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Sample records for beverage health warning

  1. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The effectiveness of current French health warnings displayed on alcohol advertisements and alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Gloria; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Diouf, Jacques-François

    2017-08-01

    Many countries use health warnings in an attempt to regulate alcohol consumption. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in the research on alcohol warnings to support decision-making on effective health policies. This study explores the effectiveness of two mandatory warnings introduced in France in 1991 and 2007: the first (Alcohol abuse is harmful) is displayed on alcohol advertisements; the second (a pictogram) on bottles. Given that advertising content regulations have been implemented in some countries to reduce the attractiveness of alcohol marketing (e.g. the Evin law in France), this research also aims to explore whether such regulations can improve the effectiveness of warnings. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 French people aged 15-29 years. The effectiveness of health warnings was assessed in terms of recall, noticeability, credibility, comprehension, responsiveness, and ability to encourage moderate drinking and abstinence during pregnancy. Participants were shown alcohol advertisements and bottles that either followed or challenged content regulations. The data were analyzed using double manual coding and NVivo software. While both warnings suffered from a lack of visibility and noticeability due to their size, location, and outdatedness and because of competition from marketing design elements, the warning on the advertisement that followed content regulations was most visible. Both warnings were considered to be informationally vague, lacking in credibility and ineffective in terms of making participants feel concerned and influencing consumption habits. Current French warnings are ineffective and require modification. Improvements are suggested regarding the design and content of warnings to help increase their effectiveness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulating the Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Warning Labels in Three Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Ferguson, Marie C; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Adam, Atif; Zenkov, Eli; Wang, Peggy I; Wong, Michelle S; Gittelsohn, Joel; Mui, Yeeli; Brown, Shawn T

    2018-02-01

    A number of locations have been considering sugar-sweetened beverage point-of-purchase warning label policies to help address rising adolescent overweight and obesity prevalence. To explore the impact of such policies, in 2016 detailed agent-based models of Baltimore, Philadelphia, and San Francisco were developed, representing their populations, school locations, and food sources, using data from various sources collected between 2005 and 2014. The model simulated, over a 7-year period, the mean change in BMI and obesity prevalence in each of the cities from sugar-sweetened beverage warning label policies. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that implementing sugar-sweetened beverage warning labels at all sugar-sweetened beverage retailers lowered obesity prevalence among adolescents in all three cities. Point-of-purchase labels with 8% efficacy (i.e., labels reducing probability of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 8%) resulted in the following percentage changes in obesity prevalence: Baltimore: -1.69% (95% CI= -2.75%, -0.97%, p<0.001); San Francisco: -4.08% (95% CI= -5.96%, -2.2%, p<0.001); Philadelphia: -2.17% (95% CI= -3.07%, -1.42%, p<0.001). Agent-based simulations showed how warning labels may decrease overweight and obesity prevalence in a variety of circumstances with label efficacy and literacy rate identified as potential drivers. Implementing a warning label policy may lead to a reduction in obesity prevalence. Focusing on warning label design and store compliance, especially at supermarkets, may further increase the health impact. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An exploratory study of drinkers views of health information and warning labels on alcohol containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Lisa M; Vandenberg, Brian; Fitzgerald, John L

    2012-03-01

    To identify general and specific features of health information warning labels on alcohol beverage containers that could potentially inform the development and implementation of a new labelling regime in Australia. Mixed methods, including a cross-sectional population survey and a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding alcohol beverage labelling. The population survey used computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1500 persons in Victoria, Australia to gauge the level of support for health information and warning labels. The qualitative study used six focus groups to test the suitability of 12 prototype labels that were placed in situ on a variety of alcohol beverage containers. The telephone survey found 80% to 90% support for a range of information that could potentially be mandated by government authorities for inclusion on labels (nutritional information, alcohol content, health warning, images). Focus group testing of the prototype label designs found that labels should be integrated with other alcohol-related health messages, such as government social advertising campaigns, and specific labels should be matched appropriately to specific consumer groups and beverage types. There are high levels of public support for health information and warning labels on alcohol beverages. This study contributes much needed empirical guidance for developing alcohol beverage labelling strategies in an Australian context. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Structure health assessment and warning system (SHAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Daniel M.; Kim, Keehoon; Mapar, Jalal

    2008-03-01

    We are developing a Structure Health Assessment and Warning System (SHAWS) based on building displacement measurements and wireless communication. SHAWS will measure and predict the stability/instability of a building, determine whether it is safe for emergency responders to enter during an emergency, and provide individual warnings on the condition of the structure. SHAWS incorporates remote sensing nodes (RSNs) installed on the exterior frame of a building. Each RSN includes a temperature sensor, a three-axis accelerometer making static-acceleration measurements, and a ZigBee wireless system (IEEE 802.15.4). The RSNs will be deployed remotely using an air cannon delivery system, with each RSN having an innovative adhesive structure for fast (<10 min) and strong installation under emergency conditions. Once the building has moved past a threshold (~0.25 in./building story), a warning will be issued to emergency responders. In addition to the RSNs, SHAWS will include a base station located on an emergency responder's primary vehicle, a PDA for mobile data display to guide responders, and individual warning modules that can be worn by each responder. The individual warning modules will include visual and audio indicators with a ZigBee receiver to provide the proper degree of warning to each responder.

  6. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  7. The lower effectiveness of text-only health warnings in China compared to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Meng, Gang; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve C; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Driezen, Pete; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, China changed its health warnings on cigarette packs from side-only text warnings to two text-only warnings on 30% of the bottom of the front and back of the pack. Also in 2009, Malaysia changed from similar text warnings to pictorial health warnings consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines. To measure the impact of the change in health warnings in China and to compare the text-only health warnings to the impact of the pictorial health warnings introduced in Malaysia. We measured changes in key indicators of warning effectiveness among a longitudinal cohort sample of smokers from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey and from Waves 3 to 4 (2008-2009) of the ITC Malaysia Survey. Each cohort consisted of representative samples of adult (≥18 years) smokers from six cities in China (n=6575) and from a national sample in Malaysia (n=2883). Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the impact of the health warnings on subsequent changes in salience of warnings, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Compared to Malaysia, the weak text-only warning labels in China led to a significant change in only two of six key indicators of health warning effectiveness: forgoing cigarettes and reading the warning labels. The change to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia led to significant and substantial increases in five of six indicators (noticing, reading, forgoing, avoiding, thinking about quitting). The delay in implementing pictorial health warnings in China constitutes a lost opportunity for increasing knowledge and awareness of the harms of cigarettes, and for motivating smokers to quit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D

    2013-10-01

    To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown.

  9. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Recent findings Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Summary Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown. PMID:23974767

  10. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  11. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. METHODS: Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338 were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63 tested pictorial warnings (ten that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. FINDINGS: Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  12. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  14. The Mental Health Counselor and "Duty to Warn."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, John J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews background and case histories surrounding legal concept of "duty to warn" and confidentiality limits of counseling. Discusses professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities of mental health counselors and identifies steps to follow for counselors who have to warn potential victims of danger from their clients. (Author/ABL)

  15. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages. Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1). The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective. Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.

  16. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives: a review of long-term health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Rangan, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage alternatives on long-term health outcomes. We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health outcomes in both children and adults were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50 methodology checklists. Six cohort studies and four RCTs were included in the systematic review with the quality rating ranging from acceptable to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted to fully understand the long-term health implications of beverage substitutions. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of beverage intake on metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A

    2015-09-01

    This review is based on a presentation that was made at a meeting concerning hydration. It summarizes the epidemiological evidence for selected beverages in relation to cardiovascular and/or metabolic health. The review focuses on tea, cocoa, milk, orange juice, alcohol, and beverages sweetened with sugars. These beverage types were chosen because of their widespread consumption, with tea, cocoa, orange juice, and milk being of potential benefit while alcohol and sugars may be detrimental. There is reasonably consistent evidence of reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with high consumption of tea, with the tea flavonoids appearing to be responsible for these benefits. There is also a growing evidence base for cocoa flavanols to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The bulk of the evidence supporting these conclusions is epidemiological and needs to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Milk is associated with reduced risk of CVD, particularly in relation to blood pressure, with certain milk tripeptides being implicated in having effects to reduce angiotensin action. Further work is needed to confirm these potentially beneficial effects. There is some evidence of potentially beneficial effects of orange juice on aspects of cardiovascular function, but this is by no means convincing, and further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials, together with the elucidation of whether any benefits are linked to the citrus flavanones or simply to the vitamin C content. While there is some evidence that red wine may convey some health benefits, there is also clear evidence that alcoholic beverages can have undesirable effects on blood pressure and increase the risk of CVD. It is possible that low to moderate intakes of alcoholic beverages may be beneficial. There is some evidence that beverages sweetened with sugars may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain, and there is also an indication from longitudinal cohort

  18. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair.

  19. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  20. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  1. Health warnings promote healthier dietary decision making: Effects of positive versus negative message framing and graphic versus text-based warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Bode, Stefan; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-08-01

    Food product health warnings have been proposed as a potential obesity prevention strategy. This study examined the effects of text-only and text-and-graphic, negatively and positively framed health warnings on dietary choice behavior. In a 2 × 5 mixed experimental design, 96 participants completed a dietary self-control task. After providing health and taste ratings of snack foods, participants completed a baseline measure of dietary self-control, operationalized as participants' frequency of choosing healthy but not tasty items and rejecting unhealthy yet tasty items to consume at the end of the experiment. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of five health warning groups and presented with 10 health warnings of a given form: text-based, negative framing; graphic, negative framing; text, positive framing; graphic, positive framing; or a no warning control. Participants then completed a second dietary decision making session to determine whether health warnings influenced dietary self-control. Linear mixed effects modeling revealed a significant interaction between health warning group and decision stage (pre- and post-health warning presentation) on dietary self-control. Negatively framed graphic health warnings promoted greater dietary self-control than other health warnings. Negatively framed text health warnings and positively framed graphic health warnings promoted greater dietary self-control than positively framed text health warnings and control images, which did not increase dietary self-control. Overall, HWs primed healthier dietary decision making behavior, with negatively framed graphic HWs being most effective. Health warnings have potential to become an important element of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaouie, Hala; Afifi, Rema A; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings are more effective than text warnings in enhancing motivation to quit and not to start smoking among youth. In Lebanon, packs still have only a very small text warning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese youth. This was a cross-sectional study including school students (n=1412) aged 13-18 years recruited from 28 schools and university students (n=1217) aged 18-25 years recruited from 7 universities. A variety of warnings were adapted from other countries. In all, 4 warnings were tested among school students and 18 among university students. All pictorial warnings were considered more effective than the current text warning on message-related and impact-related variables, including intentions to quit or not to start smoking among school and university students. Selected examples related to the top-ranked pictorial warnings are: among male non-smoking school students, 81% agreed that the 'lung' warning had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking as compared to 57% for the current text warning (pnegative economic consequences of smoking, and to find that such a warning was effective among specific sociodemographic groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Technology, conflict early warning systems, public health, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    Public health and conflict early warning are evolving rapidly in response to technology changes for the gathering, management, analysis and communication of data. It is expected that these changes will provide an unprecedented ability to monitor, detect, and respond to crises. One of the potentially most profound and lasting expected change affects the roles of the various actors in providing and sharing information and in responding to early warning. Communities and civil society actors have the opportunity to be empowered as a source of information, analysis, and response, while the role of traditional actors shifts toward supporting those communities and building resilience. However, by creating new roles, relationships, and responsibilities, technology changes raise major concerns and ethical challenges for practitioners, pressing the need for practical guidelines and actionable recommendations in line with existing ethical principles. Copyright © 2012 Pham and Vinck. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  4. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-09-23

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the "small change" in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  5. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shrapnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  6. Health Warning Labels for Smokeless Tobacco: The Impact of Graphic Images on Attention, Recall, and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Shoben, Abigail B; Cooper, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy K; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall). Linear and logistic regression analyses evaluated the proportion of time viewing the GHW, craving, and GHW recall. Participants who viewed a GHW spent a significantly greater proportion of their ad viewing time on GHWs (2.87 seconds or 30%), compared to those viewing a text-only warning (2.05 seconds or 24%). Although there were no significant differences by condition in total advertisement viewing duration, those participants viewing a GHW had increased recall of health warning messages compared to the text-only warning (76% had any warning message recall compared to 53%; p recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings among rural male smokeless tobacco users. Among a sample of rural smokeless tobacco users, GHWs attracted more attention and recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings when viewed within smokeless tobacco advertising. These findings provide additional empirical support that GHWs are an effective tobacco control tool for all tobacco products and advertisements. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effectiveness of pictorial health warning on cigarette packages: A cross-sectional study in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mizanur Rahman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Specific health warning placed on the tobacco product packages is considered as an effective and low-cost method for increasing the knowledge and awareness among the community. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the perception of pictorial health warnings (PHWs against smoking among the adult rural population of Sarawak.

  8. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Industry self-regulation to improve student health: quantifying changes in beverage shipments to schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, Robert F; Fitzpatrick, Brendan M; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    We developed a data collection and monitoring system to independently evaluate the self-regulatory effort to reduce the number of beverage calories available to children during the regular and extended school day. We have described the data collection procedures used to verify data supplied by the beverage industry and quantified changes in school beverage shipments. Using a proprietary industry data set collected in 2005 and semiannually in 2007 through 2010, we measured the total volume of beverage shipments to elementary, middle, and high schools to monitor intertemporal changes in beverage volumes, the composition of products delivered to schools, and portion sizes. We compared data with findings from existing research of the school beverage landscape and a separate data set based on contracts between schools and beverage bottling companies. Between 2004 and the 2009-2010 school year, the beverage industry reduced calories shipped to schools by 90%. On a total ounces basis, shipments of full-calorie soft drinks to schools decreased by 97%. Industry self-regulation, with the assistance of a transparent and independent monitoring process, can be a valuable tool in improving public health outcomes.

  10. Perceived effectiveness of graphic health warnings as a deterrent for smoking initiation among adolescents in selected schools in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebiyi

    2016-03-01

    Introduction of graphic health warnings, especially with an imagery depicting cancer and impotence may influence non-smokers to remain abstinent. Therefore, this study provides a template for a future policy-relevant study on graphic health warning in Nigeria.

  11. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Carpenter, Matthew J; Andrews, Jeannette O; Gray, Kevin M; Alberg, Anthony J; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-12-01

    Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, pinteractions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chibueze Izah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks. Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and the World Health Organization (WHO as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies.

  13. An organizational early-warning system for safety, health, and environmental crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, P.

    1992-01-01

    Early-warning systems have played an important role in preventing major industrial accidents and technological disasters. These systems record critical operating and performance parameters and raise warnings or alarms if these parameters cross acceptable limits. Most early-warning systems used in hazardous industries focus on the technological system and to a lesser extent on their human operators. However, industrial disasters are caused not only by technological and human failure, but also by organizational, regulatory, infrastructural, and community preparedness failures. Hazardous industries can benefit from the development of early-warning systems that have a broader scope than the core technology. These systems could cover financial, human resource, organizational policies, regulatory, infrastructural, and community-related variables. This paper develops some basic concepts that can help build managerially useful early-warning systems for safety, health, and environmental (SHE) incidents. It identifies variables that should be tracked, the threshold levels for these variables, and possible managerial reactions to warnings

  14. Young children's perceptions of health warning labels on cigarette packages: a study in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    Health warning labels on cigarette packages are one way to reach youth thinking about initiating tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine awareness and understanding of current health warning labels among 5 and 6 year old children. Researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with urban and rural 5 and 6 year olds from Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia. Among the 2,423 participating children, 62 % were unaware of the health warnings currently featured on cigarette packages, with the lowest levels of awareness in India and the highest levels in Brazil. When shown the messages, the same percentage of participating children (62 %) showed no level of message understanding. While youth are receiving social and informational messages promoting tobacco use, health warning labels featured on cigarette packages are not effectively reaching young children with anti-smoking messages.

  15. Non-dairy probiotic beverages: the next step into human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L

    2013-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages.

  16. Persepsi Perokok Aktif Terhadap Label Pictorial Health Warning pada Masyarakat Desa Rumah Kabanjahe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Adi Putra Sitepu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of this study by the Government Regulation No. 109 of 2012 on the inclusion of images and text health warnings / pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs. The norm of this aims to reduce the negative health effects, protect productive age population and increasing public awareness of the dangers of smoking. Against the background of the norm of the government, the study was intended to determine the perception of active smokers the pictorial health warning labels on packs of cigarettes there. In this study, the method used is descriptive method with qualitative data. Data collected through library research informant interviews, and documentation. The results showed that smokers know their pictorial health warning labels on packs of cigarettes and smokers can understand the meaning of their label. Knowledge smokers against pictorial health warning label does not make the smokers to quit smoking, they continue to smoke because of their experience does not suffer due to take up smoking, and the effects felt far different from what was stated on the packaging that has been made. Thus we can say the perception of smokers tend to deny the existence of the warning label.

  17. Substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages among college students. A health-concerns and behavioral-economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives. Furthermore, evoking health concerns by using health claims may induce substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages. A total of 108 18-22-year-old undergraduates participated in a laboratory experiment and were given a certain amount of money and allowed to purchase a healthy beverage and a less-healthy beverage with or without receiving health claims. Increasing the price of a type of beverage was shown to reduce purchases of that beverage type and lead to substitution with the alternative type. Moreover, the effect of price elasticity on healthy beverage substitution was more pronounced when participants' health concerns were evoked. The results suggest that lowering the cost of alternative commodities and evoking health concerns by health-related claims would foster the substitution of healthier for unhealthy beverages among college students. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Duty-to-Warn Guidelines for Mental Health Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luann; Altekruse, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes legal cases in which duty-to-warn was an issue. Suggests that guidelines for counselors are few and lack definition. Offers a model to guide counselors in making clinical judgments in cases and case examples to exemplify possible ethical dilemmas in the practice of counseling. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  19. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers’ Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Borland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention or the old text-only warnings (control. Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers’ knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  20. Impact of the new Malaysian cigarette pack warnings on smokers' awareness of health risks and interest in quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Bin Mohd Samin, Ahmad Shalihin

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  1. Gradual reduction of free sugars in beverages on sale by implementing the beverage checklist as a public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Maria; Winzer, Eva; Schätzer, Manuel; Dämon, Sabine; Moser, Nadine; Blagusz, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Julia; Lechleitner, Monika; Rieder, Anita; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2018-03-15

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of free sugar intake and contribute to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of a gradual sugar reduction strategy within the so-called 'beverage checklist' on free sugar content in beverages on sale in Austria. From 2010 until 2017, data on the amount of free sugar of sweetened beverages (sweetened with sugars, fruit juice and artificial sweeteners) with 0.20-0.75l serving sizes in all main supermarkets and from industry was collected. These data were published annually as the beverage checklist, which displays beverages on sale in Austria. The checklist aims to encourage beverage production with a free sugar content of ≤7.4 g/100 ml and no artificial sweeteners. Free sugar content in the total supply decreased significantly [7.53 (2.86) vs. 6.75 (2.79) g/100 ml; 10.4%; P strategy, conducted by a small non-profit organization, showed a reduction in the mean free sugar content by working with the industry to voluntarily reformulate beverages. More beverages with less added sugar were brought to the market, which implies healthier choices. The challenge now is to further engage the industry and also policy makers to achieve a greater reduction in the future.

  2. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers? Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, ...

  3. Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardio-metabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes, and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, who together control 34 percent of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the US, Brazil, and China) from 2000-2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kilojoules per 100 milliliters) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the US, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. PMID:22070346

  4. Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, S; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2012-03-01

    Carbonated soft drinks and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardiometabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc., who together control 34% of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the United States, Brazil and China) from 2000 to 2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL(-1) ) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. [Health threats and health system crises. An approach to early warning and response. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón Soria, Fernando; Guillén Enríquez, Francisco Javier

    2008-04-01

    The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the

  6. HYGIENIC AND HEALTH QUALITY OF HOT BEVERAGES DISTRIBUTED BY VENDING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vallone

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The food and beverage vending had in the last 40 years a great development in Italy. From the hygienic and health point of view, the quality of the products distributed by Vending is essentially related to three factors: the quality of raw materials, the quality of tap water and the good working order together with the good cleanliness and hygienic status of equipments. In this work we wanted to test these features. We evaluated microbiological and fungal quality of raw materials (powders, of distributed hot beverages and the used equipments. Despite contamination levels shown by the results of this study, the temperature of the boiler is sufficient to make a significant reduction of bacterial and fungal loads. To obtain satisfactory results on the quality of delivered hot beverages is necessary to apply correct maintenance and cleaning/sanitation procedures of equipments, as well as an appropriate selection of suppliers.

  7. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  8. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  9. Legal action against health claims on foods and beverages marketed to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Edwards, Danielle M; Rodman, Sarah O; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children raises numerous health concerns. One pathway to reduce childhood obesity is by decreasing energy intake through the ingestion of fewer calories. Yet, food and beverage manufacturers often promote energy-dense items for children via varied health claims. Deceptive health claims are prohibited, and may be addressed through litigation or governmental regulatory efforts. While the amount of legal action against these potentially deceptive claims has increased, no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This article, which analyzes litigation and governmental regulatory activities, considers key factors that may influence decisions to take legal action against potentially deceptive health claims on foods and beverages, including scientific support, forum selection, selection of plaintiffs, and potential public health impact.

