin merupakan salah satu parameter penentuan mutu dari minyak atau lemak. Bilangan iodin menyatakan ukuran ketidakjenuhan minyak atau lemak dan berkaitan dengan kandungan asam lemak tidak jenuh dalam minyak atau lemak. Penentuan bilangan iodin dapat dilakukan dengan metode Wijs. Berdasarkan analisa diperoleh bilangan iodin dari RBD CNO Lampung 8,65 g I2/100 g, lebih besar dari RBD CNO Jawa timur 8,20 g I2/100 g dan RBD CNO Sumatera Utara 8,35 g I2/100 g. Dan hasil analisa bilangan ...

  6. SISTEM REKOMENDASI PENENTUAN DOSEN PEMBIMBING TUGAS AKHIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA RABIN-KARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Salam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penentuan dosen pembimbing tugas akhir merupakan faktor penting terhadap pengerjaan tugas akhir mahasiswa. Namun, kurangnya informasi mengenai dosen pembimbing dapat menghambat mahasiswa dalam melakukan penentuan dosen pembimbing. Dengan demikian, diperlukan sistem yang dapat membantu mahasiswa sehingga dapat dimudahkan dalam melakukan penentuan dosen pembimbing tugas. Masalah tersebut yang menjadi dasar penelitian ini. Penelitian  dilakukan dengan mengembangkan sistem berbasis web dengan menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem web-engineering dan menerapkan algoritma Rabin-Karp yang merupakan algoritma pencocokan pola string. Peran algoritma Rabin-Karp dalam sistem ini yaitu melakukan pencocokan pola string antara topik tugas akhir mahasiswa dengan judul penelitan yang telah dilakukan oleh setiap dosen pembimbing untuk mendukung sistem dalam memberikan rekomendasi kepada mahasiswa mengenai dosen pembimbing tugas akhir. Sistem rekomendasi penentuan dosen pembimbing tugas akhir yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini dapat memberikan rekomendasi kepada mahasiswa mengenai dosen pembimbing tugas akhir yang telah melakukan penelitian sesuai dengan topik tugas akhir mahasiswa. Namun masih perlu adanya perubahan maupun peningkatan algoritma agar mampu menghasilkan rekomendasi yang memiliki performa lebih baik dan tidak bergantung pada data penelitian dosen pembimbing. Kata Kunci : Sistem rekomendasi, dosen pembimbing, Algoritma Rabin-Karp,web-engineering

  7. ANALISIS PENERAPAN METODE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING SYSTEM DALAM PENENTUAN HARGA POKOK KAMAR HOTEL PADA HOTEL COKLAT MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRAK MUH. AKBAR. 2011. Analisis Penerapan Metode Activity Based Costing System Dalam Penentuan Harga Pokok Kamar Hotel Pada Hotel Coklat Makassar. (Dra. Hj. Haliah, M.Si., Ak. Drs. Haerial, Ak) Keywords : Activity Based Costing, Harga Pokok Kamar, Cost Driver Dalam penentuan harga pokok produk, sistim akuntansi biaya tradisional kurang sesuai lagi untuk diterapkan di era teknologi yang modern seperti saat ini. Karena sistem ini mempunyai beberapa kelemahan. Diantaranya adalah m...

  8. PENGGUNAAN SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR UNTUK PENENTUAN POSISI PESAWAT UDARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Hafidz Irfandi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Republik Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia yang memiliki lebih dari 17.000 pulau dengan pertumbuhan demografi yang sangat pesat, hal ini menjadikan Indonesia sebagai negara berpenduduk terbesar ke-empat di dunia. Pesawat udara merupakan alat transportasi yang paling efektif dalam mendukung mobilitas penduduk.Navigasi atau pandu arah adalah penentuan kedudukan (position dan arah perjalanan baik di medan sebenarnya atau di peta. Navigasi ini dilakukan pada pesawat udara yang dipandu dari darat melalui sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh instrumen terpasang pada menara (ground base maupun sinyal dari satelit (satellite base.Dalam navigasi ada beberapa macam radar yang umum digunakan yaitu Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR dan Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR.Kedua jenis radar baik PSR maupun SSR mempunyai cara kerja berbeda. Pada PSR sifatnya aktif dan pesawat yang ditargetkan sifatnya pasif.Karena PSR hanya menerima pantulan gelombang radio dari refleksi pesawat tersebut (echo.Sedangkan pesawat itu sendiri tidak ikut aktif dengan pancaran sinyal radar di bawah. Pada SSR, baik radar maupun pesawat kedua-duanya aktif. Hal ini dapat dilakukan karena pesawat terbang telah dilengkapi dengan transponder. Pesawat-pesawat yang tidak dilengkapi transponder tidak akan dapat dilihat pada radar scope seperti identifikasi pesawat, ketinggiannya, dan lain-lain.SSR merupakan peralatan untuk mendeteksi dan mengetahui posisi dan data target yang ada di sekelilingnya secara aktif, dimana pesawat ikut aktif jika menerima pancaran sinyal Radio Frequency (RF radar sekunder. Pancaran radar ini berupa pulsa-pulsa mode, pesawat yang dipasangi transponder, akan menerima pulsa-pulsa tersebut dan akan menjawab berupa pulsa-pulsa code ke sistem penerima radar.

  9. Studi Penentuan Kecepatan Aliran Darah dan Frekuensi Terimaan Pasien Atherosclerosis Menggunakan USG Color Doppler

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyani, Emba

    2014-01-01

    Jurnal Fisika Medik Studi Penentuan Kecepatan Aliran Darah dan Frekuensi Terimaan Pasien Atherosclerosis Menggunakan USG Color Doppler Mulyani H211 08 507 Pembimbing Utama Sri Dewi Astuty Ilyas,Ssi, Msi Nip.19750513 199903 2 001 Pembimbing Pertama Dahlang Tahir, Msi, Ph.D Nip.19750907 200003 1 001 ABSTRACT Research about Study of determination blood speed of current and freq uency give patient atherosclero sis uses plane USG Color Doppler had be...

  10. PENENTUAN PARAMETER FISIS HILAL SEBAGAI USULAN KRITERIA VISIBILITAS DI WILAYAH TROPIS

    OpenAIRE

    Judhistira Aria Utama; - Hilmansyah

    2013-01-01

    Hingga saat ini umat Islam Indonesia belum menyepakati suatu kriteria tunggal bagi visibilitas hilal yang memiliki landasan ilmiah kokoh. Dalam naskah ini dibahas tentang penentuan ketinggian optimal hilal yang dapat diamati dengan mata telanjang maupun bantuan alat optik semisal binokuler ataupun teleskop untuk memberikan landasan teori bagi salah satu kriteria yang dianut Kementerian Agama RI selama ini. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan data kesaksian mengamati hilal yang telah dihi...

  11. KEBIJAKAN DALAM PENENTUAN DAN PENDANAAN MODAL KERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miswanto Miswanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Policy in Determining and Financing Company’s Working Capital. In funding working capital, a company can use hedging policy, conservative policy, and aggressive policy. In relation to long-term versus short-term financing, temporary versus permanent current assets, and the trade-off between risk and profitability, it can be concluded that when the temporary current assets are financed by short-term financing they have moderate risk and profitability, when the temporary current assets are financed by long-term financing they have low risk and profitability, when the permanent current assets are financed by short-term funding they have high risk and profitability, and when the permanent current assets are financed by long-term financing they have moderate risk-profitability. To measure the performance of the working capital management, the working capital position of the company needs to be analyzed. By using the data presented on the balance sheet and income statement, the company can carry out the analysis of working capital performance using financial ratio analysis on working capital, analysis of the funding sources and use of funding statement, and analysis of the company's cash flow statement. Keywords: liquidity, capital, financing, profitability, and risk   Abstrak: Kebijakan dalam Penentuan dan Pendanaan Modal Kerja Perusahaan. Dalam mendanai modal kerja, perusahaan dapat menggunakan kebijakan hedging, kebijakan konservatif, dan kebijakan agresif. Dalam hubungannya antara pendanaan jangka pendek versus jangka panjang, aktiva lancar temporer versus permanen, dan trade-off antara risiko dan profitabilitas diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa jika aktiva lancar temporer dibiayai dengan pendanaan jangka pendek memiliki risiko dan profitabilitas moderat, jika aktiva lancar temporer dibiayai dengan pendanaan jangka panjang memiliki risiko dan profitabilitas rendah, jika aktiva lancar permanen dibiayai dengan pendanaan jangka pendek memiliki

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    OpenAIRE

    Ega Purnamasari R.D; Eti Yerizel; Efrida .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakAspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes mel...

  13. Penentuan Kadar Minyak Dan Asam Lemak Bebas (ALB) Tandan Buah Segar (TBS) Berdasarkan Derajat Kematangan Buah Di PTP.Nusantara III PKS (Pabrik Kelapa Sawit) Sei Mangkei

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Winda Wahyuni

    2011-01-01

    Oil Palm Factory Sei Mangkei cultivate FFB (Fresh Fruit Bunch) Tenera variety to produce Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and Palm Kernel Oil (PKO). The oil degree and FFA (Free Fatty Acid) of the palm fruit influenced by several factors such as plants variety, plants maintenance, fresh fruit bunch quality, plants age, the fruit maturity level, the fresh fruit bunch transportation to factory, and the processing condition at the oil palm factory. The limitation of this writing troubleshoot discussion is o...

  14. Penentuan Kadar Minyak Pada Palm Pernel (PK)dan Palm Kernel Meal(PKM) dengan Metode Ekstraksi Sokletasi di PKCrushing Plan PTMultimas Nabati Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Hakiki, Iman

    2016-01-01

    To maximize production of palm kernel oil, should be determined in advance oil content contained in palm kernel and the rest of the discharge results in the form of waste which still contains oil. Have analyzed the oil content in palm kernel and palm kernel meal with soxhletation extraction method. From the analysis conducted on 14-25 February 2015 obtained results palm kernel oil content in each - each amounting to 50.97%; 51.49%; 50.24%; while on the analysis of the oil content in palm kern...

  15. Pengaruh Timbal (Pb Terhadap Kadar MDA Serum Tikus Putih Jantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrinaldi .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTimbal (Pb merupakan logam berat bersifat toksik yang konsentrasinya di lingkungan saat ini dipandang sebagai zat berbahaya. Pb dalam bentuk senyawa berasal dari pembakaran bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor, emisi industry dan dari penggunaan cat bangunan yang mengandung Pb. Toksisitas Pb menghambat enzim yang berperan sebagai antioksidan dan merusak sel hati.Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh timbal (Pb terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA tikus putih jantan. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental menggunakan 25 ekor tikus putih jantan yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok perlakuan dengan pemberian Pb asetat dengan dosis konsentrasi 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB selama 26 hari.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan rerata kadar MDA serum secara bermakna (p < 0,05, setelah pemberian Pb asetat selama 26 hari. Peningkatan kadar MDA secara bermakna terjadi antara kelompok kontrol dibandingkan dengan kelompok tikus yang diberi dosis 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB.Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil dari studi ini adalah bahwa pemberian Pb asetat meningkatkan kadar MDA serum tikus.Kata kunci: Pb asetat, MDAAbstractLead (Pb is atoxi cheavy metal concentrationsin the environment are now seenas a dangerous substance. Pb in the form of compounds derived from burningmotor vehicle fuel. Pb toxicityinhibitsan enzyme that acts as an antioxidant and liver cell damage.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of lead (Pb on levels of malondialdehyde (MDA male whiterats. Experimental research design was used 25 white male rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group and the group treated with the administration of Pb acetate at a dose concentration of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg / kg body weight for 26 days.The results showed an average increase in level of MDA, after administration of Pb acetate for 26 days were significantly (p <0.05. Increase in level of MDA of serum were significantly (p

  16. Hubungan Kadar Trigliserida dan Kolesterol-HDL Terhadap Kadar Alanine Aminotransferase pada Pasien Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Gemilang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTrigliserida dan Kolesterol HDL (c-HDL merupakan beberapa dari komponen Sindroma Metabolik (SM. SM dipercaya merupakan faktor utama penyebab Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. NAFLD merupakan penyakit hati kronik yang nantinya dapat menyebabkan fibrosis sel-sel hepar dan juga keganasan. NAFLD tidak menunjukkan manifestasi klinis yang khas, sehingga diperlukan pemeriksaan penunjang seperti pemeriksaan enzim hati untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT menjadi pilihan sebagai marker pada penyakit NAFLD. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara trigliserida dan c-HDL dengan ALT pada penderita NAFLD. Ini merupakan penelitian analitik deskriptif dengan desain retrospektif menggunakan data pasien NAFLD di instalasi rekam medik RSUP dr.M.Djamil Padang. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 51 pasien NAFLD. Hasil penelitian didapatkan dari uji korelasi pearson terdapat derajat hubungan yang kuat (r=0,512 dan hubungan yang bermakna (p<0,001 antara kadar trigliserida dengan kadar ALT serum dan derajat hubungan yang sedang (r=0,26 dan hubungan yang tidak bermakna (p=0,065 antara c-HDL dengan ALT serum. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah kadar ALT berhubungan dengan kadar trigliserida pada penderita NAFLD, namun tidak dengan c-HDLKata kunci: NAFLD, trigliserida, HDL, ALT, sindroma metabolik AbstractTriglyceride and HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C are some of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS components. MS is believed as the main factor for the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. NAFLD is a chronic liver disease, which later can cause hepatocyte fibrosis and also malignancy. NAFLD does not show a typical clinical appearance, so it is important to do workups such as liver enzyme test to make the diagnosis. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT is considered as the marker of NAFLD.The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C to ALT level in NAFLD patients.This  was a descriptive analytical

  17. KADAR AFLATOXIN DALAM KACANG TANAH DAN HASIL OLAHANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhilal Muhilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kadar aflatoxin dalam katjang tanah dan hasil olahnja (The aflatoxin contents of peanut and peanut products. Gizi Indonesia, 2: 162, 1970. Samples of peanut and peanut products obtained in Bogor were analyzed for their contents of aflatoxin by the method of Pons and Goldblatt. The peanut products analyzed were peanut oil, peanut presscake, peanut butter and fermented peanut presscake. Most of the aflatoxin found was of Bl type which is the most toxic. The aflatoxin contents of peanut bought from retai­lers (40 to 4100 ppb were roughly 25 times the safe level desig­nated by the American and Canadian Food and Drug Admi­nistration. It was noticel that the longer the time needed for peanuts to reach the consumer, the greater are the contents of aflatoxin. Kacang tanah merupakan bagian dari menu orang Indonesia. Ada berbagai bahan makanan yang memakai kacang tanah/hasil olahan kacang tanah sebagai bahan dasarnya, yang paling terkenal ialah oncom yang banyak terdapat di Jawa Barat. Mengingat kemungkinan bahaya yang bisa ditimbulkan aflatoxin, maka penelitian kadar aflatoxin pada kacang tanah dan hasil olahannya sangat penting terutama dari segi kesehatan masyarakat.

  18. PENENTUAN HARGA JUAL KAMAR HOTEL SAAT LOW SEASON DENGAN METODE COST-PLUS PRICING PENDEKATAN VARIABEL COSTING (Studi kasus pada Hotel Puri Artha Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    Triyanto, Hesti

    2013-01-01

    Penentuan harga jual suatu produk atau jasa merupakan salah satu keputusan penting manajemen karena harga yang ditetapkan harus dapat menutup semua biaya dan mendapatkan laba yang diharapkan oleh perusahaan. Pada saat low season, pihak hotel menerapkan harga jual yang paling rendah dalam penentuan harga jualnya agar pihak hotel tidak mengalami kerugian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui berapa tarif sewa kamar dan selisih tarif sewa kamar Hotel Puri Artha Yogyakarta pada saat low seas...

  19. Analisa Kadar Klorida Pada Air Minum Dan Air Sumur Dengan Metode Argentometri

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Novita Sani

    2015-01-01

    Air merupakan zat yang paling penting dalam kehidupan setelah udara. Sekitar tiga perempat bagian dari tubuh kita terdiri dari air dan tidak seseorang pun yang dapat bertahan hidup lebih dari 4-5 hari tanpa minum air. Air Sumur merupakan sumber utama persedian air bersih bagi penduduk yang tinggal didaerah perdesaan maupun diperkotaan Indonesia. Kadar klorida yang tinggi, misalnya pada air laut, yang diikuti oleh kadar kalsium dan magnesium yang juga kadarnya tinggi dapat meningkatkan sifat...

  20. SCREENING DAN ANALISIS KADAR OMEGA-3 DARI RUMPUT LAUT PULAU LOMBOK NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ryantin Gunawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis rumput laut yang mengandung omega-3 dan mengetahui kadar omega-3 dari rumput laut yang terdapat di pantai Pulau Lombok NTB. Minyak yang terdapat dalam rumput laut diekstraksi dengan metoda soxhletasi. Identifikasi dan kadar asam lemak dalam rumput laut ditentukan dengan alat GC-MS. Sembilan jenis rumput laut telah dianalisa dengan kadar air berkisar antara 42% -86,5%. Minyak hasil ekstraksi mempunyai kadar antara 0,63%-4,39%. Dari ke sembilan jenis dipilih 4 jenis rumput laut yang mempunyai kadar minyak yang paling tinggi. Dua jenis rumput laut yang biasa dikonsumsi (Eucheuma Spinosum dan Eucheuma Cottoni dan dua jenis lagi yang tidak biasa dikonsumsi (Gracilaria salicornia dan Ulva sp. Asam-asam lemak omega-3 yang dapat teridentifikasi dari keempat jenis rumput laut adalah asam linolenat, Eikosatrienoat (ETE, eikosapentaenoat (EPA dan (dokosaheksaenoat DHA dalam jumlah yang bervariasi. Kadar asam lemak dalam keempat jenis rumput laut berkisar antara 26,8%-52,26% dan kandungan omega-3 antara 1,86%-5,46%.

  1. Penentuan Zona Kerentanan Bencana Gempa Bumi Tektonik di Kabupaten Malang Wilayah Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Irjaya Desmonda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Malang, khususnya Kecamatan Gedangan, Sumbermanjing Wetan, Dampit, Tirtoyudo, dan Ampelgading ditetapkan sebagai wilayah rawan terhadap bencana gempa bumi tektonik. Kejadian gempa bumi tektonik yang pernah terjadi di wilayah penelitian banyak menimbulkan kerusakan fisik dan timbulnya korban jiwa. Oleh karenanya, penentuan zona kerentanan bencana gempa bumi tektonik di wilayah penelitian perlu dilakukan sebagai salah satu upaya untuk mengurangi dampak bencana tersebut. Dalam menentukan zona risiko bencana tersebut di wilayah penelitian, dilakukan dua tahapan, yaitu menentukan bobot prioritas variabel-variabel yang berpengaruh terhadap kerentananya menggunakan alat analisa deskriptif dan analisa AHP. Selanjutnya, menentukan zona kerentananya menggunakan analisa overlay, menggunakan metode Overlay Weighted Sum pada aplikasi GIS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa wilayah seluas 1236.8 Ha (1.3% diklasifikasikan sebagai zona Sangat Berisiko, meliputi Desa/Kelurahan Argotirto, Druju, Kedungbanteng, Klepu, Ringinkembar, Ringisari, Sekarbanyu, Sukodono, Sumberagung, Sumbermanjing, Tambaksari, Sumbersuko, dan Srimulyo. Adapun variabel-variabel yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap penentuan zona kerentanan bencana gempa bumi tektonik di wilayah penelitian, yaitu variabel jenis konstruksi bangunan permanen, jumlah penduduk cacat, jumlah penduduk tua, jumlah penduduk balita, dan panjang jaringan jalan.

  2. POTENSI EKSTRAK ETANOL KULIT BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia Mangostana L. DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR MALONDIALDEHID (MDA PADA TIKUS WISTAR YANG MENGKONSUMSI ETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Widya Astuti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Minuman beralkohol adalah minuman yang mengandung etil alkohol yang bila dikonsumsi dalam waktu yang lama akan mengakibatkan peningkatan peroksidasi lipid dan Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Salah satu peredam radikal bebas di dalam tubuh yaitu senyawa antioksidan. Kulit buah manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L. merupakan salah satu sumber dari senyawa antioksidan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membuktikan potensi ekstrak etanol kulit buah manggis dalam menurunkan kadar malondialdehid (MDA pada tikus wistar yang mengkonsumsi etanol. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan pre and post test control group design. Setiap kelompok diberikan etanol 30% selama 14 hari dan hari berikutnya diberikan ekstrak etanol kulit buah manggis dengan dosis 0 mg/kg BB (kontrol, 50 mg/kg BB (P1, 75 mg/kg BB (P2 dan 100 mg/kg BB (P3 selama 14 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak etanol kulit buah manggis dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dalam darah tikus wistar setelah konsumsi etanol sebesar 40,36%, 53,05% dan 74,48 % pada masing perlakuan di atas.  ABSTACT: Alcohol beverage is a drink containing ethanol that if it is consumed in a long period of time can lead to lipid peroxidation and liver damage beginning with the increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Antioxidant compounds are free radical scavengers. The rind of mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana L. is one of the source of antioxidant compounds. This study was aimed to prove the potencial of ethanol extract of mangosteen’s rind in reducing the level of malondialdehyde in wistar rats due to intake of ethanol. The study was performed using a pre- and post-test control group desain. Each group was forced to take a solution of ethanol 30% for 14 days followed by taking ethanol extract of mangosteen’s rind with dose of 0 mg/kg (control, 50 mg/kg (P1, 75 mg/kg (P2, and 100 mg/kg (P3 for 14 days. The results showed that the ethanol extract of mangosteen’s rind significantly reduced malondialdehyde

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Kathleen A.; Schuman, James D.; Simpson, Peter G.; Taormina, Peter J.

    Commercially packaged, non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages comprise a diverse group of products, both carbonated (sparkling) and non-carbonated (still), that appeal to consumers of all ages and provide refreshment, hydration, energy, and nutrition at home and "on-the-go." Examples of such products include purified, mineral, and spring waters, flavored or enhanced waters, colas, fruit-flavored sodas, sports and energy drinks, fruit or vegetable juices, teas, coffees, smoothies, dairy and yogurt drinks, and fusion beverages (hybrid products that bridge multiple beverage categories).

  4. ANALISIS KADAR GLUKOSA PADA BIOMASSA BONGGOL PISANG MELALUI PAPARAN RADIASI MATAHARI, GELOMBANG MIKRO, DAN HIDROLISIS ASAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qismatul Barokah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan air dan perubahan kadar glukosa pada biomassa bonggol pisang melalui paparan radiasi matahari, gelombang mikro, dan hidrolisis asam. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan cara mengeringkan bonggol pisang jenis pisang kepok selama 5 hari, kemudian dihomogenkan dengan proses penghalusan, setelah itu dilakukan tiga metode penghidrolisisan pati menjadi glukosa melalui paparan radiasi matahari, paparan gelombang mikro, dan hidrolisis asam. Pada setiap perlakuan pemaparan, sampel divariasi menjadi tiga yaitu kering, penambahan air 10 ml, dan penambahan air 20  ml,  masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan pengulangan sebanyak 3 (tiga kali. Kadar glukosa dianalisis dengan metode Nelson-Somogyi dan hasilnya dianalisis menggunakan perbandingan grafik. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, menunjukkan adanya pengaruh penambahan air dan metode yang digunakan terhadap kadar glukosa. Hasil analisis UV-Vis melalui analisis perbandingan grafik menunjukkan bahwa terdapat peningkatan kadar glukosa yang signifikan terutama ketika sampel dipapar menggunakan gelombang mikro serta dengan penambahan air 20 ml yang menghasilkan kadar glukosa sebesar 30.89%.

  5. SAFETY TONIC (ENERGY) BEVERAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Kotova, T.; Razumov, A.; Sukhikh, A.; Polyakov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Volume growth of consumption of tonic (energy) beverages determines the necessity to study safety criteria of the components used in their manufacture, having a tonic effect. Relevancy of the study is stipulated by the fact, that for the first time biological safety of prolonged use of the main components of non-alcoholic tonic (energy) beverages is evaluated by identifying biomarkers damage of cell membranes and integral parameters of metabolism, the results of which are applicable to humans...

  6. Hubungan Kadar LDL dan HDL Serum Ibu Hamil Aterm dengan Berat Lahir Bayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktalia Sabrida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAda anyak penelitian yang membuktikan transfer kolesterol dari ibu ke janin melalui lapisan trofoblas yang membawa partikel LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein dan HDL (High Density Lipoprotein. Pengambilan dan pemanfaatan LDL oleh plasenta merupakan mekanisme alternatif oleh janin untuk memperoleh asam lemak dan asam amino esensial. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan kadar LDL dan HDL serum ibu hamil aterm dengan berat lahir bayi. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar LDL dan HDL serum terhadap 31 sampel ibu hamil aterm yang dipilih secara consecutive sampling, kemudiaan saat bayi dari sampel lahir dilakukan penimbangan berat lahir bayi dalam 1 jam setelah lahir dengan keadaan tanpa pakaian. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji korelasi Pearson dilanjutkan dengan uji regresi linier sederhana, nilai p<0.05 dianggap bermakna secara statistik. Rerata kadar LDL serum ibu hamil aterm 138,52±37,86 mg/dl dengan 7 sampel (22,60% kadar LDL <101 mg/dl. Rerata kadar HDL serum ibu hamil aterm 53,32±17,39 mg/dl dengan 13 sampel (41,90% kadar HDL <48 mg/dl. Rerata berat lahir bayi 3150,00±489,89 gram dengan 2 sampel (6,50% memiliki bayi dengan berat<2500 gram. Terdapat hubungan positif antara kadar LDL serum ibu hamil aterm dengan berat lahir bayi, kekuatan hubungan lemah (r=0,258, secara statistik tidak bermakna (p=0,161. Terdapat hubungan positif antara kadar HDL serum ibu hamil aterm, kekuatan hubungan sangat lemah (r=0,035, secara statistik tidak bermakna (p=0,850. Kesimpulan penelitian tidak terdapat hubungan kadar LDL dan HDL serum ibu hamil dengan berat lahir bayi.Kata kunci: kadar LDL serum, kadar HDL serum, ibu hamil aterm, berat lahir bayiAbstractMany studies proved that the transferring of cholesterol from mother to fetus through the trophoblastic layer carried LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein and HDL (High Density Lipoprotein particles. Uptake and usage of LDL by placenta

  7. Beverages intake among preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kolman, Mojca

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis we dealt with the consumption of beverages among preschool children. The purpose was to research the children's habits related to beverage consumption, especially sugar-sweetened beverages. The theoretical part presents the development factors that affect the eating habits of children. It also presents various factors of environment and the composition as well as the quality of different kinds of beverages. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews. We in...

  8. PEMANFAATAN MINUMAN SERBUK INSTAN KAYU MANIS (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR KOLESTEROL TOTAL DARAH TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang sering digunakan sebagai bumbu dapur, namun juga memiliki fungsi kesehatan, yakni menurunkan kadar kolesterol dalam darah. Telah dilakukan penelitian “Pemanfaatan Minuman Serbuk Instan Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum burmanii BI.) untuk Menurunkan Kadar Kolesterol Total Darah pada Tikus (Rattus norvegicus)”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan minuman serbuk instan kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii B...

  9. PENENTUAN WAKTU PERAWATAN UNTUK PENCEGAHANPADA KOMPONEN KRITIS CYCLONE FEED PUMP BERDASARKAN KRITERIA MINIMASI DOWN TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nandiroh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sistem perawatan mesin yang dilakukan di PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara, selama ini masih bersifat korektif yaitu perawatan setelah terjadi kerusakan. Kerusakan komponen ini biasanya akan ditandai dengan ditemukannya produk yang dihasilkan tidak sedikit mengalami kecacatan. Peranan perawatan terhadap komponen-komponen Cyclone Feed Pump pada Process Departement - PT.Newmont Nusa Tenggara sangat penting artinya untuk mencegah terjadinya kecacatan produk masal dan mencegah terjadinya down time produksi. Dan perawatan yang paling baik digunakan adalah perawatan pencegahan sebelum terjadinya kerusakan (preventive maintenance. Mesin kritis adalah mesin yang mengalami frekwensi kerusakan terbesar dengan total downtime terbesar. Untuk penentuan mesin kritis ini, langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah dengan mengukur lamanya waktu downtime produksi dari tiap-tiap mesin yang ada. Perhitungan MTTR berdasarkan data downtime, yang sebelumnya juga dilakukan uji kecocokan distribusi dan hasilnya sesuai, Dengan melakukan perhitungan Mean Time To Repair dan Mean Time To Failure dapat diketahui rata-rata waktu berapa lama pompa beroperasi dan berapa lama pompa tersebut dapat dilakukan perbaikan serta dapat diketahui Reliability pada Cyclone Feed Pump 2.0.1. Setelah dilakukkan perhitungan, komponen kritis Discharge Pipe pada Cyclone Feed Pump 2.0.1 harus sudah dilakukan inspeksi preventif, karena telah beroperasi 664.8 jam, dan perbaikan yang harus lakukan maksimal 3.4997 jam setiap kali dilakukan shutdown.

  10. PENENTUAN PARAMETER FISIS HILAL SEBAGAI USULAN KRITERIA VISIBILITAS DI WILAYAH TROPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judhistira Aria Utama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hingga saat ini umat Islam Indonesia belum menyepakati suatu kriteria tunggal bagi visibilitas hilal yang memiliki landasan ilmiah kokoh. Dalam naskah ini dibahas tentang penentuan ketinggian optimal hilal yang dapat diamati dengan mata telanjang maupun bantuan alat optik semisal binokuler ataupun teleskop untuk memberikan landasan teori bagi salah satu kriteria yang dianut Kementerian Agama RI selama ini. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan data kesaksian mengamati hilal yang telah dihimpun oleh Kementerian Agama RI (1962 – 2011, lembaga Rukyatul Hilal Indonesia (RHI selama kurun waktu 2007 – 2009, dan data global yang dibatasi untuk wilayah tropis (lintang geografis ± 23,50. Pembahasan tidak semata berdasarkan konfigurasi geometri ketiga benda langit terkait (Matahari–Bumi–Bulan, namun turut mempertimbangkan faktor kecerahan langit senja mengikuti model Kastner. Selain ketinggian optimal, juga berhasil diturunkan parameter fisis lainnya meliputi beda tinggi, jarak sudut/elongasi, umur Bulan pascakonjungsi, beda azimut, lag time, dan tebal–tengah sabit Bulan. Hasil yang diperoleh dapat menjadi pijakan awal bagi sebuah kriteria visibilitas hilal di wilayah tropis, termasuk Indonesia. Parameter fisis hilal yang diturunkan di atas bersifat dinamis, artinya masih dapat berubah disesuaikan dengan jumlah data pengamatan yang tersedia dan valid secara keilmuan.

  11. PERANCANGAN DAN PEMBUATAB ALAT UKUR KADAR KROM DALAM AIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PRINSIP SPEKTROSKOPI SERAPAN ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Yunis Mahfudloh, Mohammad Tirono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Air adalah bahan yang berperan penting dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Air steril dengan kandungan mineral yang cukup dan tidak terpolusi dapat berperan sebagai cairan yang menata keseimbangan tubuh. Apabila air yang dikosumsi manusia telah tercemar oleh sampah dan limbah industri yang mengandung zat-zat kimia/logam berat yang bersifat racun akan berbahaya Seperti kromium/krom dengan kode kimiawi Cr. Penelitian dilakukan untuk membuat alat ukur kadar krom dalam air dengan metode absorpsi dengan instrumen fotometri. Alat ukur kadar krom dalam air menggunakan prinsip spektroskopi serapan atom terdiri dari 2 sistem, yaitu sistem optik dan sistem elektronik. Sistem optik terdiri dari lampu halogen, filter cahaya dengan panjang gelombang 520.4, kuvet dan sensor photodioda. Sedangkan sistem elektronik terdiri dari ADC 0804, MCU AT89S51 dan LCD.  Prinsip keja alat ini adalah cahaya polikromatis yang dipancarkan oleh lampu halogen akan melewati filter sehingga cahaya polikromatis akan bersifat monokromatis. Cahaya akan melewati air dengan kadar krom 0% untuk mereset reagen dan pelarut kemudian dideteksi oleh sensor sehingga menghasilkan data I0. Setelah dideteksi air  akan bergeser ke atas dan sensor bergeser kebelakang untuk mendeteksi sampel yang mempunyai kadar krom tertentu dan menghasilkan data I1. Di dalam sampel ini terjadi penyerapan intensitas cahaya oleh atom krom. Kemudian data I0 dan I1 akan diolah oleh MCU AT89S51 dan ditampilkan pada LCD. Sampel yang digunakan adalah larutan H2O dengan K2Cr2O7 sebanyak 10 sampel dengan variasi kadar 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, dan 5%. Larutan krom diperoleh dengan cara mengencerkan 10gr K2Cr2O7 dalam 100ml H2O sehingga didapatkan K2Cr2O7 10% sebagai larutan stok, selanjutnya untuk mendapatkan K2Cr2O7 dengan kadar tertentu, maka diambil dari larutan stok kemudian diencerkan sampai volume 25 ml sesuai dengan rumus M1 V1 =M 2 V2 Hasil pegujian pada sistem elektronik menunjukkan

  12. Perbedaan Kadar Malondialdehide dan Tromboksan B2 pada Remaja dengan Dismenore dan Tanpa Dismenore

    OpenAIRE

    Berliana Irianti; Ermawati .; Arni Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Penyebab dismenore belum semuanya diketahui, ada dugaan peningkatan proses peroksida lipid yang akan mengaktivasi mediator inflamasi pada endometrium yang menimbulkan rasa nyeri haid (dismenore). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar malondialdehide dan tromboksan B 2  pada dismenore dan tanpa dismenore. Studi observasional ini menggunakan desain potong lintang komparatif. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari dua kelompok yaitu 23 remaja dismenore dan 23 remaja tanpa disme...

  13. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal;

    2015-01-01

    outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...