  10. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  11. Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Munafò, Marcus R; Leonards, Ute

    2017-04-01

    To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. Cross-sectional observational study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with eye-tracking. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event-related design. Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, UK. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers (n = 72) were tested. After exclusions, data from 19 non-smokers, 19 weekly smokers and 20 daily smokers were analysed. Brain activity was assessed in whole brain analyses and in pre-specified masked analyses in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. On-line eye-tracking during scanning recorded visual attention to health warnings. There was no evidence for a main effect of pack type or smoking status in either the nucleus accumbens or amygdala, and this was unchanged when taking account of visual attention to health warnings. However, there was evidence for an interaction, such that we observed increased activation in the right amygdala when viewing branded as compared with plain packs among weekly smokers (P = 0.003). When taking into account visual attention to health warnings, we observed higher levels of activation in the visual cortex in response to plain packaging compared with branded packaging of cigarettes (P = 0.020). Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking data, health warnings appear to be more salient on 'plain' cigarette packs than branded packs. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jonathan C. W.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Leonards, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. Design Cross‐sectional observational study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with eye‐tracking. Non‐smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event‐related design. Setting Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, UK. Participants Non‐smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers (n = 72) were tested. After exclusions, data from 19 non‐smokers, 19 weekly smokers and 20 daily smokers were analysed. Measurements Brain activity was assessed in whole brain analyses and in pre‐specified masked analyses in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. On‐line eye‐tracking during scanning recorded visual attention to health warnings. Findings There was no evidence for a main effect of pack type or smoking status in either the nucleus accumbens or amygdala, and this was unchanged when taking account of visual attention to health warnings. However, there was evidence for an interaction, such that we observed increased activation in the right amygdala when viewing branded as compared with plain packs among weekly smokers (P = 0.003). When taking into account visual attention to health warnings, we observed higher levels of activation in the visual cortex in response to plain packaging compared with branded packaging of cigarettes (P = 0.020). Conclusions Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye‐tracking data, health warnings appear to be more salient on ‘plain’ cigarette packs than branded packs. PMID:27886656

  13. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Canella

    Full Text Available Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  14. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela S; Martins, Ana Paula B; Silva, Hugo F R; Passanha, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara H

    2015-10-01

    Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other) often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda) in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  15. HRAS: a webserver for early warning of human health risk brought by aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruifeng; Zeng, Xu; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-02-01

    Most people are aware that outdoor air pollution can damage their health, but many do not know that indoor air pollution can also exhibit significant negative health effects. Fungi parasitizing in air conditioning and ventilation systems can be one of indoor air pollution sources. Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) became a central focus of indoor air pollution, especially in farmer markets. Therefore we developed an early warning system, Health Risk Assessment System, to estimate the growth rate of A. flavus, predict the amount of aflatoxin and provide early warning information. Firstly, the growth of A. flavus and the production of aflatoxin under different conditions were widely obtained through a comprehensive literature review. Secondly, three mathematical models were established to predict the A. flavus colony growth rate, lag phase duration and aflatoxin content, as functions of temperature and water activity based on present studies. Finally, all the results were evaluated by the user-supplied data using PHP programming language. We utilized the web page to show the results and display warning information. The JpGraph library was used to create a dynamic line chart, refreshing the warning information dynamically in real-time. The HARS provides accurate information for early warning purposes to let us take timely steps to protect ourselves.

  16. Perceptions and acceptability of pictorial health warning labels vs text only--a cross-sectional study in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hansana, Visanou; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Tomson, Tanja

    2015-10-28

    In Lao PDR, health warnings were first introduced with printed warning messages on the side of the cigarette package in 1993 and again in 2004. Lao PDR same year ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) but has not yet implemented pictorial health warnings. This paper aims to examine the perception and opinion of policymakers on "text-only" and "pictorial" health warnings and to understand lay people's perceptions on current health warnings and their opinions on the recommended types of health warnings. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2008. A purposive sample of 15 policymakers, and a representative sample of 1360 smokers and non-smokers were recruited. A range of different areas were covered including consumer attitudes towards current and proposed cigarette package design, views on health warning messages on the flip/slide and inserts, and views on the relative importance of the size, content and pictures of health warning messages. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Policy makers and survey respondents said that the current health warning messages were inappropriate, ineffective, and too small in size. All respondents perceived pictorial health warnings as a potentially powerful element that could be added to the messages that can communicate quickly, and dramatically. The majority of policymakers and survey respondents strongly supported the implementation of pictorial health warnings. The non-smokers agreed that the graphic pictorial health warnings were generally more likely than written health warnings to stimulate thinking about the health risks of smoking, by conveying potential health effects, increasing and reinforcing awareness of the negative health effect of smoking, aiding memorability of the health effects and arousing fear of smoking among smokers. The study suggested that current warnings are too small and that content is

  17. Adolescent’s Attitudes Towards Health Warning Message on Cigarette Packs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zulkifli; Jaafar, Rogayah; Musa, Razlan; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2001-01-01

    A total of 190 secondary four male school students from three schools in Kota Bharu were surveyed on their smoking habits and their attitudes towards the health warning messages on cigarette packs. There were 57 (30.0%) students who were current smokers, 45 (23.7%) students who were ex-smokers and 88 (46.3%) students who have never smoked cigarettes. Nearly all current and ex-smokers (95.1%) as well as non-smokers (94.3%) knew the wording of the health warning message currently displayed on c...

  18. Beverage intake and obesity in early childhood: evidence form primary health care clients in Northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, E; Bejarano, I; Rodríguez, A

    2015-12-07

    Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are thought to play an important role in weight gain. We examined the relationship between the intake of caloric and noncaloric beverages (SSB and water) and the nutritional status of children. In 2014, we randomly selected 16 public health clinics in four cities of Northwest Argentina and conducted a survey among mothers of children 0-6 years of age. Children's beverage intake was ascertained by 24-h dietary recall provided by the mothers. Children's weight and height measures were obtained from clinic's registries. We calculated the body mass index using the International Obesity Task Force standards. The analysis included 562 children 25 months to 6 years of age with normal or above normal nutritional status. Children's beverage consumption was as follows, water 81.8%, carbonated soft drinks (CSD) 49.7%, coffee/tea/cocoa 44.0%, artificial fruit drinks 35.6%, flavored water 17.9%, natural fruit juice 14.5%. In multivariate logistic regression models the likelihood of being obese v. being overweight or having normal weight doubled with an intake of one to five glasses of CSD (OR=2.2) and increased by more than three-fold with an intake of more than five glasses (OR=3.5). Drinking more than five glasses of water decreased the likelihood of being obese by less than half (OR=0.3). The percentage of children drinking more than five glasses of other beverages was low (3.3-0.9%) and regression models did not yield significant results. The study contributed evidence for reducing children's CSD intake and for promoting water consumption, together with the implementation of comprehensive regulatory public health policies.

  19. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  20. [Food and beverages available in automatic food dispensers in health care facilities of the Portugal North Health Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Filipa Gomes; Ramos, Elisabete; Freitas, Mário; Neto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Patients and health staff frequently need to stay in health care facilities for quite a long time. Therefore, it's necessary to create the conditions that allow the ingestion of food during those periods, namely through the existence of automatic food dispensers. However, the available food and beverages might not always be compatible with a healthy diet. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the food and beverages available in automatic food dispensers in public Ambulatory Care Facilities (ACF) and Hospitals of the Portugal North Health Region were contributing to a healthy diet, during the year of 2007. A questionnaire was elaborated and sent to the Coordinators of the Health Sub-Regions and to the Hospital Administrators. The questionnaire requested information about the existence of automatic food dispensers in the several departments of each health care facility, as well as which food and beverages were available and most sold. Afterwards, the pre-processing of the results involved the classification of the food and beverages in three categories: recommended, sometimes recommended and not recommended. The questionnaire reply ratio was 71% in ACF and 83% in Hospitals. Automatic food dispensers were available in all the Hospitals and 86.5% of ACF. It wasn't possible to acquire food in 37% of the health facility departments. These departments were all located in ACF. The more frequently available beverages in departments with automatic food dispensers were coffee, still water, tea, juices and nectars and soft drinks. Still water, coffee, yogurt, juices and nectars and soft drinks were reported as the most sold. The more frequently avaliable food items were chocolate, recommended cookies, not recommended cakes, recommended sandwiches and sometimes recommended croissants. The food items reported as being the most sold were recommended sandwiches, chocolate, recommended cookies, sometimes recommended croissants and not recommended cookies. The beverages in the

  1. Constraining Government Regulatory Authority: Tobacco Industry Trade Threats and Challenges to Cigarette Package Health Warning Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Crosbie, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the rising authority of non-state actors vis-à-vis the state by examining how tobacco companies are using trade agreements to constrain governments from implementing progressive public health policies that require placing pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages. In particular, the dissertation seeks to address two different but related puzzles. First, despite being developed countries and global health leaders, it is unclear why Australia ha...

  2. Graphic Health Warnings for Cigarettes: What You Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-18

    PSA about new graphic health warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements.  Created: 11/18/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 11/18/2010.

  3. Use of Warning Signs for Dengue by Pediatric Health Care Staff in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sicuro Correa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the use of dengue warning signs by pediatric healthcare staff in the Brazilian public health care system.Cross-sectional study (2012 with physicians, nurses, and nurse technicians assisting children in five health care facilities. Participants reported the use and importance of dengue warning signs in pediatrics clinical practice through a structured questionnaire. Differences in the use of signs (chi-square test and in the ranking assigned to each of them (Kruskal-Wallis were assessed according to health care occupation and level of care (p<0.05.The final sample comprised 474 participants (97%, mean age of 37 years (standard deviation = 10.3, mainly females (83.8%, physicians (40.1% and from tertiary care (75.1%. The majority (91% reported using warning signs for dengue in pediatrics clinical practice. The most widely used and highly valued signs were major hemorrhages (gastrointestinal, urinary, abdominal pain, and increase in hematocrit concurrent or not with rapid decrease in platelet count. Persistent vomiting as well as other signs of plasma leakage such as respiratory distress and lethargy/restlessness were not identified as having the same degree of importance, especially by nurse technicians and in primary or secondary care.Although most health care staff reported using dengue warning signs, it would be useful to extend the training for identifying easily recognizable signs of plasma leakage that occur regardless of bleeding.

  4. The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

  5. The context for choice: health implications of targeted food and beverage marketing to African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-09-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.

  6. The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. Methods We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Results Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Conclusions Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition. PMID:23092884

  7. Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Singh, Kavita; Ansari, Mohammed T; Myers, Esther; Ziegler, Paula; Hutton, Brian; Sharma, Arya; Bjerre, Lise M; Fenton, Shannon; Lau, David CW; O’Hara, Kathryn; Reid, Robert; Salewski, Erinn; Shrier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribut...

  8. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16–18 in Beijing, China (n = 1070, Mumbai area, India (n = 1012, Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 1018, and Republic of Korea (n = 1362. Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing, Bangladesh (Dhaka, and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings. Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides in Foods and Beverages: Isolation, Properties, Characterization, and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kieran M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-25

    Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides produced by many species. They vary widely in their molecular, compositional, and structural characteristics, including mechanisms of synthesis. The physiochemical properties of these polymers mean that they can be exploited for the sensorial and textural enhancement of a variety of food and beverage products. Traditionally, lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides have an important role in fermented dairy products and more recently are being applied for the improvement of bakery products. The health benefits that are continually being associated with these polysaccharides enable the development of dual function, added-value, and clean-label products. To fully exploit and understand the functionality of these exopolysaccharides, their isolation, purification, and thorough characterization are of great importance. This review considers each of the above factors and presents the current knowledge on the importance of lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides in the food and beverage industry.

  10. Awareness and impact of New York City's graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Micaela H; Chan, Christina A; Auer, Kari; Farley, Shannon M; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    To increase knowledge of smoking-related health risks and provide smoking cessation information at the point of sale, in 2009, New York City required the posting of graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warnings in tobacco retailers. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of such a policy in the USA. Cross-sectional street-intercept surveys conducted among adult current smokers and recent quitters before and after signage implementation assessed the awareness and impact of the signs. Approximately 10 street-intercept surveys were conducted at each of 50 tobacco retailers in New York City before and after policy implementation. A total of 1007 adults who were either current smokers or recent quitters were surveyed about the awareness and impact of tobacco health warning signs. Multivariate risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate awareness and impact of the signs. Most participants (86%) were current smokers, and the sample was 28% African-American, 32% Hispanic/Latino and 27% non-Hispanic white. Awareness of tobacco health warning signs more than doubled after the policy implementation (adjusted RR =2.01, 95% CI 1.74 to 2.33). Signage posting was associated with an 11% increase in the extent to which signs made respondents think about quitting smoking (adjusted RR =1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). A policy requiring tobacco retailers to display graphic health warning signs increased awareness of health risks of smoking and stimulated thoughts about quitting smoking. Additional research aimed at evaluating the effect of tobacco control measures in the retail environment is necessary to provide further rationale for implementing these changes.

  11. Tobacco and alcohol sponsorship of sporting events provide insights about how food and beverage sponsorship may affect children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    Determining children's exposure to food and beverage company sponsorship, and the effect of this exposure, is important in establishing the extent to which there may be health and societal consequences. This paper aimed to provide preliminary evidence on the scope and potential effects on children of unhealthy food and beverage sponsorship. A review of published literature and media and marketing reports was conducted to determine the types of food and beverage sponsorship campaigns that children are exposed to, and the effect of corporate sponsorship (including tobacco and alcohol) on children and adolescents. A large range of food and beverage sponsorship activities, in Australia and internationally, were identified for both school and sport settings. In particular, food and beverage companies have attempted to develop a marketing presence at all levels of professional and community sport. No information was identified measuring the effect of food and beverage company sponsorship on children and adolescents. However, empirical evidence from consumer studies relating to tobacco and alcohol sponsorship has repeatedly demonstrated that sponsorship has an impact on children's product recall and product-related attitudes and behavioural intentions. While there is no available research on the direct effect of food and beverage sponsorship, the demonstrated effects of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on children's product awareness, preferences and consumption are likely to be applicable to food companies.

  12. Development of structural health monitoring and early warning system for reinforced concrete system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranata, Data; Wahyuni, Endah; Murtiadi, Suryawan; Widodo, Amien; Riksakomara, Edwin; Sani, Nisfu Asrul

    2015-01-01

    Many buildings have been damaged due to earthquakes that occurred recently in Indonesia. The main cause of the damage is the large deformation of the building structural component cannot accommodate properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) to measure precisely the deformation of the building structural component in the real time conditions. This paper presents the development of SHMS for reinforced concrete structural system. This monitoring system is based on deformation component such as strain of reinforcement bar, concrete strain, and displacement of reinforced concrete component. Since the deformation component has exceeded the limit value, the warning message can be sent to the building occupies. This warning message has also can be performed as early warning system of the reinforced concrete structural system. The warning message can also be sent via Short Message Service (SMS) through the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network. Hence, the SHMS should be integrated with internet modem to connect with GSM network. Additionally, the SHMS program is verified with experimental study of simply supported reinforced concrete beam. Verification results show that the SHMS has good agreement with experimental results

  13. Effectiveness of pictorial health warning on cigarette packages: A cross-sectional study in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Arif, M T; Abd, Razak Mf; Suhaili, M R; Tambi, Z; Akoi, C; Gabriel Bain, M; Hussain, H

    2015-01-01

    Specific health warning placed on the tobacco product packages is considered as an effective and low-cost method for increasing the knowledge and awareness among the community. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the perception of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) against smoking among the adult rural population of Sarawak. Cross-sectional data were collected from 10 villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Nonprobability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the selected villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software IBM SPSS 20.0 version. Analysis showed that 28.8% of the respondents were current smokers, 7.8% were past smokers and the rest were non-smokers. Six items of pictorial health warnings were evaluated with five point Likert's scales for attractiveness, fearfulness and adequacy of the information. Analysis revealed that the majority of the respondents had perceived awareness on PHWs, but the smokers believed that this was not adequate to make them quit smoking. Only one-fifth (19.7%) of them reported that current pictorial health warnings were sufficient to motivate people to quit smoking. Though the PHWs on cigarette packages are appealing, it is not sufficient as a reason to stop smoking. Thus, an approach using an integrated anti-tobacco public health programme should be focused into the specific targeted community.

  14. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption.

  15. Stress management standards: a warning indicator for employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, A; Haslam, C O

    2013-07-01

    Psychological stress is a major cause of lost working days in the UK. The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has developed management standards (MS) to help organizations to assess work-related stress. To investigate the relationships between the MS indicator tool and employee health, job attitudes, work performance and environmental outcomes. The first phase involved a survey employing the MS indicator tool, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), job attitudes, work performance and environmental measures in a call centre from a large utility company. The second phase comprised six focus groups to investigate what employees believed contributed to their perceived stress. Three hundred and four call centre employees responded with a response rate of 85%. Significant negative correlations were found between GHQ-12 and two MS dimensions; demands (Rho = -0.211, P job performance, job motivation and increased intention to quit but low stress levels were associated with reduced job satisfaction. Lack of management support, recognition and development opportunities were identified as sources of stress. The findings support the utility of the MS as a measure of employee attitudes and performance.

  16. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  17. Self-regulation of the Peruvian food industry: health message cues in the context of food and beverage advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, P; Bernabé-Ortiz, A

    2018-06-01

    One strategy to prevent the onset of non-communicable diseases is to motivate healthy lifestyles through health media messages. In Peru, the food industry is currently implementing such strategy with health message cues, in the form of a small icon of a walking person or a healthy dish, appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements. Yet the extent of this practice is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was three-fold: to identify (1) the food and beverage advertisements showing health cues, (2) the types of health cues, and (3) their length in time. Cross-sectional analysis of televised food and beverage advertisements that children and adolescents encounter on Peruvian television. Content analysis of the presence of a health cue, type of health cue (physical activity and healthy diets), and the length in time of the health cue appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements in Peru. Health cues appeared on over 70% of advertisements for sugary drinks and tended to promote healthy diets more so than physical activity. This study shows that the food industry is currently advertising their products along with health message cues, and children and adolescents are exposed to this practice. Thus, we call for further testing of the effect of these health cues on children's and adolescents' food preferences and behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol Warnings and Moderate Drinking Patterns among Italian University Students: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Annunziata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic beverages and to verify the existence of segments that differ in terms of attitudes towards such warnings. Our results show that young consumers consider health warnings quite important, although the degree of perceived utility differs in relation to the type of warning. Cluster analysis shows the existence of three groups of young consumers with different degrees of attention and perceived utility of warnings on alcoholic beverages, but also in relation to drinking behaviour and awareness of social and health risks related to alcohol consumption. In brief, Italian young adults with moderate consumption behaviour view label warnings positively, while this attitude is weaker among younger adults and those with riskier consumption behaviours. Our findings, albeit limited and based on stated and not revealed data, support the need for appropriate tools to improve the availability of information among young adults on the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and increased awareness of the importance of moderate drinking.

  19. Nutrition warnings as front-of-pack labels: influence of design features on healthfulness perception and attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Manuel; Machín, Leandro; Arrúa, Alejandra; Antúnez, Lucía; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-12-01

    Warnings are a new directive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling scheme that highlights products with high content of key nutrients. The design of warnings influences their ability to catch consumers' attention and to clearly communicate their intended meaning, which are key determinants of their effectiveness. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of design features of warnings as a FOP nutrition labelling scheme on perceived healthfulness and attentional capture. Five studies with a total of 496 people were carried out. In the first study, the association of colour and perceived healthfulness was evaluated in an online survey in which participants had to rate their perceived healthfulness of eight colours. In the second study, the influence of colour, shape and textual information on perceived healthfulness was evaluated using choice-conjoint analysis. The third study focused on implicit associations between two design features (shape and colour) on perceived healthfulness. The fourth and fifth studies used visual search to evaluate the influence of colour, size and position of the warnings on attentional capture. Perceived healthfulness was significantly influenced by shape, colour and textual information. Colour was the variable with the largest contribution to perceived healthfulness. Colour, size and position of the warnings on the labels affected attentional capture. Results from the experiments provide recommendations for the design of warnings to identify products with unfavourable nutrient profile.

  20. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  1. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  2. Salience and Impact of Health Warning Label on Cigarette Packs in Vietnam: Findings From the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc Bich, Nguyen; Thu Ngan, Tran; Bao Giang, Kim; Thi Hai, Phan; Thi Thu Huyen, Doan; Ngoc Khue, Luong; Tuan Lam, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Thi Quynh Nga, Pham; The Quan, Nguyen; Loan, Vu Hoang

    2018-04-13

    Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the strongest predictor for quit intention because of health warnings was "ever made a quit attempt in the past 12 months" followed by "believes that tobacco smoking causes serious illness". Compared to GATS 2010, GATS 2015 observed the increase in salience of cigarette health warnings. However, the current pictorial health warnings are losing their impact on motivating intention to quit. The results highlight that it is time to start the rotation cycle to refresh the current health warning set. Actions to select a new and more impressive set of pictorial health warnings should be developed as soon as possible.

  3. Public health benefits from pictorial health warnings on US cigarette packs: a SimSmoke simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Mays, Darren; Yuan, Zhe; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-11-01

    While many countries have adopted prominent pictorial warning labels (PWLs) for cigarette packs, the USA still requires only small, text-only labels located on one side of the cigarette pack that have little effect on smoking-related outcomes. Tobacco industry litigation blocked implementation of a 2011 Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) rule requiring large PWLs. To inform FDA action on PWLs, this study provides research-based estimates of their public health impacts. Literature was reviewed to identify the impact of cigarette PWLs on smoking prevalence, cessation and initiation. Based on this analysis, the SimSmoke model was used to estimate the effect of requiring PWLs in the USA on smoking prevalence and, using standard attribution methods, on smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) and key maternal and child health outcomes. Available research consistently shows a direct association between PWLs and increased cessation and reduced smoking initiation and prevalence. The SimSmoke model projects that PWLs would reduce smoking prevalence by 5% (2.5%-9%) relative to the status quo over the short term and by 10% (4%-19%) over the long term. Over the next 50 years, PWLs are projected to avert 652 800 (327 000-1 190 500) SADs, 46 600 (17 500-92 300) low-birth-weight cases, 73 600 (27 800-145 100) preterm births and 1000 (400-2000) cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Requiring PWLs on all US cigarette packs would be appropriate for the protection of the public health, because it would substantially reduce smoking prevalence and thereby reduce SADs and the morbidity and medical costs associated with adverse smoking-attributable birth outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  5. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program. (Contains 3 tables, 1 figure, and 2…

  6. Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs: How Long Before the Effects on Adolescents Wear Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria; Bariola, Emily; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-07-01

    To examine the long-term impact of graphic health-warning labels (GHWL) on adolescents' cognitive processing of warning labels and cigarette pack perceptions. Cross-sectional school-based surveys of students aged 13-17 years residing in urban centers, conducted prior to GHWL introduction (2005) and 6 months (2006), 2 years (2008), and 5 years (2011) post-GHWL introduction. Students who had seen a cigarette pack in the previous 6 months or in 2006, who had seen GHWL were included in analyses (2005 n = 2,560; 2006 n = 1,306; 2008 n = 2,303; 2011 n = 2,716). Smoking stage, reported exposure to cigarette packs, cognitive processing of GHWL, and positive and negative perceptions of pack image were assessed. While cognitive processing of GHWL in 2006 and 2008 was greater than 2005 (p interaction between survey time and smoking status (p packaging is intended to undermine positive pack appeal and increase warning salience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Public Health and Legal Arguments in Favor of a Policy to Cap the Portion Sizes of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the New York City Board of Health passed a regulation prohibiting the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages in containers above 16 ounces in the city's food service establishments. The beverage industry and various retailers sued the city to prevent enforcement of the law, arguing that the board had overstepped its authority. In June 2014, the state's highest court agreed and struck down the regulation. Here we report the results of a content analysis of the public testimony related to the case submitted to the New York City Department of Mental Health and Hygiene. We identified major arguments in support of and against the sugar-sweetened beverage portion limit policy. We offer legal and scientific arguments that challenge the major anti-policy arguments and contend that, although this policy was not implemented in New York City, it can be legally pursued by other legislatures.

  8. How compliant are beverage employees to occupational health and safety regulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chetty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This observational study was undertaken to identify thehealth and safety violations of employees at a specific beverage manufac-turing company.  A  site inspection and observation of all employees employedat this specific beverage company was conducted by the researcher over 2 days. Employees were observed for 12 hours per day with the morningshift on Day 1 and the afternoon shift on Day 2. A  sample of conveniencewas used in that every employee who was present on those days was included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data set. There were a total of 212 employees and 332 behaviours observed during thisstudy period. Unsafe handling and behaviour was observed in 55% of observations. Incorrect manual lifting techniques was the most frequent health and safety violation observed. In the 48 manual lifting behaviours observed, correct practice was observed in only three cases.  It is clear thatmore healthcare education and practical training is required in the area of manual lifting techniques. It is clear that more practical training is required in the area of manual handling.

  9. Alcoholic beverage intake and risk of lung cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Slezak, Jeff M; Caan, Bette J; Quinn, Virginia P

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on the risk of lung cancer using the California Men's Health Study. The California Men's Health Study is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men ages 45 to 69 years who are members of the Kaiser Permanente California health plans. Demographics and detailed lifestyle characteristics were collected from surveys mailed between 2000 and 2003. Incident lung cancer cases were identified by health plan cancer registries through December 2006 (n=210). Multivariable Cox's regression was used to examine the effects of beer, red wine, white wine (including rosé), and liquor consumption on risk of lung cancer adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema, and smoking history. There was a significant linear decrease in risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of red wine among ever-smokers: hazard ratio (HR), 0.98; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.96-1.00 for increase of 1 drink per month. This relationship was slightly stronger among heavy smokers (>or=20 pack-years): HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00. When alcoholic beverage consumption was examined by frequency of intake, consumption of >or=1 drink of red wine per day was associated with an approximately 60% reduced lung cancer risk in ever-smokers: HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.14-1.08. No clear associations with lung cancer were seen for intake of white wine, beer, or liquor. Moderate red wine consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for confounders. Our results should not be extrapolated to heavy alcohol consumption.

  10. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankleman, M; Sykes, C; Mandeville, K L; Di Costa, S; Yarrow, K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p interaction p = 0.295). During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Women and smoking—prices and health warning messages: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Leeder, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In Spain, fewer men are smoking every year yet the number of women smokers remains relatively high. This paper examines the impact of two anti-smoking policies (increased prices and obligatory pictorial health warning labels) on womens smoking decisions; generation cohorts are used to elucidate the determinants of those decisions. We have drawn 48,755 observations of women living in Spain from the Spanish National Health Surveys of 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011. Among the main results, we highlight that belonging to a particular generation modulates the manner in which individual characteristics and tobacco policies determine smoking decisions. For example, women's smoking was not considered as socially acceptable until the 1960s and therefore older women have lower smoking rates. However, for the younger female cohorts (generations X and Y) smoking was seen as an act of rebellion and modernity, so women belonging to these groups, irrespective of educational level, are more likely to smoke. The price of cigarettes and pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packets also influence the smoking behaviour of Spanish women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Canada Warning on Citalopram and Escitalopram--Its Effects on Prescribing in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, André; Noohi, Saeid; Elie, Dominique; Mahdanian, Artin A; Yu, Ching; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Rej, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Reports have suggested that citalopram and escitalopram may prolong the QTc interval, leading Health Canada to issue a warning to limit their dosages in 2012. Little is known about the effects of this warning and similar ones (e.g., by the Food and Drug Administration) on antidepressant prescribing in inpatients with acute medical illness, who are theoretically at high risk of QTc prolongation. The main objective of our study is to examine the effect of the Health Canada warning on citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns in the consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 275 randomly selected inpatients with medical illness assessed by the psychiatric C-L team of a large Canadian academic hospital between 2008 and 2014. We grouped patients based on whether they were assessed by the C-L team before or after the citalopram Health Canada warning. Our primary outcome was change in citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns. We found that of patients seen before the Health Canada warning, a significantly higher number were prescribed citalopram/escitalopram (44.1% vs. 22.3%, χ(2) = 14.835, p Canada warning was similar in both groups (8.9% vs. 12.1%, χ(2) = 0.233, p = 0.63). Overall, C-L psychiatrists were less likely to prescribe citalopram/escitalopram following the Health Canada warning, which did not translate into safer dosing. Clinicians should not avoid prescribing citalopram/escitalopram appropriately in medically vulnerable inpatients when benefits outweigh disadvantages. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Cigarette Plain Packaging on Health Warning Salience and Perceptions: Implications for Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auemaneekul, Naruemon; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Satitvipawee, Pratana; Sompopcharoen, Malinee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2015-11-01

    The study employed a mixed methods design using focus group interviews with 6 student groups and self-administered questionnaires with 1239 students. The participants were nonsmoking, current smokers, and quit-smoking teenagers from secondary schools and colleges. Focus group revealed that although nonsmoking teenagers perceived fear appeals to warning messages, current smokers did not perceive fear appeals to health. Black and white backgrounds of the cigarette package were chosen as the best color for plain packaging. However, most participants suggested various pictorials and a bigger size of pictorial warnings for greater and more effective fear appeal. Odds ratio showed that males had 2.43 times the odds to perceive intention not to smoke. Teenagers who had never smoked and those who had quit smoking had 13.27 and 3.61 times the odds, respectively, to perceive intention not to smoke. © 2015 APJPH.

  14. Current evidence on physiological activity and expected health effects of kombucha fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vīna, Ilmāra; Semjonovs, Pāvels; Linde, Raimonds; Deniņa, Ilze

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of kombucha fermented tea (KT) has always been associated with different health benefits. Many personal experiences and testimonials of KT drinkers are available throughout the world on the ability of KT to protect against a vast number of metabolic and infectious diseases, but very little scientific evidence is available that validates the beneficial effects of KT. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent studies in search of experimental confirmation of the numerous KT health-promoting aspects cited previously. Analysis of the literature data is carried out in correspondence to the recent concepts of health protection's requirements. Attention is given to the active compounds in KT, responsible for the particular effect, and to the mechanisms of their actions. It is shown that KT can efficiently act in health prophylaxis and recovery due to four main properties: detoxification, antioxidation, energizing potencies, and promotion of depressed immunity. The recent experimental studies on the consumption of KT suggest that it is suitable for prevention against broad-spectrum metabolic and infective disorders. This makes KT attractive as a fermented functional beverage for health prophylaxis.

  15. Health interest modulates brain reward responses to a perceived low-caloric beverage in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Wegman, Joost; Aarts, Esther; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-01-01

    Health labels are omnipresent in the supermarket. Such labels give rise to expectations about the product experience and may change flavor perception and perceived reward value. Consumers vary in their degree of health interest and may be differentially affected by such labels. However, how health interest influences neural reward responses to anticipation and receipt of heath-labeled foods is not known. This study assessed to what extent brain responses induced by anticipation and receipt of a beverage with different levels of perceived caloric content are associated with health interest. Twenty-five females completed an fMRI motivational taste-task in which they were presented with a low-caloric cue or a high-caloric cue and subsequently worked for sips of lemonade by moving a joystick. If they responded correctly and in time, they received the lemonade as a reward. Because of the 2 cue types, participants believed they were receiving 2 different lemonades, a high-caloric (HC-receipt) and a low-caloric (LC-receipt) one. Health interest was assessed with the General health interest subscale of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales. Health interest scores correlated significantly (r = .65) with LC-versus HC-receipt activation in the dorsal striatum (putamen), a region involved in encoding food reward. These findings suggest that the reward value of a healthy product compared to its unhealthy counterpart increases with health interest. This provides more insight into the working mechanism of government campaigns that focus on increasing health interest to encourage the formation of healthy eating habits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The healthfulness of food and beverage purchases after the federal food package revisions: The case of two New England states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Tripp, Amanda S

    2016-10-01

    In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented new food packages to improve dietary intake among WIC participants. This paper examines how the healthfulness of food purchases among low-income households changed following this reform. Point-of-sale data for 2137 WIC-participating and 1303 comparison households were obtained from a regional supermarket chain. The healthfulness of purchased foods and beverages was determined per their saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content. A pre-post assessment (2009-2010) of the product basket healthfulness was completed using generalized estimating equation models. Data were analyzed in 2015. At baseline, healthy products accounted for most of the food volume purchased by WIC participants, but beverages were dominated by moderation (less healthy) items. With new subsidies for fruit, vegetables and whole grains, the WIC revisions increased the volume of healthy food purchases of WIC-participating households by 3.9% and reduced moderation foods by 1.8%. The biggest improvements were reductions in moderation beverages (down by 24.7% in volume), driven by milk fat restrictions in the WIC food package revisions. The healthfulness of the product basket increased post-WIC revisions; mainly due to a reduction in the volume of moderation food and beverages purchased (down by 15.5%) rather than growth in healthy products (up by 1.9%). No similar improvements were seen in a comparison group of low-income nonparticipants. After the WIC revisions, the healthfulness of participant purchases improved, particularly for beverages. Efforts to encourage healthy eating by people receiving federal food assistance are paying off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of a health safety warning and prior authorisation on the use of piroxicam: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Pia-Morandeira, Agustin; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative changes in systemic use of piroxicam after the issue of a health safety warning about its risks and the subsequent implementation of prior authorisation. We determined the number of monthly daily defined doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DHDs) of piroxicam in the period 2005-2008 in a health area in Spain. The data were analysed graphically, and the impact of the safety warning and introduction of prior authorisation were estimated by using segmented regression analysis. The graph showed that the number of DHDs of piroxicam was stable both before and after the health safety warning but registered a very marked decrease after implementation of prior authorisation, after which DHDs of piroxicam remained stable at a 98% inferior level compared with previous to prior authorisation. Segmented regression analysis showed no statistically significant immediate jump in piroxicam utilisation after the safety warning nor a change in the slope afterwards, but it did show a significant immediate jump after prior authorisation. Population exposure to systemic piroxicam remained unaffected by a previous health safety warning but declined sharply after the introduction of prior authorisation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.

  19. The Impact of Health Literacy Status on the Comparative Validity and Sensitivity of an Interactive Multimedia Beverage Intake Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P. Hooper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported dietary assessment methods can be challenging to validate, and reporting errors for those with lower health literacy (HL may be augmented. Interactive multimedia (IMM based questionnaires could help overcome these limitations. The objectives of this investigation are to assess the comparative validity and sensitivity to change of an IMM beverage intake questionnaire (IMM-BEVQ as compared to dietary recalls and determine the impact of HL. Adults completed three 24-h dietary recalls and the IMM-BEVQ at baseline and after a six-month intervention targeting either sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB or physical activity. Correlations and paired-samples t-tests are presented. For validity (n = 273, intake of SSB (mean difference = 10.6 fl oz and total beverage consumption (mean difference = 16.0 fl oz were significantly different (p ≤ 0.001 at baseline between the IMM-BEVQ and dietary recalls for all participants. However, the differences in intake were generally greater in low HL participants than in adequate HL participants. For sensitivity (n = 162, change in SSB intake (mean difference = 7.2 fl oz was significantly different (p ≤ 0.01 between pre-/post-IMM-BEVQ and pre-/post-dietary recalls, but not total beverage intake (mean difference = 7.6 fl oz for all participants. Changes in SSB and total beverage intake were not significantly different for those with adequate HL. The IMM-BEVQ is a valid dietary assessment tool that is as responsive to detecting changes in beverage intake as dietary recalls. However, adults with lower HL may need additional guidance when completing the IMM-BEVQ.

  20. Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Forsberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS. HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. Objective: To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. Methods: We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Findings and Conclusions: Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans.

  1. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  2. Implications of Tobacco Industry Research on Packaging Colors for Designing Health Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-09-01

    Health warning labels (HWLs) are an important way to educate the public about the dangers of tobacco products. Tobacco companies conducted research to understand how pack colors affect consumers' perceptions of the products and make packages and their labeling more visually prominent. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents concerning the tobacco industry's internal research on how cigarette package colors and design influence the visual prominence of packages and consumers' perceptions of the harmfulness of the products. The companies found that black is visually prominent, placing dark pack elements on a contrasting light background makes them stand out more, and black text on a white background is more prominent than white text on a black background. Yellow most quickly and effectively seizes and holds consumers' attention and signals warning or danger, while white connotes health and safety. Using black text on a bright contrasting background color, particularly yellow, attracts consumers' attention to the message. Tobacco industry research on pack color choices that make pack elements more prominent, attract and keep consumers' attention, and convey danger instead of health should guide governments in specifying requirements for HWLs. These factors suggest that HWLs printed on a yellow background with black lettering and borders would most effectively seize and keep consumers' attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Tobacco companies' internal research on improving the prominence of pack elements suggests that HWLs using black lettering on a contrasting yellow background would most effectively seize and hold consumers' attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  5. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  6. Quality of reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes: a systematic review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; Mink, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical and public health decisions are informed by reviews, which makes the quality of reviews an important scientific concern. Objective: We systematically assessed the quality of published reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and health, which is a controversial topic that is important to public health. Design: We performed a search of PubMed and Cochrane databases and a hand search of reference lists. Studies that were selected were published reviews and meta-analyses (June 2001 to June 2011) of epidemiologic studies of the relation between SSBs and obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease. A standardized data-abstraction form was used. Review quality was assessed by using the validated instrument AMSTAR (assessment of multiple systematic reviews), which is a one-page tool with 11 questions. Results: Seventeen reviews met our inclusion and exclusion criteria: obesity or weight (16 reviews), diabetes (3 reviews), metabolic syndrome (3 reviews), and coronary heart disease (2 reviews). Authors frequently used a strictly narrative review (7 of 17 reviews). Only 6 of 17 reviews reported quantitative data in a table format. Overall, reviews of SSBs and health outcomes received moderately low–quality scores by the AMSTAR [mean: 4.4 points; median: 4 points; range: 1–8.5 points (out of a possible score of 11 points)]. AMSTAR scores were not related to the conclusions of authors (8 reviews reported an association with a mean AMSTAR score of 4.1 points; 9 reviews with equivocal conclusions scored 4.7 points; P value = 0.84). Less than one-third of published reviews reported a comprehensive literature search, listed included and excluded studies, or used duplicate study selection and data abstraction. Conclusion: The comprehensive reporting of epidemiologic evidence and use of systematic methodologies to interpret evidence were underused in published reviews on SSBs and health. PMID:21918218

  7. Health information on alcoholic beverage containers: has the alcohol industry's pledge in England to improve labelling been met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Douglas, Nick; Knai, Cécile; Durand, Mary Alison; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, alcohol warning labels are the subject of a voluntary agreement between industry and government. In 2011, as part of the Public Health Responsibility Deal in England, the industry pledged to ensure that 80% of products would have clear, legible health warning labelling, although an analysis commissioned by Portman found that only 57.1% met best practice. We assessed what proportion of alcohol products now contain the required health warning information, and its clarity and placement. Survey of alcohol labelling data. United Kingdom. Analysis of the United Kingdom's 100 top-selling alcohol brands (n = 156 individual products). We assessed the product labels in relation to the presence of five labelling elements: information on alcohol units, government consumption guidelines, pregnancy warnings, reference to the Drinkaware website and a responsibility statement. We also assessed the size, colour and placement of text, and the size and colouring of the pregnancy warning logo. The first three (required) elements were present on 77.6% of products examined. The mean font size of the Chief Medical Officer's (CMO) unit guidelines (usually on the back of the product) was 8.17-point. The mean size of pregnancy logos was 5.95 mm. The pregnancy logo was on average smaller on wine containers. The UK Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol labelling pledge has not been fully met. Labelling information frequently falls short of best practice, with font and logos smaller than would be accepted on other products with health effects. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Synergistic combination of systems for structural health monitoring and earthquake early warning for structural health prognosis and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen; Beck, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are currently operating nationwide in Japan and are in beta-testing in California. Such a system detects an earthquake initiation using online signals from a seismic sensor network and broadcasts a warning of the predicted location and magnitude a few seconds to a minute or so before an earthquake hits a site. Such a system can be used synergistically with installed structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to enhance pre-event prognosis and post-event diagnosis of structural health. For pre-event prognosis, the EEW system information can be used to make probabilistic predictions of the anticipated damage to a structure using seismic loss estimation methodologies from performance-based earthquake engineering. These predictions can support decision-making regarding the activation of appropriate mitigation systems, such as stopping traffic from entering a bridge that has a predicted high probability of damage. Since the time between warning and arrival of the strong shaking is very short, probabilistic predictions must be rapidly calculated and the decision making automated for the mitigation actions. For post-event diagnosis, the SHM sensor data can be used in Bayesian updating of the probabilistic damage predictions with the EEW predictions as a prior. Appropriate Bayesian methods for SHM have been published. In this paper, we use pre-trained surrogate models (or emulators) based on machine learning methods to make fast damage and loss predictions that are then used in a cost-benefit decision framework for activation of a mitigation measure. A simple illustrative example of an infrastructure application is presented.

  9. Implicit associations and compensatory health beliefs in smokers: Exploring their role for behaviour and their change through warning labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Müller, B.C.N.; Krolak-Schwerdt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of

  10. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Wakefield, Melanie; Bode, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP) to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates.

  11. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  12. An analysis of the warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding misleading health outcomes claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the number and type of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotional violations.Methods: Two reviewers downloaded, printed and independently evaluated warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers from years 2003-2008. Misleading claims were broadly classified as clinical, Quality-of-Life (QoL, and economic claims. Clinical claims included claims regarding unsubstantiated efficacy, safety and tolerability, superiority, broadening of indication and/or omission of risk information. QoL claims included unsubstantiated quality of life and/or health-related quality of life claims. Economic claims included any form of claim made on behalf of the pharmaceutical companies related to cost superiority of or cost savings from the drug compared to other drugs in the market.Results: In the 6-year study period, 65 warning letters were issued by FDA, which contained 144 clinical, three QoL, and one economic claim. On an average, 11 warning letters were issued per year. Omission of risk information was the most frequently violated claim (30.6% followed by unsubstantiated efficacy claims (18.6%. Warning letters were primarily directed to manufacturers of cardiovascular (14.6%, anti-microbial (14.6%, and CNS (12.5% drugs. Majority of the claims referenced in warning letters contained promotional materials directed to physicians (57%. Conclusion: The study found that misleading clinical outcome claims formed the majority of the promotional violations, and majority of the claims were directed to physicians. Since inadequate promotion of medications may lead to irrational prescribing, the study emphasizes the importance of disseminating reliable, credible, and scientific information to patients, and more importantly, physicians to protect public health.

  13. Assessing the accuracy of forecasting: applying standard diagnostic assessment tools to a health technology early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sue; Hyde, Chris; Cook, Alison; Packer, Claire; Stevens, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Early warning systems are an integral part of many health technology assessment programs. Despite this finding, to date, there have been no quantitative evaluations of the accuracy of predictions made by these systems. We report a study evaluating the accuracy of predictions made by the main United Kingdom early warning system. As prediction of impact is analogous to diagnosis, a method normally applied to determine the accuracy of diagnostic tests was used. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the National Horizon Scanning Centre's prediction methods were estimated with reference to an (imperfect) gold standard, that is, expert opinion of impact 3 to 5 years after prediction. The sensitivity of predictions was 71 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.92), and the specificity was 73 percent (95 percent CI, 0.64-0.8). The negative predictive value was 98 percent (95 percent CI, 0.92-0.99), and the positive predictive value was 14 percent (95 percent CI, 0.06-0.3). Forecasting is difficult, but the results suggest that this early warning system's predictions have an acceptable level of accuracy. However, there are caveats. The first is that early warning systems may themselves reduce the impact of a technology, as helping to control adoption and diffusion is their main purpose. The second is that the use of an imperfect gold standard may bias the results. As early warning systems are viewed as an increasingly important component of health technology assessment and decision making, their outcomes must be evaluated. The method used here should be investigated further and the accuracy of other early warning systems explored.