  14. Perbedaan Kadar Formalin pada Tahu yang Dijual di Pasar Pusat Kota dengan Pinggiran Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Ardina Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTahu merupakan makanan yang digemari oleh masyarakat.Tahu mempunyai daya tahan sekitar 1 - 2 hari sehingga pedagang sering menambahkan formalin sebagai pengawet. Formalin merupakan bahan pengawet yang dilarang oleh pemerintah yang penggunaannya masih terdapat secara luas di masyarakat dan bila dilihat dari tekstur tahu yang dijual di pasar kota Padang, dicurigai tahu memiliki kandungan formalin.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar formalin pada tahu yang dijual di pasar pusat kota dengan pinggiran kota Padang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Padang.Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik yang telah dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni-September 2013. Jumlah sampel adalah sebanyak 36 buah yang terdiri dari 18 sampel tahu yang berasal dari pasar pusat kota dan 18 sampel tahu yang berasal dari pasar pinggiran kota Padang. Uji kualitatif formalin pada tahu dilakukan dengan metode asam kromatropat dan uji kuantitatif formalin menggunakan metode titrasi asam basa. Analisis data dilakukan secara bivariat dengan menggunakan uji t. Hasil penelitian didapatkan kadar formalin pada tahu di pasar pusat kota Padang dari 18 sampel yang diperiksa terdapat 17 sampel yang positif formalin dengan kadar paling tinggi adalah 3.65%. Kadar formalin pada tahu di pasar pinggiran kota Padang dari 18 sampel yang diperiksa terdapat 17 sampel yang positif formalin dengan kadar paling tinggi adalah 2.73%. Rata-rata kadar formalin pada pasar pusat kota adalah 1.08% dan pasar pinggiran kota adalah 0.67%.Kata Kunci: kadar formalin, tahu, pasar pusat kota Padang, pasar pinggiran kota PadangAbstractTofu is a favorite food among the community. Tofu has resistance 1 - 2 days so that merchant often add formalin as a preservative. Formalin is a preservative which is banned by the government that there is still widespread use in the community and the texture of tofu sold in the market is suspected for having

  15. Hubungan antara Indeks Massa Tubuh dengan Kadar Nitrit Oksid pada Masyarakat Etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Purwadianti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakObesitas merupakan masalah kesehatan yang kompleks dengan penyebab multifaktorial. Obesitas berkaitan erat dengan peningkatan risiko sejumlah komplikasi seperti hipertensi. Salah satu mekanisme yang menghubungkan obesitas dengan hipertensi adalah disfungsi endotel sebagai akibat penurunan kadar nitrit oksid (NO. Pengukuran Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT merupakan salah satu indikator untuk menentukan obesitas. .Tujuan penelitian ini ialah menentukan hubungan IMT dengan kadar nitrit oksid pada masyarakat etnik Minangkabau. Desain penelitian adalah studi potong lintang dengan populasi masyarakat etnik Minangkabau usia 30 – 65 tahun di 4 kecamatan terpilih di Kota Padang. Jumlah subjek sebanyak 130 orang. Data responden merupakan data sekunder yang dianalisis menggunakan uji korelasi Pearson dan uji beda rerata dengan metode independent sample t-test. Hasil penelitian pada kelompok obesitas diperoleh p-value = 0,982 dengan r = -0,003. Pada kelompok tidak obesitas didapatkan p-value = 0,924 dan r = -0,013. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara IMT dengan kadar NO. Kadar nitrit oksid rerata pada responden obesitas adalah 28,37±17,45 μmol/L dan tidak obesitas adalah 23,91±11,55 μmol/L dengan p-value=0,084. Terdapat perbedaan rerata kadar NO kelompok obesitas dan tidak obesitas pada masyarakat etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang namun tidak bermakna secara statistik. Diharapkan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan mempertimbangkan faktor lain yang mempengaruhi kadar NO selain IMT.Kata kunci: indeks massa tubuh, kadar nitrit oksid, obesitas AbstractObesity is a complex health problem with multifactorial causes. Obesity is strongly related to risk increase of many complications such as hypertension. One of the mechanisms that links obesity and hypertension is endhotelial disfunction due to nitric oxide (NO level decrease. Body Mass Index (BMI measurement is one of the indicators to determine obesity

  16. Hubungan Aktivitas Fisik dengan Kadar Nitric Oxide (NO Plasma pada Masyarakat di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghozi Natul Isral

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakNitric oxide merupakan faktor relaksan yang disentesis oleh endotel pembuluh darah yang kadarnya dapat dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas fisik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan aktivitas fisik dengan kadar NO plasma pada masyarakat di kota Padang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dengan data sekunder dari penelitian Delmi Sulastri dkk dalam “Pengaruh Asupan Antioksidan terhadap ekspresi Gen eNOS3 pada penderita Hipertensi Etnik Minangkabau”. Subyek penelitian adalah semua responden penelitian Delmi Sulastri dkk dalam “Pengaruh Asupan Antioksidan terhadap ekspresi Gen eNOS3 pada Penderita Hipertensi Etnik Minangkabau” berjumlah 130 orang yang dinilai aktivitas fisiknya dengan menggunakan kuisioner Baecke dkk. dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar NO plasma. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden memiliki tingkat aktivitas fisik ringan dan NO plasma rendah dengan dengan rerata 26,3±15,2 μmol/L. Dari analisis data didapatkan bahwa responden dengan aktivitas fisik ringan lebih banyak memiliki kadar NO plasma rendah (61,7% dibandingkan kadar NO plasma normal (38,3%. Dari analisis statistik uji Chi-Square didapatkan nilai p = 0,007 yang berarti terdapat hubungan bermakna antara aktivitas fisik dengan kadar NO plasma (p<0,05. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah sebagian besar masyarakat di kota Padang memiliki tingkat aktivitas fisik ringan dan kadar NO plasma rendah. Dari uji statistik menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan bermakna antara aktivitas fisik dengan kadar NO plasma pada masyarakat di kota Padang.Kata kunci: Aktivitas fisik, NOAbstractNitric oxide is relaxan factor that is synthesized by endothelial cell of blood vessel. From previous research showed that plasma NO level influenced by physical activity. The purpose of this study is to know correlation between physical activity with plasma NO level to Padang city people. The research is a research with secondary data by Delmi Sulastri et al., in

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only control group design. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 20 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol negatif (KN, kontrol positif (KP, perlakuan 1 (P1, perlakuan 2 (P2. Aloksan 150 mg/kgBB diinduksikan pada kelompok KP dan P2, aspartam 315 mg/kgBB diberikan pada kelompok P1 dan P2 selama 4 minggu. Kadar glukosa darah puasa diukur setelah 4 minggu menggunakan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata kadar glukosa darah puasa kelompok KN (88,39 mg/dL, KP (134,11 mg/dL, P1 (93,95 mg/dL, dan P2 (66,66 mg/dL. Analisis data dengan Uji ANOVA nilai p= 0,000 (p<0,05, terdapat perbedaan kadar glukosa darah puasa yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Keimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah puasa tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan.Kata kunci: aspartam, kadar glukosa darah, diabetes melitus, aloksanAbstractAspartame is a low-calorie sugar substitute that is often consumed by people with diabetes, but the safety of aspartame is still controversial. The high intensity of aspartame sweetness could be expected to lower blood glucose levels. Other study said the results of the metabolism of aspartame such aspartic acids and phenylalanine which can be a precursor of glucose through gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on blood

  18. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  19. Tasty Business, Wine & Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone attracts many companies to settle down,and China International Exhibition and Trading Center of Wine & Beverage is one of them.It is said that when the first bunch of grapes fell down on the soil,it was the beginning of the art of winemaking.The win is not only the symbol of culture,history,trade,religion,art,etc.,but also one part or one style of our real life.When the technology has shortened the distance of the world,then wine,an important part of the trade in the past,today,or the future,becomes more and more international.

  20. Perbedaan Kadar Endotelin-1 Plasma pada Penderita Preeklampsia dengan Kehamilan Normotensif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Hartati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Endotelin-1 merupakan derivat endotelium yang ampuh sebagai vasokontriksi  paling kuat yang memiliki 21 asam amino. Kerusakan lapisan endotel mengaktivasikan peningkatan vasokontriksi yaitu endotelin-1. Peningkatan endotelin-1 ini menyebabkan terjadinya resistensi diseluruh sistem vaskuler maternal yang memiliki lapisan endotel sehingga menimbulkan manifestasi klinis preeklampsia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada penderita preeklampsia dan kehamilan normotensif. Penelitian bersifat observasional dengan desaincross sectional comparative. Penelitian ini dilakukan di RSUP Dr.M.Djamil Padang dan RS Tk.III Reksodiwiryo Padang. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari dua kelompok yaitu 16 penderita preeklampsia dan 16 kehamilan normotensifdengan waktu penelitian dari  Juni sampai Agustus 2014. Analisis sampel dilakukan di Laboratorium Biomedik Universitas Andalas Padang. Pemeriksaan kadar endotelin-1 menggunakan metode ELISA. Analisa statistik mengunakan univariat dan bivariat. Analisa bivariat mengunakan uji t tidak berpasangan yang telah dilakukan uji normalitas dan uji homogenitas. Hasil penelitian ini diperoleh bahwa rerata kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada penderita preeklampsia yaitu 0,73 ± 0,15 pg/ml, rerata kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada kehamilan normotensif yaitu 0,56 ±0,13 pg/ml dengan nilai p<0,05 (0,002. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan kadar endotelin-1 yang signifikan rerata kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada penderita preeklampsia dengan kehamilan normotensif.Kata kunci: preeklampsia, endotelin-1, normotensifAbstract  Endothelin-1 is potent endothelium derived as the strongest vasocontrictor that has 21 amino acids. Damage of endothelial layer activated the increasing of vasoconstriction which is endothelin-1. The increasing of endothelin-1 caused a resistence across the maternal vascular system that has endothelial layer make a clinical manifestations of preeclampsia. The

  1. PENENTUAN ANGKA OKTANA BAHAN BAKAR KOMERSIAL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL KINETIKA OKSIDASI DAN PEMBAKARAN HIDROKARBON MULTIKOMPONEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuswan Muharam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of gasoline fuel is anti-knock property represented by its octanenumber. The determination of octane numbers in Indonesia is by using cooperative fuel researchengines. The usage of cooperative fuel research engines in Indonesia has constraints, i.e. the limitednumber of the units and the old age. This study aims to obtain the octane numbers of commercialfuels by using kinetic models. The kinetics models of the oxidation and combustion of primaryreference fuel and multi component hydrocarbons are used to calculate the ignition delay times ofprimary reference fuel and commercial fuels, respectively. The ignition delay times of primaryreference fuel and commercial fuels are calculated at the same initial pressure and temperature, aswell as the same equivalence ratio. The octane number of a commercial fuel is known if its ignitiondelay time agrees with that of PFR possessing a certain volume percentage of isooctane. The modelgenerates the octane numbers of commercial fuels BB-A being 92.5, BB-B being 94.5, BB-C being89, BB-D being 90.5 and BB-E being 91.5 with the good agreement with those claimed by the fuelproducers. Salah satu karakteristik bahan bakar bensin adalah sifat anti ketukan yang dinyatakan dengan angkaoktana. Penentuan angka oktana di Indonesia menggunakan mesin CFR (cooperative fuel research.Pemakaian mesin CFR di Indonesia memiliki kendala, yaitu jumlah unit terbatas dan usia tua.Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan angka oktana bahan bakar komersial dengan menggunakanmodel kinetika. Model kinetika oksidasi dan pembakaran bahan bakar rujukan utama dan modelhidrokarbon multikomponen yang telah divalidasi masing-masing digunakan untuk menghitungwaktu tunda ignisi bahan bakar rujukan utama dan bahan bakar komersial. Waktu tunda ignisibahan bakar rujukan utama dan bahan bakar komersial dihitung pada tekanan dan temperatur awal,serta rasio ekuivalensi yang sama. Angka oktana suatu bahan bakar komersial

  2. SISTEM PAKAR PENENTUAN JENIS PENYAKIT HATI DENGAN METODE INFERENSI FUZZY TSUKAMOTO (Study Kasus di RS PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Pujiyanta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hati  memiliki banyak fungsi yang kompleks dan beragam, fungsi hati adalah sebagai filter semua darah yang datang dari usus melalui vena porta, kemudian menyimpanya dan mengubah bahan-bahan makanan yang diterima vena porta. Dari penjelasan tersebut, dapat diketahui peran atau fungsi hati, termasuk pengganggu dari fungsi hati itu sendiri. Akan tetapi,  masyarakat pada umumnya tidak mengetahui informasi tentang bahaya dari penyakit hati yang disebabkan oleh virus atau bakteri yang terbawa oleh makanan dan minuman yang mereka konsumsi sehari-hari, sehingga sering kali masyarakat mengabaikan hal-hal yang dapat merusak fungsi hati tersebut dan dapat menimbulkan penyakit hati. Jenis-jenis penyakit hati antara lain yaitu Hepatitis, Liver, Sirosis, Kanker Hati, Jaundice (penyakit  kuning, Kegagalan Hati, Kolangitis, Leptospirosis dan Abses Hati. Penyakit-penyakit hati akut akan banyak mempengaruhi fungs-fungsi hati. Oleh karena itu, gejala-gejala klinik yang timbul pada kerusakan hati  akut menjadi kompleks, sehingga  seorang pakar penyakit dalam terkadang mengalami kesulitan dalam menentukan jenis penyakit yang diderita oleh pasien karena  adanya beberapa gejala-gejala yang mirip pada beberapa penyakit. Maka dari itu penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah system pakar yang dapat digunakan untuk menentukan jenis penyakit hati, serta memberikan informasi kepada masyarakat tentang penyakit hati dari gejala, penyebab dan solusinya. Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah aplikasi sistem pakar untuk penentuan jenis penyakit hati. Pada penelitian ini penelusuran faktanya menggunakan forward chaining dan logika yang digunakan adalah system inferensi fuzzy metode Tsukamoto. Tahap pengembangan aplikasi diawali dengan analisis data, perancangan system, pengkodean (Coding dengan menggunakan Visual Basic 6.0 dan Testing (pengujian system dengan Black BoxTest dan Alfa Test Dari hasil penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan sebuah perangkat lunak

  3. Penentuan Kadar Sakarin Dalam Beberapa Jenis Minuman Jajanan Yang Dipasarkan Di SD Negeri No. 064025 Jln. Flamboyan Kelurahan Simpang Selayang Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan Secara Krhomatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Ranitha

    2011-01-01

    Determination of Sodium saccharin content of ice ganepo, ice doger and ice cream which are commecialed at SD Negeri No. 064025 Jln. Flamboyan Kelurahan Simpang Selayang Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan have been carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their results are compared with Indonesian Nasional Standard SNI 01 – 6993 – 2004 about saccharin content in food and drink . From results of the research, it is abtained that sodium saccharin content of ice ganefo, ice do...

  4. FORMULASI TEPUNG PENYALUT BERBASIS TEPUNG JAGUNG DAN PENENTUAN UMUR SIMPANNYA DENGAN PENDEKATAN KADAR AIR KRITIS [Formulation of Corn Flour-Based Batter and Prediction of Its Shelf Life using Critical Moisture Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the best formula for corn flour-based batter and to predict its shelf life using critical moisture approach. According to a hedonic test, the best batter formula was composed of 60% corn flour, 12.5% rice flour, 12.5% tapioca starch, and 15% glutinous rice flour. Addition of glutinous rice flour in the formula changed the proportion of amylose and amylopectin in the batter. As a result, the retrogradation of the batter decreased and the texture of its fried product was preferred. A critical moisture approach was used to predict the shelf life of the batter. The critical moisture content of the batter was 0.16 g H2O/g solid.The isotherm sorption phenomenon of the batter was best described using Hasley model. The shelf life of the product was 7 months when packaged in polypropylene (0,07 g/m2day.mmHg at 85% RH.

  5. PECTIN BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ogneva O. A.; Donchenko L. V.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of pectins and its concentration on probiotic characteristics of the beverages has been studied for developing the formulation and technology of pectin beverages. Samples of sour-milk products with dry pectin (Unipectin OB 700) and liquid one (pectin apple extract is produced by SunLand) was made. Sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content were defined. High sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content as well as high rate in souring were revealed in the preparatory...

  6. A Rapid Beverage Intake Questionnaire Can Detect Changes in Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Ferguson, Katherine E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Dietrich, Andrea M.; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Attention on beverage intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), has increased in recent years. A brief valid, reliable and sensitive assessment tool for quantifying beverage consumption and determining its influence on weight status could help to advance research on this topic. The valid and reliable 15-item beverage questionnaire (BEVQ-15) estimates mean daily intake of water, SSB and total beverages (g, kcal) across multiple beverage categories. Objective: to determine the abili...

  7. PENGUKURAN KADAR AIR AGREGAT DAN BETON SEGAR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Sugiharto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method of water content measurement of aggregate and fresh concrete need along time to perform. As an alternative the use of microwave oven is explored in this research. The microwave oven used has 900 watt power and equiped with a turn table. Nine (9 type of aggregate consist of five (5 type of fine aggregate and four (4 type of coarse aggregate with varions water absorbsion value, are unvestigated. The rater contents measured is then compared with the once obtained using conventional oven. Four (4 type of mix using aggegate with varions water absorbsion values. Water content used for the fresh concrete mix is 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. The test results show that this method can beused to measure water content of fine and coarse aggregate regardless of the water absorbsion values of the aggregates. For fine aggregate nine (9 minutes drying time is needed to get 100% accuracy while for coarse aggregate 11 minutes with 96% accuracy. For fresh concrete using aggregate with less than 5% absorbsion value 18 minutes is neede to get 98% accuracy, while for aggregate with 40% absorbsion value 35 minutes is needed to get 80% accuracy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengukuran kadar air pada agregat dan beton segar dengan metode konvensional memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama, maka dilakukan penelitian penggunaan microwave oven sebagai metode alternatifnya. Microwave oven yang digunakan mempunyai daya 900 watt dan dilengkapi dengan piring putar. Dilakukan penelitian terhadap 9 tipe agregat (5 jenis agregat halus dan 4 jenis agregat kasar dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi. Sedangkan untuk beton segar dibuat 4 macam campuran dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi agregat. Faktor air-semen yang digunakan adalah 0.3, 0.5 dan 0.7. Hasil pengukuran kadar airnya dengan microwave oven dibandingkan terhadap oven standard. Hasil tes yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa metode ini dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kadar air agregat halus dan kasar dengan tidak tergantung pada

  8. PECTIN BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogneva O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of pectins and its concentration on probiotic characteristics of the beverages has been studied for developing the formulation and technology of pectin beverages. Samples of sour-milk products with dry pectin (Unipectin OB 700 and liquid one (pectin apple extract is produced by SunLand was made. Sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content were defined. High sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content as well as high rate in souring were revealed in the preparatory samples. However, liquid pectin is easier in use. Consequently, the formulation of pectin extract beverages was developed and optimized by using Mathematical Modeling. The samples of beverages were produced and their quality characteristics were evaluated. An optimal fruit/vegetable fillers / whey ration was defined to get the product which combined balanced micronutrient composition, its functional activities and gustatory qualities. For that a three-factor simplex-centroid design was used. The samples produced according to the design matrix were tasted and evaluated by color, flavor, aroma and consistency according to the ten score points scale. The findings were processed with statistical and graphical analysis. The last one used the construction of ternary graphs with the help of «Statistica 7,0» program that allowed to define the most acceptable ranges of fruit/vegetable fillers / whey components in the beverages: fruit juice – 4-16%; pumpkin juice-4-16%; whey -4%. Chemical composition, organoleptical indicators and physicochemical parameters of ready-to drink beverages were examined. As a result, these beverages have been recommended for school feeding as the source of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins

  9. ANALISIS PENGARUH VARIASI SUHU dan WAKTU PADA PROSES HIDROLISIS TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DALAM PEMANFAATAN Lemna minor SEBAGAI BIOETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Mayangsari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energi terbarukan sangatlah diperlukan karena semakin meluasnya krisis energi sehingga memerlukan alternatif selain penggunaan bahan bakar fosil, penggunaan bioethanol merupakan alternatif yang baik karena banyak kelebihanya. Lemna minor merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang berpotensi sebagai bioethanol, hal ini dapat dilihat dari kandungan glukosanya yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan waktu dan suhu pada proses hidrolisis terhadap nilai kadar glukosa serta mengetahui hubungan densitas terhadap kadar etanol. Proses ekstrasi glukosa menggunakan perbandingan volume HCl dengan kosentrasi 0,1 N, berat serbuk Lemna minor dan volume aquades yaitu 1:10:100 dengan variasi waktu ekstrasi 60, 90, dan 120 menit pada variasi suhu 60, 70, 80 °C dengan ukuran serbuk 60 mesh. Hasil penelitian ekstrasi hidrolisis terbaik pada menit ke-90 didapatkan panjang gelombang tertinggi 415 nm. Semua glukosa pada ekstrasi 90 menit difermentasi menggunakan bakteri Saccharomiches cerevisiae sebanyak 10% dari volume glukosa dengan waktu 144 jam, setelah fermentasi selesai sampel didestilasi untuk menghilangkan kadar air dan dihasilkan kadar ethanol terbaik 0,47% dengan densitas 0,9345 gr/ml3pada panjang gelombang larutan glukosa 316 nm.

  10. Gambaran Kadar Troponin T dan Creatinin Kinase Myocardial Band pada Infark Miokard Akut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Dwi Prasetyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfark Miokard Akut (IMA adalah kematian sel miokardium akibat terlepasnya plak aterosklerotik dari salah satu arteri koroner yang mencetuskan terjadinya agregasi trombosit, pembentukan trombus, dan spasme koroner. Diagnosis IMA dapat dilakukan dengan cara: anamnesis, abnormalitas Elektrokardiogram (EKG, peningkatan Creatinin Kinase Myocardial Band (CKMB, dan cardiac specific troponin (cTnT. Diagnosis IMA dapat ditegakkan jika terdapat minimal dua dari tiga kriteria yang harus dipenuhi, yaitu: anamnesis, abnormalitas EKG, dan peningkatan aktivitas enzim jantung. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran kadar troponin T dan CKMB pada pasien IMA di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode 1 Januari 2012 - 31 Desember 2012. Penelitian dilakukan secara retrospektif deskriptif terhadap 54 sampel rekam medik pasien IMA yang dirawat inap di bagian penyakit dalam dan jantung RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode 1 Januari 2012 - 31 Desember 2012. Kadar troponin T diperiksa dengan metode chemiluminescent dan CKMB diperiksa dengan metode enzymatic immunoassay with serum start. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan umur terbanyak pasien IMA adalah 40-60 tahun berjumlah 30 orang (55,56%. Jenis kelamin terbanyak pasien IMA adalah laki-laki berjumlah 39 orang (72,22%. Pasien IMA yang memiliki kadar CKMB ≥24 U/L berjumlah 35 orang (64,82%. Pasien IMA yang memiliki kadar troponin T ≥0,1 ng/mL berjumlah 44 orang (81,48%. Didapatkan peningkatan kadar troponin T dan CKMB pada pasien IMA.Kata kunci: infark miokard akut, troponin t, CKMBAbstractAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI is a muscle necrosis of the heart caused by rupture atherosclerotic plaque from one of coronary artery that cause platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and coronary spasm. Diagnosis of AMI can be made by some way : anamnesis, electrocardiogram (ECG abnormalities, increase levels of creatinine kinase myocardial band (CKMB and cardiac specific troponin (cTnT. Diagnosis of AMI can be

  11. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.

  12. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    POPKIN, BM. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. PHYSIOL BEHAV xxxx 000-000, 2009. — Total beverage intake patterns have changed greatly over the past half century. The present research was conducted to evaluate historic and current patterns of beverage consumption of adults and children in the U.S. Data were drawn from food balance surveys along with two-day beverage intake averages and were weighted to be nationally representative. A marked slow continuous shift downward in total ...

  13. Applications of soluble dietary fibers in beverages

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Beristain; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; F. Cruz-Sosa; R. Pedroza-Islas; J. R. Verde-Calvo

    2006-01-01

    In this work the importance of soluble dietary fibers in the human diet is discussed. Traditional and new sources of soluble dietary fiber are mentioned, and a description of how to apply them in different types of beverages such as energy drinks, sport drinks, carbonated beverages and protein-based beverages in order to achieve enhanced functional properties is given.

  14. Pengaruh Waktu Penimbunan Minyak Sawit Mentah (CPO) Pada Bak Penampungan (Fat Fit) Terhadap Kadar Kotoran Minyak Sawit Mentah (CPO) Di Pabrik Kelapa Sawit PTPN. IV Kebun Adolin

    OpenAIRE

    Priyasin Hardian

    2010-01-01

    Kadar kotoran yang terdapat pada minyak sawit mentah atau crude palm oil (CPO) dapat merusak mutu minyak sawit mentah. Peningkatan kadar kotoran dapat terjadi karena proses pengolahan itu sendiri maupun proses penyimpanan atau penimbunan sementara minyak sawit mentah seperti pada bak fat pit. Bak fat pit merupakan tempat penampungan sementara minyak sawit mentah yang masih bercampur dengan sludge atau lumpur. Waktu penimbunan minyak sawit mentah pada bak fat pit yang terlalu lama dapat mening...

  15. Pengaruh Jumlah Pemakaian Air Terhadap Kadar Minyak Hilang dalam Lumpur Minyak (SLUDGE) Pada Pemisahan SLUDGE PTP. Nusantara III Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Rambutan

    OpenAIRE

    Butar Butar, Helga F.

    2010-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisa laboratorium tentang pengaruh jumlah pemakaian air terhadap kadar minyak pada sludge yang ikut terbuang ke limbah (losis). Pada pengolahan kelapa sawit diperoleh minyak kasar murni (CPO) dan sludge yang diproses kembali untuk mengutip minyak yang masih tersisa didalamnya. Salah satu faktor yang paling penting diperhatikan dalam proses ini penggunaan air sebagai pengencer dan sangat berpengaruh terhadap kadar losis perusahaan. Dari hasil pengutipan minyak...

  16. Pembuatan Karbon Aktif Dari Arang Tempurung Kelapa Dengan Aktivator Zncl2 Dan Na2co3 Sebagai Adsorben Untuk Mengurangi Kadar Fenol Dalam Air Limbah

    OpenAIRE

    Gilar S. Pambayun; Remigius Y.E. Yulianto; M. Rachimoellah; Endah M.M. Putri

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa sesuai dengan SII No.0258 – 79 ; untuk mengetahui karateristik kadar air, kadar abu,  iodine number dan surface area karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa ; untuk mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi dan jenis aktivator terhadap efisiensi penurunan kandungan konsentrasi fenol (persen removal) menggunakan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa ; menentukan kapasitas optimum penyerapan fenol dengan karbon aktif ...

  17. Perbedaan Kadar Superokside Dismutase pada Remaja dengan Dismenore Primer dan Tanpa Dismenore Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti .

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak             Dismenore didefinisikan sebagai rasa kram saat menstruasi yang menyakitkan tanpa patologi yang jelas. Kram berlangsung selama satu hari atau lebih dan disertai rasa mual, diare, sakit kepala. Masalah yang ditimbulkan oleh dismenore adalah  peningkatan ketidakhadiran di sekolah pada remaja sehingga menyebabkan rendahnya nilai akademik pada pelajar. Superokside dismutase (SOD adalah bahan bioaktif yang diketahui bersifat antioksidan. SOD melindungi sel terhadap gangguan oksidan (radikal bebas. SOD mengubah anion superoksida menjadi hidrogen peroksida dan oksigen, sering disebut juga sebagai pertahanan primer terhadap stress oksidatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui  perbedaan kadar superokside dismutase pada remaja dengan dismenore dan tanpa dismenore. Penelitian ini adalah observasional desain cross sectional comparative. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji Mann-Withney  dengan nilai p<0.05 dianggap bermakna secara statistik. Rerata kadar SOD pada remaja yang mengalami dismenore yaitu 36,76 u/ml dan rerata kadar SOD pada remaja tanpa dismenore yaitu 32,24 u/ml. Dengan nilai p>0,005 (0,345. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna  kadar SOD pada remaja dengan dismenore dan tanpa dismenore. Kata kunci: remaja, dismenore, antioksidan, superokside dismutase AbstractPrimary dysmenorrhoe is  a painful menstrual cramps without obvious pathology. Cramps is lasting for one day or more, accaompanied by nausea, diarrhea and headache. Problems cause by dysmenorrhea are an increase in school attendance in adolescents resulting in low academic grades of students. Superokside Dismeutase (SOD is a bioactive ingredient that is known as antioxidants, protecting cells against harmful SOD oxidants (free radicals SOD convert superoxide anion into hydrogen perokxide and oxygen, often call  as primary defense agains oxidative stress. Primary dysmenorrhoe increased uterine activity or

  18. Hubungan Kadar Profil Lipid dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Masyarakat Etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang Tahun 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Feryadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHipertensi merupakan masalah kesehatan yang banyak dijumpai pada masyarakat dan berkorelasi dengan penyakit lainnya. Banyak faktor penyebab terjadinya hipertensi, salah satunya adalah gangguan profil lipid. Profil lipid dapat memicu terjadinya hipertensi melalui berbagai mekanisme, baik secara langsung atau tidak langsung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti lebih lanjut tentang hubungan obesitas dengan kejadian hipertensi. Penelitian dilakukan pada masyarakat Etnik Minangkabau di 8 kelurahan di kota Padang. Ini adalah studi komparatif menggunakan desain cross sectional study, dengan jumlah subjek 160 responden. Pengumpulan data responden dilakukan dengan wawancara. Pengukuran tekanan darah dilakukan berdasarkan cara yang direkomendasikan WHO dan penetapan nilainya berdasarkan JNC VII. Profil lipid diukur dilaboratorium dengan acuan penilaian berdasarkan NCEP ATP III. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah uji chi square. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar gangguan kadar kolesterol terdapat pada penderita hipertensi dari pada normotensi. Uji statistik chi square menunjukkan hubungan yang bermakna antara kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida dengan kejadian hipertensi (total kolesterol p < 0,05; OR = 2,40, trigliserida p< 0,05; OR = 2,49. Kadar HDL dan LDL tidak menunjukkan hubungan yang bermakna terhadap kejadian hipertensi (p > 0,05. Dari hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa sebagian fraksi profil lipid mempengaruhi kejadian hipertensi pada etnik Minangkabau yang berada di kota Padang, yaitu kadar kolesterol total dan trigliserida.Kata kunci: Hipertensi, kolestertol total, HDL, LDL, Trigliserida, etnik Minangkabau.AbstractHypertension is a common disease in the community and have correlation with other diseases. Many factor can leads hypertension, such as disturbance of lipid profile. Lipid profile can lead hypertension through a variety of mechanism, either directly or indirectly. This study aims to investigate

  19. Perbedaan Kadar Hemoglobin dan Hematokrit Bayi Baru Lahir Akibat Perbedaan Waktu Penjepitan Tali Pusat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriah Arma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBayi baru lahir memiliki 80 ml darah dari plasenta pada 1 menit setelah kelahiran dan 100 ml pada 3 menit setelah lahir, volume ini akan memasok 40-50 mg/kg ekstra besi untuk memiliki 75 mg/kg besi tubuh bayi yang cukup bulan yang dapat mencegah kekurangan zat besi pada tahun pertama kehidupan. Oleh karena itu pemotongan tali pusat yang terlalu cepat setelah persalinan akan mengurangi kandungan besi sekitar 15-30%, sedangkan bila ditunda 3 menit dapat menambah volume sel darah merah sekitar 58%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuktikan adanya perbedaan kadar Hb (hemoglobin dan Ht (hematokrit akibat perbedaan waktu penjepitan tali pusat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di tempat Bidan Praktek Mandiri Kota Padang. Jenis penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only controll group design. Pengambilan sampel secara consecutive sampling sampai tercapai jumlah 36 bayi yang terbagi atas 18 bayi baru lahir pada tiap kelompok. Data dianalisis dengan uji t. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata kadar Hb dan Ht pada kelompok penjepitan 3 menit setelah lahir lebih tinggi daripada penjepitan 1 menit. Terdapat perbedaan kadar Hb yang bermakna antara kelompok penjepitan 3 menit setelah lahir daripada 1 menit dengan nilai P=0,004.  Ada terdapat perbedaan Ht yang bermakna antara kelompok penjepitan 3 menit dan 1 menit dengan nilai P=0,001. Kesimpulan penelitian ini ialah kadar Hb dan Ht lebih baik pada penjepitan tali pusat ditunda 3 menit setelah lahir dibandingkan dengan penjepitan 1 menit setelah lahir.Kata kunci: hemoglobin, hematokrit, penjepitan tali pusat AbstractThe newborns contain 80 ml of blood from the placenta in 1 minute after birth and 100 ml in 3 minute after birth. This volume supply 40 to 50 mg/kg of extra iron to have 75 mg/kg of body iron baby full-term that can prevent iron deficiency in the first year of life. Therefore, cutting the umbilical cord too soon after birth will reduce the iron of content about 15 to 30%, whereas when

  20. Kekasaran dan Morfologi Hasil Pengelasan TIG Baja Tahan Karat 316 dengan Kadar Sulfur Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shahab

    2010-01-01

    dalam pengelasan. Perbedaan dengan kadar yang sangat kecil elemen impuritis, seperti sulfur, dari sebuah heat ke heat yang lain, bisa menimbulkan kesulitan terutama pada pengelasan secara otomatis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh kadar sulfur baja terhadap pembentukan morfologi lasan yang ditunjukkan dengan perbedaan kekasaran permukaan dan pembentukan kolam lasan yang berbeda. Pengaruh kadar sulfur terhadap kekasaran permukaan kolam lasan dipelajari dengan mengadakan pengelasan Tungsten Inert Gas baja tahan karat 316 dengan kadar sulfur yang berbeda. Variasi morfologi kolam lasan, penetrasi (P dan lebar (L kolam lasan dan rasio P/L dikaitkan dengan kekasaran permukaan. Pengaruh sulfur dipelajari juga dengan peleburan dengan arus dan durasi penyalaan yang bervariasi. Pengaruh sulfur ditunjukkan dengan variasi diameter kolam lasan berbentuk lingkaran dan juga pada derajat tonjolan yang mencuat dari bawah spesimen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kekasaran permukaan baja sulfur tinggi selalu lebih besar dibanding baja sulfur rendah. Arah aliran cairan yang berbeda diajukan untuk menjelaskan fenomena ini. Kekasaran yang lebih besar ini diikuti dengan harga P/L yang lebih berarti. Pengamatan pada hasil peleburan dengan busur stasioner menghasilkan kesimpulan yang menarik. Pengaruh sulfur dalam menentukan morfologi kolam lasan lewat fenomena arah aliran cairan hanya berlaku pada rentang tertentu parameter penyalaan busur. Pada rentang yang lain, morfologi kolam lasan lebih banyak ditentukan oleh karakteristik busur, seperti anode spot, ketimbang arah aliran cairan. Kata kunci: Pengelasan TIG; baja tahan karat 316; sulfur; morfologi lasan; anode spot.