  14. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates. Keywords: Health warnings, Dietary decision making, Self-control, Electroencephalogram, EEG, N1, P3, LPP

  15. 'The university should promote health, but not enforce it': opinions and attitudes about the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Elly; Freeman, Becky; Wu, Jason H Y; Rooney, Kieron

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to determine the opinions and attitudes of a university population regarding the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting, primarily looking at differences in opinion between younger adults (under 30 years of age) and older adults (30 years of age or older). An online survey was conducted at an Australian university in April-May 2016 using a convenience sample of students and staff between the ages of 16 and 84 years. The survey included questions about consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and level of agreement and support of proposed sugar-sweetened beverage interventions. Quantitative response data and qualitative open-ended response data were analysed. Nine hundred thirteen responses from students and staff were analysed. In this population, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was low and awareness of the health risks of sugar-sweetened beverages was high. Overall, the surveyed population indicated more support for interventions that require higher levels of personal responsibility. The population did support some environment-centred, population-based interventions, such as increasing access to drinking water and reducing the price of healthier beverage alternatives. However there was less support for more restrictive interventions such as removing sugar-sweetened beverages from sale. Young adults tended to be less supportive of most interventions than older adults. These findings indicate there is some support for environment-centred, population-based approaches to reduce the availability and appeal of sugar-sweetened beverages in an adult environment such as a university setting. However these results suggest that public health may need to focus less on educating populations about the harms associated with sugar-sweetened beverages. Instead, there should be greater emphasis on explaining to populations and communities why environment-centred approaches relating to the sale and promotion of sugar

  16. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafekost Katherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  17. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: implications for public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2011-12-22

    High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  18. Artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, plain water, and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the prospective Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengna; Quddus, Abdullah; Stinson, Lynda; Shikany, James M; Howard, Barbara V; Kutob, Randa M; Lu, Bing; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water. Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported. Results: Of 64,850 women, 4675 developed diabetes over an average of 8.4 y of follow-up. ASBs and SSBs were both associated with an increased risk of DM with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.36) comparing ASB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to never or <3 serving/mo, and an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.75) comparing SSB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to <1 serving/wk (1 serving = one 12-ounce can or 355 mL). Subgroup analysis found an increased risk of DM associated with ASBs only in the obese group. Modeling the substitution of SSBs with an equal amount of ASBs did not significantly reduce the risk of developing DM. However, statistically substituting 1 serving of ASBs with water was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99), whereas substituting 1 serving of SSBs with water was associated with a risk reduction of 10% (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95). Conclusions: ASBs were associated with a 21% increased risk of developing DM, approximately half the magnitude of SSBs (associated with a 43% increased risk). Replacing ASBs and SSBs with water could potentially reduce the risk. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results as causal because both residual confounding and reverse causation could explain these results. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  20. The Impact of a Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Health and Health Care Costs: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lennert Veerman

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate the consequences of an additional 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs on health and health care expenditure. Participants were adult (aged > = 20 Australians alive in 2010, who were modelled over their remaining lifetime. We used lifetable-based epidemiological modelling to examine the potential impact of a 20% valoric tax on SSBs on total lifetime disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, incidence, prevalence, and mortality of obesity-related disease, and health care expenditure. Over the lifetime of adult Australian alive in 2010, seemingly modest estimated changes in average body mass as a result of the SSB tax translated to gains of 112,000 health-adjusted life years for men (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 73,000-155,000 and 56,000 (95% UI: 36,000-76,000 for women, and a reduction in overall health care expenditure of AUD609 million (95% UI: 368 million- 870 million. The tax is estimated to reduce the number of new type 2 diabetes cases by approximately 800 per year. Twenty-five years after the introduction of the tax, there would be 4,400 fewer prevalent cases of heart disease and 1,100 fewer persons living with the consequences of stroke, and an estimated 1606 extra people would be alive as a result of the tax. The tax would generate an estimated AUD400 million in revenue each year. Governments should consider increasing the tax on sugared drinks. This would improve population health, reduce health care costs, as well as bring in direct revenue.

  1. The Impact of a Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Health and Health Care Costs: A Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Sacks, Gary; Antonopoulos, Nicole; Martin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the consequences of an additional 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on health and health care expenditure. Participants were adult (aged > = 20) Australians alive in 2010, who were modelled over their remaining lifetime. We used lifetable-based epidemiological modelling to examine the potential impact of a 20% valoric tax on SSBs on total lifetime disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), incidence, prevalence, and mortality of obesity-related disease, and health care expenditure. Over the lifetime of adult Australian alive in 2010, seemingly modest estimated changes in average body mass as a result of the SSB tax translated to gains of 112,000 health-adjusted life years for men (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 73,000-155,000) and 56,000 (95% UI: 36,000-76,000) for women, and a reduction in overall health care expenditure of AUD609 million (95% UI: 368 million- 870 million). The tax is estimated to reduce the number of new type 2 diabetes cases by approximately 800 per year. Twenty-five years after the introduction of the tax, there would be 4,400 fewer prevalent cases of heart disease and 1,100 fewer persons living with the consequences of stroke, and an estimated 1606 extra people would be alive as a result of the tax. The tax would generate an estimated AUD400 million in revenue each year. Governments should consider increasing the tax on sugared drinks. This would improve population health, reduce health care costs, as well as bring in direct revenue.

  2. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S; Evans, W Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette-warning labels, warning-label message framing and plain cigarette packaging, on young adult smokers' motivation to quit. Smokers aged 18-30 years (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomised to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of four cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning-message framing (gain vs loss) and packaging (branded vs plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behaviour, covariates and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pretest motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer and mortality warnings (ppackaging regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Rehydration beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.

  4. The Global Public Health Intelligence Network and early warning outbreak detection: a Canadian contribution to global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Weir, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The recent SARS epidemic has renewed widespread concerns about the global transmission of infectious diseases. In this commentary, we explore novel approaches to global infectious disease surveillance through a focus on an important Canadian contribution to the area--the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). GPHIN is a cutting-edge initiative that draws on the capacity of the Internet and newly available 24/7 global news coverage of health events to create a unique form of early warning outbreak detection. This commentary outlines the operation and development of GPHIN and compares it to ProMED-mail, another Internet-based approach to global health surveillance. We argue that GPHIN has created an important shift in the relationship of public health and news information. By exiting the pyramid of official reporting, GPHIN has created a new monitoring technique that has disrupted national boundaries of outbreak notification, while creating new possibilities for global outbreak response. By incorporating news within the emerging apparatus of global infectious disease surveillance, GPHIN has effectively responded to the global media's challenge to official country reporting of outbreak and enhanced the effectiveness and credibility of international public health.

  5. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Philip J; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants' self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals' intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  7. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tob...

  8. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  9. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers). Participants reported responses to different pictorial HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs. didactic) and the other involved manipulating image type (diseased organs vs. human suffering). Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than pictorial HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance, and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms seem to work better than those with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

  10. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.

  11. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...... outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...

  12. College student reactions to health warning labels: sociodemographic and psychosocial factors related to perceived effectiveness of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Thrasher, James F; Westmaas, J Lee; Buchanan, Taneisha; Pinsker, Erika A; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2011-12-01

    To examine factors associated with perceiving different types of pictorial cigarette health warning labels as most effective in motivating smokers to quit or preventing smoking initiation among college students. We administered an online survey to 24,055 students attending six Southeast colleges in Fall, 2010. We obtained complete data for the current analyses from 2600. Current smoking prevalence was 23.5%. The largest majority (78.6%) consistently rated gruesome images as most effective, 19.5% rated testimonial images as most effective, and only a small proportion rated either standard (1.6%) or human suffering images (0.3%) as most effective. Subsequent analyses focused on differences between those endorsing gruesome images or testimonials as most effective. Factors related to ranking testimonials versus gruesome images as most effective included being female (pmarketing (p=0.01). Among smokers, factors related to ranking testimonials as most effective versus gruesome images included being female (p=0.03), being White (p=0.03), higher autonomous motivation (p=0.03), and greater extrinsic self-efficacy (p=0.02). Understanding factors related to perceived effectiveness of different pictorial warnings among subpopulations should inform health warning labels released by the FDA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction of structural health and safety monitoring warning systems for Shenzhen-Hong Kong Western Corridor Shenzhen Bay Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhou, X. T.; Leng, J.; Liang, Z.; Zheng, C.; Sun, X. F.

    2008-03-01

    Though the brief introduction of the completed structural health and safety monitoring warning systems for Shenzhen-Hongkong western corridor Shenzhen bay highway bridge (SZBHMS), the self-developed system frame, hardware and software scheme of this practical research project are systematically discussed in this paper. The data acquisition and transmission hardware and the basic software based on the NI (National Instruments) Company virtual instruments technology were selected in this system, which adopted GPS time service receiver technology and so on. The objectives are to establish the structural safety monitoring and status evaluation system to monitor the structural responses and working conditions in real time and to analyze the structural working statue using information obtained from the measured data. It will be also provided the scientific decision-making bases for the bridge management and maintenance. Potential technical approaches to the structural safety warning systems, status identification and evaluation method are presented. The result indicated that the performance of the system has achieved the desired objectives, ensure the longterm high reliability, real time concurrence and advanced technology of SZBHMS. The innovate achievement which is the first time to implement in domestic, provide the reference for long-span bridge structural health and safety monitoring warning systems design.

  14. Food and beverage price discounts to improve health in remote Aboriginal communities: mixed method evaluation of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Holden, Stacey; Miles, Eddie; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Retrospectively evaluate food price discounts in remote Aboriginal community stores. Four price discount strategies of 10% were designed in 2010, aiming to influence grocery, fruit, vegetables and diet soft-drink sales. This natural experiment across a group of stores was evaluated using an explanatory, sequential mixed method design through analysis of store point-of-sale, document, observation and interview data. The outcome was measured by change in: 1) percentage of grocery sales to total food and beverage; 2) fruit and vegetable sales; and 3) diet soft-drink sales. Qualitative data enabled the interpretation of outcomes through understanding perceived success and benefits, and enablers and barriers to implementation. Eighteen community stores and 54 informants participated. While targeted price discounts were considered important to improving health, no discernible effect was evident, due to inadequate design and communication of discount promotion, and probably inadequate magnitude of discount. Strategy impact on food and beverage sales was limited by promotion and magnitude of discount. Implication for Public Health: This study demonstrates key factors and commitment required to design, communicate, implement and monitor strategies to improve health in this challenging remote retail context. Evaluation of natural experiments can contribute evidence to policy-making. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products.

  16. Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Diane; Moultrie, Nicolette M; Sites, Elsbeth; Crawford, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant threat to America's children. Health care leaders have increasingly called upon oral health professionals to integrate healthy weight promotion and enhanced sugar-sweetened beverage counseling into their professional practices. The aim of this scoping review is to examine recent evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary care childhood obesity interventions that have potential for adoption by oral health professionals. Medine, and PubMed were searched from 2010 to 2016 for review articles and studies reporting patient outcomes or policy outcomes relevant to primary care childhood obesity interventions for children ages 2-11 years. Additional articles were accessed through relevant websites, journals, and references. Our screening criteria included interventions that could be adopted by oral health professionals. Forty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions fell into four domains: family-based programs, motivational interviewing, office-based practice tools, and policy interventions. Despite strong evidence linking the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to childhood obesity, our review did not find evidence of primary care programs effectively targeting and reducing childhood sugary drinks. Effective primary care interventions for addressing childhood obesity have been identified, although only short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated. Dissemination of these practices as well as further research and advocacy are needed. Childhood obesity and poor oral health share many common risk factors. Additional research should focus on the benefits and feasibility of widespread interdisciplinary medical-oral health collaboration in addressing the two most prevalent diseases of childhood. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Impact of Added Sugar Information of Front-of-Pack Labels on Consumers’ Beverage Health Perception Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeyoung; House, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Front-of-package (FOP) labels with voluntary and mandatory disclosure of added sugar levels for beverages on consumer perceptions of how healthy the beverages are. Three groups of beverages were investigated: 1) 100% fruit juice (containing sugar but no added sugar); 2) sugar-sweetened beverages (containing sugar and added sugar); and 3) diet soft drink (containing no sugar). In general, added sugar information seems to play an important role in perception of...

  18. The Association between Potential Exposure to Magazine Ads with Voluntary Health Warnings and the Perceived Harmfulness of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Weaver, Scott R; Zahra, Nahleen; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-03-23

    (1) Background: Several brands of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) carry voluntary health warning messages. This study examined how potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with these voluntary health warnings were associated with the perceived harmfulness of ENDS. (2) Methods: Risk perception measures and self-reported exposure to ENDS ads were obtained from the 2014 Georgia State University (GSU) Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We examined the association between potential exposure to magazine ads with warnings and the perceived harms of ENDS relative to cigarettes, using binary logistic regressions and controlling for general ENDS ad exposure and socio-demographic characteristics. (3) Results: Potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with warnings was associated with a lower probability of considering ENDS to be more or equally harmful compared to cigarettes, particularly among non-smokers (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04-0.77). In addition, ad exposure, ENDS use history, race/ethnicity, gender, education, and income were also associated with harm perceptions. (4) Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that magazine ads with warnings increased misperceptions that ENDS are equally or more harmful than cigarettes. With more ENDS advertisements carrying warnings, more research is needed to determine how the warnings in advertisements convey relative harm information to consumers and the public.

  19. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cantrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. METHODS/FINDINGS: Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371 into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001; perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001; credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62, and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53. No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco

  20. ‘The university should promote health, but not enforce it’: opinions and attitudes about the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Howse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to determine the opinions and attitudes of a university population regarding the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting, primarily looking at differences in opinion between younger adults (under 30 years of age and older adults (30 years of age or older. Methods An online survey was conducted at an Australian university in April–May 2016 using a convenience sample of students and staff between the ages of 16 and 84 years. The survey included questions about consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and level of agreement and support of proposed sugar-sweetened beverage interventions. Quantitative response data and qualitative open-ended response data were analysed. Results Nine hundred thirteen responses from students and staff were analysed. In this population, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was low and awareness of the health risks of sugar-sweetened beverages was high. Overall, the surveyed population indicated more support for interventions that require higher levels of personal responsibility. The population did support some environment-centred, population-based interventions, such as increasing access to drinking water and reducing the price of healthier beverage alternatives. However there was less support for more restrictive interventions such as removing sugar-sweetened beverages from sale. Young adults tended to be less supportive of most interventions than older adults. Conclusions These findings indicate there is some support for environment-centred, population-based approaches to reduce the availability and appeal of sugar-sweetened beverages in an adult environment such as a university setting. However these results suggest that public health may need to focus less on educating populations about the harms associated with sugar-sweetened beverages. Instead, there should be greater emphasis on explaining to populations and communities why environment

  1. Are Cigarette Smokers', E-Cigarette Users', and Dual Users' Health-Risk Beliefs and Responses to Advertising Influenced by Addiction Warnings and Product Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher; Burton, Scot; Howlett, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    This research examines cigarette smokers' and e-cigarette users' product-related health-risk beliefs across tobacco products and considers the effects of addiction warnings on consumers' responses to persuasion attempts. Study 1 used a cross-sectional survey with a sample of 195 adult cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users to examine health-risk beliefs associated with combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes (cancer, lung disease, stroke, heart disease, harm to an unborn baby, and addiction). Using a sample of 265 adult cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users, Study 2 used a between-subjects experiment to examine the effects of an addiction warning presented in an advertisement on health-risk beliefs and willingness to try the promoted product. Study 1 results reveal that health-risk beliefs for cigarettes are extremely high, whereas health-risk beliefs for e-cigarettes are lower and vary across specific health-risk beliefs; specifically, beliefs related to addiction and harm to an unborn baby are greater than other risk beliefs. Extending these findings, Study 2 results demonstrate that health-risk beliefs associated with cigarette smoking are not affected by an addiction warning in a cigarette advertisement. However, an addiction warning in an e-cigarette advertisement does modify e-cigarette-related risk beliefs, which, in turn, reduces consumers' willingness to try the promoted e-cigarette. Findings indicate that the addition of an addiction warning may be effective in changing consumers' risk beliefs associated with e-cigarettes and consumers' responses to e-cigarette persuasion attempts. By examining cigarette smokers' and e-cigarette users' product-related health-risk beliefs and considering the effects of an addiction warning on consumers' responses to persuasion attempts, this research contributes to the understanding of how warnings in tobacco promotion affect cigarette smokers', e-cigarette users', and dual users' health

  2. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  3. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices Advertencias sanitarias en los productos de tabaco: prácticas internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hammond

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location, message content (pictorial vs. text and content "themes, and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices.Las advertencias sanitarias en los productos de tabaco han llegado a ser una de las políticas públicas principales para el control del tabaco. A través de la última década las prácticas regulatorias han evolucionado mucho y varios países siguen impulsado cambios regulatorios importantes en términos del tamaño y carácter de las advertencias sanitarias que han implementado. Este ensayo resume las prácticas regulatorias actuales alrededor del mundo, incluyendo las características del diseño físico de la advertencia (es decir, tamaño y ubicación, sus contenidos (temas, pictogramas, textos y otros factores regulatorios importantes (frecuencia de rotación y otras prácticas innovadoras.

  4. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  5. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U.; Nzegwu, C.N.; Adigba, E.O.; Aloke, R.U.; Ezomike, C.N.; Okocha, C.E.; Obi, E.; Orisakwe, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 μg) and 0.177 mg (177 μg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products

  6. Israeli Arab and Jewish youth knowledge and opinion about alcohol warning labels: pre-intervention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S

    1997-01-01

    This article presents baseline data on the opinion toward alcohol beverage warning labels and on levels of knowledge of the risks discussed in the contents of the labels prior to the labels' introduction, and on levels of knowledge of additional alcohol-related hazards not included in the proposed warning labels, among a sample of 3065 adolescents of four religions living in the northern region of Israel. About 2220 Arab participants (Moslems, Christians and Druze) and 845 Jewish respondents answered in the winter of 1996 a Hebrew version of an American questionnaire, which had been used to measure levels of knowledge of the label in the United States. More respondents were in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than on advertisements. Arabs as a group were more in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than Jews. The initial knowledge levels among the participants were not very high, especially concerning the item 'Drinking impairs the ability to operate machinery' (74.4%) which is included on the proposed warning label, and concerning two hazards which are not included: 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' (54.6%) and 'Drinking increases risk of high blood pressure' (60.4%). Abstainers knew more than drinkers that 'Pregnant women should not drink', 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' and 'Alcohol in combination with other drugs is hazardous'. Implications for public health are discussed and alternative warning messages that might be used to inform the Israeli public of several less well-known hazards are suggested.

  7. The impact of a sugar-sweetened beverages tax on oral health and costs of dental care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, P Marcin; Keller, Elena; Stormon, Nicole; Lalloo, Ratilal; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-05-22

    Despite a clear causal link between frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental disease, little is known about the implications of a tax on SSBs in the context of oral health. The aim of our study was to estimate the impacts of a SSB tax on the Australian population in the context of oral health outcomes, dental care utilisation and associated costs. We designed a cohort model that accounted for the consequences of the tax through the mechanisms of consumer response to price increase, the effect on oral health due to change in sugar intake, and the implications for dental care use. Our results indicate that in the adult population an ad valorem tax of 20% would lead to a reduction in decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) by 3.9 million units over 10 years, resulting in cost savings of A$666 million. Scenario analyses show that the outcomes are sensitive to the choice of the time horizon, tax rate, price elasticity of demand for SSBs, and the definition of target population. We found that the total and per-person consequences of SSB tax were considerable, both in terms of dental caries (tooth decay) averted and dental care avoided. These results have to be compounded with the implications of SSB tax for other aspects of health and health care, especially in the context of chronic diseases. On the other hand, the improved outcomes have to be weighted against a welfare loss associated with introducing a tax.

  8. The negative impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on children’s health: an update of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Bleich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption has declined in the last 15 years, consumption of SSBs is still high among children and adolescents. This research synthesis updates a prior review on this topic and examines the evidence regarding the various health impacts of SSBs on children’s health (overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, dental caries, and caffeine-related effects. We searched PubMed, CAB Abstracts and PAIS International to identify cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies examining the health impacts of SSBs in children published after January 1, 2007. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Overall, most studies found consistent evidence for the negative impact of SSBs on children’s health, with the strongest support for overweight/obesity risk and dental caries, and emerging evidence for insulin resistance and caffeine-related effects. The majority of evidence was cross-sectional highlighting the need for more longitudinal and intervention studies to address this research question. There is substantial evidence that SSBs increase the risk of overweight/obesity and dental caries and developing evidence for the negative impact of SSBs on insulin resistance and caffeine-related effects. The vast majority of literature supports the idea that a reduction in SSB consumption would improve children’s health.

  9. Evaluating the perceived effectiveness of pregnancy-related cigarette package health warning labels among different gender/age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Osman, Amira; Thrasher, James F

    2017-03-01

    The impact of pregnancy-related health warning labels (HWLs) appearing on cigarette packages on women of reproductive age and other socio-demographic groups is not well understood. The current study analyzes how different age/gender groups respond to pregnancy-related HWLs as compared to non-pregnancy HWLs. Data were analyzed from four waves of an online longitudinal study with adult smokers aged 18-64 in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Participants were classified into four age\\gender groups: women 40 and under; men 40 and under; women over 40; men over 40. Participants rated one pregnancy-related and several non-pregnancy related labels on worry, believability, and motivation to quit. Country-specific adjusted linear GEE were estimated regressing ratings for each of the three key outcomes for 1) pregnancy-related HWLs and 2) a rating difference score that subtracted the average ratings of the non-pregnancy warning from the rating of the pregnancy warning. All models adjusted for socio-demographics and smoking related variables. In Mexico and Australia, where graphic pregnancy-related HWL imagery is used (i.e., premature infant), women of reproductive age reported stronger believability, worry, and quit motivation than all other groups. Results were similar in the US, where text only HWLs are used. In contrast in Canada, where the pregnancy-related HWL imagery features a pregnant woman, ratings were unassociated with gender/age groups. Stronger effects among women of reproductive age were limited to pregnancy HWLs in each country, except Canada. HWLs that depict graphic effects to illustrate smoking-related pregnancy risks appear to be perceived as particularly effective among women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arsenic and Chromium in Canned and Non-Canned Beverages in Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish E. Orisakwe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to heavy metals in African populations. Little is known about the exposure to heavy metal toxins from processed or unprocessed foods consumed in Africa, and no data exists on the food concentrations of arsenic and chromium, which are potential carcinogens and systemic toxicants. This study determined the concentrations of arsenic and chromium in beverages and fruit drinks commonly sold in Nigeria. Fifty samples of commonly consumed canned and non-canned beverages (imported and locally manufactured purchased in Nigeria were digested in nitric acid and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. 33.3% of the canned beverages had arsenic levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL of 0.01 mg/L set by U.S. EPA while 55.2% of non-canned beverages had their arsenic levels exceeding the MCL. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.161 mg/L for the canned and 0.002 to 0.261 mg/l for the non-canned beverages. Whereas 68.9% of the non-canned beverages showed chromium levels that exceeded the US EPA’s MCL of 0.10 mg/L, 76.2% of the canned beverages had chromium levels that were greater than the MCL. The concentration range of total chromium in the canned beverages was 0.04 to 0.59 mg/L and 0.01 to 0.55 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The sources of arsenic and chromium in the commercially available beverages are unclear and merit further investigation. This preliminary study highlights the need to study the toxicological implications of chronic low-level exposure to heavy metals from African markets.