  1. PENETAPAN KADAR ARTEMISININ DALAM EKSTRAK HEKSAN TANAMAN Artemisia annua L. MENGGUNAKAN METODE DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Isnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia karena angka kesakitan penyakit ini masih cukup tinggi. Kinin dan klorokuin masih merupakan obat malaria yang banyak digunakan masyarakat di dunia, namun telah mengalami resisten. Artemisinin dan derivatnya merupakan obat yang digunakan terhadap plasmodium yang resisten terhadap klorokuin. Artemisinin diperoleh dari ekstrak tanaman Artemisia Annua L. Tanaman ini berasal dari daratan China namun dapat dibudidayakan di BPTO Tawangmangu. Penetapan kadar artemisinin menggunakan metode densitometri yang telah divalidasi. Ekstraksi heksan Artemisia annua L dilakukan fraksinasi dengan menggunakan acetonitril. Fraksi acetonitril  di uji dengan menggunakan KLT dengan fasa diam silica gel 60 GF254 dan eluen hexan: etil asetat (4:1 guna mengidentifikasi artemisinin. Pemisahan lebih lanjut dilakukan dengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dan fase geraknya yaitu n-heksan: etil asetat (4:1. Eluat yang diperoleh diujikan pada plat KLT silica gel 60 GF254 menggunakan eluen yang sama dengan sebelumnya. Eluat yang mempunyai Rf sama digabung menjadi satu fraksi dan ditetapkan kadar artemisinin menggunakan densitometri beserta validasi metodenya. Hasil validasi metode menunjukkan bahwa linearitas dengan koefisien korelasi 0,998, batas deteksi 0,028mg/mL dan batas kuantitasi 0,094mg/mL dan nilai simpangan baku relatif artemisinin memenuhi persyaratan untuk presisi yaitu lebih kecil dari 2%. Hasil perolehan kembali untuk artemisinin adalah 100,08%. Kadar artemisinin dalam ekstrak heksan herba Artemisia annua L dengan metode densitometri sebesar 0,46% dan kadar artemisinin dalam herba Artemisia annua L. 0,02% Kata Kunci: Artemisinin, Artemisia annua L, ekstrak heksan daun Artemisia annua L, Densitometri. Abstract Malaria desease is still problem health people in Indonesia, because morbiditas rate is high. Kinin and Klorokuin are used by most of people in the world, but

  2. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  3. SUPLEMENTASI MIKROENKAPSULAT EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH MANGGIS (KBM MENURUNKAN KADAR MALONALDEHIDA HATI TIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesya Nova Febriane

    2015-12-01

    terkandung dalam KBM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi efektivitas mikroenkapsulasi ekstrak KBMuntuk menurunkan kadar malonaldehida (MDA hati tikus percobaan yang mengonsumsi minyak sawit teroksidasi. Antioksidan diekstrak dari tepung KBM dengan metanol dan dimikroenkapsulasi menggunakan gelatin, karboksimetil selulosa (CMC, dan maltodekstrin. Kapasitas antioksidan diukur dengan metode 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Ekstrak dengan dosis 100 mg/kg bb (KBM 1 serta mikroenkapsulat KBMdengan dosis 100 (KBM 2 dan 200 mg/kg bb (KBM 3 disuplementasi pada pakan tikus dengan penambahan minyak sawit teroksidasi selama 50 hari perlakuan. Setelah diterminasi, hati tikus diambil lalu diukurkonsentrasi malonaldehida (MDA yang terkandung. Penurunan kadar MDA pada KBM 1, KBM 2, dan KBM 3 yaitu sebesar 11,64 persen, 40,18 persen, dan 53,43 persen. Suplementasi ekstrak KBM yang dimikroenkapsulasi maupun tanpa enkapsulasi tidak mempengaruhi berat dan konsumsi pakan tikus. Mikroenkapsulat KBM efektif untuk menurunkan kadar MDA hati tikus dibandingkan ekstrak tanpa enkapsulasi, dimana konsentrasi terbaik yaitu 200 mg/kg bb. Proses ekstraksi dan mikroenkapsulasi dapat mengurangi rasa pahit dan getir KBM. [Penel Gizi Makan 2015, 38(1: 61-70]Kata kunci: antioksidan, kulit buah manggis, minyak sawit teroksidasi, mikroenkapsulasi, kadar MDA hati

  4. APLIKASI TEKNOLOGI SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS DAN PENGINDERAAN JAUH UNTUK PENENTUAN KONDISI DAN POTENSI KONSERVASI EKOSISTEM HUTAN MANGROVE DI KECAMATAN KWANYAR KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu A'idin Hidayat

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ekosistem mangrove adalah ekosistem khas pantai tropis yang memiliki fungsi ekologis tinggi namun rentan terhadap pengrusakan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah pesisir Kecamatan Kwanyar Kabupaten Bangkalan untuk mengetahui kondisi ekosistem mangrove sekaligus mengkaji potensi upaya pelestarian mangrove di wilayah tersebut. Penelitian ini mengkombinasikan data pengamatan lapang dan citra satelit Landsat ETM/7 akuisisi 2002, yang kemudian diolah menggunakan Sistem Informasi Geografis. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah metode penentuan tingkat kekritisan lahan yang ditetapkan oleh Departemen Kehutanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar ekosisyem mangrove di 6 lokasi pengamatan berada pada kondisi rusak.  Kata kunci : Mangrove, Kwanyar, Sistem Informasi Geografis

  5. Hubungan Kadar Gula Darah saat Masuk Rumah Sakit dengan Jenis Sindroma Koroner Akut di RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Willy Valerian; Masrul Syafri; Zelly Dia Rofinda

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakSindrom Koroner Akut (SKA) merupakan spektrum dari penyakit arteri koroner yang tidak stabil, mulai dari angina pektoris tidak stabil sampai infark miokardium. SKA terbagi atas Unstable Angina Pectoris (UAP), ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan hubungan antara kadar gula darah saat masuk rumah sakit dan jenis SKA. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional. Penelitian dil...

  6. KADAR ZAT GIZI MAKANAN JAJAN DI DESA CIJENGKOL: SUATU PERBANDINGAN ANTARA ANALISA KIMIA DAN PERHITUNGAN DAFTAR KOMPOSISI BAHAN MAKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdinamurtirin Krisdinamurtirin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kadar zat gizi beberapa makanan jajan dari desa Cijengkol Jawa Barat telah dibandingkan hasil analisa kimianya dengan hasil perhitungan dengan Daftar Kompisisi Bahan Makanan. Makanan jajan yang diteliti yaitu yang di desa tersebut dikenal namanya sebagai gegentur, puruy, noga wijen, kremes, goreng pisang sale, tape goreng, boder, gemblong.Kedua cara menghasilkan kadar zat gizi yang umumnya berbeda, yang secara statistik tidak berarti, kecuali untuk protein dan kalsium. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk lemak, hidrat arang, fosfor dan besi, hitungan dengan Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan tidak mempunyai penyimpanan yang besar, kecuali untuk protein dan kalsium. Untuk protein, hidrat arang, lemak dan fosfor, hasil hitungan lebih besar daripada analisa kimia. Sedangkan untuk kalsium dan besi, hitungan lebih kecil daripada analisa kimia.Penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai kadar zat gizi secara analisa kimia dibanding dengan perhitungan Daftar Komposisi perlu dilakukan baik terhadap makanan jajan maupun hidangan tunggal dan hidangan sehari-hari dari beberapa daerah sampel lainnya. Dari penelitian seperti ini akan didapatkan angka penyimpanan untuk mengadakan koreksi pada perhitungan penelitian makanan (dietary survey.

  7. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities. PMID:19168002

  8. Energy Beverages: Content and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, John P.; Tuttle, Troy D.; Higgins, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by “weekend warriors” and those see...

  9. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  10. Energy beverages: content and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Tuttle, Troy D; Higgins, Christopher L

    2010-11-01

    Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"

  11. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  12. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

    OpenAIRE

    Rakin Marica B.; Bulatović Maja Lj.; Zarić Danica B.; Stamenković-Đoković Marijana M.; Krunić Tanja Ž.; Borić Milka M.; Vukašinović-Sekulić Maja S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-...

  13. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Juan A; Hernández-Barrera Lucia; Bonvecchio Anabelle; Campirano Fabricio; Barquera Simon; Popkin Barry M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006) from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. ...

  14. Stylistic analysis of songs in beverage advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双卉

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.

  15. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  16. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  17. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  18. Serious Concerns Over Alcoholic Beverages with Added Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Espanol Serious Concerns Over Alcoholic Beverages with Added Caffeine Please share copies of this printer-friendly PDF ( ... beverages, or CABs, are alcoholic beverages that contain caffeine as an additive and are packaged in combined ...

  19. Hubungan Kadar Ft4 Dengan Kejadian Tirotoksikosis berdasarkan Penilaian Indeks New Castle Padawanita Dewasa di Daerah Ekses Yodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsa Rusda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTirotoksikosis merupakan manifestasi klinis yang terjadi akibat peningkatan kadar hormon tiroid dalam darah. Kelebihan yodium merupakan salah satu penyebab terjadinya tirotoksikosis. Ini ditandai dengan hasil pemeriksaan kadar Ekskresi Yodium Urin (EYU > 199 μg/L. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kadar FT4 dengan kejadian tirotoksikosis berdasarkan penilaian indeks New Castle pada wanita dewasa di daerah ekses yodium. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan dengan menganalisis data yang dikumpulkan secara Cross Sectional Study terhadap 37 wanita dewasa menggunakan metoda total sampling di Nagari Koto Salak, Kecamatan Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya yang merupakan daerah ekses yodium (median EYU 323,5 μg/L. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara menggunakan penilaian Indeks New Castle dan pengambilan darah untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar FT4 dalam serum. Hasil: Analisis univariat didapatkan jumlah penduduk wanita dewasa dengan kadar FT4 meningkat sebanyak 14 persen dan nilai rata-rata 1,71 ng/dl. Penilaian indeks New Castle dalam kategori doubtful 16 persen dan tidak ditemukan penduduk yang termasuk dalam kategori toxic. Berdasarkan hasil uji statistik Chi-square, didapatkan p value=1. Kesimpulan: Tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kadar FT4 dalam serum dengan kejadian tirotoksikosis pada wanita dewasa di derah ekses yodium. Saran: Perlu dilakukan penyuluhan mengenai asupan yodium kepada masyarakat dan diharapkan penelitian ini dapat menjadi masukan kepada pemerintah dalam mengambil kebijakan terhadap pemberian kapsul yodium serta melakukan kontrol kadar EYU secara teratur dan berkala.Kata kunci: FT4, tirotoksikosis, indeks New Castle, wanita, ekses yodium, tiroidAbstractThyrotoxicosis is a clinical manifestation that occurs due to elevated levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. Iodine excess is one of the causes of thyrotoxicosis. This is indicated by the results of urine iodine excretion levels (EYU

  20. IODISASI GARAM: KADAR IODIUM DAN STABILITAS FISIKA BERBAGAI BENTUK IODISASI GARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komari Komari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodisasi garam telah lama dilakukan di Indonesia sejak PELITA II. Salah satu alternatif penambahan iodium ke dalam garam adalah dalam bentuk mikrokapsul. Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti kandungan berbagai jenis iodium dalam garam dari berbagai pasar dan mengukur waktu melarut bagi garam bila ditambahkan berbagai bentuk penyampaian iodium yakni mikrokapsul iodium, iodium dalam larutan garam jenuh dan larutan iodium dalam air suling. Ketiga bentuk penyampaian iodium ke dalam garam ini ditambahkan pada garam dan partikel garam tersebut, kemudian digantung dengan kawat wolfram dalam desikator yang berisi uap air jenuh. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berbagai jenis garam yang dijual di pasar di Bogor 6 dari 10 merek dagang mengandung iodium kurang dari 40ppm. Garam dengan kadar iodium 40ppm atau lebih adalah garam dengan merek dagang Miwon, Putri Duyung, Hero dan Doplin. Larutan iodium dalam air suling yang ditambahkan ke partikel garam menyebabkan garam melarut setelah 2 jam 40 menit, larutan garam jenuh setelah 3 jam 5 menit dan mikrokapsul iodium setelah lebih dari 5 jam. Garam yang ditambahkan mikrokapsul garam relatif lebih tahan terhadap stres dari uap air dalam lingkungannya.

  1. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  2. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  3. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  4. Pilot beverage cartons : extended technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  5. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  6. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  7. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  8. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  9. PENGARUH KETEBALAN IRISAN DAN LAMA PEREBUSAN (BLANCHING TERHADAP GAMBARAN MAKROSKOPIS DAN KADAR MINYAK ATSIRI SIMPLISIA DRINGO (Acorus calamus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa simplisia perlu mengalami proses seperti perajangan dan blanching. Perajangan dilakukan untuk mempermudah proses pengeringan, pengepakan dan penggilingan. Semakin tipis bahan yang dikeringkan, semakin cepat penguapan air yang dikandung, sehingga mempercepat waktu pengeringan. Namun irisan yang terlalu tipis menyebabkan zat yang mudah menguap seperti minyak atsiri akan berkurang kadarnya, sehingga mempengaruhi komposisi, bau dan rasa terutama pada simplisia seperti temu lawak, temu giring, jahe, kencur dan bahan sejenis lainnya. Perebusan (blanching adalah suatu proses pemanasan yang diberikan kepada bahan mentah selama beberapa menit  pada  suhu  air  mendidih yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas produk yang diolah. Rimpang tanaman ini secara empiris digunakan sebagai insektisida, demam nifas, karminatif. disentri dan limpa bengkak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh ketebalan irisan dan lama perebusan (blanching terhadap gambaran makroskopis dan kadar minyak atsiri simplisia dringo (Acorus calamus L. Sebagai model digunakan Acorus calamus L. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap menggunakan 2 faktor perlakuan, yaitu faktor pertama ketebalan irisan (K. yaitu K1 =2 mm, K2 =4 mm. K3 = 6 mm dan lama blanching (B yaitu BO = tanpa blanching, B 1 = 5 menit dan B2 = 10 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kualitas (warna, bentuk permukaan dan tekstur simplisia dan kadar minyak atsiri rimpang dringo. Simplisia dengan ketebalan irisan 2 mm tanpa perlakuan blanching menghasilkan minyak atsiri lebih tinggi (4,5% dengan kualitas simplisia yang lebih baik (warna putih kekuningan, permukaan rata dan tekstur liat, mudah dipatahkan sedangkan yang hasil terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan ketebalan irisan 2 mm dengan perlakuan lama blanching 10 menit yaitu  warna simplisia coklat, keadaan fisik irisan bergelombang, permukaan keras, sukar dipatahkan dengan kadar minyak atsiri (2%. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa tebal

  10. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  11. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN MELALUI PENENTUAN PRIORITAS TRAPEZOIDAL FUZZY NUMBER (Studi Kasus Industri Minuman Tradisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nurhasanah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition in industries is increasing rapidly. This, in turn, encourages companies to define their marketing strategies appropriately. PT. X is a small-to-medium scale company which produces traditional beverage as its main product. The main problem in PT. X is the limited budget for expanding its business and for applying its marketing strategies. At the moment, the market growth is about 16,67% ,while the market relative to the competitor is about 0,07. Boston Consulting Group matrix says that this company is in a Question Mark position. Beside, according to 7 experts there are 13 strategy variations for defining the priorities. Using the Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number, we found three strategies that meaningful to be applied in this company. First by adding the new market with product diversification (72,72, second by partnering investment (71,50, and the last by breakingthrough the existing market (70,93. The first strategy is applied by defining the variation of the products packaging and creating the product's diversification. The second one is applied by proactively, searching the information about investors, who are willing to be its partners. The last one is applied by assuring the quality and avaluibilty of the products to the customers. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Persaingan di dunia industri semakin ketat seiring dengan terus meningkatnya laju pertumbuhan industri. Persaingan ini mengakibatkan setiap industri lebih jeli dalam merumuskan strategi pemasaran perusahaannya. PT. X merupakan industri minuman tradisional yang berada pada skala Industri Kecil Menengah. Permasalahan utama industri ini adalah terbatasnya dana untuk mengembangkan usaha dan menjalankan kegiatan pemasaran. Saat ini pertumbuhan pasar industri sebesar 16,67%, sedangkan pangsa pasar relatif terhadap pesaing utama adalah 0,07. Matriks Boston Consulting Group menyatakan bahwa perusahaan berada pada posisi tanda tanya. Terdapat 13 variasi yang ditawarkan untuk

  12. Hubungan Kadar Gula Darah saat Masuk Rumah Sakit dengan Jenis Sindroma Koroner Akut di RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Valerian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSindrom Koroner Akut (SKA merupakan spektrum dari penyakit arteri koroner yang tidak stabil, mulai dari angina pektoris tidak stabil sampai infark miokardium. SKA terbagi atas Unstable Angina Pectoris (UAP, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan hubungan antara kadar gula darah saat masuk rumah sakit dan jenis SKA. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Rekam Medik RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang dengan mengambil data pasien SKA dari Januari 2012 sampai Desember 2012. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan jenis SKA dengan gula darah yang tidak normal dari 60 sampel, yaitu: UAP 25%, NSTEMI 35%, STEMI 40%. Hasil pengolahan data dapat dilihat bahwa nilai p = 0,592 yang artinya tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kadar gula darah saat masuk rumah sakit dengan jenis SKA. Hal ini terjadi mungkin karena terlalu sedikitnya sampel dan banyak sampel kriteria ekslusi dalam pencarian data. Sebaiknya dalam penelitian yang akan datang dapat memperbanyak sampel.Kata kunci: sindrom koroner akut, kadar gula darah, hubungan kadar gula darah dengan SKA AbstractAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is a spectrum of coronary artery disease that is not stable, ranging from unstable angina to myocardial infarction. Acute Coronary Syndrome is divided into Unstable Angina Pectoris (UAP, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between blood sugar levels when admitted to hospital and Acute Coronary Syndrome type by using cross sectional study. The study was conducted at the Medical Records RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang. The ACS data collected from January 2012 until December 2012. The results of this study was found the SKA with abnormal blood sugar of 60 samples, i.e. UAP25%, NSTEMI35%, 40% STEMI. On the results of data

  13. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  14. Phosphorus, beverages, and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Irorio B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biagio Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Serena Torraca, Maria Luisa SiricoNephrology-Medicine Department, "A Landolfi" Hospital, Solofra, ItalyAbstract: Phosphate is present in food in two forms, ie, organic and inorganic phosphate salts, which are naturally present in food and as phosphates added for industrial and commercial reasons. There is also a high content of added phosphate in beverages, and phosphates in this form are highly absorbable. The real content of phosphate contained in beverages is often unrecognized, and nephrologists do not always take into account the amount of phosphorus that patients ingest in this form.Keywords: phosphorus, beverages, additive, diet

  15. The Beverage Intake Questionnaire: Initial Validity and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily-administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ), which estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed (g, kcals) across 19 beverage categories. Participants (n=105; aged 39...

  16. Pembuatan Karbon Aktif Dari Arang Tempurung Kelapa Dengan Aktivator Zncl2 Dan Na2co3 Sebagai Adsorben Untuk Mengurangi Kadar Fenol Dalam Air Limbah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilar S. Pambayun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa sesuai dengan SII No.0258 – 79 ; untuk mengetahui karateristik kadar air, kadar abu,  iodine number dan surface area karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa ; untuk mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi dan jenis aktivator terhadap efisiensi penurunan kandungan konsentrasi fenol (persen removal menggunakan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa ; menentukan kapasitas optimum penyerapan fenol dengan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa karbon aktif dapat dibuat dari arang tempurung kelapa dengan aktivasi kimia ZnCl2 dan Na2CO3 disertai pirolisis pada suhu 700 oC selama 4 jam. Karakteristik karbon aktif yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SII No.0258–79, kadar air sebesar 0,382-1,619%, kadar abu 2,28-7,79%, iodine number 448,02-1599,72 mg/g, surface area 189,630-1900,69 m2/g. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi aktivator maka semakin tinggi persen removal dari fenol yang telah diadsorbsi oleh karbon aktif. Persen removal tertinggi didapat pada karbon aktif dengan zat aktivator Na2CO3 5% dengan persen removal sebesar 99,745%. Kapasitas optimum penyerapan fenol dengan karbon aktif dari arang tempurung kelapa terbaik didapat pada karbon aktif dengan zat aktivator Na2CO3 5% dengan kapasitas serapan sebesar 220,751 mg fenol/gram karbon aktif

  17. Gambaran Kadar Hemoglobin, Pola Konsumsi, Serta Pola Penyakit Pada Wanita Vegetarian Dan Non Vegetarian Dikeluarga Vegetarian Maitreya Indonesia (Kvmi) Medan Tahun 20

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi Chairuny

    2009-01-01

    Para vegetarian sering dikaitkan dengan isu kekurangan zat besi dan protein, padahal keduanya diperlukan tubuh dalam memproduksi hemoglobin. Resiko vegetarian menderita penyakit degeneratif umumnya lebih rendah dari pemakan daging. Walaupun demikian, para vegetarian sering dikaitkan dengan anemia. Untuk mengetahui gambaran kadar hemoglobin, pola konsumsi, serta pola penyakit pada wanita vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Keluarga Vegetarian Maitreya Indonesia (KVMI) Medan, dilakukan penelitian ...

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian Susu Coklat Terhadap Kadar F2Isoprostan pada Siswa di Pusat Pendidikan dan Latihan Olahraga Pelajar (PPLP) Sumatera Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Dezi Ilham; Afriwardi .; Eti Yerizel

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Latihan fisik yang berlebihan dapat meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas di dalam tubuh. Peningkatan radikalbebas ini kalau tidak dinetralisasi oleh antioksidan di dalam tubuh, maka terjadilah stres oksidatif yang dapatmenyebabkan terjadinya peroksidasi lipid, sehingga menghasilkan produk senyawa F2-isoprostan yang dapatberdampak terhadap berbagai masalah kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruhpemberian susu coklat terhadap kadar F2-isoprostan. Penelitian ini ...

  19. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.

  20. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  1. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices. PMID:26626921

  2. Hubungan Kadar FT4 dan TSH Serum dengan Profil Lipid Darah pada Pasien Hipertiroid yang Dirawat Inap di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang Tahun 2009 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aga Pratama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHipertiroid merupakan sindroma klinis yang terjadi bila jaringan terpajan dengan jumlah hormon tiroid yang berlebihan karena hiperaktivitas kelenjar tiroid. Hal tersebut akan memberikan efek spesifik terhadap metabolisme sel, termasuk metabolisme lipid. Perubahan metabolisme lipid pada hipertiroid akan menimbulkan manifestasi klinis seperti gangguan mood, peningkatan perilaku depresi, dan peningkatan perilaku agresif. Dalam diagnosis pasien hipertiroid, pemeriksaan kadar FT4 dan TSH serum menjadi tes fungsi tiroid yang tepat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat bagaimana hubungan antara kadar FT4 dan TSH serum dengan profil lipid darah pada pasien hipertiroid. Penelitian ini menggunakan data deskriptif di Instalasi Rekam Medis RSUP dr. M. Djamil Padang pada bulan Februari 2013 sampai Juli 2013. Data yang dikumpulkan berasal dari catatan rekam medik pasien hipertiroid yang dirawat inap berjumlah 21 orang dengan teknik total sampling. Analisis bivariat digunakan untuk melihat hubungan antara kadar FT4 dan TSH serum dengan profil lipid darah. Dari sampel yang ada diperoleh data rerata profil lipid, yakni: 143,33 mg/dl (kolesterol darah total; 42,06 mg/dl (HDL; 85,45 mg/dl (LDL; dan 77,19 mg/dl (trigliserida. Berdasarkan uji korelasi regresi, terdapat korelasi negatif antara kadar FT4 dengan kadar kolesterol darah total, HDL, dan LDL, tetapi tidak terdapat korelasi antara kadar FT4 dengan trigliserida. Hubungan antara kadar TSH serum dengan kolesterol darah total dan LDL mempunyai korelasi positif, tetapi tidak terdapat korelasi antara kadar TSH serum dengan HDL dan trigliserida. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa sebagian besar profil lipid darah mempunyai korelasi dengan kadar FT4 dan TSH serum, kecuali trigliserida.Kata kunci: kadar FT4 dan TSH serum, profil lipid darah, hipertiroidAbstractHyperthyroidism is a clinical syndrome that occurs when tissues are exposed by excessive amount of thyroid hormones due to thyroid gland

  3. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  4. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  5. Perbandingan Kadar Elektrolit Serum Pascaenterektomi Ekstensif 75 % pada Anjing yang Diterapi dengan Laktoferin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boedi Setiawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A severe and extensive intestine damages can occur in dogs suffering from volvulus , strangulation,intersuception and neoplasia. Extensive enterectomy is the most common medical treatment for dogssuffering from such disorder. A study was therefore conducted to compare the serum electrolyte level ofextensively enterectomyzed dogs after being treated with different level (0%, 0.05% and 0.5 mg/bodyweight of lactoferin. As many as 9 dogs at 3-4 moth-old and with the body weights ranging from 4-5 kgwere used. After being enterectomized to the extent of 75% out of the total length of the intestine, the dogswere divided randomly into 3 groups (I, II and III each of which consisted of 3 dogs. The three groups weretreated for 30 days respectively with 0.0 mg/body weight, 0.05mg/kg body weigth and 0.5mg/kg bodyweight of lactoferin. The electrolyte levels (Na, K and Cl ion of dogs were determined at days 1, 15 and 30of during the treatment. The data collected from this study were analysed by Analysys of Variance (Anovaproceded by Duncan Multiple Range test (DMRT. The result showed that at days 15 and 30 of thetreatment, the electrolyte levels of the dogs with lactoferin (0.05 and 0.5 mg/body weight were significantlyhigher than in dogs without lactoferin (0mg/bodyweight. The level of Na ion of dogs with 0,5, 0,05, dan 0mg/kg bw lactoferin were 143, 143,4, dan 141,7 mEq/L respectively at day 15 and 147, 150, dan 137,7mEq/L respectively at day 30. The levels of K ion for those dogs were 5,17, 4,97, dan 3,83 mEq/Lrespectively at day 15 and 30: 5,1, 5,13, 3,73 mEq/L respectively at day 30. Meanwhile, their Cl levelswere 113,7, 114,3, 104 mEq/L respectively at day 15 and 115,3, 117,3, dan 91,3 mEq/L respectively atday 30. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa memperian lactoferin memperbaiki kadar elektrolitserum anjing yang dienterektomi secara ekstensif. It was evidence that lactoferin treatment can improvedthe electrolyte profiles of extensively

  6. KADAR GLUKOSA DARI HIDROLISIS SELULOSA PADA ECENG GONDOK MENGGUNAKAN Trichoderma viride DENGAN VARIASI TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbowatiningrum R Sarjono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah kita ketahui bahwa eceng gondok merupakan salah satu sumber selulosa yang melimpah di alam dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber karbon bagi jamur Trichoderma viride. Eceng gondok memiliki bobot kering selulosa 21,5%, hemiselulosa 33,9% dan lignin 7,01%. Trichoderma viride adalah jamur saprofit yang berpotensi memproduksi selulase yang mampu mendegradasi ikatan β-1,4-glikosida pada rantai selulosa untuk menghasilkan glukosa. Glukosa dapat dimanfaatkan dalam produksi sirup gula, asam organik dan bioetanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan Trichoderma viride yang mampu tumbuh pada media pertumbuhan hasil modifikasi eceng gondok serta memperoleh temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis eceng gondok dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dalam menghasilkan glukosa. Proses pertama adalah persiapan sampel enceng gondok meliputi delignifikasi, kurva pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride dibuat dalam media modifikasi eceng gondok untuk mengetahui waktu optimum pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride. Penentuan temperatur optimum dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dari aktivitas Trichoderma viride didasarkan pada glukosa yang dihasilkan dari hidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok menggunakan metode Nelson Somogyi. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa Trichoderma viride mampu tumbuh pada media modifikasi eceng gondok. Temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok adalah 35oC dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dihasilkannya glukosa pada jam ke-96 yaitu sebesar 1,3864 mg/L.

  7. A pragmatic analyses of the use of types of deixis in poetry and novels of the author Ismail Kadare - The importance and complexity to the pragmatic process concerning the different realities evoked in social interaction, communication and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpresa Gjergji

    2015-07-01

    The same logic stands in communication of the utterance of ‘Broken April’ by Ismail Kadare referring to the phrase analyzing process, in order of getting intrinsically the meaning out and comparing it with discourse and utterance itself.

  8. PENGARUH KEDELAI PRODUK REKAYASA GENETIK TERHADAP KADAR MALONALDEHID, AKTIVITAS SUPEROKSIDA DISMUTASE DAN PROFIL DARAH PADA TIKUS PERCOBAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadi Hidayat Maskar

    2015-12-01

    untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh tepung tempe dari kedelai PRG dan non-PRG terhadap kadar malonaldehida (MDA, aktivitas superoksida dismutase (SOD, di hati dan ginjal serta profil hematologi tikus percobaan. Sebanyak 25 ekor tikus galur Sprague Dawley dibagi menjadi empat kelompok perlakuan dan satu kelompok kontrol (kasein diberi ransum tempe PRG dan non-PRG dengan konsentrasi 10% dan 20% selama 90 hari. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kelompok tikus yang diberi ransum tempe kedelai non-PRG 10 % memiliki kadar MDA lebih rendah di hati dan ginjal dibanding kelompok tikus yang diberi ransum tempe PRG 10% dan 20% persen, tetapi tidak berbeda nyata dengan kelompok non-PRG 20 % dan kelompok kontrol. Sedangkan aktivitas SOD tidak berbeda nyata (p>0,05 antar kelompok perlakuan. Hasil analisis hematologi menunjukkan semua kelompok perlakuan memiliki nilai pada rentang normal. Semua kelompok perlakuan memiliki nilai kadar trombosit, di atas normal. Hal ini dapat disebabkan oleh berbagaifaktor, diantaranya: aktivitas fisik dan metabolisme serta jumlah ransum yang dikonsumsi. Analisis kadar MDA, aktivitas SOD dan profil hematologi mengungkapkan bahwa tepung tempe kedelai PRG dan non-PRG amanuntuk dikonsumsi. [Penel Gizi Makan 2015, 38(1: 41-50]Kata kunci: tikus percobaan, tepung tempe PRG, tepung tempe non-PRG, hematologi, superoxide dismutase

  9. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  10. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  11. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    DENNIS, ELIZABETH A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revivo Rinda Pratama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam telah disetujui oleh FDA untuk dikonsumsi. Konsumsi pemanis buatan ini menggunakan dosis ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake yaitu 50 mg/kgBB. Individu dengan diabetes melitus kemungkinan menjadi antusias terhadap adanya aspartam. Aspartam dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme profil lipid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar LDL dan HDL tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan randomized post test only control group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 15 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol negatif, kelompok kontrol positif, dan kelompok perlakuan. Masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima (5 ekor tikus. Pemberian aspartam (dosis 315 mg/kgBB tikus diberikan kepada kelompok perlakuan selama empat (4 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL. Kadar LDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 30 ± 2 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 24 ± 2 mg/dl. Sedangkan kadar HDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 19 ± 1 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 22 ± 1 mg/dl. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada kadar LDL dan HDL antara kelompok kontrol positif dengan kelompok perlakuan. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini adalah pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL.Kata kunci: aspartam, diabetes melitus, LDL, HDLAbstractAspartame has been approved by the FDA for consumption. Consumption of artificial sweeteners is using ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake dose which is 50 mg/kg. Individuals with diabetes mellitus would likely be enthusiastic consumers of aspartame. Aspartame can influence the metabolism of lipid profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on levels of LDL

  13. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    Weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakKecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Penyakit ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan gizi, pertumbuhan dan penurunan produktifitas kerja. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen sebagai akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar IFN-γ dan IL-10 antara orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dan tidak terinfeksi...

  14. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Kecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen yang terjadi akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar IFN-γdan IL-10 pada orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dengan tidak terinfeksi yang diinduksi vaksi BCG.Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Muara Fajar Kecamatan...

  15. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  16. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  17. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional foo

  18. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hugenholtz

    2013-01-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are p

  19. Pemanfaatan Biji Asam Jawa (TamarindusIndica sebagai Koagulan Alternatif dalam Proses Menurunkan Kadar COD dan BOD dengan Studi Kasus pada Limbah Cair Industri Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Intan Ramadhani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biji asam jawa yang selama ini jarang dimanfaatkan perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut untuk pengolahan limbah cair yang lebih ekonomis dan ramah lingkungan.  Kandungan polisakarida dalam biji asam jawa (Tamarindus Indica merupakan koagulan alami yang terbukti cukup efektif dalam peningkatan kualitas air limbah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan pada limbah cair industri tempe sehingga diperoleh hasil yang optimum. Adapun yang dimaksud dengan hasil optimum yaitu dengan tercapainya penurunan kadar COD, BOD, dan TSS pada limbah cair yang digunakan sesuai dengan baku mutu dan kondisi yang tidak membahayakan lingkungan. Variabel yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah pH, TSS, kadar COD dan BOD dengan membandingkan dari tiap-tiap variasi. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah pemberian dosis biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan dengan variasi (500, 1500, 2500, 3500 mg/l, kecepatan putaran pada proses koagulasi-flokulasi dan lama pengadukan lambat (flokulasi. Pada penelitian ini, terdapat korelasi antara dosis koagulan dan kecepatan pengadukan yang diberikan terhadap efisiensi penurunan kadar BOD, COD dan TSS. Dosis optimum yang diperoleh yaitu 1500 mg/l limbah. Sedangkan hasil optimum diperoleh pada kecepatan koagulasi 180 rpm selama 1 menit dan flokulasi 80 rpm dengan lama waktu pengadukan 45 menit.