  11. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-07-19

    To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  14. Temporal framing and consideration of future consequences: effects on smokers' and at-risk nonsmokers' responses to cigarette health warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Nan, Xiaoli; Iles, Irina Alexandra; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of temporal framing (long-term vs. short-term) and individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) on the effectiveness of cigarette health warnings among smokers and at-risk nonsmokers in a college population. An online experiment (N = 395) revealed a three-way interaction among temporal framing, CFC, and smoking status. The results among at-risk nonsmokers supported the temporal fit hypothesis--those high in CFC responded more favorably to long-term framing, whereas those low in CFC responded more positively to short-term framing. The findings among smokers revealed a different pattern in which short-term framing was more effective among high-CFC smokers, whereas among low-CFC smokers the framing effect was not distinct. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Analysis of the tobacco industry’s interference in the enforcement of health warnings on tobacco products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Abreu Perez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aims to analyze the relationship between the Brazilian government’s adoption of a regulatory measure with a strong impact on the population and the opposition by invested interest groups. The methodology involves the analysis of official documents on the enforcement of health warnings on tobacco products sold in Brazil. In parallel, a search was conducted for publicly available tobacco industry documents resulting from lawsuits, with the aim of identifying the industry’s reactions to this process. The findings suggest that various government acts were affected by direct interference from the tobacco industry. In some cases the interventions were explicit and in others they were indirect or difficult to identify. In light of the study’s theoretical framework, the article provides original information on the Brazilian process that can be useful for government policymakers in the strategic identification of tobacco control policies.

  16. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  17. The metabolic and endocrine response and health implications of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages: findings from recent randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M

    2013-11-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars.

  18. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Wood, A; Lawrence, M; Mhurchu, C N; Albert, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. The impact of a local sugar sweetened beverage health promotion and price increase on sales in public leisure centre facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Penny; Womack, Robert; Pryce, Robert; Brennan, Alan; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of a local sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) health promotion and 20p price increase in leisure centre venues and estimate the impact on consumption. Monthly cold drinks sales data and attendance at leisure centres across the city of Sheffield were analysed over the period January 2015-July 2017. Interrupted time-series methods were employed to estimate changes in consumption per attendance of SSB and non-SSB cold drinks following the introduction of the SSB policy from August 2016 adjusting for seasonal variation and autocorrelation. SSB price elasticities were estimated with fixed effects log-log models by SSB product type (soda can, soda bottle, soda post mix, energy drinks, juice from concentrate). We estimated a 31% (95% CI 4%, 59%) reduction in units of SSB sold per attendance in the year since the policy was introduced. We did not observe substitution effects to fruit juice or water but found sales of other artificially sweetened non-SSB products increased by 27% (95% CI 6%, 47%) after the introduction of the tax. Price elasticity analysis identified that a 1% increase in price alongside health promotion leads to a 3.8% (95% CI 3.1% 4.4%) decrease in demand for SSB's. Price elasticity of demand was highest for child friendly and high caffeine energy drinks. Demand for SSB drinks at leisure centre venues is highly responsive to the policy, particularly for child-friendly and high caffeine energy drinks, compared with other SSB tax policy evaluations. The policy also increased purchases of carbonated non-SSB.

  1. The impact of recommendations and warnings on the quality evaluation of health websites: An online experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diviani, N.; Meppelink, C.S.

    With the increase in availability of online health information (OHI), consumers need to be able to properly evaluate the quality of health websites. Although several established evaluation criteria for OHI are available, these are rarely used by consumers. To improve people's ability and motivation

  2. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  3. Interpersonal communication about pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages: Policy-related influences and relationships with smoking cessation attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Huang, Liling; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Markovsky, Barry; Hardin, James

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between interpersonal communication about cigarette health warning labels (HWLs), psychological responses to HWLs, and smoking cessation attempts. Data were analyzed from online consumer panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada and Mexico, during implementation of new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs. Approximately 1000 adult smokers were surveyed in each country every four months (September 2012, January 2013, May 2013, September 2013, January 2014). Only smokers followed for at least two waves were included in the analytic sample. Participants reported the frequency of talking about HWLs in the last month (in general, with family members, and with friends). For each country, poisson generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess the bivariate and adjusted correlates of talking about HWLs. Logistic GEE models regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent wave on HWL talk, sociodemographics and psychological responses to HWLs. The frequency of HWL talk gradually decreased in Canada (48%-36%) after new HWLs were implemented; an increase (30%-58%) in Australia corresponded with implementation of new HWLs, after which talking stabilized; and the frequency of HWL talk in Mexico was stable over time, where new HWLs are implemented every six months. Talk about HWLs was an independent predictor of subsequent quit attempts in Canada (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.11-2.02), Australia (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), and Mexico (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.11-2.10), as was cognitive responses to HWLs (Australia AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.22-2.24; Canada AOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.15-2.11; Mexico AOR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.91-1.85). No interaction between talk and cognitive reactions to HWLs were found. These results suggest that interpersonal communication about HWLs influences smoking cessation attempts independent of other established predictors of smoking cessation, including

  4. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrie, Benjamin C. T.; Willing, Benjamin P.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product. PMID:27199969

  5. The Microbiota and health promoting characteristics of the fermented beverage Kefir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C.T. Bourrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.

  6. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrie, Benjamin C T; Willing, Benjamin P; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.

  7. Spillover Effects of Drug Safety Warnings on Preventive Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Orsini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We examine how new medical information on drug safety impacts preventive health care use. We exploit the release of the findings of the Women’s Health Initiative Study (WHIS) – the largest randomized controlled trial of women’s health – which demonstrated in 2002 the health risks associated...... with the long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We first show that, after the release of the WHIS findings, HRT use dropped sharply among post-menopausal women. We then estimate the spillover effects of the WHIS findings on preventive care by means of a difference-in-differences methodology...... comparing changes in preventive care use among 60 to 69 year-old women (who have high rates of HRT use) with the change among women aged 75 and above (who have much lower rates of HRT use). Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the period 1998–2007, we find that women aged 60...

  8. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  9. Evaluation of health alerts from an early illness warning system in independent living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Scott, Susan D; Miller, Steven J; Skubic, Marjorie; Phillips, Lorraine; Alexander, Greg; Koopman, Richelle J; Musterman, Katy; Back, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    Passive sensor networks were deployed in independent living apartments to monitor older adults in their home environments to detect signs of impending illness and alert clinicians so they can intervene and prevent or delay significant changes in health or functional status. A retrospective qualitative deductive content analysis was undertaken to refine health alerts to improve clinical relevance to clinicians as they use alerts in their normal workflow of routine care delivery to older adults. Clinicians completed written free-text boxes to describe actions taken (or not) as a result of each alert; they also rated the clinical significance (relevance) of each health alert on a scale of 1 to 5. Two samples of the clinician's written responses to the health alerts were analyzed after alert algorithms had been adjusted based on results of a pilot study using health alerts to enhance clinical decision-making. In the first sample, a total of 663 comments were generated by seven clinicians in response to 385 unique alerts; there are more comments than alerts because more than one clinician rated the same alert. The second sample had a total of 142 comments produced by three clinicians in response to 88 distinct alerts. The overall clinical relevance of the alerts, as judged by the content of the qualitative comments by clinicians for each alert, improved from 33.3% of the alerts in the first sample classified as clinically relevant to 43.2% in the second. The goal is to produce clinically relevant alerts that clinicians find useful in daily practice. The evaluation methods used are described to assist others as they consider building and iteratively refining health alerts to enhance clinical decision making.

  10. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  11. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  12. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  13. [Social crisis and occupational fatigue among health professionals: warnings and resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfberg, Elsa

    Due to the crisis of the welfare state, the smashing of the state budget and the labour flexibility, the "helping professions" (health service, education, etc.) are the main assistance for the poor, the elderly people and the victims of violence. This result in the emergence of occupational pathologies, mainly in the health workers, such as burnout, secondary traumatic stress or empaty caused fatigue, mobbing or moral harassment -all of them affecting not only the quality of life of professionals but also the body health. The corporal disorders may begin with mild malfunctions, considered as "natural" facts of life, then becoming severe illness. The professional may attempt to meliorate the situation with the use of alcohol, tobacco, ansiolitics, etc. thus worsening the whole health. At the moment there are not legal regulations for this emergent pathologies. We have to pay attention to the signals in order to be able to overcome the dysfunctional defense mechanisms and to activate the preventive and protective resources, such as reflexion groups at workplaces.

  14. The tobacco industry's thwarting of marketing restrictions and health warnings in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2009-08-01

    This article outlines how the tobacco industry has undermined tobacco control efforts in Lebanon since the early 1970s. An analysis of online and on-site tobacco industry documents, reviews of newspapers, policy and other documents, and interviews with key policy makers were conducted. Findings reveal how the weakness of tobacco control legislation in Lebanon has been the product of an effective tobacco industry strategy to weaken the content and scope of regulation, and delay adoption and implementation. The tobacco industry has built and maintained strong alliances that were and are regularly mobilised to effectively oppose regulation. Despite ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005, Lebanon's tobacco control track remains weak. Public health professionals and the government should work hard to oppose such tobacco industry tactics.

  15. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  16. Studying the consumption and health outcomes of fiscal interventions (taxes and subsidies) on food and beverages in countries of different income classifications; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, Amaap; Townsend, Nick; Mytton, Oli; Scarborough, Pete; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike

    2015-09-14

    Governments use fiscal interventions (FIs) on food and beverages to encourage healthy food behaviour and positive health outcomes. The objective of this review was to study the behavioural and health outcomes of implemented food and beverage FIs in the form of taxes and subsidies in countries of different income classifications. The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane protocols. The search was carried out on academic and grey literature in English, for studies conducted in different countries on implemented FIs on food and non-alcoholic beverages and health outcomes, with a special focus on the income of those countries. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and 14 were from peer- reviewed journals. Thirteen studies came from high-income (HI) countries, four from upper middle-income (UMI) countries and only one came from a lower middle-income (LMI) country. There were no studies from lower-income (LI) countries. Of these 18 studies; nine focused on taxes, all of which were from HI countries. Evidence suggests that FIs on foods can influence consumption of taxed and subsidized foods and consequently have the potential to improve health. Although this review supports previous findings that FIs can have an impact on healthy food consumption, it also highlights the lack of evidence available from UMI, LMI and LI countries on such interventions. Therefore, evidence from HI countries may not be directly applicable to middle-income and LI countries. Similar research conducted in middle and low income countries will be beneficial in advocating policy makers on the effectiveness of FIs in countering the growing issues of non-communicable diseases in these countries.

  17. Nutrition Services and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Terrence P.; Anderson, Susan; Miller, Clare; Guthrie, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate nutrient intake. This article describes the characteristics of both school nutrition services and the foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and…

  18. Comparing perceived effectiveness of FDA-proposed cigarette packaging graphic health warnings between sexual and gender minorities and heterosexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed nine graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packaging that were rated equally effective across racial/ethnic, education, or income groups of adult smokers. However, data on GHW effectiveness among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults, who have higher smoking prevalence, are currently lacking. This study analyzed whether perceived effectiveness of GHWs differed by gender and sexual orientation. Data came from a randomized experiment among 1,200 adults with an oversample from low socioeconomic status groups, conducted between 2013 and 2014 in three Massachusetts communities. Participants viewed and rated the effectiveness of nine GHWs. Mixed effects regression models predicted perceived effectiveness with gender and sexual orientation, adjusting for repeated measurements, GHWs viewed, age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, and health status. Female heterosexuals rated GHWs as more effective than male heterosexual, lesbian, and transgender and other gender respondents. There was no significant difference between female and male heterosexuals versus gay, male bisexual, or female bisexual respondents. Differences by gender and sexual orientation were consistent across all nine GHWs. Significant correlates of higher perceived effectiveness included certain GHWs, older age, being African-American (vs white), being Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic), having less than high school education (vs associate degree or higher), and being current smokers (vs non-smokers). Perceived effectiveness of GHWs was lower in certain SGM groups. We recommend further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms for these findings and investments in research and policy to communicate anti-smoking messages more effectively to SGM populations.

  19. Implementation of graphic health warning labels on tobacco products in India: the interplay between the cigarette and the bidi industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-11-01

    To understand the competition between and among tobacco companies and health groups that led to graphical health warning labels (GHWL) on all tobacco products in India. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library, documents obtained through India's Right to Information Act, and news reports. Implementation of GHWLs in India reflects a complex interplay between the government and the cigarette and bidi industries, who have shared as well as conflicting interests. Joint lobbying by national-level tobacco companies (that are foreign subsidiaries of multinationals) and local producers of other forms of tobacco blocked GHWLs for decades and delayed the implementation of effective GHWLs after they were mandated in 2007. Tobacco control activists used public interest lawsuits and the Right to Information Act to win government implementation of GHWLs on cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco packs in May 2009 and rotating GHWLs in December 2011. GHWLs in India illustrate how the presence of bidis and cigarettes in the same market creates a complex regulatory environment. The government imposing tobacco control on multinational cigarette companies led to the enforcement of regulation on local forms of tobacco. As other developing countries with high rates of alternate forms of tobacco use establish and enforce GHWL laws, the tobacco control advocacy community can use pressure on the multinational cigarette industry as an indirect tool to force implementation of regulations on other forms of tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. The impact of flavour, device type and warning messages on youth preferences for electronic nicotine delivery systems: evidence from an online discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-11-02

    To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message). The impact of the attributes on the probability of choosing ENDS was analysed using conditional and nested logit regressions, controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics and current smoking status. A general population sample of 515 participants (50 ever-users and 465 never-users of ENDS) aged 14-17 years were recruited to complete the experiment using an online panel. Fruit/sweets/beverage flavours significantly increase the probability of choosing ENDS among youth (pe-cigarettes, increase (p<0.05) the probability of choosing ENDS among adolescent never-users. Warning messages reduce (p<0.01) the probability of choosing ENDS among never-users. Restricting fruit/sweets/beverage flavours in ENDS, regulating modifiable vaping devices and adopting strong health warning messages may reduce the uptake of ENDS among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. [Raspail, propagandist himself from the "warnings" of the manual of health, between 1845 and 1878].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albou, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    During the last thirty years of his life, between 1845 and 1878, François-Vincent Raspail (1794-1878) published each year a new edition of his Manuel de santé (Manual of Health), which was intended as a practical guide to prevent and treat, using in particular camphor, major human diseases. Each edition was accompanied by a preamble, as an annual forum where the "revered teacher" applied to give information on his family, his trial, his stays in prison, his resentment, his exile, his publications, schedules consultations, etc. As a libertarian protester against the powers wether medical, political or judicial, Raspail was a tireless defender of the poor and weak, and this attitude earned him his reputation and his popularity. This positive image of "secular saint" was built from an effective propaganda, where the Manuel de santé and its preambles played a central rol.

  2. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  3. Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabet...

  4. Modeling wind-blown desert dust in the southwestern United States for public health warning: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dazhong; Nickovic, Slobodan; Barbaris, Brian; Chandy, Beena; Sprigg, William A.

    A model for simulating desert dust cycle was adapted and applied for a dust storm case in the southwest United States (US). This is an initial test of the model's capability as part of a future public health early warning system. The modeled meteorological fields, which drive a dust storm, were evaluated against surface and upper-air measurement data. The modeled dust fields were compared with satellite images, in situ surface PM2.5 and PM10 data, and visibility data in the areas affected by the dust event. The model predicted meteorological fields reasonably well. The modeled surface and upper-air field patterns were in agreement with the measured ones. The vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity followed closely with the observed profiles. Statistical analyses of modeled and observed meteorological variables at surface sites showed fairly good model performance. The modeled dust spatial distributions were comparable with the satellite-observed dust clouds and the reduced visibility patterns. Most encouragingly, the model-predicted and observed PM2.5 peak hours matched reasonably well. The model produced better PM2.5 peak hours than PM10 peak hours. The temporal varying trends of daily and hourly PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at most of the measurement sites were similar to those observed. Discrepancies between the values of the modeled and the measured surface PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations differed with time and location. Sometimes the modeled and measured concentrations can have one order of magnitude differences. These revealed there were possible deficiencies in the simulation of the dust production strength and location, and the representation of dust particle size in the modeling. Better land surface data and size representation of the dust production are expected to further improve model performance.

  5. Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Moderating Effects of Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy on Responses to Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages: A Comparison of Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seungwoo; Park, Joon Woo; Heflick, Nathan; Lee, Seon Min; Kim, Daejin; Kwon, Kyenghee

    2018-08-01

    Do graphic pictorial health warnings (GPHWs) on cigarette packaging work better for some people than others? According to the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), fear appeals should heighten positive change only if a person believes he or she is capable of change (i.e., self-efficacy). We exposed 242 smokers and 241 nonsmokers (aged 18-29) in the Republic of Korea to either a GPHW or a text-only warning in a between-subjects experiment. Results indicated that the GPHW increased intentions and motivations to quit smoking (for smokers) and intentions and motivations to not start smoking (for nonsmokers). However, these effects were moderated by self-efficacy related to quitting or not starting smoking. For smokers, a GPHW was especially effective in increasing desires and intentions to quit for people high in self-efficacy and high in self-esteem. However, for nonsmokers, a GPHW was effective only when self-efficacy was high, regardless of self-esteem level. For smokers and nonsmokers, results were mediated by heightened perceived health estimation. Implications for understanding the effectiveness of warning labels on cigarettes, for the introduction of GPHWs in the Republic of Korea, and for the Extended Parallel Process Model, are discussed.

  7. Does front-of-pack nutrition information improve consumer ability to make healthful choices? Performance of warnings and the traffic light system in a simulated shopping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion of more attention-grabbing and easily interpretable front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition information is one of the public policies that can be implemented to empower consumers to identify unhealthful food products and to make more informed food choices. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two FOP nutrition labelling schemes - the traffic light labelling and the warning scheme - on consumer food purchases when facing a health goal. The study was conducted with 1182 people from Montevideo (Uruguay), recruited using a Facebook advertisement. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three between-subjects experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no FOP nutrition information, (ii) FOP nutrition information using a modified version of the traffic light system including information about calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content per portion, and (iii) FOP nutrition information using the Chilean warning system including separate signs for high calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content. Respondents were asked to imagine that they had to purchase food in order to prepare a healthy dinner for themselves and their family, using the website of an online grocery store. Results showed that FOP nutrition information effectively improved the average healthfulness of participants' choices compared to the control condition, both in terms of the average nutritional composition of the purchased products and expenditure in specific product categories. No relevant differences between the effect of the traffic light and the warning system were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Displays and Graphic Health Warning Signs on Adults: Evidence From a Virtual Store Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E.; Nonnemaker, James M.; Loomis, Brett R.; Shafer, Paul R.; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). Methods. We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. Results. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers’ (B = −7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −13.20, −0.91; P influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases. PMID:24625149

  9. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of adherence and non-adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Donatella; Smith, Louise; Auyeung, Vivian; Weinman, John

    2017-09-22

    Although evidence shows that poor air quality can harm human health, we have a limited understanding about the behavioural impact of air quality forecasts. Our aim was to understand to what extent air quality warning systems influence protective behaviours in the general public, and to identify the demographic and psychosocial factors associated with adherence and non-adherence to the health advice accompanying these warnings. In August 2016 literature was systematically reviewed to find studies assessing intended or actual adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems, and encouraging people to reduce exposure to air pollution. Predictors of adherence to the health advice and/or self-reported reasons for adherence or non-adherence were also systematically reviewed. Studies were included only if they involved participants who were using or were aware of these warning systems. Studies investigating only protective behaviours due to subjective perception of bad air quality alone were excluded. The results were narratively synthesised and discussed within the COM-B theoretical framework. Twenty-one studies were included in the review: seventeen investigated actual adherence; three investigated intended adherence; one assessed both. Actual adherence to the advice to reduce or reschedule outdoor activities during poor air quality episodes ranged from 9.7% to 57% (Median = 31%), whereas adherence to a wider range of protective behaviours (e.g. avoiding busy roads, taking preventative medication) ranged from 17.7% to 98.1% (Median = 46%). Demographic factors did not consistently predict adherence. However, several psychosocial facilitators of adherence were identified. These include knowledge on where to check air quality indices, beliefs that one's symptoms were due to air pollution, perceived severity of air pollution, and receiving advice from health care professionals. Barriers to adherence included: lack of understanding of the indices

  10. Arsenic and Chromium in Canned and Non-Canned Beverages in Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Maduabuchi, J.-M. U.; Adigba, E. O.; Nzegwu, C. N.; Oragwu, C. I.; Okonkwo, I. P.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to heavy metals in African populations. Little is known about the exposure to heavy metal toxins from processed or unprocessed foods consumed in Africa, and no data exists on the food concentrations of arsenic and chromium, which are potential carcinogens and systemic toxicants. This study determined the concentrations of arsenic and chromium in beverages and fruit drinks commonly sold in Nigeria. Fifty samples of commonly consu...