  20. EFEK PEMBERIAN SUSU SAPI BUBUK TERHADAP KADAR SERUM HDL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR MODEL DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Umami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the cow’s milk powder to increased serum levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL of white male rat model with diabetes mellitus type 2. The design of this study was a post-test control group study conducted in 30 male rats which randomly divided into five groups. Negative control group was the group of rats which fed normally, the positive control group was induced by streptozotocin (STZ without given cow’s milk, group P1, P2, P3 were given a normal diet and cow’s milk 0.9; 1.8, and 2.7 g orally every day. The results of this study were the levels of HDL in K(-=44.22 mg/dl, K(+=47.45 mg/dl, P1=56.56 mg/dl, P2=51.82 mg/dl, and P3=59.45 mg/dl. The conclusion was the milk powder was not significantly increase levels of HDL (p>0.05. More longer intervention was suggested for further research to get more significant of HDL level on type 2 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: HDL serum level, high fat diet, milk powder, streptozotocinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap peningkatan kadar serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus berjenis kelamin jantan model diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian post test control group dengan 30 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok K(- adalah tikus yang diberi pakan normal, kelompok K(+ diinduksi dengan streptozotocin (STZ tanpa diberi susu, kelompok P1 sampai P3 diberi diet normal dan susu 0,9; 1,8, dan 2,7 g secara oral setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar HDL pada K(-=44,22 mg/dl, K(+=47,45 mg/dl, P1=56,56 mg/dl, P2=51,82 mg/dl, dan P3=59,45 mg/dl. Susu sapi bubuk mampu meningkatkan kadar HDL tikus model DM tipe 2 akan tetapi tidak signifikan (p>0,05. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan waktu lama penelitian yang berbeda sehingga bisa berdampak yang lebih signifikan untuk kadar HDL pada DM tipe 2.Kata kunci

  1. PENGARUH KETEBALAN SUBSTRAT PADA FERMENTASI TEMPE TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN B1 (THE INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE THICKNESS DURING TEMPE FERMENTATION ON VITAMINS B1 LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Retiaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The level of vitamin B1 in tempe could be increased by modifying the surface of substrate during soybean fermentation. This research aimed to know the influence of substrate thickness during soybean fermentation into tempe to the levels of vitamin B1. The design of this research was completed randomized design with two replication. Vitamin B1 content was analyzed on raw soybeans, boiled soybeans, and tempe using spectrophotometer methods. The substrate thicknesses examined were 0.25 cm, 0.50 cm and 1.00cm. Vitamin B1 level on raw soybean was 0.7436 mg percent and on boiled soybean was 0.4898 mg percent, while in tempe with substrate thickness  0.25 cm, 0.50 cm and 1.00 cm, the vitamin B1 contents were 1.1413, 0.9044, and 0.7130 mg percent respectively. The thickness of tempe substrate affected on vitamin B1 content. A thinner substrate resulted on higher vitamin B1 level. Keywords: fermentation, tempe, vitamin B1   ABSTRAK Kadar vitamin B1 pada tempe dapat ditingkatkan dengan memodifikasi permukaan dari substrat dalam fermentasi kedelai. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketebalan substrat pada fermentasi kedelai menjadi tempe terhadap kadar vitamin B1. Disain penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua kali ulangan. Kadar vitamin B1 dianalisis pada kedelai mentah, kedelai rebus, dan tempe dengan menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Ketebalan substrat yang diteliti adalah 0.25 cm, 0,50 cm, 1,00 cm. Kadar vitamin B1 pada  kedelai mentah adalah 0,7436 mg persen dan pada kedelai rebus adalah 0.4898 mg persen. Sedangkan kadar vitamin B1 pada tempe dengan ketebalan 0,25, 0,5 dan 1 cm secara berturut-turut adalah 1,1413 mg persen , 0,9044 mg persen dan 0,7130 mg persen. Ketebalan substar tempe berpengaruh pada kandungan vitamin B1. Semakin tipis substrat, akan menghasilkan vitamin B1 yang semakin tinggi. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(2: 182-188]   Kata Kunci: fermentasi, tempe, vitamin B1

  2. Beverage Company:Hotter Competition in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Kaibiao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Due to the downturn in global economy, the economic growth rate in China sharply decreased in the first quarter of 2009. However, the fluctuating macro economy won't change the uptrend in food and beverage industry. The ratio between added-values of food industry and agriculture industry in China is 0.22 at present, but the ratio in developed western countries averages 1.2, meaning that there is still great potential and room in Chinese food industry. During the "11th five-year" period, the beverage industry is expected to grow at a rate of 15% or above. In this way, the production in this industry in 2010 will reach 68 million tons.

  3. Multimodal interactions in a carbonated beverage system

    OpenAIRE

    Hewson, Emma Louise

    2008-01-01

    Predicting flavour perception is complicated by interactions occurring both within and across sensory modalities, but understanding these interactions and the resulting multimodal integration is crucial to the formulation of successful products. Despite the commercial appeal of carbonated soft drinks, few studies have examined the effects of tastant: aroma: carbonation interactions on sensory perception. To facilitate these investigations, a citrus flavoured model beverage was created con...

  4. Presence of Arsenic in Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Roberge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study’s goal was to assess the arsenic concentration of various beverages and broths purchased from a local chain supermarket. A source of chronic arsenic exposure occurs via food and beverage consumption. Groundwater levels of total arsenic are regulated (-1 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA but few studies have examined arsenic concentrations in common beverages. Approach: In the initial analysis of 19 items, total arsenic concentration was assessed from a variety of fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas and broths. Items found to contain levels of total arsenic ≥5.0 µg L-1 were further evaluated. Additional analysis included purchasing multiple brands of items ≥5.0 µg L-1and analyzing them for total arsenic and chemical species of arsenic. Results: Among the beverages in the initial analysis, apple juice (10.79 µg L-1 and grape juice (49.87 µg L-1 contained the highest levels of total arsenic. Upon examination of items with As concentrations above 5.0 µg L-1, varying concentrations of total arsenic were found in apple cider (range: 5.41-15.27 µg L-1, apple juice (range: 10.67-22.35 µg L-1, baby fruit juice (range: 13.91-16.51 µg L-1 and grape juice (range: 17.69-47.59 µg L-1. Conclusion: Many commercially available juices contained concentrations of arsenic that were higher than the standard for total arsenic allowed in groundwater as set forth by the EPA. The concentration of As in these juices varied between and within brands. In general, those consuming apple and grape juices are the young and elderly and it is these populations that may be more vulnerable to over exposure of heavy metals.

  5. Developing cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Slevin, Terry; Pratt, Iain S; Glance, David; Liang, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence of the increased cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption, but this is not well understood by the general public. This study investigated the acceptability among drinkers of cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Australian drinkers to develop a series of cancer-related warning statements for alcohol products. Eleven cancer warning statements and one general health warning statement were subse...

  6. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skryplonek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bac- teria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Material and methods. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lac- tobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Results. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all sam- ples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Conclusions. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk pow- der or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  7. Energy Intake Estimates of Respondent-Measured Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Tujague, Jennifer; Kerr, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate a methodology for estimating detailed energy intake from alcoholic beverages. Methods: Participants were 315 monthly drinkers who completed a drink-measuring exercise. Energy intake from alcohol and non-alcohol ingredients was calculated for all beverages consumed. Results: Measured alcoholic beverages had on average 140 kilocalories, with 26% of the energy coming from non-alcohol ingredients. The average monthly kilocalorie intake, from all alcoh...

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS OF NONALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES TO THE U.S. DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Clauson, Annette L.; Guthrie, Joanne F.; Pittman, Grant; Stockton, Matthew C.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes consumer demand and nutritional issues associated with nonalcoholic beverages purchased for at-home use by looking at demographic variables such as household size, household income, education level, and region. The beverages include milk, carbonated soft drinks, bottled water, fruit juices, fruit drinks, coffee, tea, and isotonics (sports drinks). The report's focus is on the impact of nutritional quality from beverage purchase choices that a household makes, looking at t...

  9. Market-oriented new product development of functional beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Strategic reviews of the Irish Food and Beverage Industry have consistently emphasised the need for food and beverage firms to improve their innovation and marketing capabilities, in order to maintain competitiveness in both domestic and overseas markets. In particular, the functional food and beverages market has been singled out as an extremely important emerging market, which Irish firms could benefit from through an increased technological and market orientation. Although h...

  10. New Trends in Beverage Packaging Systems: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Ramos; Arantzazu Valdés; Ana Cristina Mellinas; María Carmen Garrigós

    2015-01-01

    New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influ...

  11. Public Knowledge about Herbal Beverages in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaver Nazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.

  12. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  13. EFEK EKSTRAK AIR DAN HEKSAN HERBA SURUHAN Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR ASAM URAT SERUM DARAH AYAM KAMPUNG JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Salah satu tanaman yang selama ini digunakan masyarakat sebagai pilihan obat tradisional untuk asam urat adalah suruhan (Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji efek dari ekstrak air dan heksan herba suruhan terhadap penurunan kadar asam urat serum darah pada ayam kampung jantan. 40 ayam kampung jantan dibuat hiperurisemia dengan pemberian kombinasi antara jus hati ayam 4 ml/kg BB dan urea 1 mg/kg BB selama 12 hari. Hewan uji tersebut dibagi menjadi 8 kelompok. Kelompok I sebagai kontrol negatif dengan pemberian Polivinil Pirolidon (PVP 0,5%. Kelompok II diberi Allopurinol 10 mg/kg BB sebagai kontrol positif, kelompok III-V diberi ekstrak air 100; 200; 400 mg/Kg BB dan kelompok VI-VIII diberi ekstrak heksan 100; 200; 400 mg/Kg BB. Pemberian bahan uji mulai hari ke-13 sampai 20. Pada hari ke-15,18 dan 21 diambil serum darah hewan uji melalui vena lateralis sayap untuk diukur kadar asam uratnya serta dihitung persentase penurunan kadar asam urat . Hasil uji secara pre klinik hari ke-21, ekstrak air herba suruhan 200 mg/Kg BB mampu menurunkan kadar asam urat paling tinggi yaitu 62,49±2,80% dan penurunan kadar asam urat dengan ekstrak heksan paling tinggi hanya 19,62±3,95% pada dosis 400 mg/Kg BB. Potensi ekstrak air 200 mg/Kg BB sebanding dengan Allopurinol 10 mg/Kg BB. Ekstrak air dan heksan herba suruhan memiliki khasiat untuk menurukan kadar asam urat yang mengindikasikan bahwa kandungan kimia dalam herba suruhan dapat dikembangan menjadi obat antihiperurisemia. Kata kunci : Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth, asam urat, uji pre klinik, ekstrak air dan heksan Abstract One of the plants that had been used by the local people as a choice of traditional medicine for gout is suruhan (Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth. This research was conducted to examine the effects of water and hexan extract of suruhan to decrease  uric acid levels in cock. 40 cock made hyperuricemia with the administration combination of chicken

  14. Hubungan Kadar Glukosa Darah Saat Masuk Rumah Sakit Dengan Lama Hari Rawat Pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA Di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Oktarina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHiperglikemia masih menjadi topik penelitian yang sering dihubungkan dengan kejadian sindrom koroner akut (SKA di dunia, terutama hiperglikemia saat masuk rumah sakit. Hal ini didasari oleh beberapa pengaruh kadar glukosa darah yang tinggi terhadap sistem kardiovaskuler seperti gangguan fungsi ventrikel kiri, stroke volume yang menurun, regurgitasi katup mitral berulang, gangguan pada waktu pengisian diastolik hingga risiko tinggi untuk arritmia, serta hubungannya dengan peningkatan risiko trombosis. Sehingga semakin memperjelas pengaruh hiperglikemia yang tidak hanya dapat meningkatkan risiko terjadinya SKA, melainkan juga dapat memperburuk kondisi pasien SKA sendiri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar glukosa darah sewaktu dengan lama hari rawat pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian analitik dengan menggunakan desain penelitian Cross Sectional Study. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diambil di Instalasi Rekam Medik (Medical Record, yakni data rekam medik pasien yang didiagnosis sebagai Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat DR. M. Djamil Padang Periode Januari–Desember 2011. Ditemukan sebagian besar pasien SKA masuk rumah sakit dengan kadar Glukosa Darah Sewaktu (GDS sebesar ≥ 200 mg/dl (40% dan lama hari rawat sebesar ≥ 7 hari (52%. Dari hasil analisa bivariat dengan menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman ditemukan adanya hubungan searah antara kadar glukosa darah saat masuk rumah sakit dengan lama hari rawat pasien SKA dengan kekuatan hubungan yang sedang, r = +0,492, p = 0, 000 (p<0,05. Pemantauan terhadap kadar GDS yang diperiksa saat pasien masuk rumah sakit perlu dilakukan dan untuk penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan dapat diteliti lebih lanjut faktor-faktor lain yang mempengaruhi lama hari rawat pasien SKA.Kata kunci: Kadar glukosa darah saat masuk RS, lama hari rawatAbstractHyperglicemia is still become a research

  15. PENURUNAN KADAR GULA DARAH AKIBAT PEMBERIAN EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL (Studi pada Tikus Galur Sprague Dawley yang Diinduksi Pakan Tinggi Lemak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Bintari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalensi penyakit diabetes mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah hiperglikemia yang dipicu oleh pola makan tinggi lemak. Alternatif cara pengobatan dan pencegahannya adalah mengkonsumsi minyak zaitun. Diperlukan bukti ilmiah bahwa minyak zaitun dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian minyak zaitun ekstra virgin terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus putih yang diinduksi pakan tinggi lemak. Desain penelitian pre experimental dengan rancangan post test only randomized controlled group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 28 ekor tikus putih jantan galur Sprague Dawley usia 8 minggu, berat badan 180-220 gram, dan kondisi sehat. Tikus dibagi menjadi empat kelompok secara simple random sampling. Kelompok kontrol diberi akuades, kelompok perlakuan P1, P2, dan P3 berturut-turut diberi minyak zaitun ekstra virgin sebanyak 0,5 g/hari; 0,7 g/hari; dan 0,9 g/hari. Penelitian dilakukan selama 6 minggu. Pengukuran kadar glukosa darah menggunakan metode glukosa oksidase (GOD PAP. Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal Wallis dengan derajat kemaknaan 95%. Pemberian minyak zaitun ekstra virgin pada dosis 0,5 g/hari; 0,7 g/hari; dan 0,9 g/hari dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tikus putih. Penurunan ini terbukti bermakna pada semua kelompok perlakuan. Persentase penurunan kadar glukosa darah paling tinggi ditemukan pada dosis pemberian 0,9 gram/hari yaitu sebesar 62,23%. Minyak zaitun ekstra virgin terbukti dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah akibat dislipidemia. The prevalence of diabetes has increased from year to year. It is caused by hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet. Several alternative methods of treatment and prevention widely used is consuming olive oil. Therefore we need scientific evidence that olive oil can lowered blood sugar levels. The purpose of research to determine the effects of extra virgin olive oil on blood glucose levels of white rats induced by high

  16. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid dan Aktivitas Katalase Tikus yang Terpapar Karbon Tetraklorida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraida ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemberian rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn diharapkan melindung hepar tikus dari kerusakkan akibat stres oksidatif pada keracunan karbon tetraklorida (CCl 4. Senyawa yang sering dijadikan petunjuk adanya kerusakan tersebut adalah malondialdehid (MDA. Rosella mengandung vitamin C, flavonoid, polifenol dan beta karoten. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh pemberian ekstrak rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn terhadap MDA dan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post test Only Control Group Design. Sampel 24 ekor tikus Strain Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, berat 150-200 gr. Sampel diambil secara acakdan dibagi 4 kelompok terdiri dari kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (CCl 4, perlakuan 1 (CCl 4 dan ekstrak rosella 250 mg/kg bb dan perlakuan 2 (CCl4  dan ekstrak rosella 500 mg/kg bb. Pemberian CCl 4secara oral dosis tunggal, setelah 24 jam kemudian diberi ekstrak rosella secara oral selama 14 hari. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anova, tingkatkepercayaan 95%.Pemberian ekstrak rosella secara statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan rerata kadar MDA dan katalase antar kelompok (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak rosella dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dan meningkatkan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Kata kunci: karbon tetraklorida, MDA, katalase, rosella Abstract Administering roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn is expected to protect rat liver from damage caused by oxidative stress in CCl4 poisoning. Rosella contains vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenol and beta carotene. Compounds which was often used as marker of the damage caused by free radicals wa MDA. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on MDA and catalase activity of rats exposed to CCl4. Experimental research design with Post test Only Control Group Design. Samples of 24 male Wistar Strain rats were 2-3 months old. weighing 150-200 gr

  17. China’s Red-Canned Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Herbal tea brand Wong Lo Kat gets global recognition for its product quality and embracing the traditional Chinese culture of health c oca Cola isn’t the only company with an iconic red can anymore-Wong Lo Kat herbal tea is gaining recognition worldwide. At the 15th World Congress of Food Science and Technology held on August 23 in Cape Town,South Africa,the canned Wong Lo Kat herbal tea,produced by The JDB Group,won the Global Food Industry Award.It is the first Chinese beverage brand to win this award.

  18. Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Ana Dil Kullanımı: Ne Zaman, Ne Kadar, Neden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha R. Şimşek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Yabancı dil öğretim yöntemlerinin tarihsel gelişimi incelendiğinde İngilizcenin yabancı dil olarak öğretildiği sınıflarda ana dil kullanımı konusundaki tartışmanın canlılığını koruduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Kimi çevreler ana dil kullanımını yasaklarken kimileri Sadece İngilizce politikası gibi tekdilli yaklaşımların eğitsel olmadığını savunmuştur. Ancak İngilizcenin küresel bir dile dönüşmesiyle yabancı dil öğretim yöntemleri çeşitlenmiş ve ana dil yasağı sorgulanmaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışmada ana dil kullanımına ilişkin sınıfiçi söylem çözümlemeleri ile öğretmen-öğrenci görüşlerini betimleyen araştırmalar taranmış ve yabancı dil sınıflarında ana dilin ne zaman, ne kadar ve neden kullanıldığı tartışılmıştır.

  19. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs About SHPPS: SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted ... canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods or beverages. • 4.0% of states and 6.6% of ...

  20. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  1. Alcoholic Beverages in Bangladesh-How Much We Know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages co

  2. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  3. Proses Pemurnian Minyak Kelapa Sawit Menjadi CPO Dengan Menggunakan Alat Oil Purifier Type PAPX 307 SGD-11g Pada Stasiun Klarifikasi Di PTPN II ( Persero) PKS Pagar Merbau

    OpenAIRE

    Mintari, Rendy

    2011-01-01

    idalam proses pemurnian minyak kelapa sawit dengan menggunakan oil purifier, harus diperhatikan kadar lumpur dan air yang masih ada, dikarenakan di proses ini kadar lumpur harus di minimalkan agar proses kerja dari oil purifier tidak terlalu berat. Setelah melalui proses pemurnian yang cukup panjang, yang akhirnya proses penentuan tersebut jatuh pada oil purifier, yang bekerja agar meminimalkan dari kadar air 0,6 % - 0,1 % dan lumpur 0,1 % - 0,3 % sampai dengan 0,20 % - 0,50 %, dan juga kadar...

  4. Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Johnny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO and the second a sodium group (Na. The CHO group ingested four different drinks with a stepped increase of 3% glucose from 0% to 9% while sodium concentration was 20 mmol/L. The Na group ingested four drinks with a stepped increase of 20 mmol/L from 0 mmol/L to 60 mmol/l while glucose concentration was 6%. All beverages contained 3 g of D2O. Subjects remained seated for two hours after ingestion of the experimental beverage, with blood taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 10 min in the second hour. Results Including 3% glucose in the beverage led to a significantly greater AUC 60 min (19640 ± 1252 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min than all trials. No carbohydrate (18381 ± 1198 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min had a greater AUC 60 min than a 6% (16088 ± 1359 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min and 9% beverage (13134 ± 1115 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min; the 6% beverage had a significantly greater AUC 60 min than the 9% beverage. There was no difference in fluid delivery between the different sodium beverages. Conclusion In conclusion the present study showed that when carbohydrate concentration in an ingested beverage was increased above 6% fluid delivery was compromised. However, increasing the amount of sodium (0–60 mmol/L in a 6% glucose beverage did not lead to increases in fluid delivery.

  5. Whey based beverages - new generation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good

  6. Beverages in the diets of American teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, P M

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of beverages, particularly soft drinks, in the diets of American teenagers by analyzing data collected in the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Interviewers obtained 24-hour recalls of dietary intake, and respondents completed diet records for the following 2 days. Variation in beverage intake was examined by eating occasion, season, day of the week, region, urbanization, race, age, sex, and household income. Soft drink and milk intakes were negatively correlated (r = -.22). Soft drinks were just as likely to be drunk at lunch or supper as for snacks. Those results suggest that teenagers may have substituted soft drinks for milk at meals. The nutritional impact of soft drink consumption was assessed by determining the part correlations of soft drink intake with intakes of energy and 14 nutrients, while controlling for 19 variables related to time, location, and personal and household characteristics. The negative part correlations of soft drink intake with intakes of calcium (-0.11), magnesium (-0.06), riboflavin (-0.09), vitamin A (-0.08), and ascorbic acid (-0.06) indicate that soft drinks may contribute to low intakes of those nutrients by some teenagers.

  7. Perbedaan Kadar LDL-kolesterol pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 dengan dan tanpa Hipertensi di RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang Tahun 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finisia Noviyanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHipertensi seringkali menjadi kondisi komorbid yang menyertai diabetes melitus tipe 2. Diabetes melitus, hipertensi dan peningkatan LDL kolesterol merupakan keadaan yang sering dijumpai saling berkaitan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat perbedaan kadar LDL kolesterol penderita diabetes melitus tipe 2 dengan dan tanpa hipertensi. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional comparatif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi data rekam medis pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2 dengan dan tanpa hipertensi tahun 2011 di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji chi-square dan uji t-berpasangan. Hasil penelitian menemukan kadar LDL kolesterol pada pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2 dengan hipertensi (137,56±41,43 mg/dl lebih tinggi dibandingkan tanpa hipertensi (94,39±35,36 mg/dl. Uji chi-square menunjukkkan adanya hubungan yang bermakna antara peningkatan kadar LDL kolesterol dengan kejadian hipertensi (p<0,05. Uji t-berpasangan menunjukkan bahwa adanya perbedaan bermakna kadar LDL kolesterol antara kelompok pasien diabetes melitus dengan hipertensi dan tanpa hipertensi (p<0,05. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna kadar LDL kolesterol pada pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2 dengan hipertensi dan tanpa hipertensi di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang.Kata kunci: LDL kolesterol, diabetes melitus tipe 2, hipertensi AbstractHypertension is often a comorbid conditions that accompany diabetes mellitus type 2. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and increased LDL cholesterol is a condition that is often be found related one another. The objective of this study was to determine difference LDL cholesterol level among diabetes melitus type 2 with hypertension and without hypertension.This research used cross-sectional comparatif design. The data was collected through observation of the patient’s medical records diabetes mellitus type 2 with hypertension and without hypertension in 2011 at the hospital Dr. M

  8. Methanol contamination in traditionally fermented alcoholic beverages: the microbial dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of methanol contamination of traditionally fermented beverages is increasing globally resulting in the death of several persons. The source of methanol contamination has not been clearly established in most countries. While there were speculations that unscrupulous vendors might have deliberately spiked the beverages with methanol, it is more likely that the methanol might have been produced by contaminating microbes during traditional ethanol fermentation, which is often inoculated spontaneously by mixed microbes, with a potential to produce mixed alcohols. Methanol production in traditionally fermented beverages can be linked to the activities of pectinase producing yeast, fungi and bacteria. This study assessed some traditional fermented beverages and found that some beverages are prone to methanol contamination including cachaca, cholai, agave, arak, plum and grape wines. Possible microbial role in the production of methanol and other volatile congeners in these fermented beverages were discussed. The study concluded by suggesting that contaminated alcoholic beverages be converted for fuel use rather than out rightly banning the age-long traditional alcohol fermentation. PMID:27652180

  9. Associations between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of carbonated beverages was reported to be associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2010 were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 5517 respondents >19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of carbonated beverages or outcome variables. The community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontal treatment needs tended to increase with the consumption of carbonated beverages. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for various factors including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, dental checkup within a year, consumption of coffee of the individuals with the consumption of carbonated beverages once or less per month, once or less per week and twice or more per week were 1.109(0.804,1.528), 1.404(1.035,1.906), and 1.466(1.059,2.029), respectively. A subgroup analysis revealed that in individuals with body mass index periodontal disease increased with higher consumption of carbonated beverages (P for trend periodontal disease in Korean adults. In a subgroup analysis, the individuals consuming carbonated beverages with body mass index periodontal disease. Consumption of carbonated beverages may be considered to be an independent risk indicator for periodontal disease and periodontal health of nonobese individuals may benefit from reduction of carbonated beverage consumption. PMID:27428235

  10. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  11. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  12. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children. PMID:25906434

  13. Determination of CaffeineIn Beverages: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Igelige Gerald; David Ebuka Arthur; Adebiyi Adedayo

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a well-known stimulant which is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Caffeine has drawn more attention due to its physiological effects beyond that of its stimulatory effect. Consumers are interested in knowing the exact amounts of caffeine existing in beverages. However, limited data exist, especially for store brand beverages. Therefore, it is pertinent to review the various methods that will effectively determine the caffeine contents in different carbonate...

  14. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Charernjiratrakul, W.; Kantachote, D.; Asavaroungpipop, N.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beve...

  15. Plasma deuterium oxide accumulation following ingestion of different carbohydrate beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Kevin; Urch, Joanna; Cerri, Erika; Jentjens, Roy L P; Blannin, Andy K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-12-01

    Optimal fluid delivery from carbohydrate solutions such as oral rehydration solutions or sports drinks is essential. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a beverage containing glucose and fructose would result in greater fluid delivery than a beverage containing glucose alone. Six male subjects were recruited (average age (+/-SD): 22 +/- 2 y). Subjects entered the laboratory between 0700 h and 0900 h after an overnight fast. A 600 mL bolus of 1 of the 3 experimental beverages was then given. The experimental beverages were water (W), 75 g glucose (G), or 50 g glucose and 25 g fructose (GF); each beverage also contained 3.00 g of D2O. Following administration of the experimental beverage subjects remained in a seated position for 180 min. Blood and saliva samples were then taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 15 min thereafter. Plasma and saliva samples were analyzed for deuterium enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Deuterium oxide enrichments were compared using a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The water trial (33 +/- 3 min) showed a significantly shorter time to peak than either G (82 +/- 40 min) or GF (59 +/- 25 min), but the difference between G and GF did not reach statistical significance. There was a significantly greater AUC for GF (55 673 +/- 10 020 delta per thousand vs. Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW).180 min) and W (60 497 +/- 9864 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min) compared with G (46 290 +/- 9622 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min); W and GF were not significantly different from each other. These data suggest that a 12.5% carbohydrate beverage containing glucose and fructose results in more rapid fluid delivery in the first 75 min than a beverage containing glucose alone.

  16. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  17. The Characteristic of chosen hotel Food&Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Faltejsková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the issues of hotel services with emphasis on the Food&Beverage. In the theoretical part of the thesis the terms of accommodation and catering services are being defined. These terms are then used in the practical part that analyzes the Parkhotel Praha. Based on the analysis of the hotel, its Food&Beverage, and competition, the strengths and weaknesses are determined with the proposed solutions for the future improvement.

  18. Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Danilo; Marshall, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    "This booklet is intended to heighten awareness about the potential of fermented foods and beverages as a viable enterprise that can contribute to small-scale farmers' income, building on, and in full respect of, important social and cultural factors. It also looks at how fermented food and beverages contribute to food security through preservation and improved nutritional quality. It highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with small-scale fermentation activities, as well as m...

  19. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  20. Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), two -dicarbonyl compounds (RCS) found in humans, cause carbonyl stress following the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Both are linked to many chronic diseases. Foods, the extrinsic source, could cause the increase of RCS levels in physiological conditions. Previous data showed that high fructose corn syrup is the major source of RCS in beverages. Because of increasing consumption of syrup-sweetened beverages in Thailand, w...

  1. Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

  2. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. PMID:25504570

  3. Pengaruh Pemberian Susu Coklat Terhadap Kadar F2Isoprostan pada Siswa di Pusat Pendidikan dan Latihan Olahraga Pelajar (PPLP Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Ilham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latihan fisik yang berlebihan dapat meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas di dalam tubuh. Peningkatan radikalbebas ini kalau tidak dinetralisasi oleh antioksidan di dalam tubuh, maka terjadilah stres oksidatif yang dapatmenyebabkan terjadinya peroksidasi lipid, sehingga menghasilkan produk senyawa F2-isoprostan yang dapatberdampak terhadap berbagai masalah kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruhpemberian susu coklat terhadap kadar F2-isoprostan. Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimental pre and post test controlgrup design terhadap 36 siswa atlet, yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi. Subjek dibagi dua kelompok yaituyang diberikan perlakuan susu coklat dan kontrol susu putih. Susu diminum setelah latihan fisik rutin atlet sebanyaksatu kali sehari selama 15 hari. Kadar F2-isoprostan dinilai sebelum dan sesudah secara ELISA. Data dianalisisdengan paired sample t-Test, bermakna bila p<0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata kadar F2-isoprostan sebelumperlakuan pada kelompok susu coklat adalah 65,98±14,61 pg/ml dan sesudah perlakuan adalah 45,55±13,74 pg/ml.Rerata kadar F2-isoprostan sebelum perlakuan pada kelompok kontrol susu putih adalah 54,24±20,44 pg/ml dansesudah perlakuan adalah 48,80±20,23 pg/ml. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh ada pengaruh yang bermakna dari reratakadar F2-isoprostan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan baik pada kelompok perlakuan susu coklat dan kelompok kontrolsusu putih.Kata kunci: latihan fisik, radikal bebas, F2-isoprostan, susu coklatAbstract Excessive physical exercise can increase the production of free radicals in the body. The increase in freeradicals if not neutralized by antioxidants in the body and it caused oxidative stress which can cause lipid peroxidation,resulting in F2-isoprostane product compounds that can affect a variety of health problems. The objective of this studywas to determine the influence of milk chocolate on F2-isoprostane levels. This study was an experimental pre

  4. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern. PMID:18639604

  5. PEMBERIAN KITOSAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP BERAT BADAN DAN KADAR TRIGLISERIDA DARAH TIKUS SPRAGUE-DAWLEY YANG DIBERI PAKAN ASAM LEMAK TRANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was aimed to analyze the effects of chitosan intake on body weight and plasma triglyceride level in Sprague-dawley rats fed by trans fatty acid. This study was an experimental on animal using factorial randomized with post-test only control group design. The samples were 28 male Sprague-dawley rats aged two months old. The samples were divided into one control (K and three treatment groups which received chitosan as much as 0.035 g (P1, 0.045 g (P2, and 0.055 g (P3. The feed was high-fat diet, namely added by melted margarine as a source of trans fatty acid, as much as 1.7 g per day. Intervention was done for 14 and 28 days. Measurement of body weight was done every three days, whereas measurement of triglyceride level was done after 14 and 28 days intervention. The study revealed that feeding of melted margarine in a dose of 1.7 g per day increased body weight of control group as much as 54% after 28 day intervention. The increase was higher than P1, P2, and P3 groups which were elevated by 48.7%, 27.8%, and 38.9% respectively. In addition, after 14 day intervention, the plasma triglyceride levels of control and P1 groups were categorized as hypertriglyceridemia, namely 254.3±49.0 mg/dL and 241.7±58.5 mg/dL respectively. In the meanwhile, the plasma triglyceride levels of P2 (128.3±14.3 mg/dL and P3 (141.3 ± 25.3 were significantly lower than the control and P1 groups. After 28 day intervention, there is no significant difference on plasma triglyceride level among groups (p>0.05, but the triglyceride level of each group was significantly lower than the levels after 14 day intervention (p<0.05.Keywords: body weight, chitosan, trans fatty acids, triglycerideABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh pemberian kitosan terhadap berat badan dan kadar trigliserida plasma tikus Sprague-dawley yang diberi pakan asam lemak trans. Penelitian ini merupakan experimental study pada hewan percobaan, menggunakan rancangan

  6. Drinking in Space: The Capillary Beverage Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark; Jenson, Ryan; Graf, John; Pettit, Donald; Kelly, Scott; Lindgren, Kjell; Yui, Kimiya

    2015-11-01

    A selection from as many as 50 different drinks including coffees, teas, and fruit smoothies are consumed daily by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. For practical reasons, the drinks are generally sipped through straws inserted in sealed bags. We present the performance of a special cup designed to allow the drinking operation in much the same manner as on earth, only with the role of gravity replaced by the combined effects of surface tension, wetting, and special container geometry. One can finally `smell the coffee.' Six so-called Space Cups are currently in orbit as part of the Capillary Beverage Experiment which aims to demonstrate specific passive control of poorly wetting aqueous capillary systems through a fun mealtime activity. The mathematical fluid mechanical design process with full numerical simulations is presented alongside experimental results acquired using a drop tower and low-g aircraft before complete characterization aboard the Space Station. Astronaut commentary is both humorous and informative, but the insightful experimental results of the potable space experiment testify to the prospects of new no-moving-parts capillary solutions for certain water-based life support operations aboard spacecraft.

  7. Production of Whey Powder Added Fruit Beverages and Some Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Ece Argan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, functional fruit beverages were produced by mixing whey with fruit concentrates (apple and cherry or pulp (apricot at certain amounts, and some physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the beverages were revealed during storage. While the highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (TEAC were determined in beverages with cherry juice, TEAC values of the products changed based on fruit types used in the beverages during storage. In addition, it was determined that fruit type had significant effect on acidity, invert sugar, total sugar and total phenol of beverages. Beverage with apricot pulp was the most liked product by consumers.

  8. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2013-05-14

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.

  9. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2013-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided. PMID:23672828

  10. Drivers of Acceptance of a New Beverage in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of studying food consumption behavior is to identify the drivers of choice for a food product. This is particularly important to design and develop new foods for which no previous information is available. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Bissap is an herbaceous plant and an important source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, which confer a number of potential health benefits to derived products. The consumption of Bissap in beverage form is widespread in Africa and Asia, but not yet in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main drivers of consumer acceptance of a traditional African beverage made from Bissap to which they had not been previously exposed. First, three focus groups (n = 22 were performed in Portugal to characterize the sensory profile of four Bissap beverages, to reveal perceptions and attitudes towards Bissap beverages, and to identify potential choice attributes. Subsequently, a full-profile conjoint analysis (n = 99 was performed, where consumers evaluated 37 Bissap beverage profiles, aiming to estimate choice attribute importance and to identify relevant market segments. Focus group findings showed that consumers would choose Bissap because they perceived as a healthy choice, and due to its novelty. The conjoint study showed an ideal profile for a Bissap beverage costing €0.99/L, <18 kcal/100 mL, packaged in Tetra-pack, light red color, and containing labeling information about antioxidants and Bissap. Four clusters of consumers were identified: price sensitive, body concerned, packaging attracted, and demanding, highlighting the most influential choice attributes: price, calories, and packaging. Findings provide useful guidance for new product development of an African product in the European lifestyle. Results might be useful from a nutraceutical point of view and to the food/beverages industry.

  11. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Brouwer, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycate

  12. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  13. Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R.; Moreau, Robert A.; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D.; Richards, Michael P.; Wang, Chen-shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn fruit and/or grape) was being produced as early as the seventh millennium before Christ (B.C.). This prehistoric drink paved the way for unique cereal beverages of the proto-historic second millennium B.C., remarkably preserved as liquids inside sealed bronze vessels of the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties. These findings provide direct evidence for fermented beverages in ancient Chinese culture, which were of considerable social, religious, and medical significance, and help elucidate their earliest descriptions in the Shang Dynasty oracle inscriptions. PMID:15590771

  14. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  15. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

  16. Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxal (GO and methylglyoxal (MGO, two -dicarbonyl compounds (RCS found in humans, cause carbonyl stress following the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Both are linked to many chronic diseases. Foods, the extrinsic source, could cause the increase of RCS levels in physiological conditions. Previous data showed that high fructose corn syrup is the major source of RCS in beverages. Because of increasing consumption of syrup-sweetened beverages in Thailand, we aimed to find the GO, MGO, sugar contents, and their quantity relationship. We discovered that 70 different types of beverages contained extremely high levels of GO and MGO at maximum level of 333 and 1,208 μg/ml, respectively. All commercial syrup tested contained dicarbonyl contents, and statistics tests showed strong significant correlation between monosaccharide sugar and RCS. The total sugar contents of more than 20 tested was higher than the current daily recommendation for sugar intake to maintain health.

  17. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F.; Ryan R. Ruff

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between bev...

  18. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0....

  19. Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Womack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1. Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage, high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat, or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat. After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial. Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05, and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min, HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min. Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists.

  20. PEMANFAATAN KARBON AKTIF ARANG BATUBARA (KAAB UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR ION LOGAM BERAT Cu2+ DAN Ag+ PADA LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2012-05-01

    0.994 for Cu2+ metals ion and 0.984 for the Ag+ metals ion at acidic solution, whereas 0.986 for Cu2+ metals ion and 9.69 for the Ag+ metals ion at neutral pH. Kinetic model of second order rate describe the adsorption process well at acidic and neutral conditions. At the optimum conditions, the correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.998 for Cu2+ and 0.999 for the Ag+ at acidic solution, whereas 0.993 for Cu2+ and 9.998 for the Ag+ at neutral pH were obtained.  Limbah cair industri bisa mengandung ion logam berat seperti Cu2+ dan Ag+ yang berbahaya bagi lingkungan jika dibuang tanpa melalui pengolahan dahulu. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengurangi ion logam berat dalam limbah cair sudah banyak dilakukan, salah satu diantaranya adalah adsorpsi, yaitu memisahkan komponen tertentu dari fluida ke permukaan zat padat. Adsorpsi merupakan metode yang mudah, akan tetapi kebanyakan adsorben yang digunakan harganya mahal, sehingga perlu adanya alternatif adsorben yang murah. Penelitian ini memanfaatkan karbon aktif arang batubara (KAAB sebagai adsorbennya. Arang batubara merupakan limbah hasil pembakaran batubara pada industri, yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi adsorben, sehingga dapat mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan. Pengaktifan arang batubara dilakukan dengan merendamnya dalam peroxide kemudian dilakukan pemanasan pada suhu 500°C. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter proses (konsentrasi, pH dan waktu proses terhadap persentase ion logam berat teradsorpsi dalam KAAB, mempelajari persamaan kesetimbangan adsorpsi dengan menggunakan model isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich, dan menghitung konstanta kinetika adsorpsi dengan pendekatan model kinetika pseudo-first-order dan pseudo-second-order. Pelaksanaan penelitian dengan batch, yaitu mengkontakkan 10 gram KAAB dengan 400 ml limbah sintetis. Pengujian kadar ion logam berat menggunakan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa KAAB dapat digunakan untuk

  1. Determination of CaffeineIn Beverages: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igelige Gerald

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a well-known stimulant which is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Caffeine has drawn more attention due to its physiological effects beyond that of its stimulatory effect. Consumers are interested in knowing the exact amounts of caffeine existing in beverages. However, limited data exist, especially for store brand beverages. Therefore, it is pertinent to review the various methods that will effectively determine the caffeine contents in different carbonated drinks. HPLC, UV-Visible Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography are among the popular used methods.

  2. Designing new foods and beverages for the ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I. A.

    2009-01-01

     - Introduction  - Consumer-led new product development: the concept and process in the food and beverage industry  - Consumer-led food product development for the ageing: the case of home meal replacements  - Conclusions and future trends  - Acknowledgements  - References...... - Introduction  - Consumer-led new product development: the concept and process in the food and beverage industry  - Consumer-led food product development for the ageing: the case of home meal replacements  - Conclusions and future trends  - Acknowledgements  - References...

  3. Levels of polonium-210 in some beverages and in tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, C.H.; Huguet, M.R.; Palacios, M.A.; Oliveira, A.A. [Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the Polonium-210 content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, an autochton plant of South America, tea leaves, their infusion and ground coffee were analyzed as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to annual consumption of the beverages described, resulted in values from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for Polonium-210 in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq kg{sup -1}. Doses due to the use of tobacco were not assessed since an appropriate metabolic model was not found. (author)

  4. Levels of polonium-210 in some beverages and in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the Polonium-210 content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, an autochton plant of South America, tea leaves, their infusion and ground coffee were analyzed as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to annual consumption of the beverages described, resulted in values from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for Polonium-210 in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq kg-1. Doses due to the use of tobacco were not assessed since an appropriate metabolic model was not found. (author)

  5. 36 CFR 702.8 - Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beverages in Library buildings. 702.8 Section 702.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.8 Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings. Consumption of food and beverages in Library buildings is prohibited except at point of purchase or...

  6. 11 CFR 100.138 - Sale of food and beverages by vendor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.138 Sale of food and beverages by vendor. The sale of any food or beverage..., is not an expenditure, provided that the charge is at least equal to the cost of such food or beverage to the vendor, to the extent that: The aggregate value of such discount given by the vendor...

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  8. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  9. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

  10. Standar Penentuan Informasi Iklan Menyesatkan

    OpenAIRE

    Harianto, Dedi

    2010-01-01

    Advertisement is used to relate a business practitioner and the consumers. To the businessman, advertisement is a facility to introduce his product(s), while to the consumers, advertisement is a source of information to choose and/or to buy the product(s) that meets their needs. But in practice, most businessman still treat advertisement only as their media of promotion to increase the selling of their products by ignoring the rights of consumers to know the truth and accurate information fou...

  11. Penentuan Basis bagi Graf Roda

    OpenAIRE

    Ulfah Dwiyanti Obed, Nur

    2015-01-01

    Misalkan G=(V,E) suatu graf terhubung dan S adalah suatu himpunan bagian dari V. Himpunan S disebut himpunan penentu (resolving set) pada G jika untuk setiap titik pada G memiliki representasi jarak yang berbeda terhadap S. Himpunan penentu dengan banyak anggota (kardinalitas) minimum disebut himpunan penentu minimum (resolving set minimum) atau basis dari G dan kardinalitas himpunan tersebut menyatakan dimensi metrik (metric dimension) graf G, dinotasikan dengan dim(G). Pada skripsi ini t...

  12. PENENTUAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI FLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harijani A. Marwoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study on entomology has been conducted in 6 villages which were located in coastal and in-land areas of Sikka Regency of Central Flores since April 1990 - October 1991. The results of this study showed that the suspected malaria vectors in those areas were An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. aconitus and An. maculatus. Only 3 species were confirmed as vector using ELISA test, i.e. An. sundaicus, An. barbirostris and An. subpictus with sporosoite rates of 4.2%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. An. aconitus, a potential malaria vector in Java and in some onther places was not confirmed as vector in Flores yet. The 3 confirmed vectors were also found positive with sporozoites in West Flores and also found predominant in East Flores.

  13. The Impact of Standard Nutrition Labels on Alcoholic Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julia A.; Dale, Chelsea F.; Fontana, Victoria C.; Collier, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not to mandate nutrition labels on alcoholic beverages is a topic of debate. We examined the effect of nutrition labels on (1) plans for drinking and (2) alcohol expectancies. Study 1, n = 80 underage college drinkers responded to an image of a beer with or without a nutrition label. Study 2, n = 98 community drinkers responded to…

  14. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  15. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charernjiratrakul, W.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beverages was light brown and dark brown. An ester smell was occasionally detected. The fermented plant beverages had sour flavor that developed during fermentation and a little sweetness from residual sugar. The taste was related to the amounts of organic acid and sugar as measured in the ranges of 0.98-7.13% (pH 2.63-3.72 and 0.21-4.20%, respectively. The levels of alcohols measured as ethanol were between 0.03-3.32% and methanol in a range of 0.019 0.084%. Methanol production was dependent on both the fermentation process and the plant used. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were not detected in any sample, whereas other microbes were detected in some samples as were total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold in amounts that differed depending on the fermentation time and also the level of sanitation of the production process.

  16. Butanol Production from Leftover Beverages and Sport Drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raganati, Francesca; Procentese, Alessandra; Montagnaro, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to identify an alternative disposal process for the industry of high-sugar-content beverages (HSCBs) and (2) to contribute to the study of butanol production from non-edible feedstocks. HSCBs were used as a renewable feedstock to produce butanol by Clostridiu

  17. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, an

  18. Global Expansion Strategy of Chinese Herbal Tea Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide insights into the potential future of Chinese herbal tea beverage industry, we analyze serious challenge on how the herbal tea beverage will develop global expansion strategy in china, as well as a series of recommendations as to how the sector might collaborate and respond. This study discusses the key challenges and opportunities factors that Chinese traditional tea industry face, from across the global value chain, representing both producer and consumer countries and including topics ranging from climate change to finance and markets. For these ever-growing problems, factors as diverse as the use of precision farming, biodiversity, production instability and consumer demand for personalization of products were identified. To support the development of Chinese traditional tea industry, increase investment, vigorously promote to transfer Chinese traditional tea into fast, convenient, standardized and normalized tea beverage products for global expansion strategy of Chinese herbal tea beverage, so as to promote the development of Chinese traditional tea industry and make the regional contribution to the realization of Chinese dream.

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL DAIRY FERMENTED BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILLA SOARES MENDONÇA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Technical Regulation on Identity and Quality of Whey-based Drinks establish few parameters to dairy beverages, which may impair standardized product providing to the consumer. The ingathering of the physicochemical characteristics provides information that allow the standardization of the product and provide safety to the consumer, whereas the rheological characterization in important for the processing. Samples of five commercial brands of strawberry flavored dairy beverages, with ten to fourteen days of manufacture, from three different batches were analyzed in triplicate in order to study the percentage of protein, fat, pH, titratable acidity, total dry extract, fixed mineral residue and lactose. It was performed a colorimetric determination and verification of the presence of starch .The rheological tests were carried out in a rotational rheometer and the data was adjusted by Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The statistical analysis was executed by an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test with 5% significance. The analysis showed that the percentages of lipids of three brands were below the required by legislation. Furthermore, the presence of starch in the composition was detected for all analyzed beverages. Both for the physicochemical and rheological parameters the brands of dairy beverage examined differed between themselves in several parameters. These results indicated the need to establish well-defined identity and quality standards aiming at product quality control and consumer safety improvement.

  20. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  1. Implementation of California State School Competitive Food and Beverage Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…

  2. Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B; King, L; Baur, L; Rayner, M; Lobstein, T; Monteiro, C; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time. PMID:24074211

  3. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  4. Alcoholic beverages and risk of renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greving, J. P.; Lee, J. E.; Wolk, A.; Lukkien, C.; Lindblad, P.; Bergstrom, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using a mailed questionnaire, we investigated the risk of renal cell cancer in relation to different types of alcoholic beverages, and to total ethanol in a large population- based case - control study among Swedish adults, including 855 cases and 1204 controls. Compared to non- drinkers, a total et

  5. Beer consumers' perceptions of the health aspects of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions about alcohol are shaped by numerous factors. This environment includes advertisements, public service announcements, product labels, various health claims, and warnings about the dangers of alcohol consumption. This study used focus groups and questionnaires to examine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic beverages based on their nutritional value and health benefits. The overall purpose of this study was to examine beer consumers' perceptions of the health attributes and content of alcoholic beverages. Volunteers were surveyed at large commercial breweries in California, Missouri, and New Hampshire. The anonymous, written survey was presented in a self-explanatory format and was completed in 5 to 10 min. The content and style of the survey were derived from focus groups conducted in California. The data are separated by location, gender, and over or under the age of 30. Parametric data on beverage rating were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the nonparametric data from True/False or Yes/No questions were analyzed using chi-square. Although statistically significant variances did exist between survey location, gender, and age, general trends emerged in areas of inquiry. The findings indicate that a great opportunity exists to inform consumers about the health benefits derived from the moderate consumption of all alcoholic beverages.

  6. Evaluation on oxidative stability of walnut beverage emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Fuguo; Xue, Yanhui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-07-15

    Walnut beverage emulsions were prepared with walnut kernels, mixed nonionic emulsifiers and xanthan gum. The effects of food antioxidants on the physical stability and lipid oxidation of walnut beverage emulsions were investigated. The results showed that tea polyphenols could not only increase the droplet size of the emulsions, but also enhance physical stability during the thermal storage at 62 ± 1 °C. However, water-dispersed oil-soluble vitamin E and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin obviously decreased the physical stability of the emulsion system during the thermal storage. BHT and natural antioxidant extract had scarcely influenced on the physical stability of walnut beverage emulsions. Tea polyphenols and BHT could significantly retard lipid oxidation in walnut beverage emulsions against thermal and UV light exposure during the storage. Vitamin E exhibited the prooxidant effect during the thermal storage and the antioxidant attribute during UV light exposure. Other food antioxidants had no significant effect on retarding lipid oxidation during thermal or light storage. PMID:26948632

  7. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  8. Shh, Respect Freedom of Speech: The Reasons Why Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ismail Kadare Have Not Been Awarded the Nobel Prize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edona Llukacaj

    2015-12-01

    The terrorist attack on the satirical French magazine, Charlie Hebdo, at the beginning of this year, intensified the unremitting debate over the right to freedom of speech and expression, as well as its limitations. Nonetheless, it was almost unanimously agreed that the human right to express personal beliefs, regardless of the fact that they could be in deep disagreement with or even insulting towards the values of certain individuals, groups, or worldviews, should be defended and promoted by the whole human community. It goes without saying that the role of intellectuals and, especially, that of the academia, in promoting tolerance, diversity, and dialogue is essential. However, this does not seem to have been one of the criteria on which the Swedish Academy based its choices, over the past years, for the awarding of the Noble Prize in Literature. Focusing on the literary contributions of Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ismail Kadare, two repeated nominees for the Noble Prize, this paper will attempt to shed light on the reasons why these two heroes of free speech and representation have not been awarded the prestigious prize.

  9. Food and Beverage Management: An Introduction. Food and Beverage Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Increasing Opportunities for Supervisors and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is designed to prepare them for the more detailed units in this series, including those on food and beverage control, production, and provision. The document begins with advice on how to use the unit. Three sections cover the following topics: (1)…

  10. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  11. Beverages Sales in Mexico before and after Implementation of a Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M. A; Guerrero-López, Carlos Manuel; Molina, Mariana; Rivera, Juan Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate changes in sales of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and plain water after a 1 peso per liter excise SSB tax was implemented in Mexico in January 2014. Material and Methods We used sales data from the Monthly Surveys of the Manufacturing Industry from January 2007 to December 2015. We estimated Ordinary Least Squares models to assess changes in per capita sales of SSB and plain water adjusting for seasonality and the global indicator of economic activity. Results We found a decrease of 7.3% in per capita sales of SSB and an increase of 5.2% of per capita sales of plain water in 2014–2015 compared to the pre-tax period (2007–2013). Conclusions Adjusting for variables that change over time and that are associated with the demand for SSB, we found the tax was associated with a reduction in per capita sales of SSB. The effectiveness of the tax should be evaluated in the medium and long term. PMID:27668875

  12. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices.

  13. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  14. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  15. The Enzymatic Approach to Making of Alcoholic Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbar Mirzarakhmetova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast invertase was applied for treatment of alcoholic beverages with the aim of transformation of higher alcohols into alkylfructosides. Gas-liquid chromatography of treated water-alcoholic medium containing 3.0 mg/l isoamyl alcohol and 4% saccharose by immobilized invertase had shown the convertion of 40% isoamyl alcohol, which amounts to 1.8 mg/l absolute alcohol. Other parameters remained at the previous level. The high level of enzyme activity was observed when the initial concentration of sucrose in the reaction mixture attained 4.0-12.5%. Tasting of treated samples indicated the improvement of quality and degustational properties of beverages, they had softer and more harmonious taste and aroma in comparison with control sample and finished Vodka, which completed the cycle of technological processing.

  16. Kombucha - functional beverage: Composition, characteristics and process of biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the proces of biotransformation of sugared tea with a tea fungus. Kombucha is also frequently called "tea fungus" in the literature, although there is actually no fungus involved in the fermentation. The tea fungus is a symbiotic association of native yeasts and Acetobacteriaceae species fermenting sugared (5-10% black tea (0.2-0.5% into a kombucha beverage. After about 7-10 days incubation at room temperature, kombucha is ready. Growth patterns of tea fungus microorganisms during the biotransformation process of kombucha are not well documented. Tea fungus produces many substances, which with the supply of tea nutrients, give the drink its unusual flavour and healthy properties.

  17. Levels of 210Po in some beverages and in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the 210Po content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, tea leaves, their infusions and ground coffee were analyzed, as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to the annual consumption of the beverages described were found to be from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for 210Po in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq*kg-1 to 80 Bq*kg-1. Lung doses due to the use of tobacco vary from 75 μSv*y-1 to 600 μSv*y-1. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  18. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair. PMID:24132618

  19. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  20. Pilot Overmyer looks over food selections and experiments with beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.

  1. Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cole Johnny; Clarke Juliette; Currell Kevin; Jeukendrup Asker E; Blannin Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O) tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO) and the second a sodium group (Na). The CHO group ingested four differen...

  2. Building a beverage for recovery from endurance activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-11-01

    Recovery beverages are commonly used by endurance and team-sport athletes during the time between exercise sessions. Practical recommendations on the optimal nutrient composition of these drinks and timing of their consumption are therefore needed. This article summarizes research to date on the use of recovery beverages after aerobic activities and provides the following recommendations for practitioners on the optimal formula and timing of use for endurance and team-sport athletes. Current evidence suggests that, to maximize glycogen resynthesis, athletes should consume about 1.2 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight as glucose and sucrose immediately after exercise and each hour thereafter for 4-6 hours postexercise. Alternatively, they may consume 0.8 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) in combination with 0.4 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) amino acids or protein. Liquids provide valuable fluids for rehydration, and an ideal recovery beverage should not only contain carbohydrate and protein but also contain electrolytes, including about 0.3-0.7 g sodium·per liter fluid to help restore sodium lost through sweat. Commercial beverages with this type of nutrient composition are effective, and recent work indicates that chocolate milk may be as effective as or superior to these in promoting recovery. Research regarding the effects of specific types of amino acids and antioxidants on recovery is mixed; thus, further investigation is needed before specific recommendations about these nutrients can be made. Future studies that include women and athletes representing a variety of sports, ages, and training levels and that use consistent methodology will lead to a better understanding of the effects of postexercise intake on recovery.

  3. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Microbial and Chemical Evaluation of Whey-Based Mango Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Eltayeb Ismail

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on the development and storage of Whey Based Mango beverage. The storability of the beverage was studied at 4±1ºC for 30 days. The storage study showed that there is an increasing trend in the TSS, acidity, and reducing sugar and a decreasing trend in the pH and ascorbic acid but total sugar has non significant effect during storage. Total viable count, Yeast and mold count, Coliform count, and Salmonella count was analyzed using standard methods. The Total Viable Counts (TVC was high ranging from 2.60-2.76×104 cfu/mL. Yeast and mould count varied between 3.60-2.61×103 cfu/mL where as Coliforms include both the presence of fecals 4.5-3.6×104 cfu/mL and non fecals 2.61-3.00×102 cfu/mL and Salmonella were not observed in most of the tested samples. This research is aimed at production of whey/mango beverage. At later stages of the project, whey will be introduced into other products.

  5. Caffeine and theobromine levels in selected Nigerian beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteng, M U; Eyong, E U; Eka, O U; Umoh, I B; Ebong, P E; Ettarh, R R

    1999-01-01

    Caffeine and theobromine contents (mg/g) were determined in samples of selected Nigerian beverage products. The beverages were cocoa (Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita and Enervita), coffee (Nescafe, Bongo, and Maxwell House decaffeinated) and tea (Lipton). The theobromine contents of samples of Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita, Enervita, Nescafe, Bongo, Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee and Lipton were 62.10+/-5.21, 64.80+/-6.72, 82.80+/-4.43, 80.37+/-6.80, 27.00+/-4.31, 14.67+/-2.90, 23.46+/-3.13 and 12.60+/-1.52, respectively. The corresponding caffeine contents of these samples were 2.78+/-0.43 (Milo), 3.17+/-0.36 (Bournvita), 0.92+/-0.51 (Rosevita), 1.05+/-0.68 (Enervita), 93.66+/-8.91 (Nescafe), 6.47+/-2.42 (Bongo), 37.22+/-5.34 (Lipton), and 0.21+/-0.11 (Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee). Semi-processed cocoa beverages (Rosevita and Enervita) had significantly (p Nescafe contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of caffeine compared to Maxwell House (decaffeinated coffee) and Bongo. Levels of caffeine in Lipton tea were moderate. PMID:10798344

  6. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewater from Beverage Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimization. The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. Beverage industry requires huge amount of fresh water, generating considerable amount of polluted waste water during different processes including drink production, washing bottles, plant washdown as well as washing the floors and the general work area. Most of the industries do not reuse the waste water and consuming bulk of fresh water. The beverage industry is one of the major industries in Pakistan and the present study was conducted on the beverage/soft drink industry at Hattar Industrial Estate, Hattar, Pakistan to assess the feasibility of reuse of wastewater form bottle washing plant by conducting treatment test, like dilution of the waste water in different ratios, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. (author)

  7. Parakari, an indigenous fermented beverage using amylolytic Rhizopus in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Terry W

    2005-01-01

    The alcoholic beverage parakari is a product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation by Amerindians of Guyana. While fermented beverage production is nearly universal among indigenous Amazonians, parakari is unique among New World beverages because it involves the use of an amylolytic mold (Rhizopus sp., Mucoraceae, Zygomycota) followed by a solid substratum ethanol fermentation. The mycological significance of this dual fermentation process previously was unrecognized. A detailed study of parakari fermentation was made in the Wapisiana Amerindian village of Aishalton, South Rupununi, Guyana. Thirty steps were involved in parakari manufacture, and these exhibited a high degree of sophistication, including the use of specific cassava varieties, control of culture temperature and boosting of Rhizopus inoculum potential with purified starch additives. During the fermentation process, changes in glucose content, pH, flavor, odor and culture characteristics were concomitant with a desirable finished product. Parakari is the only known example of an indigenous New World fermentation that uses an amylolytic mold, likely resulting from domestication of a wild Rhizopus species in the distant past. Parakari production is remarkably similar to dual fermentations of Asia, yet it was independently derived.

  8. Hubungan Kadar Laktat Dehidrogenase dengan Stadium Limfoma Maligna Non Hodgkin di Rumah Sakit Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode Desember 2009 sampai Maret 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rahma Kasir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAwal abad ke-2l masyarakat Indonesia mengalami transisi epidemiologi penyakit. Perubahan pola penyakit ini dapat dilihat dari peningkatan insiden penyakit kanker sebagai penyebab kematian di Indonesia dalam 10 tahun terakhir, yaitu dari urutan ke-12 menjadi urutan ke-6. Di Indonesia, limfoma non Hodgkin (LNH menduduki urutan keenam keganansan yang sering terjadi. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Olivia Putri Perdana di bagian patologi anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas didapatkan data bahwa pada januari 1997-desember 2001 terdapat 70 (81,39% penderita limfoma maligna non Hodgkin dari keseluruhan penderita limfoma maligna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kadar laktat dehidrogenase (LDH dengan stadium pada penderita limfoma maligna non Hodgkin. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional dengan menggunakan data yang bersumber dari rekam medik pasien. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah data rekam medik seluruh penderita limfoma maligna non hodgkin yang berobat ke RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang yaitu 317 data rekam medik, tetapi yang memenuhi syarat untuk menjadi sampel hanya 40 data. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah uji T. Hasil uji statistik menunjukkan adanya hubungan kadar laktat dehidrogenase dengan stadium pada penderita limfoma non Hodgkin (P = 0,001. Diketahui nilai laktat dehidrogenase pada stadium III-IV lebih tinggi daripada nilai laktat dehidrogenase pada stadium I-II.Kata kunci: Laktat dehidrogenase, Limfoma maligna non Hodgkin, Stadium AbstractEarly 21th century, Indonesian society in transition epidemiology of the disease. Changing patterns of disease can be seen from the increased incidence of cancer as a cause of death in Indonesia in the last 10 years, ie from 12th to 6th order. In Indonesia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL ranks sixt frequent in all of cancer. Based on research conducted by Olivia Putri Perdana in anatomic pathology at the Faculty of

  9. The Effects of Prices, Advertising, Expenditures, and Demographics on Demand for Nonalcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Okrent, Abigail M.; MacEwan, Joanna P.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate a demand system for ten nonalcoholic beverages to disentangle effects of prices, expenditures, advertising, and demographics on demand for nonalcoholic beverages for 1999 through 2010. We find that changes in demographic composition of the population between 1999 and 2008 played a much bigger role in observed purchasing patterns for recently introduced beverages like soy, rice, and almond drinks, isotonic and energy drinks, and bottled water whereas changes in prices and advertisi...

  10. Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiman, Susan; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardio-metabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes, and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on pub...

  11. Calories From Beverages Purchased at 2 Major Coffee Chains in New York City, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. Methods We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and ...

  12. Changes in beverage consumption in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stea, Tonje H; Øverby, Nina C.; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse (i) differences in beverage pattern among Norwegian children in 2001 and 2008; (ii) beverage intake related to gender, parental education and family composition; and (iii) potential disparities in time trends among the different groups. Design: Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, 6th and 7th grade pupils filled in a questionnaire about frequency of beverage intake (times/week) in 2001 and 2008. Setting: Twenty-seven elementary schools in two N...

  13. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Murphy, J. (2013) The Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook, Goodfellows Publishing Ltd, Oxford, England. The Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook is an authoritative resource and comprehensive training guide, essential for all students, bartenders, sommeliers, mixologists, waiters and food and beverage practitioners the world over. Written and configured in an accessible and user-friendly style, packed with...

  14. 11 CFR 100.78 - Sale of food or beverages by vendor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of food or beverages by vendor. 100.78 Section 100.78 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.78 Sale of food or beverages by vendor. The sale of any food or beverage by a vendor (whether incorporated or...

  15. Solid-phase microextraction for the enantiomeric analysis of flavors in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeler, S E; Sun, G M; Datta, M; Stremple, P; Vickers, A K

    2001-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis and separation on a chiral cyclodextrin stationary phase was a rapid, reliable technique for profiling chiral aroma compounds in flavored alcoholic beverages. Several enantiomeric terpenes, esters, alcohols, norisoprenoids, and lactones were identified in berry-, peach-, strawberry-, and citrus-flavored wine and malt beverages (wine coolers). Using this technique, we were able to confirm the addition of synthetic flavoring to several beverages, consistent with label designations. PMID:11324614

  16. EFFECTS OF BEVERAGE-SPECIFIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG URBAN YOUTH*

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkennes...

  17. Overview of Beverages with Anti-Aging Functions in Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Song, Jie; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Mao, Xinliang; Ma, Chung Wah; Zhang, Wanwan; Huang, Zebo

    2014-01-01

    Anti-aging Chinese medicines have been used in traditional beverages to promote health and prevent diseases. Interestingly, these functional beverages may be used differently between men and women, reflecting the “yin-yang” philosophy of Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that some dietary natural products can slow aging in model organisms, and functional beverages containing such products have recently emerged in Chinese market, challenging the dominance of traditional functional...

  18. Caloric Beverages Were Major Sources of Energy among Children and Adults in Mexico, 1999–2012123

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the Nationa...

  19. The effects of different beverage intake on blood components during exercise under high-temperature environment

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Soon Gi

    2013-01-01

    High temperature environment causes detrimental effects on health. In the present study, the effects of intake of several kinds of beverage on blood components during exercise under the high temperature environment were evaluated. The 10 subjects were student of the H University. Exercise intensity was 50–60% O2maxx and treadmill exercise was continued for 1 h. The kinds of beverage were water, ion beverage, cucumber drink. Blood sampling was performed before the exercise, immediately finishi...

  20. MARKETING MIX FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DESIRE TO PURCHASE FRUIT BEVERAGES IN THE CITY OF BOGOR

    OpenAIRE

    Iffatul Ulfah; Ujang Sumarwan; Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research were 1) to analyze marketing mix factors that influence the desire to purchase fruit beverages, 2) to formulate the marketing strategies of fruit beverages at restaurant based on fruit beverages in the city of Bogor. This research was conducted by using descriptive methods through survey approach. Data was collected in questionnaires, using non probability sample approach with convenience sampling technique. Variables measured  were 7P’s marketing mix factors, ...

  1. Parent Support and Parent-Mediated Behaviors Are Associated with Children's Sugary Beverage Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Nanette V.; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Corder, Kirsten; Christina M Eisenberg; Zive, Michelle M.; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of sugary beverages has been identified as a contributor to childhood obesity. Studies have established the importance of specific parenting practices to children's beverage consumption; however, no study has examined multiple operationalizations of parenting to better understand where to focus future interventions. The present study examined the relationship between children's sugary beverage consumption and a parenting model that included household food rules, parent modeling of...

  2. Design and Research on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yonghong Sun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its working principle, the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The article elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the electromagnet stroke and the maximum weight that the electrom...

  3. Research on Design Method of Intelligent Vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an intelligent vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its humanized design, shape design, color design and the main mechanism design including the beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The study elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the...

  4. Absorption of folic acid and ascorbic acid from nutrient comparable beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    One hundred percent fruit juices can help consumers increase the nutrient content of the diet since these beverages can be naturally rich in micronutrients. Micronutrient-fortified low-calorie beverages are an important alternative to those wishing to minimize their calorie intakes. However, little is known about the bioavailability of nutrients from fortified beverages relative to 100% fruit juices. The present study examined the bioavailability of ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) in 100% orange juice (OJ) and a low-calorie beverage fortified with these nutrients. In a within-subjects, cross-over design, 12 adult men consumed a 591 mL serving of OJ, a low-calorie beverage fortified with AA and FA, and 1% low fat milk. Participants were aged 20 to 35 y, with body mass indexes between 20 and 30 kg/m(2). Blood plasma concentrations of AA and serum concentrations of FA were assayed by serial blood draws, made at 30 min intervals for 4.5 h. Blood plasma concentration of AA was significantly greater after ingestion of the fortified beverage compared to after OJ ingestion. However, the bioavailability of AA did not significantly differ from that of OJ. Analyses of FA indicated no significant difference between fortified beverage and OJ. Consumption of both vitamin containing beverages led to higher concentrations of AA and FA than the milk control. This study showed that similar levels of AA and FA bioavailability can be attained through ingestion of 100% OJ and a fortified beverage.

  5. Beverage consumption of mother-toddler dyads in families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Schiffman, Rachel F; Horodynski, Mildred Omar; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2006-12-01

    Beverage intake and diet quality of toddlers from families with limited incomes were described and compared to their mother's beverage intake. At both 2 and 3 years of age, the children's average milk intake was adequate, the juice intake was twice that recommended, and the intake of sweetened beverages was high. Mothers who consumed more than 12 fl oz of soft drinks per day were nearly four times more likely to have a child with poor diet quality. Health practitioners should do focused screening of mothers' and children's beverage intakes to quickly assess those at high risk for poor diets.

  6. Nutrition Recommendations and the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s 2014 Approved Food and Beverage Product List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s (CFBAI’s) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children’s television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group’s nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group’s recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children. PMID:25906434

  7. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Emily A. Myers; Wen You; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-base...

  8. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverseeffect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluidsconsumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid wereenough and appropriate.Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males volunteer students of TabrizUniversity of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were assessedby 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included. Dietaryintake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake(drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods and the rate of metabolicwater were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were madeusing student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were notincluded in the statistical analysis.Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml and boys (1861±59ml reflect thesum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys,714±86m. The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40% and tea (49%respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13% and57.30±11ml (5%, respectively.Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than recommendedvalues. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targetingthe young adults to improve their beverage choices.

  9. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaghi, Sima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mahdavi, Reza; Ghaemmaghami, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverse effect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluids consumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid were enough and appropriate. Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males) volunteer students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were as­sessed by 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included). Dietary intake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake (drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods) and the rate of metabolic water were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were made using student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were not included in the statistical analysis. Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml) and boys (1861±59ml) reflect the sum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml) and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys, 714±86m). The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40%) and tea (49%) respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13%) and 57.30±11ml (5%), respectively. Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than rec­ommended values. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targeting the young adults to improve their beverage choices. PMID:24688900

  10. Oral carbohydrate loading with 18% carbohydrate beverage alleviates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative 12.6% oral carbohydrate loading is an element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol aimed at alleviating postoperative insulin resistance; however, in Japan, beverages with 18% carbohydrate content are generally used for preoperative carbohydrate loading. We investigated the effect of 18% carbohydrate loading on alleviating insulin resistance. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover-randomized study and were segregated into 2 groups: volunteers in the carbohydrate-loading group (group A) who fasted from after 9 pm and ingested 375 mL of a beverage containing 18% carbohydrate (ArginaidWaterTM; Nestle, Tokyo, Japan) between 9 pm and 12 pm, and 250 mL of the same liquid at 6:30 am. Volunteers in control group (group B) drank only water. At 8:30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) and levels of ketone bodies and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) before clamping were evaluated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Levels of blood glucose, insulin, and cytokines at the start of the clamp were similar in both the groups. The GIR in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (11.5±2.4 vs 6.2±2.2 mg/kg/min, p=0.005), while blood ketone body levels were significantly lower in group A (22±4 vs 124±119 μmol/L, p=0.04). Preoperative 18% carbohydrate loading could prevent the decrease in insulin sensitivity and suppress catabolism in healthy volunteers. Thus, carbohydrate loading with a beverage with 18% carbohydrate content might contribute to improvements in perioperative management. PMID:23353610

  11. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  12. Viscosity of Dysphagia-Oriented Cold-Thickened Beverages: Effect of Setting Time at Refrigeration Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although extensive literature is available on the viscosity of thickened beverages with food thickeners, no attempt has been made to study the effect of setting time on the viscosity of pudding-like cold-thickened beverages with xanthan gum (XG)-based thickeners by using a rheometer. In particular, it is of considerable practical…

  13. 27 CFR 19.983 - Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beverage use in the production process. 19.983 Section 19.983 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... the production process. Where spirits are rendered unfit for beverage use before removal from the production system, the proprietor shall enter into the production records, in addition to the quantity...

  14. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbonated or noncarbonated beverage that contains less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent fruit or... “beverage,” “cocktail,” or “drink” appropriate to advise the consumer that the product is less than 100 percent juice (e.g., “diluted grape juice beverage” or “grape juice drink”). (b) If the product is...

  15. Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as sugar-containing beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley A; Hamill, Liam R; Davies, Sarah; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative 'expected satiation' (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500 ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5-205.2 kcal; p = 0.87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages.

  16. Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine content among Dutch students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the past 24 h. Their mean ± SD past 24-h caffeine intake from beverages was 144.2 ± 169.5 mg (2.2 ± 3.0 mg/kg bw). Most prevalent sources of caffeine were coffee beverages (50.8%) and tea (34.8%), followed by energy drink (9.2%), cola (4.7%), and chocolate milk (0.5%). Participants had poor knowledge on the relative caffeine content of caffeinated beverages. That is, they overestimated the caffeine content of energy drinks and cola, and underestimated the caffeine content of coffee beverages. If caffeine consumption is a concern, it is important to inform consumers about the caffeine content of all caffeine containing beverages, including coffee and tea. The current findings support previous research that the most effective way to reduce caffeine intake is to limit the consumption of coffee beverages and tea. PMID:27142708

  17. Analysis of the structure of a product line of alcoholic beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agalarova, C.; Askadullina, A.; Tilburg, van A.

    2012-01-01

    AB This article deals with marketing decisions on the optimal product line of alcoholic beverages manufactured under the brand name «Praskoveyskoe». KEY WORDS Product line, turnover analysis, ABC-analysis, production of alcoholic beverages, policy to optimize a product line INTRODUCTION A product li

  18. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  19. Functional beverage products using caseinate–omega-3 oil-oat beta glucan emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverages with soluble dietary fiber and Omega 3 oil are highly desired by health conscious consumers. However, Omega 3 oil is prone to oxidation and accompanying deterioration of sensory profiles; there is an issue to incorporate soluble fiber into beverage products that will not interfere with oxi...