  11. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Chi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Design. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012 for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions

  12. A ban on marketing of foods/beverages to children: the who, why, what and how of a population health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Daniel J; Campbell, Norman R C; Elliott, Charlene; McLaren, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in Canada and elsewhere of the need for population-level interventions related to diet. One example of such an intervention is a ban on the marketing of foods/beverages to children, for which several health organizations have or are in the process of developing position statements. Considering the federal government's inaction to impose restrictions that would yield meaningful impact, there is opportunity for the health community to unite in support of a stronger set of policies. However, several issues and challenges exist, some of which we outline in this commentary. We emphasize that, despite challenges, the present and predicted future of diet-related illness in Canadian children is such that population-level intervention is necessary and becoming increasingly urgent, and there is an important role for the health community in facilitating action.

  13. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  15. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and graphic health warning signs on adults: evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Loomis, Brett R; Shafer, Paul R; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers' (B = -7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -13.20, -0.91; P < .05) and recent quitters' (Β = -6.00, 95% CI = -11.00, -1.00; P < .01) urge to smoke and current smokers' purchase attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.11; P < .01). The warning sign had no significant main effect on study outcomes or interaction with enclosed display. These data show that POS tobacco displays influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases.

  16. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  17. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  18. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  19. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  1. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  2. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  3. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  4. Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Claire; Room, Robin

    2009-07-01

    In light of possible introduction of alcohol warning labels in Australia and New Zealand, this paper discusses the international experience with and evidence of effects of alcohol warning labels. The report describes international experience with providing information and warnings concerning the promotion or sale of alcoholic beverages, and considers the evidence on the effects of such information and warnings. The experience with and evaluations of the effects of tobacco warning labels are also considered. The most methodologically sound evaluations of alcohol warning labels are based on the US experience. Although these evaluations find little evidence that the introduction of the warning label in the USA had an impact on drinking behaviour, there is evidence that they led to an increase in awareness of the message they contained. In contrast, evaluations of tobacco warning labels find clear evidence of effects on behaviour. There is a need and opportunity for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of introducing alcohol warning labels to add to the published work on their effectiveness. The experience with tobacco labels might guide the way for more effective alcohol warning labels. Alcohol warning labels are an increasingly popular alcohol policy initiative. It is clear that warning labels can be ineffective, but the tobacco experience suggests that effective warning labels are possible. Any introduction of alcohol warning labels should be evaluated in terms of effects on attitudes and behaviour.

  5. A comparison of dietary estimates from the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey to food and beverage purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Wycherley, Thomas; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-12-01

    We compared self-reported dietary intake from the very remote sample of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (VR-NATSINPAS; n=1,363) to one year of food and beverage purchases from 20 very remote Indigenous Australian communities (servicing ∼8,500 individuals). Differences in food (% energy from food groups) and nutrients were analysed using t-test with unequal variance. Per-capita energy estimates were not significantly different between the surveys (899 MJ/person/day [95% confidence interval -152,1950] p=0.094). Self-reported intakes of sugar, cereal products/dishes, beverages, fats/oils, milk products/dishes and confectionery were significantly lower than that purchased, while intakes of meat, vegetables, cereal-based dishes, fish, fruit and eggs were significantly higher (pfood and nutrient availability in this population longitudinally; however, further evidence is needed on approaches to estimate wastage and foods sourced outside the store. There is potential for these data to complement each other to inform nutrition policies and programs in this population. © 2017 Menzies School of Health Research.

  6. Testing the warning signs of suicidal behavior among suicide ideators using the 2009 National survey on drug abuse and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John F; Lester, David; McSwain, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In order to help crisis counselors assess clients for their suicidal risk, in 2003 the American Association of Suicidology proposed ten warning signs, memorized through the acronym IS PATH WARM However, little research has been done investigating their effectiveness for predicting suicidal behavior The present study compared (1) suicide ideators with non-suicide ideator controls and (2) suicide ideators with suicide attempters on six of the IS PATH WARM warning signs, along with depression in the past year, marital status, and gender With regards to the comparison between suicide ideators and non-ideators, all variables but gender; abuse of alcohol in the past year, and anxiety in the past year were predictive of suicide ideation. However, when comparing suicide ideators who had not made a suicide attempt with those who had, only anger/aggression, depression in the past year, and marital status were predictive of a suicide attempt.

  7. Relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels in US adolescents: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Andrew A; Auinger, Peggy; Byrd, Robert S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels. A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Nationally representative samples of US adolescents participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 1999-2004. A total of 6967 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and physical activity levels. Glucose and insulin concentrations, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) percentile for age and sex. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index percentile for age and sex and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations; alternatively, increased physical activity levels were independently associated with decreased HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and triglyceride concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, low sugar-sweetened beverage intake and high physical activity levels appear to modify each others' effects of decreasing HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels are each independently associated with insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements in adolescents. Moreover, low sugar

  8. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  9. Factors associated with daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adult patients at four federally qualified health centers, Bronx, New York, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal, Ross B; Blank, Arthur E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-08

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities.

  10. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are presented on how fermentation is used to replace, modify or improve current, artificially produced, foods and beverages and how also fermentation can be used for completely novel consumer products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult smokers' reactions to pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs in Thailand and moderating effects of type of cigarette smoked: findings from the international tobacco control southeast Asia survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers' reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers' reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking.

  12. Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

  13. An Assessment of Coherence Between Early Warning and Response Systems and Serious Cross-Border Health Threats in the European Union and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreaks have attracted the attention of the public health community to early warning and response systems (EWRS) for communicable diseases and other cross-border threats to health. The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published regulations in this area. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought a new approach the management of public health threats in EU member states. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought several innovations, which included establishing a Health Security Committee; preparedness and response planning; joint procurement of medical countermeasures; ad hoc monitoring for biological, chemical, and environmental threats; EWRS; and recognition of an emergency situation and interoperability between various sectors. Turkey, as an acceding country to the EU and a member of the WHO, has been improving its national public health system to meet EU legislations and WHO standards. This article first explains EWRS as defined in Decision 1082/2013/EU and Turkey's obligations to align its public health laws to the EU acquis. EWRS in Turkey are addressed, particularly their coherence with EU policies regarding preparedness and response, alert notification, and interoperability between health and other sectors. Finally, the challenges and limitations of the current Turkish system are discussed and further improvements are suggested. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:883-892).

  14. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valisa E. Hedrick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories, yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER or a physical activity group (MoveMore. Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149 (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7, p ≤ 0.001 and MoveMore (n = 143 (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2, p ≤ 0.001 participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05, over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01. Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  15. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-04

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  16. Graphic and Arousing? Emotional and Cognitive Reactions to Tobacco Graphic Health Warnings and Associated Quit-Related Outcomes Among Low SEP Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-02-01

    Research on graphic health warnings (GHWs) indicates that beyond changing cognitions about the health effects of smoking, GHWs evoke emotional reactions that can influence quit-related outcomes. Emotions can be classified based on valence (positive or negative) and arousal (calm or excited). However, although considerable research has examined the differential effectiveness of positive versus negative GHW-evoked emotions, research investigating the role of arousal activation in quit-related behaviors is scarce. This study examined associations between quit-related outcomes (intention and attempt to quit) and GHWs-evoked negative emotions classified as high and low in arousal activation as well as cognitive reactions among smokers of low socioeconomic position (SEP). It also examined whether perceived health risks of smoking moderate the relationship between emotional and cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit-related outcomes. Data were collected from low SEP smokers in three Massachusetts communities. Participants were screened and randomized to view one of the nine GHWs initially proposed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and answered pre- and post-exposure questions. Results showed that GHW-evoked negative emotions high in arousal activation and cognitive reactions were both significantly associated with intention to quit during immediate post-test, controlling for age, warning label difference, and prior quit intention. However, these associations did not hold for quit attempts at follow-up. Perceived health risks of smoking moderated the association between cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit attempts at follow-up. The findings suggest that not all negative emotions evoked by GHWs are effective. Negative emotions high in arousal activation may be more effective in influencing quit-related behavioral intentions in low SEP groups. Additionally, unlike emotional reactions, cognitive reactions to GHWs may have effects that last relatively

  17. Does Adding Information on Toxic Constituents to Cigarette Pack Warnings Increase Smokers' Perceptions about the Health Risks of Smoking? A Longitudinal Study in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Lipkus, Isaac; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States include varying information about toxic cigarette smoke constituents and smoking-related health risks. HWL information changed more recently in Australia, Canada, and Mexico than in the United States. Aims: To investigate whether…

  18. The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Thrasher, James F; Romer, Daniel; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Nargis, Nigar; Hammond, David

    2017-10-01

    There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n=1053), and youth (16-18years) users (n=304) and non-users (n=687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  20. Assessment of a Districtwide Policy on Availability of Competitive Beverages in Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Gortmaker, Steven L; Kenney, Erica L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin Westfall; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2016-03-03

    Competitive beverages are drinks sold outside of the federally reimbursable school meals program and include beverages sold in vending machines, a la carte lines, school stores, and snack bars. Competitive beverages include sugar-sweetened beverages, which are associated with overweight and obesity. We described competitive beverage availability 9 years after the introduction in 2004 of district-wide nutrition standards for competitive beverages sold in Boston Public Schools. In 2013, we documented types of competitive beverages sold in 115 schools. We collected nutrient data to determine compliance with the standards. We evaluated the extent to which schools met the competitive-beverage standards and calculated the percentage of students who had access to beverages that met or did not meet the standards. Of 115 schools, 89.6% met the competitive beverage nutrition standards; 88.5% of elementary schools and 61.5% of middle schools did not sell competitive beverages. Nutrition standards were met in 79.2% of high schools; 37.5% did not sell any competitive beverages, and 41.7% sold only beverages meeting the standards. Overall, 85.5% of students attended schools meeting the standards. Only 4.0% of students had access to sugar-sweetened beverages. A comprehensive, district-wide competitive beverage policy with implementation support can translate into a sustained healthful environment in public schools.

  1. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD policy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshe A Mekonnen

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  2. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  3. HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World Health Organization global report from 50 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diane E; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Ravasi, Giovanni; McMahon, James H; Saadani, Ahmed; Kelley, Karen F

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

  4. Australian adult smokers' responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April-September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October-November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012-November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The Metabolic and Endocrine Response and Health Implications of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Findings From Recent Randomized Controlled Trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars. PMID:24228199

  6. Modelling the potential impact of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax on stroke mortality, costs and health-adjusted life years in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Manyema

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke poses a growing human and economic burden in South Africa. Excess sugar consumption, especially from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, has been associated with increased obesity and stroke risk. Research shows that price increases for SSBs can influence consumption and modelling evidence suggests that taxing SSBs has the potential to reduce obesity and related diseases. This study estimates the potential impact of an SSB tax on stroke-related mortality, costs and health-adjusted life years in South Africa. Methods A proportional multi-state life table-based model was constructed in Microsoft Excel (2010. We used consumption data from the 2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, previously published own and cross price elasticities of SSBs and energy balance equations to estimate changes in daily energy intake and BMI arising from increased SSB prices. Stroke relative risk, and prevalent years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study and modelled disease epidemiology estimates from a previous study, were used to estimate the effect of the BMI changes on the burden of stroke. Results Our model predicts that an SSB tax may avert approximately 72 000 deaths, 550 000 stroke-related health-adjusted life years and over ZAR5 billion, (USD400 million in health care costs over 20 years (USD296-576 million. Over 20 years, the number of incident stroke cases may be reduced by approximately 85 000 and prevalent cases by about 13 000. Conclusions Fiscal policy has the potential, as part of a multi-faceted approach, to mitigate the growing burden of stroke in South Africa and contribute to the achievement of the target set by the Department of Health to reduce relative premature mortality (less than 60 years from non-communicable diseases by the year 2020.

  7. Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-06-01

    Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Orava

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150. Methods: We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13 and Time II (2014. Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES, which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school’s support for healthy eating was classified as either “initiation,” “action” or “maintenance” along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as “high/increased,” “moderate” or “low/decreased” within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Results: Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary participated. Most schools remained in the “action” category (n = 20 across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support. Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Conclusion: Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy

  9. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2017-09-01

    Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school's support for healthy eating was classified as either "initiation," "action" or "maintenance" along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as "high/increased," "moderate" or "low/decreased" within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the "action" category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy eating in Ontario school food environments.

  10. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  11. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Implementation of Competitive Food and Beverage Standards in a Sample of Massachusetts Schools: The NOURISH Study (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Schmidt, Nicole; Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations. Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013). School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated. Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire. Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time. More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods. This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Brief Questionnaire to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake (BEVQ-15): Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Beverage Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID

  15. Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Public Knowledge about Herbal Beverages in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaver Nazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.

  17. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, an...

  18. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System: A Protocol for Assessing Health Warning Compliance, Design Features, and Appeals of Tobacco Packs Sold in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Washington, Carmen; Brown, Jennifer; Vadnais, Alison; Kroart, Laura; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco remains the world's leading preventable cause of death, with the majority of tobacco-caused deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), outlines a set of policy initiatives that have been demonstrated as effective in reducing tobacco use. Article 11 of the FCTC focuses on using the tobacco package to communicate tobacco-caused harms; it also seeks to restrict the delivery of misleading information about the product on the pack. The objective of this study was to establish a surveillance system for tobacco packs in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS) monitors whether required health warnings on tobacco packages are being implemented as intended, and identifies pack designs and appeals that might violate or detract from the communication of harm-related information and undermine the impact of a country's tobacco packaging laws. The protocol outlined is intended to be applicable or adaptable for surveillance efforts in other countries. Tobacco packs were collected in 14 countries during 2013. The intention was, to the extent possible, to construct a census of "unique" pack presentations available for purchase in each country. The TPackSS team partnered with in-country field staff to implement a standardized protocol for acquiring packs from 36 diverse neighborhoods across three cities in each country. At the time of purchase, data on price and place of acquisition of each pack was recorded. The field staff, according to a standardized protocol, then photographed packs before they were shipped to the United States for coding and archiving. Each pack was coded for compliance with the country-specific health warning label laws, as well as for key design features of the pack and appeals of the branding elements. The coding protocols were developed based upon prior research, expert

  19. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  20. Modelled health benefits of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax across different socioeconomic groups in Australia: A cost-effectiveness and equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Mantilla-Herrera, Ana Maria; Veerman, Lennert; Backholer, Kathryn; Sacks, Gary; Moodie, Marjory; Siahpush, Mohammad; Carter, Rob; Peeters, Anna

    2017-06-01

    A sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in Mexico has been effective in reducing consumption of SSBs, with larger decreases for low-income households. The health and financial effects across socioeconomic groups are important considerations for policy-makers. From a societal perspective, we assessed the potential cost-effectiveness, health gains, and financial impacts by socioeconomic position (SEP) of a 20% SSB tax for Australia. Australia-specific price elasticities were used to predict decreases in SSB consumption for each Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Changes in body mass index (BMI) were based on SSB consumption, BMI from the Australian Health Survey 2011-12, and energy balance equations. Markov cohort models were used to estimate the health impact for the Australian population, taking into account obesity-related diseases. Health-adjusted life years (HALYs) gained, healthcare costs saved, and out-of-pocket costs were estimated for each SEIFA quintile. Loss of economic welfare was calculated as the amount of deadweight loss in excess of taxation revenue. A 20% SSB tax would lead to HALY gains of 175,300 (95% CI: 68,700; 277,800) and healthcare cost savings of AU$1,733 million (m) (95% CI: $650m; $2,744m) over the lifetime of the population, with 49.5% of the total health gains accruing to the 2 lowest quintiles. We estimated the increase in annual expenditure on SSBs to be AU$35.40/capita (0.54% of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks) in the lowest SEIFA quintile, a difference of AU$3.80/capita (0.32%) compared to the highest quintile. Annual tax revenue was estimated at AU$642.9m (95% CI: $348.2m; $1,117.2m). The main limitations of this study, as with all simulation models, is that the results represent only the best estimate of a potential effect in the absence of stronger direct evidence. This study demonstrates that from a 20% tax on SSBs, the most HALYs gained and healthcare costs saved would accrue to the most disadvantaged

  1. Modelled health benefits of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax across different socioeconomic groups in Australia: A cost-effectiveness and equity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla-Herrera, Ana Maria; Veerman, Lennert; Backholer, Kathryn; Moodie, Marjory; Siahpush, Mohammad; Carter, Rob; Peeters, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background A sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in Mexico has been effective in reducing consumption of SSBs, with larger decreases for low-income households. The health and financial effects across socioeconomic groups are important considerations for policy-makers. From a societal perspective, we assessed the potential cost-effectiveness, health gains, and financial impacts by socioeconomic position (SEP) of a 20% SSB tax for Australia. Methods and findings Australia-specific price elasticities were used to predict decreases in SSB consumption for each Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Changes in body mass index (BMI) were based on SSB consumption, BMI from the Australian Health Survey 2011–12, and energy balance equations. Markov cohort models were used to estimate the health impact for the Australian population, taking into account obesity-related diseases. Health-adjusted life years (HALYs) gained, healthcare costs saved, and out-of-pocket costs were estimated for each SEIFA quintile. Loss of economic welfare was calculated as the amount of deadweight loss in excess of taxation revenue. A 20% SSB tax would lead to HALY gains of 175,300 (95% CI: 68,700; 277,800) and healthcare cost savings of AU$1,733 million (m) (95% CI: $650m; $2,744m) over the lifetime of the population, with 49.5% of the total health gains accruing to the 2 lowest quintiles. We estimated the increase in annual expenditure on SSBs to be AU$35.40/capita (0.54% of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks) in the lowest SEIFA quintile, a difference of AU$3.80/capita (0.32%) compared to the highest quintile. Annual tax revenue was estimated at AU$642.9m (95% CI: $348.2m; $1,117.2m). The main limitations of this study, as with all simulation models, is that the results represent only the best estimate of a potential effect in the absence of stronger direct evidence. Conclusions This study demonstrates that from a 20% tax on SSBs, the most HALYs gained and healthcare costs

  2. Haze in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Karl J

    2009-01-01

    Beverages such as beer, wine, clear fruit juices, teas, and formulated products with similar ingredients are generally expected by consumers to be clear (free of turbidity) and to remain so during the normal shelf life of the product. Hazy products are often regarded as defective and perhaps even potentially harmful. Since consumers are usually more certain of what they perceive visually than of what they taste or smell, the development of haze in a clear product can reduce the likelihood of repeat purchasing of a product and can have serious economic consequences to a producer. Hazes are caused by suspended insoluble particles of colloidal or larger size that can be perceived visually or by instruments. Hazes in clear beverages can arise from a number of causes, but are most often due to protein-polyphenol interaction. The nature of protein-polyphenol interaction and its effect on haze particles, analysis of haze constituents, and stabilization of beverages against haze formation are reviewed.

  3. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are

  4. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  5. What are we drinking? Beverages shown in adolescents’ favorite TV shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. Objective This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Design Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed using a detailed coding instrument. Key measures Beverage incidents (i.e. beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks and coffee. Characters were coded with regards to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general or adult audience. Statistical analyses Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Results Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0–25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSB. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across age groups. Almost half of young adults’ (49.2%) or adults’ (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Conclusions Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSB) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the

  6. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  7. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  8. UC3M Emergencies : health center search, first aid, defibrillators, emergency exits, last warnings and torch (iOS platform)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Civiac, María

    2013-01-01

    This document contains Maria Martin’s bachelor thesis. The issues that this project wants to solve are emergencies-related: health centersand emergency exits location,emergency call, first aid instructions and information and latest emergency alerts at Carlos III University. It has been detected that members of Carlos III University currently have difficulties to find health centers, emergency exits and first aid information. Furthermore, the University itself did not have any mechanism to pu...

  9. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    habitual beverage intake. Similar study was developed in China, but in this case, the use of Smartphone technology was employed for beverage assessment. The methodology for measuring beverage intake in population studies remains controversial. There are few validated and reproducible studies, so there is still lacking an ideal method (ie, short, easy to administer, inexpensive and accurate) in this regard. Clearly, this is an area of scientific interest that is still in development and seems to be very promising for improving health research. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Training warning flags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Problems in accredited training programmes at US nuclear stations have resulted in several programmes having their accreditation status designated as probationary. A limited probationary period allows time for problem resolution before the programmes are again reviewed by the National Nuclear Accrediting Board. A careful study of these problems has resulted in the identification of several 'Training Warning Flags' that singularly, or in concert, may indicate or predict degraded training programme effectiveness. These training warning flags have been used by several US nuclear stations as a framework for self-assessments, as a reference in making changes to training programmes, and as a tool in considering student and management feedback on training activities. Further analysis and consideration of the training warning flags has developed precursors for each of the training warning flags. Although more subjective than the training warning flags, the precursors may represent early indicators of factors that may lead to or contribute to degraded training programme effectiveness. Used as evaluative tools, the training warning flags and the precursors may help identify areas for improvements in training programmes and help prioritize training programme improvement efforts. (author)

  11. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  12. canned beverages in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...

  13. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  14. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during the..., or a physical barrier shall be installed to impede travel beyond permanent support. ...

  15. Does Segmentation Really Work? Effectiveness of Matched Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packaging by Race, Gender and Chronic Disease Conditions on Cognitive Outcomes among Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hana; Tan, Andy; Kawachi, Ichiro; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-06-18

    We examined the differential impact of exposure to smoking-related graphic health warnings (GHWs) on risk perceptions and intentions to quit among different audience segments characterized by gender, race/ethnic group, and presence of chronic disease condition. Specifically, we sought to test whether GHWs that portray specific groups (in terms of gender, race, and chronic disease conditions) are associated with differences in risk perception and intention to quit among smokers who match the portrayed group. We used data from Project CLEAR, which oversampled lower SES groups as well as race/ethnic minority groups living in the Greater Boston area (n = 565). We fitted multiple linear regression models to examine the impact of exposure to different GHWs on risk perceptions and quit intentions. After controlling for age, gender, education and household income, we found that women who viewed GHWs portraying females reported increased risk perception as compared to women who viewed GHWs portraying men. However, no other interactions were found between the groups depicted in GHWs and audience characteristics. The findings suggest that audience segmentation of GHWs may have limited impact on risk perceptions and intention to quit smoking among adult smokers.