  20. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia D.P. Huaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L. and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated by international agencies. For the Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 with and without microsomal fraction (S9 were used. Four doses of the beverage were tested and also a possible protective effect (same four doses of beverage added to plates with mutagens. Cultures of binucleated lymphocytes and five doses of the beverage were used for the micronucleus test. Both Ames and the micronucleus tests showed the beverage has not genotoxic effect in all tested doses. However, in evaluating the possible protective effect of the beverage, it would be evident that on the contrary, the mutagenic effect of mutagens used for each strain is enhanced. These results suggest that additional tests should be performed to check the genotoxic potential of this beverage before consumption.

  1. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  2. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  3. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.292 Section 431.292 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines § 431.292...

  4. Nutrition Recommendations and the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s 2014 Approved Food and Beverage Product List

    OpenAIRE

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s (CFBAI’s) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children’s television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group’s nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group’s recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did n...

  5. Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™): A Reliability Study in the School Food and Beverage Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E.; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the United States Department of Agriculture reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and non-research professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007, on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and non-research professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Researcher versus researcher and researcher versus non-researcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with ICCs ranging from .972 to .987. The results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and non-research professionals. PMID:20630167

  6. The use of fruit extracts for production of beverages with high antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tarko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can cause many diseases of the circulatory and nervous system as well as tumors. There are many ways of preventing and treating these diseases including the consumption of products that contain significant amounts of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and antioxidative vitamins. However, currently food stores offer mainly convenient food, ready-to-eat foodstuffs or highly processed products. During numerous technological treatments they have been deprived of many valuable compounds occurring in fresh products. Therefore, an important element of the food production technology is to ensure a proper composition of valuable human health-promoting compounds, mostly vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in final food product. Consumers often and willingly drink beverages. They are also a good starting base for supplementation. Drinks can be enriched with polyphenols, which may reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, owing to their antiradical potential. The aim of this study was to use the fruit extracts for beverages enrichment in order to increase their antioxidative potential and polyphenol content. For the experiment the fruits of Cornelian cherry, lingonberry, elderberry, hawthorn and Japanese quince were used. Fruit was extracted with 80% ethanol, and then thickened by distillation under reduced pressure. Extracts were used to enrich the apple, orange and grapefruit beverages. Antioxidative activity and total polyphenols content in final beverages were determined. Also, sensory analysis was carried out. The fortification of tested beverages resulted in an increased antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content in case of all applied fruit extracts. Among the beverages composed, the best antioxidative properties were found in a beverage of red grapefruit, whereas the best organoleptically evaluated was the orange beverage. The scores of on the sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of

  7. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F; Ruff, Ryan R

    2014-07-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal. PMID:25414517

  8. What do preschoolers know about alcohol? Evidence from the electronic Appropriate Beverage Task (eABT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Le Mével, Lydie; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    While much is known about alcohol use in adolescence and beyond, factors leading to such behaviors are rooted much earlier in life. To investigate what preschoolers (aged three to six) know about alcohol and adult alcohol use, we developed an electronic version (eABT) of the Appropriate Beverage Task (Zucker, Kincaid, Fitzgerald, & Bingham, 1995). Drawings of adults and children in 11 everyday scenarios and 12 photos of different beverages were shown on a touchscreen computer to 301 three- to six-year-olds (49.5% girls) from 37 preschools and seven nurseries in French-speaking Switzerland. First, the children assigned a beverage to each individual in each drawing, and then were asked if the beverage contained alcohol and if they knew its name. The results revealed that 68.1% correctly classified beer, white wine, red wine and champagne as alcoholic beverages, while 46.4% knew the beverages by name, compared to 83.2% and 73.1% for non-alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages were assigned more often to men (42.2%) than to women (28.7%) or to children (12.7%), and more often to adults at a party (39.4%) than to those playing outdoors (34.7%). In conclusion, children as young as three often have some beverage-specific knowledge. From the age of four onwards, they begin to know that alcoholic beverages contain alcohol. Children aged six and over tend to have some knowledge of adult drinking norms, i.e. who is drinking and in what circumstances. PMID:27240210

  9. Aminocarminic acid in E120-labelled food additives and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Lazzaro, Francesco; Borzì, Marco A; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for investigating aminocarminic acid occurrence in E120-labelled red-coloured-beverages and in E120 additives, with the aim of controlling the purity of the carmine additive in countries where the use of aminocarminic acid is forbidden. The carminic acid and the aminocarminic acid were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-tandem mass spectrography (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The method was statistically validated. The regression lines, ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L, showed r(2 )> 0.9996. Recoveries from 97% to 101% were obtained for the fortification level of 50 mg/L; the relative standard deviations did not exceed 3%. The LODs were below 2 mg/L, whereas the LOQs did not exceed 4 mg/L. The method was successfully applied to 27 samples of commercial E120-labelled red-coloured beverages and E120 additives, collected in Italy during quality control investigations conducted by the Ministry. The results demonstrated that more than 50% of the samples contained aminocarminic acid, evidencing the alarming illicit use of this semi-synthetic carmine acid derivative.

  10. NOUN DERIVATION OF THE TYPICAL MINAHASA FOOD AND BEVERAGE NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina P Pamantung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivation of the name of typical Minahasa food and beverage is a change or replacement of the word class of verbs, adverbs, and adjectives into nouns. It occurs through the process of compounding, affixation, and reduplication. Free morpheme which appears is ransak, tei, tu'tu, tape, segor, sende ', rica, fresh, rukus. Conversely, some morphemes or bound forms (affixes are the prefix /pe-/,/wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; suffix /-en/, and confixes /-in- + -an/ and  /ka- + -an/ . Prefixes /pe-/, /wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; sufi x-en/, andconfixes /-in- + -an/ occur in the formation of derivational words of  food, while  drinks contain two morphemes (affixes, the infix / -in- / and confix (ka + -an. Thus, the derivation of the typical Minahasa food naming is called derivational affixes such as derivational prefix, infix, and confix. Meanwhile, derivational infix, and confix occur in a typical Minahasa drink. Empty derivation is not found in the typical Minahasa food and beverage since a single form, for example, pangi, sa’ut, paniki, kawok, dan sopi have a meaning that does not change the word class. In addition, the characteristics of the structure of itscompounding: root + base (base + roots, that have a sense of the endocentric and exocentric compound words. Endocentric ompounding is the most frequent.

  11. Dietary fiber from coffee beverage: degradation by human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniechwitz, Diana; Reichardt, Nicole; Blaut, Michael; Steinhart, Hans; Bunzel, Mirko

    2007-08-22

    Arabinogalactans and galactomannans from coffee beverages are part of the dietary fiber complex. Chemical structures and fermentability of soluble dietary fiber obtained from a standard filter coffee beverage (Coffea arabica, origin Colombia, medium roasted) by human intestinal bacteria were investigated. One cup (150 mL) of filter coffee contained approximately 0.5 g of soluble dietary fiber (enzymatic-gravimetric methodology), 62% of which were polysaccharides. The remainder was composed of Maillard reaction products and other nonidentified substances. Galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans were present in almost equal proportions. Coffee dietary fiber was readily fermented by human fecal slurries, resulting in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). After 24 h of fermentation, 85% of total carbohydrates were degraded. In general, arabinosyl units from the polysaccharide fraction were degraded at a slower rate than mannosyl and galactosyl units. In the process of depolymerization arabinogalactans were debranched and the ratio of (1-->3)-linked to (1-->6)-linked galactosyl residues decreased. Structural units composed of (1-->5)-linked arabinosyl residues were least degradable, whereas terminally linked arabinosyl residues were easily utilized. The impact of coffee fiber on numerically dominant population groups of the intestinal microbiota was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flow cytometry (FISH-FC). After 24 h of fermentation, an increase of about 60% of species belonging to the Bacteroides-Prevotella group was observed. The growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was not stimulated. PMID:17658822

  12. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  13. Impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aaqib Habib; Akram, Yasir; Shetty, Suchith; Malik, Senada Senda; Yanchou Njike, Valentine

    2014-05-01

    The impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on blood pressure (BP) has been debated, with some evidence suggesting that their increased intake is related to higher risk of developing hypertension. We conducted a systematic review exploring the relation between consumption of SSB and BP. A comprehensive search in 5 electronic databases along with a bibliography search was performed. The keywords "sugar sweetened beverages," "sugary drinks," "added sugars," "blood pressure," and "hypertension" were indexed in all combinations. Studies were included that reported the effects of intake of SSBs on BP. We excluded studies with <100 subjects and those involving subjects aged <12 years. Of 605 potentially relevant studies, a total of 12 studies (409,707 participants) met our inclusion criteria; 6 were cross sectional studies, whereas the rest were prospective cohort studies. All 12 studies showed positive relation between increased SSB intake and hypertension; however, statistical significance was reported in 10 of these studies. Of the 12 studies, 5 reported an increase in mean BP whereas 7 reported an increase in the incidence of high BP. In conclusion, our systematic review shows that the consumption of SSBs is associated with higher BP, leading to increased incidence of hypertension. Restriction on SSB consumption should be incorporated in the recommendations of lifestyle modifications for the treatment of hypertension. Interventions to reduce intake of SSBs should be an integral part of public health strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension. PMID:24630785

  14. Benign breast disease and consumption of beverages containing methylxanthines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Parazzini, F; Regallo, M; Decarli, A; Gallus, G; Di Pietro, S; Tognoni, G

    1985-05-01

    The relationship between methylxanthine (Mx) consumption and benign breast disease was evaluated in a case-control study of 288 women with histologically confirmed benign breast lumps (203 dysplastic lesions and 85 benign tumors) and 2 groups of control women--285 patients in the hospital for acute conditions apparently unrelated to the consumption of Mx-containing beverages and 291 outpatients. The relative risk estimates of dysplastic breast lesions (fibrocystic disease), with allowance for all identified potential distorting factors, for women who drank 1-2 or 3 or more cups of coffee per day were 4.1 and 6.4, respectively, when the hospital controls were the comparison group and 2.0 and 3.7, respectively, when the outpatient controls were the comparison group. The relationship was even stronger when the total consumption of Mx-containing beverages (coffee plus tea) was considered and increased with increasing duration of use. The association was not explained by any of the major risk factors for fibrocystic breast diseases or by differences in general characteristics or other lifestyle habits between cases and controls. Mx consumption was not related to the risk of benign breast tumors (fibroadenomas). These findings support the hypothesis that Mx consumption is related to the risk of dysplastic lesions of the breast. PMID:3858587

  15. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  16. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  17. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. PMID:24461314

  18. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p < 0.05), but at MS, it was no different either during the SM or the LM. Total kcal intake did not differ at MS after any of the beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (13.8 ± 3.3 ng/ml/min) during SM following B-CO2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1). No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms

  19. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  20. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high. PMID:26404369

  1. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shrapnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  2. STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Kartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone   ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat

  3. Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin Barry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in childhood is linked to increased risk of obesity and type II diabetes later in life. Using three nationally representative surveys of dietary intake, we investigated beverage patterns and trends among US school-aged children from 1989/91 to 2007/08. Methods 3, 583 participants ages 6-11 y old were included. We reported per capita trends in beverage consumption, percent consuming, and amount per consumer for the following categories of beverages: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB, caloric nutritional beverages (CNB and low calorie beverages (LCB. Statistically significant differences were tested using the Student's t test in Stata 11. Results While per capita kcal contribution from total beverages remained constant over the study period, per capita consumption of SSBs increased and CNBs decreased in similar magnitude. The substantial increase in consumption of certain SSBs, such as fruit drinks and soda, high fat high sugar milk, and sports drinks, coupled with the decrease in consumption of high fat low sugar milk was responsible for this shift. The percent consuming SSBs as well as the amount per consumer increased significantly over time. Per capita intake of total milk declined, but the caloric contribution from high fat high sugar milk increased substantially. Among ethnicities, important differences in consumption trends of certain SSBs and 100% juice indicate the complexity in determining strategies for children's beverage calorie reduction. Conclusions As upward trends of SSB consumption parallel increases in childhood obesity, educational and policy interventions should be considered.

  4. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates. PMID:23819941

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    , while two of three studies, including both men and women, found direct associations between SSB consumption and stroke; however, the association was significant among women only. All included studies examining vascular risk factors found direct associations between SSB consumption and change in blood...... pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength......OBJECTIVE: A high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to weight gain, obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the influence on CVD risk remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to summarize current evidence for an association between SSB consumption and cardiovascular risk...

  6. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  7. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...... coupled mass spectrometry. Results: Iodine in tap water varied from 2.1 to 30.2 mu g/l; the iodine content was in general highest in the eastern part of Denmark and lowest in the western part of Denmark. Organic milk was found to have a lower iodine content than non-organic milk. Conclusions: Large...

  8. Production of struvite from beverage waste as phosphorus source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was investigated the influence of pH on the synthesis of struvite using cola beverage waste as source of phosphorus. The process was operated in a batch reactor. The reaction time was 20 minutes, and the chemicals MgCl2.6H2O and NH4Cl were used in the experiment, with a molar ratio of Mg+2:NH4+:PO4(3- = 1:1:1. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, surface area (BET, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and infra-red (IR. From the results was verified the formation of a crystalline phase at pH 9.5, with a surface area of 6.59 m² g-1 and a particle size of about 0.25 µm.

  9. Production of struvite from beverage waste as phosphorus source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was investigated the influence of pH on the synthesis of struvite using cola beverage waste as source of phosphorus. The process was operated in a batch reactor. The reaction time was 20 minutes, and the chemicals MgCl2.6H2O and NH4Cl were used in the experiment, with a molar ratio of Mg+2:NH4+:PO4(3- = 1:1:1. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, surface area (BET, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and infra-red (IR. From the results was verified the formation of a crystalline phase at pH 9.5, with a surface area of 6.59 m² g-1 and a particle size of about 0.25 µm.

  10. Evaluating the Health Impacts of Food and Beverage Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Eyles, Helen; Ogilvie, David

    2014-12-01

    Several jurisdictions are now imposing taxes on food and beverages to prevent obesity (and related conditions). Existing evidence concerning their effects comes largely from simulation studies and trials in closed settings, both of which have limitations. Rigorous evaluation of actual taxes may provide richer evidence with greater external validity to support policy making. This article describes existing evaluation studies and outlines an implicit underlying theoretical framework for how taxes are expected to affect health. It then explores three important issues for future studies: selection of an appropriate evaluative perspective (comparing realist and biomedical experimental paradigms); approaches to causal inference; and the challenge of a low signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that evaluation should be informed by a realist perspective as well as making appropriate use of established empirical quasi-experimental approaches to testing causal effects. This should be underpinned by a theoretical framework that acknowledges complexity and the potential diversity of impacts. PMID:26626920

  11. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future. PMID:20514391

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from...... concluded that there was a direct association between SSBs and obesity in children and adolescents and four others did not. The quality of the included reviews was low to moderate, and the two reviews with the highest quality scores showed discrepant results. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of reviews concluded...... that there was a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in children and adolescents. However, recent evidence from well-conducted meta-analyses shows discrepant results regarding the association between SSB and weight gain, overweight, and obesity among children...

  13. Artificial Sweetened Beverages and Pediatric Obesity: The Controversy Continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Freswick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pediatric obesity epidemic has gathered public and political interest recently. People often choose “diet” or artificial sweetened beverages (ASB to combat this epidemic, but the obesity incidence continues to rise. First, I review the pediatric studies on the effect of ASB consumption with subsequent food intake. Next, I present pediatric studies of chronic ASB consumption and weight change. Some epidemiologic pediatric studies have supported an association between artificial sweetener use and increased BMI but cannot prove causation. Randomized control trials have provided some evidence of weight loss with ASB ingestion among children, but study limitations may minimize these conclusions. Finally, I summarize the possible mechanisms that may drive potential effects of artificial sweeteners.

  14. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  15. Design and Application on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yonghong Sun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically studying its shape design and color design. The article elaborates that the shape design of this auto-vending machine for cupped beverage should follow the art rule of variation and unity and meanwhile the whole shape still should be simple and direct; the color design of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage not only should satisfy the request of man-machine coordination and environment an...

  16. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zito Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2 compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2, during a solid (SM and a liquid meal (LM on: a gastric volume, b caloric intake, c ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2, ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1 were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min. Total gastric volumes (TGV were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS. Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p 2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66 or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95. Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p 2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1. No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  17. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Silva-Júnior, José Ginaldo da; Tonholo, Josealdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of composite resins immersed in alcoholic beverages. Three composite resins were used: Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer), Z250 (3M-ESPE) and Z350 XT (3M-ESPE). The inital surface roughness and microhardness were measured. The samples were divided into four groups (n=30): G1-artificial saliva; G2-beer; G3-vodka; G4-whisky. The samples were immersed in the beverages 3× a day for 15 min and 30 days. The surface roughness and microhardness assays were repeated after immersion period. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test (pwhisky. Microhardness of all groups decreased after immersion in alcoholic beverages. The effect of these beverages on dental composites is depended upon the chemical composition, immersion time, alcohol content and pH of solutions.

  18. Quantitative analysis of ethyl carbamate in Korean alcoholic beverages by chromatography with mass selective detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.B.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    In order to determine the contents of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional alcoholic beverages and general beverages, GC/MS-SIM method was used after extraction of beverages with dichloromethane. The contents of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional alcoholic beverages, non-distilled alcohol, and whisky were detected in the rage of 4.6-50.2 {mu}g/L, 27.8-45.4 {mu}g/L, and 24.8-55.1 {mu}g/L, respectively. The recoveries were ranged from 83.3 to 104.8 %. The values of relative standard deviation were ranged from 1.8 to 14.8% and the detection limit was 0.3 {mu}g/L. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Effects of temperature change and beverage on mechanical and tribological properties of dental restorative composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, M R; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Karimzadeh, A; Nikkhooyifar, M; Ayob, Amran

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating temperature changes in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to temperature change and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite. PMID:26046269

  20. Effects of temperature change and beverage on mechanical and tribological properties of dental restorative composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, M R; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Karimzadeh, A; Nikkhooyifar, M; Ayob, Amran

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating temperature changes in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to temperature change and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite.

  1. Design and Application on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically studying its shape design and color design. The article elaborates that the shape design of this auto-vending machine for cupped beverage should follow the art rule of variation and unity and meanwhile the whole shape still should be simple and direct; the color design of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage not only should satisfy the request of man-machine coordination and environment and function, but also should value the choice of tone, match the new age request of appreciation beauty and notice novelty. And then the working principle and working process of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage is introduced, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  2. Nutrition Policy Decreases Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Municipal Parks: Lessons Learned From Carson, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Kimberly; Mata, Alfred; Flores, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    In light of the childhood obesity epidemic, many cities are adopting healthy park vending policies, but the evidence on the effectiveness of these policies is scant. This study examines how implementation of a healthy vending policy in Carson, California, changes the types of beverages that are available in park vending machines. The study design is a pre-posttest with post-only comparison group. The main outcome is proportion of beverages in vending machines that is consistent with caloric and sugar content guidelines for children as defined by the Nutrition Environment Measures-Vending (NEMS-V) tool. This study finds that prior to implementation of the vending policy, 70% of the beverages did not meet NEMS-V guidelines, on average. After implementation of the vending policy, this number declined to 7%. This study suggests that healthy vending policies can have an impact on the types of beverages that are available in city parks.

  3. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  4. Identification of reddish alcoholic beverages by GC/MS using aroma components as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Y; Kudo, K; Nishida, N; Ikeda, N

    2001-12-01

    A method to identify reddish alcoholic beverages used for dissolving stimulant drugs was devised using aroma components as indicators. Thirteen brands of beverages including red wines, blueberry liquors, raspberry liquors, strawberry liquor, a mixture of red wine and blueberry juice and a mixture of red wine and grape juice were examined. Aroma components in each sample were effectively concentrated with a porous polymer beads column (Porapak Q) and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Specific aroma components were detected in each beverage and reddish alcoholic beverages were successfully classified into five groups using five aroma components as indicators. The present method should prove to be useful in criminal investigations. PMID:12935701

  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in California Residents, 2012/2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The mean servings/times sugar-sweetened beverages consumed daily by California residents. These data are from the 2013 California Dietary Practices Surveys (CDPS),...

  6. Young Children's Screen Habits are Associated with Consumption of Sweetened Beverages Independently of Parental Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabrielle; Prell, Hillevi;

    2014-01-01

    and diets. Results: Associations between screen habits and sweetened beverage consumption were found independent of parental norms regarding sweetened beverages. A longitudinal analysis revealed that sweetened beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up was predicted by exposure to commercial TV at baseline...... (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1–1.9). Cross-sectional analysis showed that the likelihood of consuming sweetened beverages at least 1–3 times per week increased for each hour/day watching television (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2–1.9), and for being exposed to commercials (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3–2.1). TV viewing time...... and commercial exposure contributed to the associations independently of each other. Conclusions: The results strengthen the assumption that it is possible to influence children’s dietary habits through their TV habits....

  7. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Silva-Júnior, José Ginaldo da; Tonholo, Josealdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of composite resins immersed in alcoholic beverages. Three composite resins were used: Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer), Z250 (3M-ESPE) and Z350 XT (3M-ESPE). The inital surface roughness and microhardness were measured. The samples were divided into four groups (n=30): G1-artificial saliva; G2-beer; G3-vodka; G4-whisky. The samples were immersed in the beverages 3× a day for 15 min and 30 days. The surface roughness and microhardness assays were repeated after immersion period. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test (pcomposite resins immersed in beer and whisky. Microhardness of all groups decreased after immersion in alcoholic beverages. The effect of these beverages on dental composites is depended upon the chemical composition, immersion time, alcohol content and pH of solutions. PMID:27477228

  8. Design and Research on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its working principle, the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The article elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the electromagnet stroke and the maximum weight that the electromagnet could bear should have rationality, to ensure its safe operation; the design of paper cups detaching mechanism mainly includes selecting electric motor and V belt; the design of paper cups slide mechanism includes the design of slide structure and the force analysis when the paper cup slides on the slide. And then the working principle and working process of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage is introduced, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  9. Research on Design Method of Intelligent Vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an intelligent vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its humanized design, shape design, color design and the main mechanism design including the beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The study elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the electromagnet stroke and the maximum weight that the electromagnet could bear should have rationality, to ensure its safe operation; the design of paper cups detaching mechanism mainly includes selecting electric motor and V belt; the design of paper cups slide mechanism mainly presents the design of slide structure. And then the design of control modules of the intelligent vending machine for cupped beverage is introduced, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  10. 75 FR 47312 - Seminole Tribe of Florida Alcohol Beverage Control Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... liquor ordinance was published in 60 FR 53431. The tribal lands are located in Indian country and this... beverages. Section 562.51. license suspension. license suspension. Prostitution; Lewd and lascivious...

  11. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B, pineapple (C, jabuticaba (D, mango (E and cashew (F. The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil.

  12. Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults. As guided by health literacy concepts and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this randomized controlled pilot trial applied the RE-AIM framework and a mixed methods approach to examine a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intervention (SipSmartER)...

  13. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  14. Changes in water and sugar-containing beverage consumption and body weight outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Gortmaker, Steven L; Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Clausen, Kerstin; Adelberger, Bettina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI -0·16, -0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption. PMID:27040694

  15. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; BARKER, Judith C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Methods Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisemen...

  16. Beyond Television: Children’s Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Rena Mendelson; Sharon Wong; Amber Farrell; Jennifer Brady

    2008-01-01

    Background: Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children’s dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context.Objective: This study explores children’s engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake.Methods: Participants were recruited from th...

  17. Využitie revenue managementu v oblasti Food and Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Džambová, Adela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce theoretical basis and practical review of actual revenue management usage in hospitality, espacially in the Food&Beverage Department. First chapter brings out the concept of revenue management from the view of its origin, development and integration into other industries. The second and third chapter describes different tools and approaches between the Rooms and Food&Beverage Department. The purpose of the last chapter is to compare revenue management us...

  18. An Application of Conjoint Analysis to Consumer Preference for Beverage Products in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye; Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi; Bilqis Bolanle Amole

    2013-01-01

    Conjoint analysis is a technique for establishing the relative importance of different attributes in the provision of a good or a service. In this study, conjoint analysis was applied to characterize beverage product preferences for customers. information during buyer-seller purchasing decision interactions. It identify the influence certain consumers preferences have on beverage purchasing behavior. Using focus group discussion, major attributes were specified. The attributes ...

  19. Prevalence of Food and Beverage Brands in Movies: 1996–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lisa A.; MacKenzie, Todd; Purvis, Lisa A.; Dalton, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe food and beverage brand placements in a large representative sample of popular movies. METHODS We identified and coded brand placements for foods, beverages, and food retail establishments in the top 20 US box office movie hits for each year from 1996 to 2005. We also coded general movie characteristics (Motion Picture Association of America rating, run time, genre, and information about major characters). We summarized the number and types of food, beverage, and food retail establishment brands by movie characteristics and also identified manufacturers that are associated with each of the brands. RESULTS Of the 200 movies coded, 138 (69%) contained at least 1 food, beverage, or food retail establishment brand. Movies rated PG-13 and R were significantly more likely to have brand placements compared with movies in other rating categories. Comedies, action/adventures, and horror films had more brand placements than other genres. We did not detect a significant difference in the number of movies with brand placements or mean number of placements per movie by year of movie release. A total of 1180 brand placements were identified and verified, including 427 food, 425 beverage, and 328 food retail establishment brand placements. Candy/confections (26%) and salty snacks (21%) were the most prevalent food brands, sugar-sweetened beverages (76%) were the most prevalent beverage brands, and fast food composed two thirds of the food retail establishment brand placements. CONCLUSIONS Food, beverage, and food retail establishment brands are frequently portrayed in movies, and most of the brand placements are for energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods or product lines. Movies are a potent source of advertising to children, which has been largely overlooked. PMID:20142289

  20. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ian J; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 fro...

  1. The Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    The bar and drinks business is hugely competitive. The key to success or failure between the many beverages and services offered in any bar is the employees who make, market, sell and serve them. Customer expectation and demand is constantly increasing and so it’s crucial for all staff to have comprehensive product knowledge and superior specialized service skills. The Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook is an authoritative resource and comprehensi...

  2. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage “Chicha Morada” in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Dario Acuña; Leyla Delgado-Cotrina; Francisco Aurelio Rumiche; Lidia Yileng Tay

    2016-01-01

    During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada), green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 5): purple corn (P), purple corn + bleaching (PB), green tea (T), gr...

  3. Quality Evaluation of Coffee-like Beverage from Baobab (Adansonia diditata Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most consumed beverages in the world is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-5.1 and contains caffeine which has stimulating effect on human and also found to have negative effect on the brain, kidney, cardiovascular and respiratory systems hence the need to produce coffee-like beverages without such negative effects on the body. Baobab (Adansonia digitata

  4. The competitiveness situation of the EU meat processing and beverage manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Christian; Schornberg, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The status of competitiveness for the two most important food and beverage manufacturing sector s (meat processing and beverage manufacturing) in 13 EU countries is analysed empirically, using 1995 - 2002 Eurostat data. After a review of earlier agribusiness competitiveness studies an industial competitiveness index is proposed as a composite measure for multidimensional economic performance, covering profitability, productivity and output growth. The index approach enables relative competiti...

  5. Individual and Worksite Environmental Factors Associated with Habitual Beverage Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comber, Dana Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The number of overweight adults has risen to two-thirds of the population, thus increases in energy intake, particularly from beverages are of great concern. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has increased by 222 calories in recent decades, which contributes a significant source of added sugars to the American diet. It has been reported that water consumers have a lower overall energy intake (~194 kcals) as compared to non-consumers of water therefore substituting water for SSBs may facil...

  6. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    OpenAIRE

    Pushkala Ramachandran; Srividya Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare...

  7. Consumers’ behaviour and motives for selection of dairy beverages in Kvarner region: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Krešić; Zoran Herceg; Vesna Lelas; Anet Režek Jambrak

    2010-01-01

    Since food choice is always a unique and personal experience, consumer behaviour is important for food manufacturers and marketers in term of product success. Due to the beneficial healthprotective effects of dairy beverages, this market segment is very innovative and fast-growing. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the consumption patterns, purchasing behaviour and motivesfor selection of dairy beverages. The sample of this study included 114 participants (44 males and 70 females) wh...

  8. Antioxidant capacity of infant fruit beverages: influence of storage and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Agustin, Sara; Barberá Sáez, Reyes; Lagarda Blanch, María Jesús; Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2008-01-01

    ; ; The total antioxidant capacity of three beverages based on fruit juice, milk and cereals, intended for infants and young children up to 3 years of age was evaluated by two methods Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity. Results: According to the total antioxidant values obtained by both methods, the beverages can be ranked as follows: grape-orange-banana > peach-apple > pineapple-banana. Asco...

  9. A Price Survey Comparison of Alcoholic Beverages with the Five Basic Food Groups in Paraiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Charles I.; Waylon Howard; Mia Zolna; Shakuntla Nain; Italo S. Aquino; Herbert R.Z. Moraes; Melanie M. Page; Zeyna Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The study of alcohol abuse is relatively new in Brazil. Government estimates suggest that 11.2% of the Brazilian population is alcohol dependent. Problems associated with alcohol dependence include domestic violence, increased risk of traffic accidents, poor self-esteem and weak academic performance. A factor known to correlate with alcohol abuse in 12-17 year olds is to have the money necessary to purchase alcoholic beverages. No data is available, however, on the price of alcoholic beverage...

  10. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collecte...

  11. Fermented beverages : process technology and management, volatile compounds, instrumental methods of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, J. M.; Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Vilanova, Mar

    2009-01-01

    The authors have been developed their main efforts studying fermented beverages, being wine the most important product [1]. Recently, other fermented products, obtained from various fruits, namely tropical fruits, and even from cheese whey have been studied [2]. The main goal is to study the technological parameters which may influence the quality of the final products, in order to manage the process, accurately. As aroma is one of the most important attributes of fermented beverages, the dev...

  12. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were d...

  13. Sugar and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity changes: National longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Laverty, Anthony A; Magee, Lucia; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Saxena, Sonia; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background In response to increasing policy action and public concern about the negative health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), there is increased promotion of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). These have been linked with obesity and diabetes in recent experimental work. This study examined associations between SSB and ASB consumption and changes in adiposity in a nationally representative sample of UK children. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of 13,170 children ...

  14. KANDUNGAN ASAM FITAT DAN TANIN DALAM KACANG-KACANGAN YANG DIBUAT TEMPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh perebusan dan perendaman serta fermentasi kacang-kacangan terhadap kandungan asam fitat dan tanin. Kacang-kacangan yang diteliti sebanyak delapan macam, yaitu kacang kedelai, kacang gude, kecipir, koro benguk, kacang merah, kacang tolo, koro wedus dan lamtoro gung. Penentuan asam fitat dilakukan dengan cara tidak langsung, dimana asam fitat diubah menjadi feri-fitat, kemudian kadar besinya ditetapkan dengan spektrofotometri. Sedangkan kadar tanin ditetapkan dengan metoda Folin-Denis. Diperoleh hasil bahwa perebusan dan perendaman pada proses pembuatan tempe dapat menurunkan asam fitat dan tanin, tetapi tidak sampai menghilangkannya. Sementara fermentasi dapat menyebabkan penurunan asam fitat, namun sebaliknya meningkatkan kandungan tanin.

  15. Consumers’ behaviour and motives for selection of dairy beverages in Kvarner region: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since food choice is always a unique and personal experience, consumer behaviour is important for food manufacturers and marketers in term of product success. Due to the beneficial healthprotective effects of dairy beverages, this market segment is very innovative and fast-growing. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the consumption patterns, purchasing behaviour and motivesfor selection of dairy beverages. The sample of this study included 114 participants (44 males and 70 females which were interviewed face-to-face at the entrance of 5 shopping centres. The surveyinstrument consisted of closed questions regarding habits of consumption, purchasing habits and motives for selection of dairy beverages. Gender specific differences were tested. The results obtained have shown that females consumed more milk and milk drinks (p<0.001 and fermented milk drinks (p=0.002 than males. The consumption of whey-based beverages was sporadical in both genders. Females in higher percentage purchase low-fat dairy beverages (p=0.043, while males exhibited a higher level of loyalty to a certain product (p=0.034. Sensory appeals were the most important motivational factor for both genders. Brand was ranked second for males (p<0.001 and health aspect for females. The products’ origin was ranked third, while price was ranked fifth for both genders. The results obtained could be useful to researchers and dairy market sector in developing and promotinga group of dairy beverage products based on innovations and health.

  16. Parent support and parent-mediated behaviors are associated with children's sugary beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nanette V; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Corder, Kirsten; Eisenberg, Christina M; Zive, Michelle M; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of sugary beverages has been identified as a contributor to childhood obesity. Studies have established the importance of specific parenting practices to children's beverage consumption; however, no study has examined multiple operationalizations of parenting to better understand where to focus future interventions. The present study examined the relationship between children's sugary beverage consumption and a parenting model that included household food rules, parent modeling of food rules, parent-mediated behaviors, and parent support. Baseline data from Project MOVE/me Muevo were used. Participants included 541 children, aged 5 to 8 years old, and their parents. Parents completed a 45-minute self-administered survey in Spanish or English, providing information about their child's dietary intake, as well as their parenting practices. Children's sugary beverage consumption included nondiet soda, noncarbonated sugary drinks, and sport drinks. Household food rules and parent modeling of food rules were assessed with seven items each. Parent-mediated behaviors consisted of four behaviors. Parent support was assessed with five items. Parent support and parent-mediated behaviors, including total screen time and eating at fast-food restaurants at least weekly, were associated with greater consumption of sugary beverages in children. No other parenting variables were significant. Encouraging caregivers to promote healthy dietary behaviors and provide healthy choices, limiting children's television and computer use, and reducing fast-food consumption can contribute to reductions in sugary beverage consumption among children.

  17. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice. PMID:18704729

  18. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  19. Taxation and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Position of Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Dietitians of Canada recommends that an excise tax of at least 10-20% be applied to sugar-sweetened beverages sold in Canada given the negative impact of these products on the health of the population and the viability of taxation as a means to reduce consumption. For the greatest impact, taxation measures should be combined with other policy interventions such as increasing access to healthy foods while decreasing access to unhealthy foods in schools, daycares, and recreation facilities; restrictions on the marketing of foods and beverages to children; and effective, long-term educational initiatives. This position is based on a comprehensive review of the literature. The Canadian population is experiencing high rates of obesity and excess weight. There is moderate quality evidence linking consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to excess weight, obesity, and chronic disease onset in children and adults. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages holds substantiated potential for decreasing its consumption. Based on economic models and results from recent taxation efforts, an excise tax can lead to a decline in sugar-sweetened beverage purchase and consumption. Taxation of up to 20% can lead to a consumption decrease by approximately 10% in the first year of its implementation, with a postulated 2.6% decrease in weight per person on average. Revenue generated from taxation can be used to fund other obesity reduction initiatives. A number of influential national organizations support a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:27183052

  20. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. PMID:23102176

  1. Campus food and beverage purchases are associated with indicators of diet quality in college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, JE; Laska, MN

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between college students' overall dietary patterns and their frequency of purchasing food and beverages from campus area venues, purchasing fast food, and bringing food from home. Design Cross-sectional Student Health and Wellness Study. Setting One community college and one public university in the Twin Cities, MN. Subjects Diverse college students living off campus (n=1,059, 59% nonwhite, mean (SD) age 22 (5) years). Measures Participants self-reported socio-demographic characteristics and frequency of purchasing food/beverages around campus, purchasing fast food, and bringing food from home. Campus area purchases included those from à la carte facilities, vending machines, beverages, and nearby restaurants/stores. Dietary outcome measures included breakfast and evening meal consumption frequency (days/week) and summary variables of fruit and vegetable, dairy, calcium, fiber, added sugar, and fat intake calculated from food frequency screeners. Analysis T-tests and linear regression examined the association between each purchasing behavior and dietary outcomes. Results Approximately 45 percent of students purchased food/beverages from at least one campus area venue ≥3 times/week. Frequent food/beverage purchasing around campus was associated with less frequent breakfast consumption and higher fat and added sugar intake, similar to fast food purchasing. Bringing food from home was associated with healthier dietary patterns. Conclusion Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments and promoting healthy food and beverage purchasing on and around campuses may be an important target for nutrition promotion among college students. PMID:23631451

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  3. An electronic nose for reliable measurement and correct classification of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Mazlina; Samad, Salina Abdul; Hannan, Mahammad A

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of an electronic nose (E-nose) prototype for reliable measurement and correct classification of beverages. The prototype was developed and fabricated in the laboratory using commercially available metal oxide gas sensors and a temperature sensor. The repeatability, reproducibility and discriminative ability of the developed E-nose prototype were tested on odors emanating from different beverages such as blackcurrant juice, mango juice and orange juice, respectively. Repeated measurements of three beverages showed very high correlation (r > 0.97) between the same beverages to verify the repeatability. The prototype also produced highly correlated patterns (r > 0.97) in the measurement of beverages using different sensor batches to verify its reproducibility. The E-nose prototype also possessed good discriminative ability whereby it was able to produce different patterns for different beverages, different milk heat treatments (ultra high temperature, pasteurization) and fresh and spoiled milks. The discriminative ability of the E-nose was evaluated using Principal Component Analysis and a Multi Layer Perception Neural Network, with both methods showing good classification results.

  4. Quality Characteristics and Shelf-Life of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenized (UHPH Almond Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ferragut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH at 200 MPa, in combination with different inlet temperatures (55 or 75 °C during storage at 4 °C were studied and compared with pasteurized (90 °C, 90 s almond beverage. Microbiological analysis of the physical (particle sedimentation and color and volatile profile of the most relevant compound in almond beverages was performed at days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of cold storage. UHPH treatment 200 at 75 °C led to higher microbiological reduction after treatment and higher stability during cold storage in almond beverages than pasteurization or UHPH 200 at 55 °C. Physical characteristics of UHPH-treated samples exhibited a high stability during storage with a stable color. Volatile compounds extracted by solid-phase microextraction were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The effect of UHPH treatment significantly (p < 0.05 affected the volatile profile compared with pasteurized beverages, although UHPH conditions applied produced similar effects in almond beverages. Benzaldehyde was the most abundant compound detected in all treatments. Hexanal was more abundant in UHPH-treated samples, indicating a higher lipid oxidation compared to pasteurized almond beverages.

  5. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  6. An Electronic Nose for Reliable Measurement and Correct Classification of Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design of an electronic nose (E-nose prototype for reliable measurement and correct classification of beverages. The prototype was developed and fabricated in the laboratory using commercially available metal oxide gas sensors and a temperature sensor. The repeatability, reproducibility and discriminative ability of the developed E-nose prototype were tested on odors emanating from different beverages such as blackcurrant juice, mango juice and orange juice, respectively. Repeated measurements of three beverages showed very high correlation (r > 0.97 between the same beverages to verify the repeatability. The prototype also produced highly correlated patterns (r > 0.97 in the measurement of beverages using different sensor batches to verify its reproducibility. The E-nose prototype also possessed good discriminative ability whereby it was able to produce different patterns for different beverages, different milk heat treatments (ultra high temperature, pasteurization and fresh and spoiled milks. The discriminative ability of the E-nose was evaluated using Principal Component Analysis and a Multi Layer Perception Neural Network, with both methods showing good classification results.

  7. An Application of Conjoint Analysis to Consumer Preference for Beverage Products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a technique for establishing the relative importance of different attributes in the provision of a good or a service. In this study, conjoint analysis was applied to characterize beverage product preferences for customers. information during buyer-seller purchasing decision interactions. It identify the influence certain consumers preferences have on beverage purchasing behavior. Using focus group discussion, major attributes were specified. The attributes were then used to generate a plan card using the orthogonal array method. A conjoint based survey using 29 ranked beverages attributes formed the basis of the questionnaires that were randomly administered to 200 purchasers. of beverages drinks between January and March 2013 to specify their preferences. Conjoint analysis was used and the result indicates that the preference range that would deliver the most utility for beverage consumers include products attributes such as reduced price (- 0.478, cylindrical package (-5.822, moderately dissolving beverage granule (-1.833 and taste (- 0.333. The findings conclude that producer need to take the issue of packaging serious in production by ensuring that their product is packaged in cylindrical container which will attract optimum attention of consumers thereby leading to profitability in the long run.

  8. Pengaruh Aktivator Sistein Dan Natrium Klorida Terhadap Aktivitas Papain

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Dongoran

    2009-01-01

    Papain adalah salah satu enzim proteolitik yang terdapat dalam getah pepaya dan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pengempuk daging.Papain termasuk golongan enzim protease sulfhidril yaitu enzim yang mempunyai residu sulfhidril pada lokasi aktifnya. Aktivitas papain dapat ditingkatkan dengan penambahan aktivator sistein maupun NaCl. Penentuan aktivitas proteolitik papain dilakukan secara spektrofotometri menurut AOAC – 1984 dan dinyatakan berdasarkan banyaknya kadar tirosin yang dibebaskan dari...

  9. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Amelia A. Gibson; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consum...

  10. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  11. High fluoride and low pH level have been detected in popular flavoured beverages in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, Zubaidah HA; Bakri, Marina M; Zakir, HM; Ahmed, IA; Zulkifli, NA

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In children, excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources including bottled drinking water and flavoured beverages or soft drinks can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. In addition, the pH level of beverages is important. Low pH can cause dental erosion. In this study we explore the fluoride content and pH level of certain popular beverages available in Malaysian supermarkets and hawkers’ stalls. Methods: Bottled drinking water and selected popu...

  12. Tea beverage in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imtiaz A SIDDIQUI; Mohammad SALEEM; Vaqar M ADHAMI; Mohammad ASIM; Hasan MUKHTAR

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer (Pca) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the sec-ond leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males with similar trends in many western countries. The existing treatment approaches and surgical inter-vention have not been able to effectively cope with this dreaded disease. For these reasons, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for a better understanding of the disease process and for the development of novel approaches for its preven-tion and treatment. Based on considerable evidence from in vivo and in vitro data and epidemiological studies, in recent years the beverage tea has gained consid-erable attention for reducing the risk of several cancers. Much of the cancerpreventive effects of tea, especially green tea appear to be mediated by the polyphe-nols present therein. Geographical evidence suggests that the incidence and occurrence of Pca is lower in populations that consume tea regularly. This evi-dence suggests that tea polyphenols could be extrapolated to optimize their chemopreventive properties against Pca. Pca represents an excellent candidate disease for chemoprevention because it is typically diagnosed in men over 50 years of age and therefore, even a modest delay in neoplastic development achieved through pharmacological or nutritional intervention could result in a substantial reduction in the incidence of clinically detectable disease. In this review we address the issue of possible use of tea, especially green tea, for the prevention aswell as treatment of Pca.

  13. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications. PMID:24275825

  14. Sensory quality evaluation of whey-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Legarová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey as a by-product of the cheese industry is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this research was to evaluate the commercial potential of whey-based dairy beverages containing a definite amount of semi-skimmed milk addition. The purpose of this paper was to improve the whey flavour via its fermentation by commercial yogurt starter cultures, and via 25 % and 50 % of milk addition. The course of fermentation was monitored by pH and titratable acidity changes. The sensory profile of non-fermented and fermented drinks was assessed using unstructured graphical scales. No significant differences in acidity were found between the samples which were fermented for 3 or 4 hours, but a significant difference was found between samples of whey drinks without milk and samples with milk addition. Fermentation by yoghurt culture did not bring statistically significant improvement of the whey drink organoleptic properties, while the addition of milk was the most important factor influencing not only the total sensory quality of the whey drinks but also their flavour, appearance, colour, viscosity and homogeneity.

  15. A Statistical study of effects of bacterial Decaffeination on Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Thangaraj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine degradation has been popularized due to its promising scope in food applications and environmental safety. Hence we conducted a study of bacterial caffeine degradation and its effect on sensory qualities through a survey and reported the data using Correspondence Analysis- Symmetrical Model of SPSS software to identify key sensory attributes and study what factors could lead to them. The decaffeinated beverages showed undesirable sensory attributes, especially those containing milk and other extraneous substances and hence it was concluded that decaffeination is most desirable during raw material processing. Also a background study of the bacterial growth curve and its relation with caffeine degradation and N-Methyl Urea formation was done using Origin software and ways to ensure the release of non-toxic products were hypothesized. An alternate glyoxylate pathway was considered to avoid the release of toxic metabolites, which is possible by media starvation. Thus avoiding degradation of sensory qualities and alternating the production of N-methylurea would reflect positively on human consumption and acceptance and this can be a scope of future study.

  16. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  17. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs. PMID:26668039

  18. Sucrose-replacement by rebaudioside a in a model beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Dorota; Ipsen, Annika; Koenig, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    Rebaudioside A (RA), a component of Stevia rebaudiana, is a non-caloric sweetener of natural origin, suitable to meet consumers' demand for sweet taste, but undesirable flavors were reported at high concentrations. Aim of this study was to create a model beverage (ice-tea) in which sucrose was replaced increasingly by RA to identify optimal sensory profile for consumer acceptance. Samples with 20 % and 40 % sucrose replacement by RA, respectively, showed very similar sensory profiles but were significantly higher in some flavor attributes, such as artificial sweetness, licorice-like and metallic, as well as in sweet and bitter aftertaste (p < 0.05) compared to the reference ice-tea. In both hedonic tests, preference and acceptance samples with RA have been judged as comparable to the reference despite perception of some undesirable notes. In view of the results of our study it can be stated that a replacement of 20 % or 40 % sucrose by RA in an ice-tea is achievable. PMID:26345024

  19. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H.P. Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages collected at the main supermarkets in Belo Horizonte (MG. 40 samples of the products corresponding to five distinct brands were collected. They were submitted to the following analyses: Most Probable Number (MPN of total (30ºC and thermal tolerant coliforms (45ºC, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive Staphylococcus, molds and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, pH, titratable acidity and contents of moisture, total solids, protein and fat. The analyses were carried out during the last week of shelf life. The microbiological quality of the samples was good and the counts of lactic bacteria were above the minimum established by the official legislation. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified from the products and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was molecularly identified in three samples. The mean values for the contents of fat and protein, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and total solids ranged from 1.24 to 1.98%; 1.88 to 2.22%; 0.54 to 0.66%; 3.91 to 4.16; 81.18 to 83.25% and 16.75 to 18.82%, respectively. All samples had protein content in agreement with the official legislation.

  20. Aluminum Laminates in Beverage Packaging: Models and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bolzon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum laminates are among the main components of beverage packaging. These layered material systems are coupled to paperboard plies except in the cap opening area, where the human force limit sets a requirement on the material properties to allow open-ability and the mechanical characteristics are of particular interest. Experimental investigations have been carried out on this composite and on its components by either traditional or full-field measurement techniques. The interpretation of the collected data has been supported by the simulation of the performed tests considering either a homogenized material model or the individual laminate layers. However, different results may be recovered from similar samples due to physical factors like the material processing route and the embedded defectiveness. In turn, the conclusions may vary depending on the model assumptions. This contribution focuses on the physical effects and on the modeling of the large localized deformation induced by material singularities. This topic is discussed at the light of some experimental results.

  1. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suree Nanasombat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other health-promoting activities. Thus, it is possible to use these plants for the development of new functional beverages. Methods: Ten formulations of beverages were produced. The 5 non-alcoholic beverages contained dried medicinal plants, fresh grapes and others and are as follows: beverage B1: 10.2% K. parviflora rhizomes, 5.1% brown sugar and 84.7% water; beverage B2: 0.45% Ardisia polycephala leaves, 0.45% C. asiatica leaves, 0.36% C. ternatea flowers, 0.45% C. sativus pollens, 0.45% G. biloba leaves, 0.45% Melodorum fruticosum flowers, 0.90% N. nucifera petals, 0.45% Nymphaea lotus petals, 5.43% crystalline sugar and 90.58% water; beverage B3: 0.62% A. polycephala fruits, 0.35% C. ternatea flowers, 0.44% G. biloba leaves, 2.64% K. parviflora rhizomes, 1.76% P. emblica fruits, 0.88% T. chebula fruits, 5.28% brown sugar and 88.03% water; beverage B4: 0.51% Acorus calamus stems, 0.68% C. ternatea flowers, 4.23% K. parviflora rhizomes, 0.85% N. nucifera petals, 0.85% N. lotus petals, 0.85% M. fruticosum flowers, 0.34% R. serpentina roots, 0.34% U. gambir, 1.69% Zingiber officinale rhizomes, 5.08% brown sugar and 84.60% water; beverage B5: 53.09% fresh grapes, 2.65% brown sugar and 44.25% water. After heating, filtering, and cooling, these beverages were put in sterile bottles. One part of each beverage was stored at 4C for 23 weeks before analyzing, but the other two parts were used to prepare the alcoholic beverage of each formulation. Grapes were mixed with the

  2. Biomarker discovery and applications for foods and beverages: proteomics to nanoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bansal, Vipul; Shukla, Ravi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-11-20

    Foods and beverages have been at the heart of our society for centuries, sustaining humankind - health, life, and the pleasures that go with it. The more we grow and develop as a civilization, the more we feel the need to know about the food we eat and beverages we drink. Moreover, with an ever increasing demand for food due to the growing human population food security remains a major concern. Food safety is another growing concern as the consumers prefer varied foods and beverages that are not only traded nationally but also globally. The 21st century science and technology is at a new high, especially in the field of biological sciences. The availability of genome sequences and associated high-throughput sensitive technologies means that foods are being analyzed at various levels. For example and in particular, high-throughput omics approaches are being applied to develop suitable biomarkers for foods and beverages and their applications in addressing quality, technology, authenticity, and safety issues. Proteomics are one of those technologies that are increasingly being utilized to profile expressed proteins in different foods and beverages. Acquired knowledge and protein information have now been translated to address safety of foods and beverages. Very recently, the power of proteomic technology has been integrated with another highly sensitive and miniaturized technology called nanotechnology, yielding a new term nanoproteomics. Nanoproteomics offer a real-time multiplexed analysis performed in a miniaturized assay, with low-sample consumption and high sensitivity. To name a few, nanomaterials - quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires - have demonstrated potential to overcome the challenges of sensitivity faced by proteomics for biomarker detection, discovery, and application. In this review, we will discuss the importance of biomarker discovery and applications for foods and beverages, the contribution of proteomic technology in

  3. Flavor impacts of glycerol in the processing of yeast fermented beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangdong; Procopio, Susanne; Becker, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol contributes to the beverage body and fullness. Moreover, it also influences the flavor intensity. As a major byproduct, glycerol not only serves critical roles in yeast osmoregulation and redox balancing, but also acts as the carbon competitor against ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, increasing glycerol yield benefits both the flavor and ethanol reduction for the fermented beverages. Glycerol yield has been elevated either by fermentation optimization or by yeast genetic modification. The fermentation optimizations reached maximum 14 g/L glycerol through screening yeast strains and optimizing fermentation parameters. Meanwhile the yeast overexpressing GPD1 (encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) produced up to 6 folds more glycerol for beer and wine. Except for glycerol improvement, the genetically modified yeasts accumulated dramatically undesirable compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetate and acetoin which are detrimental for beverage flavor. In comparison, the natural high glycerol producers showed strain-specific manner on the yeast-derived aroma compounds like volatile acids, fusel alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Temperature, sugar concentration, nitrogen composition, oxygen and pH-value, which influence glycerol biosynthesis, also obtained various effects on the production of aromatic compounds. In the current review, we firstly deliberate the organoleptic contributions of glycerol for fermented beverages. Furthermore, glycerol optimization strategies are discussed regarding to the yield improvement, the genes expressions, the overall flavor impacts and the feasibilities in beverage applications. Lastly, for improving beverage flavor by glycerol optimization, a high-throughput platform is proposed to increase the screening capacity of yeast strains and parameters in the processing of fermented beverages. PMID:26604336

  4. ON THE EROSIVE EFFECT OF SOME BEVERAGES FOR SPORTSMEN UPON DENTAL ENAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin ARNAUTEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the surface morphology of enamel and the variation of the mineral ions concentration after the manifestation of the erosive effect determined by various commercial beverages for athletes. 14 premolars extracted from orthodontic reasons have been cut in two halves. On each section, an enamel surface of 3x3 mm was preserved for investigations. The samples have been divided into 4 groups. In the control group, the 7 sections were kept in artificial saliva while, in the other 3 groups, the sections were introduced in 3 beverages for athletes: Gatorade Citron (Pepsi Cola Co., 5-hour Energy (Living Essentials, Powerade Cherry (Coca Cola Co.. The samples were analyzed on an electronic microscope with Vega II LSH scanning device, coupled with EDX Quantax QX2 detector. SEM analysis evidenced erosion zones at the level of enamel, which appears pinched in the samples subjected to the action of acid beverages. A decreasing tendency of the average values of calcium ion concentrations was observed in the batches in which the enamel samples had been subjected to the action of beverages for athletes. The highest relative variations of calcium and phosphorous ions (10%, respectively 8% were recorded for Gatorade, followed, in decreasing order, by Powerade, for which variations of 9%, respectively 6%, were noticed, and by the 5-hour Energy beverage, in which the relative losses were of 5%, respectively 3%. All beverages for athletes tested in the present study showed erosion potential upon the dental enamel. Gatorade appeared as the most aggressive beverage for athletes followed by Powerade and 5-hour Energy.

  5. Mixing alcohol with artificially sweetened beverages: Prevalence and correlates among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-11-01

    Mixing alcohol with diet beverages, as compared to mixing the same amount of alcohol with a regular beverage, is associated with greater intoxication. This may occur because diet mixers increase alcohol absorption rates. Thus, it is plausible that the use of diet mixers may increase the risk of alcohol-related harms. The current study sought to (1) determine the rate/frequency of use in among college students, (2) examine the relationship between mixing alcohol with diet beverages and alcohol-related problems, above typical alcohol use and sensation seeking, and (3) explore key traits (gender, restricting food while drinking, and body mass index [BMI]) that may characterize users. Participants were 686 (73% female) undergraduate students who completed self-reports of alcohol use (including diet mixer use), alcohol-related problems, eating behaviors while drinking, sensation seeking, and demographic information. Results revealed that about 36% of the sample reported consuming alcohol with diet mixers, and users typically consumed this beverage at least once a month. Students who reported mixing alcohol with diet beverages experienced more alcohol-related problems. And, the more frequently one consumed this beverage, the more problems were reported. These associations were found after controlling for typical level of alcohol use and sensation seeking. No differences were observed between user-status on gender, eating behaviors while drinking, and BMI. Our findings suggest that mixing alcohol with diet beverages could be a risk factor for experiencing more alcohol-related harms. Further research is needed to understand this relationship, as it may help guide intervening efforts aimed to reduce alcohol-related risks. PMID:27344010

  6. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  7. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p water condition consuming more than the 12 oz. juice condition (117.7 ± 69.1 kcal vs. 88.5 ± 64.1 kcal). A main effect of beverage type was found on overall snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p children with a larger size of beverage at a snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. PMID:26232137

  8. Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated

  9. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  10. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Mary-Ann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target

  11. Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, S; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2012-03-01

    Carbonated soft drinks and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardiometabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc., who together control 34% of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the United States, Brazil and China) from 2000 to 2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL(-1) ) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil.

  12. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. PMID:24958776

  13. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage.

  14. Development of a Filtration-Based Bioluminescence Assay for Detection of Microorganisms in Tea Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yohei; Igarashi, Toshinori; Harada, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The market for tea drinks as healthy beverages has been steadily expanding, and ready-to-drink beverages in polyethylene terephthalate bottles have been popular. To more rapidly and accurately test tea beverages bottled in polyethylene terephthalate for microbial contamination, a newly developed filtration device and a washing method with a commercial bioluminescence assay were combined to detect low numbers of bacterial spores, fungal conidia, and ascospores. Washing buffers were formulated with nonionic detergents from the Tween series. Commercially available tea beverages were used to evaluate the filtration capacity of the filtration device, the effect of washing buffers, and the performance of the assay. The assay was tested with serially diluted suspensions of colonies of two bacterial strains, spores of three Bacillus strains, conidia of five fungal strains, and ascospores of four fungal strains. The filtration device enabled filtration of a large sample volume (100 to 500 ml), and the washing buffer significantly decreased the background bioluminescence intensity of tea samples when compared with the no-washing method. Low numbers (1 to 10 CFU/100 ml) of the tested strains of bacteria were detected within 8 to 18 h of cultivation, and fungi were detected within 24 to 48 h. Furthermore, a whole bottle (500 ml) of mixed tea was filtered through the filtration device and microbes were detected. This method could be used for quality control of bottled beverages without preincubation. PMID:26939661

  15. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage. PMID:27356202

  16. Proximity of snacks to beverages increases food consumption in the workplace: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Ernest; Gorlin, Margarita; Chance, Zoë; Novemsky, Nathan; Dhar, Ravi; Huskey, Kim; Hatzis, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to bolster employee satisfaction, many employers provide free snacks at the office. Unfortunately, keeping employees happy can conflict with the goal of keeping them healthy, since increased snacking at work can contribute to overeating and obesity. Building on the growing body of research in choice architecture, we tested one factor that might influence snack consumption without impacting satisfaction: the relative distance between snacks and beverages. In a large field study at Google, we measured snack consumption when snacks were closer to or farther from beverages. We found that employees who used the beverage station closer to the snack station were more likely to take a snack- the likelihood of snacking increased from 12% to 23% for men and from 13% to 17% for women when the beverage station closest to the snack station was used. These results imply that employers and even families could reduce snack consumption easily, cheaply, and without backlash, by increasing the relative distance between beverages and snacks. PMID:27112315

  17. Non-dairy probiotic beverages: the next step into human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L

    2013-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages. PMID:23271064

  18. Assessing the shape symbolism of the taste, flavour, and texture of foods and beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence Charles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers reliably match a variety of tastes (bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, oral-somatosensory attributes (carbonation, oral texture, and mouth-feel, and flavours to abstract shapes varying in their angularity. For example, they typically match more rounded forms such as circles with sweet tastes and more angular shapes such as triangles and stars with bitter and/or carbonated foods and beverages. Here, we suggest that such shape symbolic associations could be, and in some cases already are being, incorporated into the labelling and/or packaging of food and beverage products in order to subconsciously set up specific sensory expectations in the minds of consumers. Given that consumers normally prefer those food and beverage products that meet their sensory expectations, as compared to those that give rise to a ‘disconfirmation of expectation’, we believe that the targeted use of such shape symbolism may provide a means for companies to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Here, we review the latest research documenting a variety of examples of shape symbolism in the food and beverage sector. We also highlight a number of the explanations for such effects that have been put forward over the years. Finally, we summarise the latest evidence demonstrating that the shapes a consumer sees on the label and even the shape of the packaging in which the product is served can all impact on a consumer’s sensory-discriminative and hedonic responses to food and beverage products.

  19. MARKETING MIX FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DESIRE TO PURCHASE FRUIT BEVERAGES IN THE CITY OF BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffatul Ulfah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were 1 to analyze marketing mix factors that influence the desire to purchase fruit beverages, 2 to formulate the marketing strategies of fruit beverages at restaurant based on fruit beverages in the city of Bogor. This research was conducted by using descriptive methods through survey approach. Data was collected in questionnaires, using non probability sample approach with convenience sampling technique. Variables measured  were 7P’s marketing mix factors, namely product, place, price, promotion, physical evidence, process and people. The analysis that were used were descriptive analysis and discriminant analysis. The result of this research shows that price and physical evidence were two factors that discriminate consumer behaviour. This means that the purchase intention (desire between consumers who buy and consumers who do not buy fruit beverages were affected by price and physical evidence factors. The discriminant function that discriminate consumers purchase intention is D = -3,339+0,619Physical+0,899Price and cut-off value -0,18624. This means that if discriminant value (Dis higher than -0,18624, the consumer belongs to the group of consumer who will buy the fruit beverages and vice versa.Keywords: consumer behaviour, purchase intention, marketing mix, discriminant analysis

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cancer recurrence and survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Fuchs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. METHODS: We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Patients consuming ≥ 2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04-2.68, compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (P(trend = 0.02. The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ≥ 2 5 kg/m(2 and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18 (HR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.29-3.81, P(trend = 0.0025. CONCLUSION: Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients.

  1. Giving the wrong impression: food and beverage brand impressions delivered to youth through popular movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marketing on television showcases less-healthful options, with emerging research suggesting movies promote similar products. Given the obesity epidemic, understanding advertising to youth should be a public health imperative. The objective of this study was to estimate youth impressions to food and beverages delivered through movies. Methods Impressions were calculated by dividing US receipts annually into average movie ticket prices, then multiplying this by the number of brand appearances. Examination by ratings, product types and ages were conducted by Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests. Results Youth in the USA saw over 3 billion food, beverage or food–retail establishment (FRE) impressions on average, annually from 1996 to 2005. Those aged 12–18 viewed over half of all impressions, with PG-13-rated movies containing 61.5% of impressions. There were no significant trends in brand appearances by food, beverage or FRE impressions over the decade, although there was a decreasing trend in R-rated impressions for both foods (P< 0.01) and beverages (P< 0.01), but not FREs (P= 0.08). Conclusions Movies promote billions of food and beverage impressions annually to youth. Given the public health crisis of obesity, future research should further investigate these trends, as well as the potential association of these unhealthy exposures in youth. PMID:22076600

  2. A 2-Phase Labeling and Choice Architecture Intervention to Improve Healthy Food and Beverage Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Methods. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. Results. At baseline (977 793 items, including 199 513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P < .001), and green items increased in phase 1 (P < .001). The largest changes occurred among beverages. Red beverages decreased 16.5% during phase 1 (P < .001) and further decreased 11.4% in phase 2 (P < .001). Green beverages increased 9.6% in phase 1 (P < .001) and further increased 4.0% in phase 2 (P < .001). Bottled water increased 25.8% during phase 2 (P < .001) but did not increase at 2 on-site comparison cafeterias (P < .001). Conclusions. A color-coded labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention. PMID:22390518

  3. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  4. Relationships between tea and other beverage consumption to work performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janet; Tuckey, Michelle; Einöther, Suzanne J L; Garczarek, Ursula; Garrick, Adam; De Bruin, Eveline A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to examine relationships between tea, coffee and other beverage consumption and associates of work performance and mood among individuals in relatively stressful and cognitively demanding work-place settings. Using a naturalistic, cross-sectional study design, 95 professional and academic staff logged their beverage intake and completed self-reports of associates of work performance (fatigue/exhaustion, mindfulness, work engagement), subjective work performance, mood, work-related strain and recovery four times daily during ten working days. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling in keeping with the hierarchical structure of the data. Tea consumption was associated with increased perceived work performance and reduced tiredness, especially when consumed without milk or sugar. Consumption of non-caffeinated beverages was associated with increased relaxation and recovery from work. In contrast, tea and other caffeinated beverages were found to enhance the negative effects of evening recovery and morning mood on mindfulness during the day. The findings suggest that beverage intake may have a role in optimising work-related psychological states and performance. PMID:22100487

  5. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Peres, António M

    2014-10-27

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7fructose intolerance index≤1.5; 32beverage's healthy and sensory evaluation.

  6. The effect of different beverages on surface hardness of nanohybrid resin composite and giomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saijai Tanthanuch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effects of five beverages (apple cider, orange juice, Coca-Cola, coffee, and beer on microhardness and surface characteristic changes of nanohybrid resin composite and giomer. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three specimens of each resin composite and giomer were prepared. Before immersion, baseline data of Vicker′s microhardness was recorded and surface characteristics were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Five groups of discs (n = 18 were alternately immersed in 25 mL of each beverage for 5 s and in 25 mL of artificial saliva for 5 s for 10 cycles. Specimens were then stored in artificial saliva for 24 h. This process was repeated for 28 days. After immersion, specimens were evaluated and data were analyzed by two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD, and a t-test (α = 0.05. Results: Microhardness of all groups significantly decreased after being immersed in the tested beverages (P < 0.05. SEM photomicrographs presented surface degradation of all groups. Conclusions: The effect of these beverages on the surface of both restorative materials also depended upon the exposure time and chemical composition of the restorative materials and beverages.

  7. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  8. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children.

  9. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkala Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG and papaya. Aloe gel (30%, papaya pulp (15%, spice extract (5%, and citric acid (0.1% were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB. Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  10. In natura açaí beverage: quality, pasteurization and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Antonia Alves Cruz de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical, physicochemical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of in natura açai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.beverageprocessed and commercialized in Rio Branco, Acre, submitting it to acidification and pasteurization treatments and evaluating their effects. Açaí fruits were processed to obtain the beverage as generally consumed. A 25 L sample was collected from a processing unit at a market in Rio Branco and transported to the Laboratory of Food Technology at the Federal University of Acre, for sampling of the experiments in a completely randomized design. Analyses of total solids, pH, total titrable acidity, proteins, lipids, moulds and yeasts, total and heat-tolerant coliforms at 45 ºC were performed in in natura beverage and after treatments. The results of the ANOVA showed, except for lipids, difference (p < 0.01 in the parameters. The in natura açaí beverage presented an elevated contamination by total and heat-tolerant coliforms at 45 ºC, moulds and yeasts, being in hygienic-sanitary conditions both unsatisfactory and unsafe for consumption. Pasteurization was efficient in reducing the beverage microbiota; it reduced contamination to an acceptable level according to the legislation, warranting food quality and safety. The acidified treatment partially reduced the microbiota. The beverage was classified as fine or type C.

  11. [Influence of alcohol beverage vending machine on alcohol dependence syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, A; Fujita, S

    1994-12-01

    The vending machines which sell alcohol beverages (AVM) can be found quite easily in front of shops or on the roadside in this country. Although it is easily supposed that these vending machines might have badly influenced on developing alcohol dependence syndrome, no scientific study has been reported in this regard so far. In this study, we analyzed the present status of alcoholics (n = 759) and their family members (n = 512) and of ordinary people (n = 334) in terms of their "relation" and "attitudes" to the vending machines by a questionnaire method. The results obtained show as follows: The majority of alcoholics (60%) had used AVM a couple of times or more often in a week, and 18% of alcoholics had not used AVM at all. It was found that the natures of AVM such as "machine," "long time operation," "easy accessibility," are closely related to the development of their alcohol seeking behavior, resulting in forming unfavorable drinking patterns such as concealed drinking, gulping, early morning drinking or binge drinking. Unusual patterns of using AVM were also noticed among them, such as, go to AVM before 5 a.m. and wait until it starts to work, go to a far away AVM deliberately, or, visiting AVM one after another. It was noticed that these drinking habits affected seriously not only the alcoholics but their families also. The number of the family members who insisted that AVM affected badly on the course of alcohol dependence syndrome is larger than that of alcoholics who admit the same thing. As for the future abolition of AVM, 91% of the family members, 70% of alcoholics and 39% of ordinary persons agreed with. The rate of "agreed with abolition" is higher than that of "disagreed with abolition" among ordinary persons. PMID:7695515

  12. HYGIENIC AND HEALTH QUALITY OF HOT BEVERAGES DISTRIBUTED BY VENDING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vallone

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The food and beverage vending had in the last 40 years a great development in Italy. From the hygienic and health point of view, the quality of the products distributed by Vending is essentially related to three factors: the quality of raw materials, the quality of tap water and the good working order together with the good cleanliness and hygienic status of equipments. In this work we wanted to test these features. We evaluated microbiological and fungal quality of raw materials (powders, of distributed hot beverages and the used equipments. Despite contamination levels shown by the results of this study, the temperature of the boiler is sufficient to make a significant reduction of bacterial and fungal loads. To obtain satisfactory results on the quality of delivered hot beverages is necessary to apply correct maintenance and cleaning/sanitation procedures of equipments, as well as an appropriate selection of suppliers.

  13. Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis.