  16. Officials Warn of a Crisis in Student Health Insurance as Medical Costs Soar and Companies Revise Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1989-01-01

    As costs rise and companies discontinue coverage of college students under parents' policies, students are choosing to forego insurance rather than pay for it themselves, so suggest speakers at the American College Health Association's annual meeting. Colleges offering group-insurance policies to students are also having problems renewing them.…

  17. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diewertje Sluik

    Full Text Available The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly.From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES, seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI. Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts.In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories.This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage preference.

  18. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2010-04-26

    Total beverage intake patterns have changed greatly over the past half century. The present research was conducted to evaluate historic and current patterns of beverage consumption of adults and children in the U.S. Data were drawn from food balance surveys along with two-day beverage intake averages and were weighted to be nationally representative. A marked slow continuous shift downward in total milk intake with a shift toward an increased proportion of reduced fat milk was determined. The biggest shifts in beverage consumption among children aged 2 to18 were an increase in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (from 87 to 154kcal/d), a smaller increase in juices (+21kcal/d), and a decrease in milk consumption (-91kcal/d). Data among adults aged 19 and older indicated that SSB intake has more than doubled. Water intake was highly variable, with a marked increase in bottled water intake but no clear trend in total water intake. Overall trends by age were presented and indicated that age-related beverage intake, both in ounces and kcal/day, decreased sharply for adults aged 60 and older. Kcal/d values ranged from a low of 283 for those over age 60 to a peak of 533 for those aged 19 to39 to 367 for 2 to 6year olds. The consumer shift toward increased levels of SSBs and alcohol, limited amounts of reduced fat milk along with a continued consumption of whole milk, and increased juice intake represent issues to address from a public health perspective. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcoholic beverage preference and diabetes incidence across Europe: the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Jankovic, N.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Franco, Oscar H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: It is unknown if wine, beer and spirit intake lead to a similar association with diabetes. We studied the association between alcoholic beverage preference and type 2 diabetes incidence in persons who reported to consume alcohol.


    Subjects/Methods: Ten European

  20. Alcoholic beverage preference and diabetes incidence across Europe : the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D; Jankovic, N; Hughes, M; O'Doherty, M G; Schöttker, B; Drygas, W; Rolandsson, O; Männistö, S; Ordóñez-Mena, J M; Ferrieres, J; Bamia, C; de Gaetano, G; Kiefte-De Jong, J C; Franco, O H; Sluijs, I; Spijkerman, A M W; Sans, S; Eriksson, S; Kromhout, D; Trichopoulou, A; Wilsgaard, T; Brenner, H; Kuulasmaa, K; Laatikainen, T; Söderberg, S; Iacoviello, L; Boffetta, P; Kee, F; Feskens, E J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is unknown if wine, beer and spirit intake lead to a similar association with diabetes. We studied the association between alcoholic beverage preference and type 2 diabetes incidence in persons who reported to consume alcohol. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ten European cohort studies

  1. PICTORICAL WARNING PADA KEMASAN ROKOK: KOMUNIKASI PERSUASIF DALAM KAMPANYE KESEHATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sherly Hindra Negoro

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has became the serious problem which always to be the classical dynamic of health communication’s field. Through health campaign by using pictorical warning in cigarette packs, Indonesian Government has priority to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia. Pictorical warning in cigarette packs was regard as one of communication strategic for implementing. Health campaign has outcome that could change the health behavior for the persuadee. Visualization by using image b...

  2. An assessment of the relationship between the World Health Organization HIV drug resistance early warning indicators and HIV drug resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, M; Harrigan, P R; Sereda, P; Montaner, Jsg; Lima, V D

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) measure antiretroviral therapy (ART)-site factors associated with HIVDR prevention, without HIVDR laboratory testing. We assessed the relationship between EWIs and HIVDR acquisition using data from British Columbia, Canada. Eligible patients were ART-naïve, were ≥ 19 years old, had initiated ART between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, had ≥ 15 months of follow-up, and were without transmitted HIVDR. Patients were followed for acquired HIVDR until 31 March 2014, the last contact date, or death. We built logistic regression models to assess the associations and predictive ability of individual indicators and of the EWI Score (the number of indicators for which a patient did not meet the criteria) on HIVDR acquisition (to any class of HIVDR, lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs)]). All explored EWIs were associated with at least one class of HIVDR, with the exception of 'ART prescribing practices'. We observed a dose-response relationship between acquiring HIVDR to any antiretroviral class and an increasing EWI score in our predictive logistic regression model. The area under the curve was 0.848 (excellent discrimination). The adjusted odds ratios for acquiring any class of HIVDR for an EWI score of 1, 2 and ≥ 3 versus 0 were 2.30 [95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.21-4.38], 3.35 (95% CI: 1.86-6.03) and 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.61), respectively. Several EWIs were associated with and predictive of HIVDR, supporting the WHO EWIs as a component of the HIVDR prevention method in settings where HIVDR testing is not routinely or widely available. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  3. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  4. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required warnings. 307.2 Section 307.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS REGULATIONS UNDER... Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 is the law that requires the enactment of these...

  5. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Vossenaar, M.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary

  6. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2016-01-01

    : Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape...

  7. Sugary beverage tax policy: lessons learned from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    Excise taxes on sugary beverages have been proposed as a method to replicate the public health success of tobacco control and to generate revenue. As policymakers increase efforts to pass sugary beverage taxes, they can anticipate that manufacturers will emulate the strategies employed by tobacco companies in their attempts to counteract the impact of such taxes. Policymakers should therefore consider 2 complementary laws-minimum price laws and prohibitions on coupons and discounting-to accomplish the intended price increase.

  8. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  9. Food and Beverage Stylist and Photography

    OpenAIRE

    BEKAR, Aydan; KARAKULAK, Çisem

    2016-01-01

    A food and beverage stylist makes food and beverage look appetizing by preaparing them properly in order to get customers’ attention. A food and beverage photographer gets the most impressive image by using different shooting techniques. Food and beverage stylists and phtographers prepare attractive and unusual menus ,brochures, banners and ads for food and beverage enterprises so that products can look better when customers see them. People see the works of food and beverage styling and phot...

  10. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert

    2015-12-25

    Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  14. Beverage Alcohol Choice Among University Students: Perception, Consumption and Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liana SALANTA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze and compare the beverage alcohol choice among university students. The study was carried out on a total of 1069 students (men and women from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage consumption, perception and preference. The main reasons associated with alcohol consumption were relaxation and socialization followed by taste and flavour. The most respondents are attracted by flavor and aroma of the favourite beverage. The participants in the study were not heavy social drinkers (only 1.7 % of participants consume alcohol every day. Beer and wine, were the alcoholic beverages ranked in the top of preferences. Our findings can provide information for educators and policymakers in Romania to implement target-orientated interventions against alcohol abuse at universities. The results of this study may also add evidence to university administrators and public health educators elsewhere dealing with students from Romania.

  15. Assessment of the World Health Organization's HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Main and Decentralized Outreach Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholus Mutenda

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO early warning indicators (EWIs of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR.In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites: On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression. Comparisons were made between main and outreach sites and between 2014 and 2012 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in a matched analysis.The national estimates were: On-time pill pick-up 81.9% (95% CI 81.1-82.8 for adults and 82.4% (81.3-83.4 for pediatrics, Retention in care 79% retained on ART after 12 months for adults and 82% for pediatrics, Pharmacy stock-outs 94% of months without a stock-out for adults and 88% for pediatrics, and Dispensing practices 0.01% (0.001-0.056 dispensed mono- or dual-therapy for adults and 0.01% (0.001-0.069 for pediatrics. Viral load suppression was significantly affected by low rates of Viral load completion. Main sites had higher On-time pill pick-up than outreach sites for adults (p<0.001 and pediatrics (p<0.001, and no difference between main and outreach sites for Retention in care for adults (p = 0.761 or pediatrics (p = 0.214. From 2012 to 2014 in adult sites, On-time pill pick-up (p = 0.001, Retention in care (p<0.001, and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.002 worsened. In pediatric sites, On-time pill pick-up (p<0.001 and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.012 worsened.Results of EWIs monitoring in Namibia provide evidence about ART programmatic functioning and contextualize results from national surveys of HIVDR. These results are worrisome as they show a decline in program performance over time. The national ART program is taking steps to minimize the emergence of HIVDR by strengthening adherence and retention of patients on ART

  16. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  17. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  18. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  19. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  1. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-10

    Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word "WARNING", and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu) carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  2. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  3. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Johnson, Caitlin E; Rooke, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages.

  4. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  5. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  6. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  7. Microwave warning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A device for warning a person carrying or wearing it of the presence of dangerous microwave radiation is fully powered by the radiations being detected. A very low-wattage gas-discharge lamp is energized by a broadly or a sharply tuned receiver circuit including dipole antennas or one antenna and a ''grounding'' casing element. The casing may be largely and uniformly transparent or have different areas gradedly light-transmissive to indicate varying radiation intensities. The casing can be made in the shape of a pocket watch, fountain pen, bracelet or finger ring, etc

  8. Grocery store beverage choices by participants in federal food assistance and nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Henderson, Kathryn E; Tripp, Amanda S

    2012-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are a target for reduction in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about sugar-sweetened beverages purchased with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This paper describes purchases of non-alcoholic refreshment beverages among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and SNAP. Grocery store scanner data from a regional supermarket chain were used to assess refreshment beverage purchases of 39,172 households in January-June 2011. The sample consisted of families with a history of WIC participation in 2009-2011; about half also participated in SNAP. Beverage spending and volume purchased were compared for WIC sampled households either using SNAP benefits (SNAP) or not (WIC-only). Analyses were completed in 2012. Refreshment beverages were a significant contributor to expenditure on groceries by SNAP and WIC households. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 58% of refreshment beverage purchases made by SNAP households and 48% of purchases by WIC-only households. Soft drinks were purchased most by all households. Fruit-based beverages were mainly 100% juice for WIC-only households and sugary fruit drinks for SNAP households. SNAP benefits paid for 72% of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases made by SNAP households. Nationwide, SNAP was estimated to pay at least $1.7 to $2.1 billion annually for sugar-sweetened beverages purchased in grocery stores. Considerable amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages are purchased by households participating in WIC and SNAP. The SNAP program pays for most of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among SNAP households. The upcoming SNAP reauthorization could be a good time to reconsider the program priorities to align public funds with public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system is...

  10. Marketing Food and Beverages to Youth Through Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Elbel, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children. We reviewed the literature about sports-related food marketing, including food and beverage companies' use of sports sponsorships, athlete endorsements, and sports video games. This review demonstrates that sports sponsorships with food and beverage companies often promote energy-dense, nutrient-poor products and while many of these promotions do not explicitly target youth, sports-related marketing affects food perceptions and preferences among youth. Furthermore, endorsement of unhealthy products by professional athletes sends mixed messages; although athletes may promote physical activity, they simultaneously encourage consumption of unhealthy products that can lead to negative health outcomes. We argue that more athletes and sports organizations should stop promoting unhealthy foods and beverages and work with health experts to encourage healthy eating habits among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  13. 76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  14. Required warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  15. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  16. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  17. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  18. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali

    2017-04-01

    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  19. Reducing calories and added sugars by improving children's beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PICTORICAL WARNING PADA KEMASAN ROKOK: KOMUNIKASI PERSUASIF DALAM KAMPANYE KESEHATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherly Hindra Negoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has became the serious problem which always to be the classical dynamic of health communication’s field. Through health campaign by using pictorical warning in cigarette packs, Indonesian Government has priority to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia. Pictorical warning in cigarette packs was regard as one of communication strategic for implementing. Health campaign has outcome that could change the health behavior for the persuadee. Visualization by using image becomes persuasive communication tools cigarette packs as the communication media. EPPM model was used to analysis this case. This paper was using literature study to understand this problem.

  1. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing Risks? Early Warning Systems for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, A. M.; Zommers, Z. A.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems are a tool with which to minimize risks posed by climate related hazards. Although great strides have been made in developing early warning systems most deal with one hazard, only provide short-term warnings and do not reach the most vulnerable. This presentation will review research results of the United Nations Environment Programme's CLIM-WARN project. The project seeks to identify how governments can better communicate risks by designing multi-hazard early warning systems that deliver actionable warnings across timescales. Household surveys and focus group discussions were conducted in 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso in order to identify relevant climate related hazards, current response strategies and early warning needs. Preliminary results show significant variability in both risks and needs within and between countries. For instance, floods are more frequent in rural western parts of Kenya. Droughts are frequent in the north while populations in urban areas face a range of hazards - floods, droughts, disease outbreaks - that sometimes occur simultaneously. The majority of the rural population, especially women, the disabled and the elderly, do not have access to modern media such as radio, television, or internet. While 55% of rural populace never watches television, 64% of urban respondents watch television on a daily basis. Communities have different concepts of how to design warning systems. It will be a challenge for national governments to create systems that accommodate such diversity yet provide standard quality of service to all. There is a need for flexible and forward-looking early warning systems that deliver broader information about risks. Information disseminated through the system could not only include details of hazards, but also long-term adaptation options, general education, and health information, thus increasingly both capabilities and response options.

  3. Drivers of Acceptance of a New Beverage in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of studying food consumption behavior is to identify the drivers of choice for a food product. This is particularly important to design and develop new foods for which no previous information is available. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Bissap is an herbaceous plant and an important source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, which confer a number of potential health benefits to derived products. The consumption of Bissap in beverage form is widespread in Africa and Asia, but not yet in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main drivers of consumer acceptance of a traditional African beverage made from Bissap to which they had not been previously exposed. First, three focus groups (n = 22 were performed in Portugal to characterize the sensory profile of four Bissap beverages, to reveal perceptions and attitudes towards Bissap beverages, and to identify potential choice attributes. Subsequently, a full-profile conjoint analysis (n = 99 was performed, where consumers evaluated 37 Bissap beverage profiles, aiming to estimate choice attribute importance and to identify relevant market segments. Focus group findings showed that consumers would choose Bissap because they perceived as a healthy choice, and due to its novelty. The conjoint study showed an ideal profile for a Bissap beverage costing €0.99/L, <18 kcal/100 mL, packaged in Tetra-pack, light red color, and containing labeling information about antioxidants and Bissap. Four clusters of consumers were identified: price sensitive, body concerned, packaging attracted, and demanding, highlighting the most influential choice attributes: price, calories, and packaging. Findings provide useful guidance for new product development of an African product in the European lifestyle. Results might be useful from a nutraceutical point of view and to the food/beverages industry.

  4. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  5. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-30

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  6. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  7. Beverage-Specific Alcohol Sale and Cardiovascular Mortality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Method. Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970–2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat. Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates. Results. Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia.

  8. Colorimetric Analysis of Hibiscus Beverages and their Potential Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, G A; Vanegas-Espinoza, P E; Escudero-Gilete, M L; Heredia, F J; Paredes-López, O; Del Villar-Martínez, A A

    2018-05-25

    In food industry, roselle beverages and their subproducts could be functional ingredients since they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with improved performance due to their important anthocyanins content. The aim of this study was to analyze anthocyanin content and antioxidant properties of aqueous infusions elaborated with color contrasting Hibiscus materials and design a mathematical model in order to predict color-composition relationship. Color measurements of beverages from roselle (Negra, Sudan and Rosa) were made by transmission spectrophotometry, anthocyanins quantification was determined by HPLC, and antioxidant potential was evaluated by in vitro methods (ABTS and FRAP assays). Beverages prepared with particle size minor of 250 μm presented until 4- and 2- times more anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity respectively, in comparison to beverages prepared with powders with particle size major of 750 μm. Positive correlations among pigments composition and color parameters were found (p Hibiscus beverages with high anthocyanin content. The obtained models could be an important tool to be used in food industry for pigment characterization or functional compounds with potential health benefits.

  9. Health literacy is associated with healthy eating index scores and sugar-sweetened beverage intake: findings from the rural lower Mississippi delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for more than a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. This study, evaluates health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores and sugar-sweetened bev...

  10. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age.

  11. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  12. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  13. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  14. Snack and beverage consumption and preferences in a sample of Chinese children - Are they influenced by advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yu, Yang; King, Lesley; Li, Mu

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of unhealthy snack and beverages can lead to childhood obesity, which has become a major concern globally. Television food advertisements may influence children's snack and beverages preferences. This article aims to explore children's snack and beverage consumption habits; examine the extent of television advertising for non-core (energy-dense, nutrient poor) snack and beverages; and assess the influence of television advertising on children's snack and beverages preferences in Harbin, China. The study consisted of two components, a recall survey on the snack and beverage consumption and preferences of 9-11 years old school children; and recording snack and beverage advertisements on three popular television channels. Odds Ratio (OR) was used to estimate the likelihood of children selecting particular snack and beverages as their top three choices according to whether their preferences were influenced by television advertisements. The majority of children consumed non-core snacks (100%) and beverages (80%) in the four weeks prior to the survey. Nearly 40% of television food advertisements were for non-core snacks and beverages. Non-core snacks (OR of 1.13) and non-core beverages (OR of 1.23) were more likely chosen as children's top three snack/beverage choices, particularly, "puffed food and tubers" snack and carbonated beverages (OR of 1.31 and 1.45, respectively). The snack and beverage preferences appeared to be influenced by television advertisements in this sample of Chinese children, highlighting the potential health and nutritional value of policy to reduce advertising of non-core foods in China.

  15. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  16. [Sugar content in non-alcoholic beverages and dietary recemmendations for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Maciej; Rybakowa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Increase the intake of sugars among the inhabitants of developed countries is related to, among others, increasing consumption of non-alcoholic beverages, for which the relationship with the epidemic of obesity, particularly among children and adolescents, has been proven. The most frequently cited are non-alcoholic beverages, sweetened glucose-fructose syrup, ie. colas, tonics, ice teas, lemonades. Fruit drinks, fruit juices and nectars are commonly cited as a healthy alternative to non-alcoholic beverages and, however, we do not pay attention to the high content of sugars in these products. Determine the content of sugars in non-alcohollic beverages popular among children and adolescents. 80 non-alcoholic beverages such as cola, tonic, lemonade, ice tea, flavored waters, fruit juices, fruit nectars and fruit drinks. Evaluation of the content of monosaccharides and sucrose was performed by high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the tested non-alcohollic beverages, monosaccharides ie. glucose and fructose and the disaccharide sucrose were detected in different proportions. The product with the lowest content of the total sugars content was flavored water with lemon flavor based on the mineral water (2.72 g/100 ml). In the group of fruit juices, fruit nectars and fruit drinks highest sugars content have been reported (12.94 g/100 ml for aronia nectar and 12.76 g/100ml for the juice of pomegranate and grapes). Significant monosaccharides and sucrose content in the tested non-alcohollic beverages tends to claim that their manufacturers should be obliged to place warnings on the labels addressed to patients suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Educational programs for children and adolescents with diabetes should include information about the content of a large amount of sugars in fruit products: fruit juices, fruit drinks and fruit nectar. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  17. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Trends in Energy Intake from Alcoholic Beverages among US Adults by Sociodemographic Characteristics, 1989-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. This study examined shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. This study was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data from the 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Adults aged ≥19 years (N=39,298) were targeted. A subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n=7,081) were studied. Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and nonconsumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/capita/day in 1989-1991 to 109 kcal/capita/day in 2003-2006 (Pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989-1991 to 2009-2012 (P for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 (Pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Short-Term Impacts of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax on Beverage Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yichen; Auchincloss, Amy H; Lee, Brian K; Kanter, Genevieve P

    2018-04-11

    On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar ("regular") and sugar-substitute ("diet") beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents' consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6-31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15-February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities. Survey questions included frequency and volume of bottled water and beverages. Outcomes were daily consumption, and 30-day consumption frequency and volume. Propensity score-weighted difference-in-differences regression was used to control for secular time trend and confounding. Covariates were sociodemographics, BMI, health status, smoking, and alcohol use. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Within the first 2 months of tax implementation, relative to the comparison cities, in Philadelphia the odds of daily consumption of regular soda was 40% lower (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.37, 0.97); energy drink was 64% lower (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.17, 0.76); bottled water was 58% higher (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13, 2.20); and the 30-day regular soda consumption frequency was 38% lower (ratio of consumption frequency=0.62, 95% CI=0.40, 0.98). Early results suggest that the tax influenced daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water. Future studies are needed to evaluate longer-term impact of the tax on sugared beverage consumption and substitutions. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Contribution of Beverages to Intakes of Energy and MyPlate Components by Current, Former, and Never Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizza, Claire A; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; ISIK, Zeynep; Goldman, Joseph D; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-12-01

    Although beverage intake patterns have been shown to differ by smoking status, it is unknown whether the contributions of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components also differ. The purpose of this study was to compare beverage intakes and contributions of energy and MyPlate components by source (food alone, beverages alone, and food and beverages together) in diets of adult current, former, and never smokers. Dietary data from 4,823 men and 4,672 women aged ≥20 years who participated in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, were analyzed. Beverage intake and the contributions to energy and MyPlate components by beverages. Regression analyses identified differences in intake among groups. Current smokers consumed more total beverages, coffee, and sugar-sweetened beverages than never and former smokers (Pnever and former smokers, whereas female current and former smokers both consumed more alcoholic beverages than never smokers. Current smokers obtained more energy from beverages than their nonsmoking counterparts, although total energy intake did not differ. Intakes of added sugars, alcohol, and empty calories were higher for current than never smokers, and differences were accounted for by current smokers' beverage choices. This study adds to the body of research on smoking and dietary behavior by showing that not only do smokers consume a higher volume of beverages, but they also have a higher intake of energy provided by beverages, mainly empty calories from added sugars and alcohol. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing beverages' contribution to the total diet. Recognizing the common co-occurrence of smoking and specific beverage choices can help target health promotion and disease prevention efforts for this subpopulation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yach Derek; Alexander Eleanore; Mensah George A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely...

  2. Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whiskey sour 3 oz (89 ml) 125 White Russian 8 oz (235 ml) 568 Wine White table ... important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , ...