  14. Repeated exposure of acidic beverages on esthetic restorative materials: An in-vitro surface microhardness study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Steffy M.; Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A manifold increase in the consumption of aerated beverages has witnessed a twin increase in tooth wear and raised demand for esthetic restorative materials. This study aimed to evaluate the surface microhardness changes of esthetic restorative materials following treatment with aerated beverages in an in-vitro situation. Material and Methods The initial surface microhardness of the restorative materials GC Fuji II LC, GC Fuji IX, Nano Glass ionomer, Resin and Nano composite was recorded. These materials were studied under 3 groups that included those exposed to the acidic beverages daily, weekly once in a month and those that had no exposures at all. The final surface microhardness of the materials was recorded following experimentation and was subjected to statistical comparisons. Results The restorative materials were compared for their surface microhardness changes following respective treatments using the T-test and One-way ANOVA analysis. Inter-comparisons between the groups showed statistical significance (pcomposites, glass ionomers. PMID:27398183

  15. Fluorescent Nanoparticles from Several Commercial Beverages: Their Properties and Potential Application for Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Han; Jiang, Chengkun; Liu, Wenqiang; Vera, Juan Manuel; Seni, Oscar David; Demera, Kevin; Yu, Chenxu; Tan, Mingqian

    2015-09-30

    The presence of nanoparticles in beverages has raised great concern in terms of potential impacts to consumer health. Herein, carbon dots in beverages kvass, pony malta, pilsner beer, Vivant Storm, and Profit were identified. They were shown to have a strong fluorescence under the excitation of ultraviolet light. The emission peaks shift to longer wavelengths accompanied by a remarkable fluorescence intensity decrease. The carbon dots are in the nanosized range and roughly spherical in appearance. Elemental analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the composition of Kvass carbon dots to be C 83.17%, O 13.83%, and N 3.00%. No cytotoxicity was found at concentrations up to 20 mg/mL for human tongue squamous carcinoma cells, and they can be directly applied in both carcinoma and onion epidermal cell imaging. This work represents the first report of the carbon dots present in beverages, providing valuable insights into these nanoparticles for future biological imaging. PMID:26372844

  16. Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christine; Reusch, Helmut; Ruge, Ingrid; Godelmann, Rolf; Pflaum, Tabea; Kuballa, Thomas; Schumacher, Sandra; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-09-01

    During sampling and analysis of alcohol-free beverages for food control purposes, a comparably high contamination of benzene (up to 4.6μg/L) has been detected in cherry-flavoured products, even when they were not preserved using benzoic acid (which is a known precursor of benzene formation). There has been some speculation in the literature that formation may occur from benzaldehyde, which is contained in natural and artificial cherry flavours. In this study, model experiments were able to confirm that benzaldehyde does indeed degrade to benzene under heating conditions, and especially in the presence of ascorbic acid. Analysis of a large collective of authentic beverages from the market (n=170) further confirmed that benzene content is significantly correlated to the presence of benzaldehyde (r=0.61, pcherry flavoured beverages, industrial best practices should include monitoring for benzene. Formulations containing either benzoic acid or benzaldehyde in combination with ascorbic acid should be avoided. PMID:27041300

  17. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.;

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  18. Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and dietary factors--specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars--have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable--dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population. PMID:24784517

  19. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  20. Strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages: What is the sensory profile of the ideal product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiaski, D R; Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sensory profile and Brazilian consumers' liking of strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages (fermented or nonfermented) with different fat contents that were sweetened with sugar or nonsugar sweeteners. We also determined the influence of sensory attributes on consumer preferences and the profile of the ideal product. Nonfermented whey beverages (NFWB) and "light" yogurt were less liked. The NFWB were less acidic, less viscous, and with lower smoothness of mouthcoating, sweeter and with a more intense artificial strawberry aroma (ASA) than the fermented products. Low-fat yogurts were more liked, more viscous, and had higher smoothness of mouthcoating than nonfat yogurts. Fermented-whey beverages were as liked as yogurts. Viscosity and smoothness of mouthcoating positively influenced consumer liking. The ideal product had higher levels of brightness, artificial strawberry taste, artificial strawberry aroma, and sweet taste; intermediate smoothness of mouthcoating, color, and viscosity; and low particles, acid taste, and aroma. PMID:27157581

  1. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mallarino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children’s eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  2. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue. PMID:24626507

  3. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Adult Caregivers and Their Children: The Role of Drink Features and Advertising Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Mallya, Giridhar; Jordan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine how parents' beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising are associated with parents' and their children's SSB consumption. Design: Cross-sectional representative telephone survey of Philadelphia parents in households with children between the ages of 3 and 16 years.…

  4. Sweet-beverage consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M.; Wark, Petra A.; Romaguera, Dora; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Michaud, Dominique; Molina-Montes, Esther; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Papatesta, Eleni Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H.; Rylander, Charlotta; Parr, Christine L.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-De-mesquita, H. Bas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of sweet beverages has been associated with greater risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which may be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that sweet beverages may increase pancreatic cancer risk as well. Objective: We exam

  5. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults : Results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P. A.; Vergnaud, A. C.; Schulze, M. B.; van Woudenbergh, G. J.; Drogan, D.; Amiano, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Sanchez, M.J.; Balkau, B.; Barricarte, A.; Beulens, J. W. J.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Crispim, S. P.; Fagherazzi, G.; Franks, P. W.; Grote, V. A.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaaks, R.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Nilsson, P.; Overvad, K.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Quiros, J. R.; Rolandsson, O.; Sacerdote, C.; Sieri, S.; Slimani, N.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Tormo, M. J.; Tumino, R.; van den Berg, S. W.; Wermeling, P. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Langenberg, C.; Sharp, S. J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Riboli, E.; Wareham, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft drinks) with type 2

  6. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Schulze, M.B.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft dri

  7. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  8. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, M.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Kamps, L.M.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Togtema, K.A.; Amerongen, van A.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subject

  9. 26 CFR 31.6053-3 - Reporting by certain large food or beverage establishments with respect to tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., see 26 CFR 31.6053-3(h) (Rev. as of April 1, 1984). (2) Time and manner for petition to have... for business, and whether the customer receives the check from or pays the server for the meal. (ii... beverages at a counter, window, etc., and then carry the food or beverages to another location (either on...

  10. Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands. Subjects/Me

  11. Modeling Advertising Expenditures and Spillover Effects Applied to the U.S. Non-Alcoholic Beverage Industry: Vector Autoregression (VAR) and Polynomial Distributed Lag (PDL) Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmasena, Senarath; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Bessler, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The non-alcoholic beverage market in the U.S. is a multi-billion dollar industry growing steadily over the past decade. Also, non-alcoholic beverages are among the most heavily advertised food and beverage groups in the United States. Several studies pertaining to non-alcoholic beverages including the incorporation of advertising effects have been conducted, but most of these have centered attention on milk consumption. Some studies have considered demand interrelationships for several bevera...

  12. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE FROM THE excise duty on alcoholic beverages and costs associated with the negative effects of its consumption in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Smrčka, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis will focus on the relationship between revenue to the state budget of the excise duty on alcoholic beverages and as a result of the consumption of alcoholic beverages arise. This is a topic, whereas the consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly in certain age and social groups is increasing. In the theoretical part of the work I will deal with tax theories, to analyze the available literature in terms of revenue from excise duty on alcoholic beverages in the state bud...

  13. Plain water consumption is associated with lower intake of caloric beverage: cross-sectional study in Mexican adults with low socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Illescas-Zarate, Daniel; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Plain water (PW) should be the main beverage consumed by the population. However, consumption of caloric beverages (CB) has increased considerably worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the association between CB and PW intake in Mexican adults with a low socioeconomic status (SES). Methods In a cross-sectional design, beverage consumption was evaluated with a 24-h beverages recall using the five-step multiple-pass method recommended by the U.S. Department of Agricultur...

  14. Physical and perceptual cooling with beverages to increase cycle performance in a tropical climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Riera

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study compares the effects of neutral temperature, cold and ice-slush beverages, with and without 0.5% menthol on cycling performance, core temperature (Tco and stress responses in a tropical climate (hot and humid conditions. METHODS: Twelve trained male cyclists/triathletes completed six 20-km exercise trials against the clock in 30.7°C±0.8°C and 78%±0.03% relative humidity. Before and after warm-up, and before exercise and every 5 km during exercise, athletes drank 190 mL of either aromatized (i.e., with 0.5 mL of menthol (5 gr/L or a non-aromatized beverage (neutral temperature: 23°C±0.1°C, cold: 3°C±0.1°C, or ice-slush: -1°C±0.7°C. During the trials, heart rate (HR was continuously monitored, whereas core temperature (Tco, thermal comfort (TC, thermal sensation (TS and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured before and after warm-up, every 5 km of exercise, and at the end of exercise and after recovery. RESULTS: Both the beverage aroma (P<0.02 and beverage temperature (P<0.02 had significant and positive effects on performance, which was considerably better with ice-slush than with a neutral temperature beverage, whatever the aroma (P<0.002, and with menthol vs non-menthol (P<0.02. The best performances were obtained with ice-slush/menthol and cold/menthol, as opposed to neutral/menthol. No differences were noted in HR and Tco between trials. CONCLUSION: Cold water or ice-slush with menthol aroma seems to be the most effective beverage for endurance exercise in a tropical climate. Further studies are needed to explore its effects in field competition.

  15. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Hoppe, Maria; Schlummer, Martin; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap water already may pose a high contribution to daily human exposure. Tap water samples (n=4) had higher concentrations of PFAAs than the corresponding post-mixed cola (n=4). The lower PFAA levels in the cola were attributed to the pre-treatment of tap water in the mixing machines and dilution with cola syrup. In coffee samples from a coffee machine perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at 4 ng L(-1) was the dominating analyte (n=12). The concentrations of PFHpA, PFOA and non branched PFOS were found to be significantly higher in manually (self) brewed coffee than in the corresponding tap water (n=4). The contribution from short-chain PFAA analogs could not be quantified due to low recoveries. Leaching experiments at different temperatures were performed with fluoropolymers-containing tubes to investigate the potential of leaching from tubes used in beverage preparation (n=16). Fluoropolymer tubes showed leaching of PFAAs at high (80°C) temperature but its relevance for contamination of beverages in practice is small. The specific contribution from perfluoropolymer tubing inside the beverage preparation machines could not be assessed since no information was available from the manufacturers. The present study shows that although different beverage preparation processes possibly affect the concentrations of PFAAs encountered in the final consumed product, the water used for preparation remains the most important source of PFAAs. This in turn has implications for areas where drinking water is contaminated. Tap-water based beverages will possibly be an additional source of human exposure to PFAAs and need to be considered in exposure modeling. PMID:22939265

  16. PENENTUAN DAERAH RAWAN GIZI BERDASARKAN ANALISIS SPATIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noviati Fuada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang : Riset Kesehatan Dasar telah dilakukan di Indonesia (RISKESDAS 2007. Riset telah mengumpulkan data-data yang terdiri dari data kesehatan yang menggambarkan status gizi anak di bawah lima (antrophometri data di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Kenyataanya masih sedikit analisis dengan menggunakan metode GIS, oleh karena itu artikel ini akan dikaji dengan metode spasial. Kajian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi faktual, yang dapat mendukung kebijakan daerah. Tujuan: Mengidentifikasi daerah kabupaten/provinsi rawan status gizi anak balita, Metode: Analisa GIS denganmenggunakan metode spasial (pengelompokan data dan overlay dengan cara union. Data RISKESDAS 2007. Hasil: Wilayah tingkat tinggi potensi rawan gizi bermasalah (bersumber overlay antara peta sebaran status gizi balita dengan peta sebaran KK miskin  adalah; Kota Tasikmalaya, Kab. Tasikmalaya, Cianjur, Garut, Ciamis, Bandung, Subang dan Majalengka. Wilayah tingkat tinggi berpotensi terkena infeksi penyakit (berdasarkan peta sebaran resiko Infeksi Penyakit dan pemanfaatan posyandu adalah: Kabupaten Purwakarta, Karawang, Bekasi, Bogor, Sukabumi, Tasikmalaya, Kota Tasikmalaya, Bekasi dan Bogor. Wilayah berpotensi rawan gizi kategori tinggi (bersumber pada 4 faktor/peta sebaran meliputi, Kabupaten Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya dan Kota Tasikmalaya. Kasus Gizi bermasalah berdasarkan 3 indeks gabungan menyebar di seluruh wilayah Provinsi Jawa Barat. Wilayah kasus gizi bermasalah kategori tinggi, dan kategori sedang, sebagian besar  terjadi di wilayah Kabupaten. Baik kategori sedang maupun tinggi merupakan wilayah yang berdampingan. Gambaran ini mengarah pada fakta bahwa  masalah gizi cenderung merupakan masalah epidemiologi. Kesimpulan: Terdapat empat wilayah kabupaten status gizi yang paling serius dalam kategori tinggi meliputi, Kabupaten Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya dan Kota Tasikmalaya.  Kata kunci: analisis spasial, status gizi, posyandu, rawan gizi 

  17. Analisis SWOT untuk Penentuan Strategi Optimalisasi Infrastruktur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Undang-undang No.38 tahun 2009 tentang Pos memberikan keleluasaan penyelenggara pos untuk melakukan pengembangan produksi serta peningkatan infrastruktur, yang mendukung daya saing masing-masing penyelenggara pos. Sebagai badan usaha milik negara, PT.Pos Indonesia memiliki jaringan terintegrasi sampai ke pedesaan dan daerah transmigrasi, yang diketahui hampir 100% jaringan dibangun oleh pemerintah. Jaringan Pos adalah jaringan fisik maupun virtual untuk mendukung terselenggaranya layanan pos. Jumlah titik layanan mencapai 24 ribu titik layanan yang menjangkau hampir 100% kecamatan dan 42 % kelurahan/desa. Untuk mengetahui strategi dalam rangka optimalisasi infrastruktur di PT.Pos Indonesia, dilakukan penelitian dengan pendekatan kualitatif dan analisis SWOT dan hasilnya penggambaran pada Matrik Grand Strategi, posisi pada  Kuadran I (positif, positif, artinya, PT.Pos Indonesia khususnya untuk KPRK Jakarta Pusat10000, KPRK Jakarta Utara14000 dan KPRK Bandung 40000 manajemen organisasinya sudah solid, dan banyak mempunyai peluang. Ekspansi dapat dilanjutkan untuk memperbesar pertumbuhan dan pengembangan produk, namun aspek SDM masih perlu ditingkatkan.

  18. Penentuan Ranking Suatu Web Dengan Algoritma Pagerank.

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia, Rima

    2011-01-01

    PageRank algorithm is an algorithm that was issued and developed by the founders of Google, PageRank was made by Lawrence Page and Sergey Brin as a tool to determine the rank of a web. In determining the rank of a website, links in and links out is one key factor, besides which there is Alexa Rank can also determine the high order of a web. 050803052

  19. Antioxidant Protection of an Omega-3 Fatty Acid Fortified Dairy-Based Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Robert Lee

    2009-01-01

    Skim, butter-derived aqueous phase, anhydrous milk fat, and fish oil were used to formulate ultra high temperature (UHT) processed extended shelf-life omega-3 fatty acid fortified dairy-based beverages with fat contents mimicking whole milk (3.25%). Oxidation of the lipids in the formulated beverages was investigated during storage for 35 days at 4 °C using GC/MS analysis, conjugated diene analysis, and headspace solid phase micro-extraction GC/MS (SPME-GC/MS) analysis of head...

  20. Implications of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Tax Exemption on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    US state and local governments are debating sugar-sweetened beverage excise taxes to support public health. A related issue is whether such taxes would apply to beverage purchases made by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Federal law proscribes states from collecting excise taxes on SNAP purchases, but the law is confined to taxes at the point of sale. I provide legal analysis and recommendations for policymakers to enact taxes that are not subject to the SNAP tax exemption to potentially deter consumption by all consumers. PMID:26378844

  1. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    -regulation regarding food and beverage marketing and nutrition labelling. Design: Five databases were searched for combinations of the search terms: obesity, nutrition, food, beverages, industry, self-regulation, labelling, advertising and marketing, and papers were selected on the basis of paper titles......-regulation in relation to obesity prevention is an emerging field of research, and further research is needed in such schemes’ definitions of regulatory standards, their monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms, and their interactions with public regulation, if industry self-regulation of marketing behaviour is to become...

  2. Nutrition Content of Food and Beverage Products on Web Sites Popular With Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingas, Elena O.; Bukofzer, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional quality of branded food and beverage products advertised on 28 Web sites popular with children. Of the 77 advertised products for which nutritional information was available, 49 met Institute of Medicine criteria for foods to avoid, 23 met criteria for foods to neither avoid nor encourage, and 5 met criteria for foods to encourage. There is a need for further research on the nature and extent of food and beverage advertising online to aid policymakers as they assess the impact of this marketing on children. PMID:19443816

  3. Fiscal and Economic Impacts of Beverage Excise Taxes Imposed by Maine Public Law 629

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the fiscal and economic impacts of the new and increased taxes on malt liquor (i.e., beer), wine and soft drinks imposed by Public Law 629. By fiscal impacts, we mean the increase in beverage taxes that would be paid by households and businesses. Our analysis suggests that Public Law 629 would lead to an estimated $40.7 million in additional beverage taxes per year. Economic impacts refer to the changes in statewide economic activity (e.g., sales rev...

  4. Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Block, Jason P; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    We asked 1877 adults and 1178 adolescents visiting 89 fast-food restaurants in New England in 2010 and 2011 to estimate calories purchased. Calorie underestimation was greater among those purchasing a high-calorie beverage than among those who did not (adults: 324 ±698 vs 102 ±591 calories; adolescents: 360 ±602 vs 198 ±509 calories). This difference remained significant for adults but not adolescents after adjusting for total calories purchased. Purchasing high-calorie beverages may uniquely contribute to calorie underestimation among adults. PMID:27196648

  5. Causality between Total Expenditures on Alcoholic Beverages and Violent Crime in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akçay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the cointegration and causal relationship between alcohol expenditures and violent crime in the USA for the period 1960-2007 using Johansen and Juselius (1990 cointegration test and the Granger no-causality approach developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. The study does not find a long-run equilibrium relationship between total expenditures on alcoholic beverages and violent crime. The results of Toda and Yamamoto approach indicate that the total expenditures on alcoholic beverages do not Granger cause violent crime in the USA.

  6. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José António; de Almeida Silva, João Batista; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2010-11-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed distribution of yeasts in macro-clusters among the grain's matrix essentially composed of polysaccharides (kefiran) and bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis displayed communities included yeast affiliated to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kazachatania unispora, bacteria affiliated to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefiranofaciens and an uncultured bacterium also related to the genus Lactobacillus. A steady structure and dominant microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, was detected in the analyzed kefir beverages and grains. This robustness is determinant for future implementation of whey-based kefir beverages. PMID:20619643

  7. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    ), USA. Results showed that the new sensor was able to detect different concentrations of phthalates in energy drinks. The experimental outcomes provided sufficient indication to favour the development of a low cost detection system for rapid quantification of phthalates in beverages for industrial use. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic and Chromium in Canned and Non-Canned Beverages in Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish E. Orisakwe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to heavy metals in African populations. Little is known about the exposure to heavy metal toxins from processed or unprocessed foods consumed in Africa, and no data exists on the food concentrations of arsenic and chromium, which are potential carcinogens and systemic toxicants. This study determined the concentrations of arsenic and chromium in beverages and fruit drinks commonly sold in Nigeria. Fifty samples of commonly consumed canned and non-canned beverages (imported and locally manufactured purchased in Nigeria were digested in nitric acid and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. 33.3% of the canned beverages had arsenic levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL of 0.01 mg/L set by U.S. EPA while 55.2% of non-canned beverages had their arsenic levels exceeding the MCL. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.161 mg/L for the canned and 0.002 to 0.261 mg/l for the non-canned beverages. Whereas 68.9% of the non-canned beverages showed chromium levels that exceeded the US EPA’s MCL of 0.10 mg/L, 76.2% of the canned beverages had chromium levels that were greater than the MCL. The concentration range of total chromium in the canned beverages was 0.04 to 0.59 mg/L and 0.01 to 0.55 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The sources of arsenic and chromium in the commercially available beverages are unclear and merit further investigation. This preliminary study highlights the need to study the toxicological implications of chronic low-level exposure to heavy metals from African markets.

  9. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Renata Micha; Shahab Khatibzadeh; Peilin Shi; Stephen Lim; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Majid Ezzati; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these bev...

  10. Analysis of Citric Acid in Beverages: Use of an Indicator Displacement Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Alona P.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Wright, Aaron T.; Blieden, Clifford R.; Smith, Carolyne K.; Tian, Tian; Truong, Jennifer A.; Crumm, Caitlin E.; Garcia, Jorge E.; Lee, Soal; Mosier, Meredith; Nguyen, Chester P.

    2010-01-01

    The use of an indicator displacement assay permits the visualization of binding events between host and guest molecules. An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to demonstrate the technique in the determination of citric acid content in commercially available beverages such as soda pop and fruit juices. Through the technique, students…

  11. The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

  12. Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. Gambon; H.S. Brand; C. Boutkabout; D. Levie; E.C.I. Veerman

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on consumpt

  13. Characterization and classification of spirituous beverages by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique was applied for the multi-elemental analysis of spirituous beverages like rum, cocuy (typical spirituous beverage in Venezuela), whiskey and wine, in order to classify the samples by product processing and geographical origin by chemometric analysis. Special attention was paid to the cocuy samples, since there is a lack of quality control of this beverage, mainly due to the home-made product processing. The use of the Compton peak information was evaluated for the determination of organic content in samples. In the specifically case of cocuy samples the Compton peak area was correlated to the ash content for detection of adulteration with sugar syrup. Cocuy samples were also analyzed using gas chromatography, for pH, acidity, ash content and refractometry, in order to develop the recognition pattern. The TXRF analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer, using the K α-line of a Motube, by a direct procedure previously developed. The analysis of the data was done by using principal components analysis and a confidence test. The results show that TXRF and chemometric analysis is a useful tool for quality control of spirituous beverages, not only concerning to metal content, but also in the evaluation of sugar and non volatile organic content. (author)

  14. Cars of the Future—Powered by Poison? Prehistoric Beverage Choices; Health Benefits of Chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-04-01

    This Report from Other Journals: Research Advances surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include a report on a new approach to hydrogen fuel cells; findings about alcoholic beverages from 7000 B.C. that have been subjected to modern analyses; and research that supports claims regarding chamomile's medicinal properties.

  15. STS-31 Pilot Bolden with beverages on the FB-SMS middeck during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-31 Pilot Charles F. Bolden holds three beverage containers while in front of the galley on the middeck of the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during a training simulation at JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. From the middeck, Bolden, wearing lightweight headset, simulates a communications link with ground controllers and fellow crewmembers.

  16. Beverage intake preference and bowel preparation laxative taste preference for colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adeyinka; O; Laiyemo; Clinton; Burnside; Maryam; A; Laiyemo; John; Kwagyan; Carla; D; Williams; Kolapo; A; Idowu; Hassan; Ashktorab; Angesom; Kibreab; Victor; F; Scott; Andrew; K; Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether non-alcoholic beverage intake preferences can guide polyethylene glycol(PEG)-based bowel laxative preparation selection for patients.METHODS: We conducted eight public taste test sessions using commercially procured(A) unflavored PEG,(B) citrus flavored PEG and(C) PEG with ascorbate(Moviprep). We collected characteristics of volunteers including their beverage intake preferences. The volunteers tasted the laxatives in randomly assigned orders and ranked the laxatives as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd based on their taste preferences. Our primary outcome is the number of 1st place rankings for each preparation. RESULTS: A total of 777 volunteers completed the study. Unflavored PEG was ranked as 1st by 70(9.0%), flavored PEG by 534(68.7%) and PEG with ascorbate by173(22.3%) volunteers. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics and beverage intake patterns for coffee, tea, and carbonated drinks did not predict PEG-based laxative preference.CONCLUSION: Beverage intake pattern was not a useful guide for PEG-based laxative preference. It is important to develop more tolerable and affordable bowel preparation laxatives for colonoscopy. Also, patients should taste their PEG solution with and without flavoring before flavoring the entire gallon as this may give them more opportunity to pick a pattern that may be more tolerable.

  17. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Zoellner, Jamie M; Lee, Joyce M; Burt, Brian A; Sandretto, Anita M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Lepkowski, James M

    2009-06-01

    A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3-5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002-2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score was computed from recorded height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by national reference age-sex specific BMI: those with an age-sex specific BMI>or=85th, but or=95th age-sex specific percentile as obese. The prevalence of overweight was 12.9% in baseline, and increased to 18.7% after 2 years. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3 to 20.4% during the same period. Baseline intake of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with baseline BMI z-scores. After adjusting for covariates, additional intake of fruit drinks and all sugar-sweetened beverages at baseline showed significantly higher odds of incidence of overweight over 2 years. Among a longitudinal cohort of African-American preschool children, high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was significantly associated with an increased risk for obesity.

  18. 75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... amended Chapter 14 of the Code of Ordinance was last published on April 1, 2009 (Vol. 74, No. 61, FR 14813... mixture of these or a compound mixture of these with any other substance which produces intoxication... Revenue means the revenue derived from all the sales of food and Alcoholic Beverages on the...

  19. Consumption Of Specific Foods And Beverages And Excess Weight Gain Among Children And Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Di; Bilger, Marcel; van Dam, Rob M; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    Efforts are under way to identify successful strategies to reduce long-term childhood obesity risk, such as ways to improve diet quality. To identify foods and beverages associated with excess weight gain, we used cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. We quantified the associations between changes in or levels of consumption of twenty-seven food and beverage groups and excess weight gain in three-year periods among youth ages 7-13. When we considered all dietary factors and physical activity levels simultaneously, we found that foods with the largest positive associations with three-year excess weight gain were fat spread (butter or margarine), coated (breaded or battered) poultry, potatoes cooked in oil (French fries, roasted potatoes, and potato chips), coated fish, processed meats, other meats, desserts and sweets, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Foods associated with weight loss were whole grains and high-fiber cereals. These results provide evidence for targeting specific food and beverage groups in efforts to influence weight outcomes. PMID:26526253

  20. Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.

  1. Beverages-Food Industry Cluster Development Based on Value Chain in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasmono Tri Sunaryanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study wants to develop the cluster-based food and beverage industry value chain that corresponds to the potential in the regions in Java Economic Corridor. Targeted research: a description of SME development strategies that have been implemented, composed, and can be applied to an SME cluster development strategy of food and beverage, as well as a proven implementation strategy of SME cluster development of food and beverage. To achieve these objectives, implemented descriptive methods, techniques of data collection through surveys, analysis desk, and the FGD. The data will be analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results of study on PT KML and 46 units of food and drink SMEs in Malang shows that the condition of the SME food-beverage cluster is: not formal, and still as the center. As for the condition of the existence of information technology: the majority of SMEs do not have the PC and only 11% who have it, of which only 23% have a PC that has an internet connection, as well as PC ownership is mostly just used for administration, with WORD and EXCEL programs, and only 4% (1 unit SMEs who use the internet marketing media.

  2. Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: the case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smith, Travis A; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Hall, Kevin D

    2011-12-01

    Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body weight is used, and the main objective of the study is to demonstrate its bias. To accomplish the objective, we estimate income-segmented beverage demand systems to examine the potential effects of a SSB tax. Elasticity estimates and a hypothetical 20 percent effective tax rate (or about 0.5 cent per ounce) are applied to beverage intake data from a nationally representative survey, and we find an average daily reduction of 34-47 calories among adults and 40-51 calories among children. The tax-induced energy reductions are translated into weight loss using both static and dynamic calorie-to-weight models. Results demonstrate that the static model significantly overestimates the weight loss from reduced energy intake by 63 percent in year one, 346 percent in year five, and 764 percent in year 10, which leads to unrealistic expectations for obesity intervention strategies. The tax is estimated to generate $5.8 billion a year in revenue and is found to be regressive, although it represents about 1 percent of household food and beverage spending. PMID:21940223

  3. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D

    2015-08-11

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of "liquid" energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  4. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Poppitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  5. Household production of alcoholic beverages in early eighteenth-century Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, M E

    1985-05-01

    In light of the recent controversy concerning the applicability of the household economy model to early American history, this study examines the case of alcoholic beverages produced in the households of early-eighteenth-century Connecticut. All probate inventories from Hartford, New London and Fairfield counties for 1700, 1710, 1720, 1730 and 1740 (a total of 274 inventories) were examined with a checklist of items (e.g., hops, malt, cider presses and stills) crucial to the production of alcoholic beverages during that period. The presence of these beverages themselves was also noted. Of the inventories read, 133 (49%) suggested that beverage making took place in the household. The three counties sampled showed surprisingly little deviation in the percentages of inventories suggesting alcohol production and in the preferences for specific types of drinks. Of all inventories bearing references to alcohol production, beer brewing was indicated in 83% and cider in only 55%--despite the traditional opinion of cider's predominance. The independence of cider entries from the seasonal bias of the inventories was also demonstrated. These findings, insofar as they show the pervasiveness of alcohol production within the households inventoried, thus argue strongly for the validity of the household economy model. Some implications of this model for alcohol studies are also discussed.

  6. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  7. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, N.; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mgl(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners...

  8. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, U.; Fagt, Sisse;

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks...

  9. Developing media interventions to reduce household sugar-sweetened beverage consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Jordan; J. Piotrowski; A. Bleakley; G. Mallya

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the city of Philadelphia launched a media campaign to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in homes with children as a strategy to combat obesity. Using the integrative model (IM) of behavioral change and prediction, a theory-based precampaign survey of Philadelphia pa

  10. Effect of type of alcoholic beverages on carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, sialic acid, and liver enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillanaukee, P.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Sierksma, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Strid, N.; Pönniö, M.; Nikkari, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Background: There are only limited data obtained under well controlled conditions on the effects of moderate drinking on markers of alcohol use disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate intake of different alcoholic beverages on these markers, including carbohydrate

  11. Effect of inulin and oligofructose on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of symbiotic dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Rodrigo Fornelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effect of inulin and oligofructose on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of symbiotic dairy beverages. Four formulations were made: 1 a control (C; 2 a sample with added Lactobacillus paracasei (P; 3 a sample with added L. paracasei and inulin (PI; and 4 a sample with added L. paracasei and oligofructose (PO. The probiotic population, pH, and acidity of the products were evaluated once a week for 21 days while refrigerated (5±1°C. Possible contaminating microorganisms (coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were investigated after three days of storage. Sensorial acceptance and purchase intention were evaluated seven days after manufacture. Dairy beverages presented with L. paracasei populations above 8.50 log CFU/mL during the whole storage period. Significantly (p<0.05 lower pH values were observed in P and PI, and higher acidity values were found in all formulations throughout storage. The dairy beverages were considered to be a promising matrix for the probiotic microorganism L. paracasei. The prebiotic additions (inulin and oligofructose did not interfere with the overall acceptance and intention to purchase the beverages.

  12. Multiple data sets and modelling choices in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, van der E.J.M.; Potting, J.; Kroeze, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as

  13. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluorinated alkyl acids in tap-water based beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eschauzier; M. Hoppe; M. Schlummer; P. de Voogt

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap wat

  14. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage.

  15. Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

  16. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Deirdre; And Others

    The food and beverage industry is of overwhelming strategic importance to the Irish economy. It is also one of the fastest changing sectors. Recent trends in this largely indigenous industry in recent years include the following: globalization, large and accelerating capital outlay, company consolidation, added value product, enhanced quality…

  17. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) requires an understanding of how drinking water comes in contact with humans through multiple pathways. In order to facilitate the investigation of human exposure to DBPs via foods and beverages, analy...

  18. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57.20014 Section 57.20014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas...

  19. 29 CFR 779.388 - Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees. 779.388 Section 779.388 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED...

  20. Strategies to Improve Marketing and Promotion of Foods and Beverages at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing often appears throughout schools in the form of posters, vending machine fronts, in-school television advertisements, school newspapers, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards. Many foods marketed in schools are of poor nutritional quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of…

  1. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56.20014 Section 56.20014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for...

  2. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  3. Development of novel fermentation systems for the production of nonalcoholic beverages with basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Basidiomycetes represent the highest developed class of fungi. They are able to synthesize pharmacological relevant secondary metabolites, natural flavor compounds, and highly sought after enzymes. Because of their biochemical potential, basidiomycetes are ideal tools for the food industry. With the recent worldwide declining consumption of beer, breweries are eagerly searching for innovative nonalcoholic fermented beverages to compensate for this negative trend. Different from microorgan...

  4. An examination of the nutrient content and on-package marketing of novel beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachner, Naomi; Mendelson, Rena; Sacco, Jocelyn; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2015-02-01

    Changing regulatory approaches to fortification in Canada have enabled the expansion of the novel beverage market, but the nutritional implications of these new products are poorly understood. This study assessed the micronutrient composition of energy drinks, vitamin waters, and novel juices sold in Canadian supermarkets, and critically examined their on-package marketing at 2 time points: 2010-2011, when they were regulated as Natural Health Products, and 2014, when they fell under food regulations. We examined changes in micronutrient composition and on-package marketing among a sample of novel beverages (n = 46) over time, compared micronutrient content with Dietary Reference Intakes and the results of the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey to assess potential benefits, and conducted a content analysis of product labels. The median number of nutrients per product was 4.5, with vitamins B6, B12, C, and niacin most commonly added. Almost every beverage provided at least 1 nutrient in excess of requirements, and most contained 3 or more nutrients at such levels. With the exception of vitamin C, there was no discernible prevalence of inadequacy among young Canadian adults for the nutrients. Product labels promoted performance and emotional benefits related to nutrient formulations that go beyond conventional nutritional science. Label graphics continued to communicate these attributes even after reformatting to comply with food regulations. In contrast with the on-package marketing of novel beverages, there is little evidence that consumers stand to benefit from the micronutrients most commonly found in these products.

  5. AN EMPRICAL INVESTIGATION EMPLOYEE TURNOVER IN THE HOTEL ENTERPRISES FOOD AND BEVERAGE DEPARTMANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer L. MET

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of economic and social area in tourism industry, employees’ behavior has been getting important which is one of the basic production factors. Employee mobility is a reflection of employees’ behaviours emerged as a result of external and internal interference. Employee mobility is a concept which examines entering-leaving job movement and which has a great effect on employees and establishments. In the study, views of employees on employee mobility that was working in food-beverage department of hotel establishments was analyzed. The study consists of two parts that are literature review and methodology. In the part of literature review was done about the importance of food-beverage departments in hotel establishments and the concept of employee mobility. In the part of methodology questionnaire was designed and 379 employees that were working in food-beverage department of 4 and 5 star hotels in Çeşme were interviewed. The results showed that employees that were working in food-beverage department of hotel establishments were tend to employee mobility than other sector’s employees.

  6. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  7. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vélez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2 to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8% exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00. Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample.

  8. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Ole

    A study of the food sector in Denmark was limited to the slaughterhouse, dairy, beverages sectors. The food sector was the most important single industry in the Danish economy. It was the largest manufacturing sector, generated one-third of total manufacturing, and comprised approximately 8 percent of the total Danish gross domestic product. It…

  9. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed C max at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants. PMID:25649891

  10. A protocol of measurement of In Vivo Aroma release from beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 1

  11. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 165 Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water...

  12. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  13. Oral Liquid Formulation of Levothyroxine Is Stable in Breakfast Beverages and May Improve Thyroid Patient Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernareggi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4 are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations.

  14. Associations between Responsible Beverage Service Laws and Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…

  15. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage. PMID:27446061

  16. STS-33 MS Carter sips drink from a beverage container on OV-103's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr, smiling, sips drink from a beverage container using a straw on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, middeck. Around Carter's neck are a necklace and tape recorder headphones (headset). A net stowage bag freefloats next to Carter's head.

  17. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R.; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E.; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage. PMID:27446061

  18. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Regional Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 545 Marriott Drive, Suite 700, Nashville, TN 37214; Telephone... Indian Country of the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana in accordance with federal law, the laws of the State... otherwise: (a) ``Alcoholic beverage'' means any fluid or any solid capable of being converted into...

  19. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed C max at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants.

  20. Economic effect of the production of alcoholic beverages with lower toxic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Holovko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have an assessment of the economic effect of the production of new alcoholic beverages. In the modern setting during the manufacturing of the alcoholic products, extra attention is aimed at the improvement of technology and the use of raw materials which will lower the toxic levels of alcohol. Analyzation of the recipes for the production of alcohol will allow to manufacture "safe" alcohol compared to the traditional alcohol, increase the assortment of the product available on the market, and increase its competitive value. At this moment there are three products available "Red Light", "Orange light", "Green Light" based on the availability of vegetative and animal raw materials with lower toxic effects, and during the consumption of it there are lower negative effects on the organism, and the chances of a hangover are lower as well. The cost of beverages has been calculated, its value has been estimated, which includes its production and the changes to the volume have been analyzed towards strong alcoholic beverages and the effect of introducing to the production newly developed alcoholic beverages based on vegetative and animal raw materials.