  4. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  5. Patients’ attention to and understanding of adverse drug reaction warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresa Muir McNeal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tresa Muir McNeal1, Colleen Y Colbert1, Christian Cable1, Curtis R Mirkes1, June G Lubowinski2, John D Myers11Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University System HSC College of Medicine, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA; 2RD Haynes Medical Library, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USAIntroduction: Medications are critical to the management of patient conditions, and they can have significant effects on the success or failure of medical interventions. Patient perceptions of drug warnings play an important role in medication compliance and ultimately disease management. Several factors may affect patients’ understanding of drug warnings and drug labeling, including health literacy and interactions with physicians and pharmacists.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings and drug labeling. Descriptive articles and studies regarding patient perceptions and knowledge of adverse drug reaction warnings were reviewed.Methods: The following databases were utilized to search the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings: PubMed, Academic Search Premiere, CINAHL, Medline, Psych Info, Business Source Complete, Alternative Healthwatch, Health Source (both Nursing/Academic and Consumer additions, JSTOR, and Master File Premiere. For the purpose of this review, any peer-reviewed article was eligible. Exclusionary criteria included: articles published in languages other than English, articles/studies on patient perceptions of vaccines and chemotherapy, and articles related to perceptions of medications administered in the inpatient setting. Forty-six articles were included in the review.Results: Health literacy has been shown to have a major impact on patients’ ability to understand potential adverse reactions and instructions on correct dosing of medications. Direct communication with physicians and pharmacists is one of the most important and

  6. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y Claire

    2014-03-01

    We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.

  7. Caregiver and adolescent responses to food and beverage marketing exposures through an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Zytnick, Deena; Onufrak, Stephen; Harris, Jennifer L; Wethington, Holly; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine noted that current food and beverage marketing practices promote unhealthful diets. However, little public health research has been conducted on food marketing directed toward adolescents, especially using caregiver- and adolescent-reported data. We assessed perceived frequency of food/beverage advertising exposure and common locations of food/beverage marketing exposure for adolescents using 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles and YouthStyles survey data on US adults ≥18 years of age and their children ages 12-17 (n=847), respectively. Exposure to advertisements for fast food, soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water were categorized as food/beverage categories with the highest, at least daily, exposure reported for fast food. Caregivers more frequently reported that adolescents viewed all food/beverage advertisements ≥1 time/day than the adolescents reported (chi-square tests, pfood/beverage marketing most frequently on television followed by at the supermarket. Our study showed that adolescents reported lower frequency of food and beverage advertising exposure than their caregivers. Further research may be needed to verify self-reported exposure data on food and beverage advertising as a way to obtain data for use in research on its relationship with diet quality and obesity.

  8. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-03-23

    As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determining their associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Korean adults. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012 data, 19,800 Korean adults (≥20 years) with a single 24-h dietary recall and health examination data were investigated. All beverage items consumed by participants were categorized into 15 beverage groups based on the KNHANES coding system. Three major beverage consumption patterns were identified according to factor analysis: (1) the "healthy beverage" (high intake of dairy products, 100% fruit/vegetable juices and low intake of alcoholic beverages); (2) the "sugar-sweetened beverage" (high intake of soda, sweetened coffee/tea, and fruit drink); and (3) the "unsweetened beverage" (high intake of unsweetened coffee) patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the odds of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and MetS (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program III [NCEP III]) for each beverage pattern after controlling for covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of the "healthy beverage" pattern with risks of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure (BP) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98), 0.83 (0.74-0.92), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.85 (0.79-0.98), and 0.81 (0.72-0.92), respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of associations of the "sugar-sweetened beverage" pattern with risks of abdominal obesity, elevated FBG and BP were 1.15 (1.03-1.30), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), and 1.18 (1.04-1.33), respectively. However, no associations were found between the "unsweetened beverage" pattern and any parameters examined. Intake of healthy beverages should be encouraged to

  10. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  11. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Jankovic, N.; O'Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Schöttker, Ben; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Kromhout, D.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Franco, O.L.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction
    The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European

  12. Flavonoids protecting food and beverages against light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, which are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at the parts per million level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions. Additionally, they are safe and possibly contribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for the protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (1) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (2) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitisers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (3) quenching of singlet oxygen from type II photosensitisation; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in type I photosensitisation. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitisers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimised through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerisation of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light-to-heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  14. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  15. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  16. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  19. The use of fruit extracts for production of beverages with high antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tarko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can cause many diseases of the circulatory and nervous system as well as tumors. There are many ways of preventing and treating these diseases including the consumption of products that contain significant amounts of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and antioxidative vitamins. However, currently food stores offer mainly convenient food, ready-to-eat foodstuffs or highly processed products. During numerous technological treatments they have been deprived of many valuable compounds occurring in fresh products. Therefore, an important element of the food production technology is to ensure a proper composition of valuable human health-promoting compounds, mostly vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in final food product. Consumers often and willingly drink beverages. They are also a good starting base for supplementation. Drinks can be enriched with polyphenols, which may reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, owing to their antiradical potential. The aim of this study was to use the fruit extracts for beverages enrichment in order to increase their antioxidative potential and polyphenol content. For the experiment the fruits of Cornelian cherry, lingonberry, elderberry, hawthorn and Japanese quince were used. Fruit was extracted with 80% ethanol, and then thickened by distillation under reduced pressure. Extracts were used to enrich the apple, orange and grapefruit beverages. Antioxidative activity and total polyphenols content in final beverages were determined. Also, sensory analysis was carried out. The fortification of tested beverages resulted in an increased antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content in case of all applied fruit extracts. Among the beverages composed, the best antioxidative properties were found in a beverage of red grapefruit, whereas the best organoleptically evaluated was the orange beverage. The scores of on the sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of

  20. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  2. Energy beverages: content and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Tuttle, Troy D; Higgins, Christopher L

    2010-11-01

    Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"

  3. When direct health-care professional communications have an impact on inappropriate and unsafe use of medicines : A retrospective analysis of determinants of impact of safety warnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reber, K.C.; Piening, S.; Wieringa, J.E.; Straus, S.M.J.M.; Raine, J.M.; de Graeff, Pauline; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    Serious safety issues relating to drugs are communicated to health-care professionals via Direct Health-Care Professional Communications (DHPCs). We explored which characteristics determined the impact of DHPCs issued in the Netherlands for ambulatory-care drugs (2001-2008). With multiple linear

  4. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's Food and Beverage Promotion on Television to Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Smith, Marietta E; Mathur, Suman J; Sargent, James D; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. Fifty-one children's food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children's yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. Television advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children's foods and beverages. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Weather warnings predict fall-related injuries among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondor, Luke; Charland, Katia; Verma, Aman; Buckeridge, David L

    2015-05-01

    weather predictions are a useful tool for informing public health planning and prevention strategies for non-injury health outcomes, but the association between winter weather warnings and fall-related injuries has not been assessed previously. to examine the association between fall-related injuries among older adults and government-issued winter weather warnings. using a dynamic cohort of individuals ≥65 years of age who lived in Montreal between 1998 and 2006, we identified all fall-related injuries from administrative data using a validated set of diagnostic and procedure codes. We compared rates of injuries on days with freezing rain or snowstorm warnings to rates observed on days without warnings. We also compared the incidence of injuries on winter days to non-winter days. All analyses were performed overall and stratified by age and sex. freezing rain alerts were associated with an increase in fall-related injuries (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.32), particularly among males (IRR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56), and lower rates of injuries were associated with snowstorm alerts (IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99). The rate of fall-related injuries did not differ seasonally (IRR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). official weather warnings are predictive of increases in fall-related injuries among older adults. Public health agencies should consider using these warnings to trigger initiation of injury prevention strategies in advance of inclement weather. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1990-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).

  8. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  9. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  10. The effect of pictorial warnings on cigarette packages on attentional bias of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Wilden, Sophia; Schneider, Sven; Rockenbach, Christine; Dinter, Christina; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hermann, Derik; Wagner, Michael; Winterer, Georg; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-04-01

    Given that previous studies demonstrated that smoking-related cues (like cigarette packages) grab the attention of smokers and thereby contribute to craving and tobacco seeking we investigated how pictorial health warnings presented on cigarette packages affect attention allocation towards cigarette packages. The WHO advises the use of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages. However, at present no experimental studies are available investigating if pictorial warnings modulate incentive properties of cigarette packages. Fifty-nine tobacco smokers and 55 non-smokers performed a visual dot probe task to assess attention allocation towards cigarette packages with and without health warnings. Smokers were divided a priori in a group of light smokers (smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day; n=20). Psychometric measures on anxiety and nicotine craving were administered. Light smokers showed an attentional bias towards packages without pictorial warnings while no effects were observed in the other groups. In heavy smokers attention allocation towards pictorial health warnings was associated with an increase of craving and anxiety. The results have a potential public health perspective as pictorial health warnings might be an effective strategy to reduce attentional bias towards cigarette packages of light smokers, while counterproductive effects in heavy smokers warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating adolescents' sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits in China, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Chiang, Timothy C; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-05-25

    Background China has undergone rapid Westernization and established dramatic social reforms since the early 21st century. However, health issues led to challenges in the lives of the Chinese residents. Western fast food and sweetened beverages, two food options associated with chronic diseases and obesity, have played key roles to alter adolescents' dietary patterns. This study aims to examine the association between adolescents' visits to Western fast food restaurants and sweetened beverage consumption. Methods Applying three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) between 2006 and 2011 (n = 1063), we used generalized Poisson regression (GPR) to investigate the association between adolescents' Western fast food restaurant visits and sweetened beverage consumption, as the popularity of fast food and sweetened beverages has skyrocketed among adolescents in contemporary China. A linear-by-linear association test was used as a trend test to study general patterns between sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits. We adjusted all models with sweetened beverage consumption frequency, four food preferences (fast food, salty snacks, fruits and vegetables), school status, gross household income, provinces, rural/urban regions, age and gender. Results From the results of the trend test, frequent sweetened beverage consumption was highly associated with more Western fast food restaurant visits among Chinese adolescents in the three waves (p beverage consumption or did not drink them at all, had much less likelihood of visiting Western fast food restaurants (p beverage consumption was highly associated with Western fast food restaurant visits in contemporary China. Further actions are needed from the Chinese central government to create a healthier dietary environment for adolescents.

  12. Stylistic analysis of songs in beverage advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双卉

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.

  13. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE...

  14. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Among all food and beverages-related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P food and beverages-focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. © 2015 APJPH.

  15. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  16. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  17. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214...

  20. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Resources for You Consumers FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages ... addition, the flavorings and nutrients added to these beverages must comply with all applicable FDA safety requirements and they must be identified in the ...

  1. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-04-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary energy and estimated macro- and micronutrient intake to the diet of young schoolchildren. We analyzed data from third- and fourth-grade urban Guatemalan school-children aged predominantly 8-10 years old. One-day pictorial registries of all beverages, foods and snacks consumed over a 24-h period were collected from children from private (n = 219) and public (n = 230) schools. Food composition nutrient values were assigned to the items consumed. Eleven main categories of beverages were identified. The contribution of each of the 11 beverage categories to energy, macro- and micronutrients was evaluated. The estimated intake of beverages was 475,300 mL, as reported by the 449 children. As a group, the beverage consumed in the greatest quantity was coffee (126,500 mL), followed by plain water (62,000 mL). Beverages represented a mean energy contribution of 418 +/- 26 kcal (21.5% of total dietary energy). The beverages varied in energy density from 0 (water) to 1.5 kcal mL(-1) (thin gruels). Beverages contributed one-third of the dietary carbohydrate. Through the contribution of fortified drinks, beverages were important sources of vitamin A (55%), vitamin C (38%), zinc (21%) and calcium (19%). Milk was an important source for vitamin D (10%). These results show the importance of drinks to nutrition and the balance of concerns of overweight/obesity with micronutrient quality.

  2. Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam C. Afeiche

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0–5.9, 6–11.9, and 12–23.9 months and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012 was conducted (n = 949. Among 0–5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day, such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. For infants 6–11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6–11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31% and SSBs (35%. After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12–23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.

  3. Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Villalpando-Carrión, Salvador; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fries, Lisa R; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-04-10

    Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0-5.9, 6-11.9, and 12-23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was conducted ( n = 949). Among 0-5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day) and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day), such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). For infants 6-11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6-11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31%) and SSBs (35%). After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12-23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.

  4. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it.

  6. Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Arranz, Sara; Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2007-09-19

    The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population.

  7. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arundhana, Andi Imam

    2016-01-01

    - There are several options that can be done to enforce lowering level of sugary drinks such as strengthening the regulation, taxation of the product and food labeling. Aims & Objectives: identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) describe sugar content in a sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) product and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search of sugar use and the tax policies of SSB products has been c...

  8. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Thahir Haning; Andi Imam Arundhana; Asry Dwi Muqni

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1) Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 rel...

  9. Beer, Wine, Spirits and Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mygind, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  10. Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India ... unhealthy foods and beverages are increasing the non-communicable disease burden and risk ... and promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages to Indian children and ...

  11. Make Better Beverage Choices: 10 Tips to Get Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series MyPlate MyWins Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Make better beverage choices A healthy eating style includes all foods and beverages. Many beverages ...

  12. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  13. Food and beverage advertising during children's television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.

  14. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Almost two-thirds of boys and girls consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Boys consumed an average 164 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.3% of total daily caloric intake. Girls consumed an average 121 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.2% of total daily caloric intake. •Among both boys and girls, older youth had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to younger children. •Non-Hispanic Asian boys and girls consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic boys and girls. Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children (1). Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children (2-6). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. youth aged 2-19 years for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  16. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Adults, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Approximately one-half of U.S. adults consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Men consumed an average 179 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.9% of total daily caloric intake. Women consumed an average 113 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.1% of total caloric intake. •Young adults had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to older adults. •Non-Hispanic Asian men and women consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women. Sugar-sweetened beverages are a major contributor of calories and added sugars to diets of U.S. adults (1). Studies have found that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to weight gain, metabolic syndrome, dental caries, and type 2 diabetes in adults (2-4). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of total calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults aged 20 and over for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  17. Alcohol warnings in TV beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Domenech, M M

    1995-05-01

    Mandated warnings are among the few steps Congress has taken to influence the use of legal substances such as alcohol. The usefulness of such warnings in discouraging abuse of alcohol is, however, controversial. This study examines the impact of televised warnings on probable antecedents of belief change not examined in previous research: confidence in beliefs about beer risks or benefits, and cognitive responses to the advertisements. The present study (N = 75 male and female college students) tests four of the warnings recommended in Senate Bill 674 (1993--the "Thurmond bill") edited into randomly sampled television beer advertisements, using a between-subjects treatment-and-control experimental design. The four advertisements or advertisement/warning pairs were counterbalanced and analyzed as a repeated measures factor. The study indicated, as hypothesized, that subjects exposed to warnings tended to have less confidence in their generally skeptical assessments of beer risks--a likely precursor to belief change in resistant populations. Repeated exposure to the advertisements alone also appeared to lead to increased confidence in generally positive assessments of beer benefits, whereas repeated exposure to warnings led to decreased confidence in such assessments. Repeated exposure to warnings also may have primed negative reactions to subsequent beer advertisements. These results suggest mechanisms by which alcohol warnings may over time influence beliefs. Measures used here may serve as useful criterion variables in future studies on warnings. Further attention to optimizing warning content and presentation is recommended.

  18. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Schneider, Glenn E; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95% CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95% CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95% CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly

  19. "If it tastes good, I'm drinking it": qualitative study of beverage consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason P; Gillman, Matthew W; Linakis, Stephanie K; Goldman, Roberta E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how college students choose beverages and whether behavioral interventions might reduce their heavy consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. From April to June 2010, 90 students participated in 12 focus groups at 6 colleges in Massachusetts and Louisiana. The study team undertook a group content analysis of the verbatim focus group transcripts using the immersion-crystallization method. The mean age of participants was 19 years. Fifty percent were white, and 47% were black. Several themes emerged in focus groups: taste is paramount; price is important but secondary; health and nutritional content of beverages are of limited interest; juice has a "health halo"; and water is consumed primarily for hydration. Students were often highly fixated on favorite sugar-sweetened beverages. Price was uniquely important for good-tasting beverages costing less than one dollar. Some students reported calorie content as important for food choices, but most had no awareness of beverage calorie content. Students' negative perceptions of sugar-sweetened beverages focused largely on the "dangers" of sugar and chemicals in sodas. They expressed particular concern about soda's corrosive chemical properties or diet soda causing cancer. The health halo for juice persisted even with some recognition of high sugar content. Students thought shocking educational messages would be necessary to get them to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among college students, taste and price were the most important factors in choosing beverages. Interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water may conquer taste and brand preference to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  1. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  2. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  3. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  4. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  5. Pilot beverage cartons : extended technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  6. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de

  7. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were "noticing warning labels during last month," "reading or looking closely at warning labels," "avoiding looking at labels during last month," "thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, "more likely to quit because of the warning labels," and "stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels." A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. The responses "more likely to quit because of the warning labels" and "stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one" significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries.

  8. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  9. Early Warning Indicators for Population-Based Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance in 6 African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Hamers, Raph L.; Menke, Jack; Labib, Moheb; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Kityo, Cissy; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Geskus, Ronald B.; Stevens, Wendy S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing are not routinely available for therapeutic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. World Health Organization HIVDR early warning indicators (EWIs) assess ART

  10. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Sluik (D.); N. Jankovic (Nicole); M.G. O'Doherty (Mark G.); A. Geelen (A.); B. Schöttker (Ben); Rolandsson, O. (Olov); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); J. Ferrieres (Jean); C. Bamia (Christina); Fransen, H.P. (Heidi P.); J.M.A. Boer (Jolanda); S. Eriksson (Sture); Martínez, B. (Begoña); Huerta, J.M. (José María); D. Kromhout (Daan); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); P. Boffetta (Paolo); F. Kee (F.); E.J.M. Feskens (Edith)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly.

  11. [Reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening psychological, behavioral and developmental problems of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin

    2017-06-02

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood

  12. Consumers’ behaviour and motives for selection of dairy beverages in Kvarner region: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since food choice is always a unique and personal experience, consumer behaviour is important for food manufacturers and marketers in term of product success. Due to the beneficial healthprotective effects of dairy beverages, this market segment is very innovative and fast-growing. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the consumption patterns, purchasing behaviour and motivesfor selection of dairy beverages. The sample of this study included 114 participants (44 males and 70 females which were interviewed face-to-face at the entrance of 5 shopping centres. The surveyinstrument consisted of closed questions regarding habits of consumption, purchasing habits and motives for selection of dairy beverages. Gender specific differences were tested. The results obtained have shown that females consumed more milk and milk drinks (p<0.001 and fermented milk drinks (p=0.002 than males. The consumption of whey-based beverages was sporadical in both genders. Females in higher percentage purchase low-fat dairy beverages (p=0.043, while males exhibited a higher level of loyalty to a certain product (p=0.034. Sensory appeals were the most important motivational factor for both genders. Brand was ranked second for males (p<0.001 and health aspect for females. The products’ origin was ranked third, while price was ranked fifth for both genders. The results obtained could be useful to researchers and dairy market sector in developing and promotinga group of dairy beverage products based on innovations and health.

  13. An Early Warning System Based on Syndromic Surveillance to Detect Potential Health Emergencies among Migrants: Results of a Two-Year Experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  14. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-08-01

    The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0·6 mile2 (1·6 km2) area where more than 60·0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29·7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21·0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66·9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50·8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54·9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50·2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children's food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health.

  15. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Design Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0.6 mile2 (1.6 km2) area where more than 60.0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Setting Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Subjects Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Results Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29.7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21.0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66.9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50.8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54.9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50.2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Conclusions Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children’s food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health. PMID:28587693

  16. Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages and provide a quantitative risk assessment. The human dietary intake of acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on World Health Organization (WHO) consumption data and literature on the acetaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the European Food Safety Authority's margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Life-time cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. The average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 0.112 mg/kg body weight/day. The MOE was calculated to be 498, and the life-time cancer risk at 7.6 in 10,000. Higher risk may exist for people exposed to high acetaldehyde contaminations, as we have found in certain unrecorded alcohol beverages in Guatemala and Russia, for which we have demonstrated possible exposure scenarios, with risks in the range of 1 in 1000. The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment set between 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. Alcohol consumption has thus been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources (food flavourings, tobacco) results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention. An initial public health measure could be to reduce the acetaldehyde content in alcoholic beverages as low as technologically possible, and to restrict its use as a food flavour additive.

  17. Trends in energy intake from alcoholic beverages by socio-demographic characteristics among US adults, 1989–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. Objective This study examines shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. Design This study was a repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from the 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; 2003–2006 and 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants/setting Adults ≥19 years (N = 39,298); a subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n = 7,081) were studied. Statistical analyses performed Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and non-consumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Results Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/cap/d in 1989–1991 to 109 kcal/cap/d in 2003–2006 (pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989–1991 to 2009–2012 (p for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 (pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. Conclusions These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day, and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. PMID:27132721

  18. Hospital outpatients' responses to taking medications with driving warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, T; Sheehan, M; Siskind, V

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the knowledge, intentions, and driving behavior of persons prescribed medications that display a warning about driving. It also examines their confidence that they can self-assess possible impairment, as is required by the Australian labeling system. We surveyed 358 outpatients in an Australian public hospital pharmacy, representing a well-advised group taking a range of medications including those displaying a warning label about driving. A brief telephone follow-up survey was conducted with a subgroup of the participants. The sample had a median age of 53.2 years and was 53 percent male. Nearly three quarters (73.2%) had taken a potentially impairing class of medication and more than half (56.1%) had taken more than one such medication in the past 12 months. Knowledge of the potentially impairing effects of medication was relatively high for most items; however, participants underestimated the possibility of increased impairment from exceeding the prescribed dose and at commencing treatment. Participants' responses to the safety implications of taking drugs with the highest level of warning varied. Around two thirds (62.8%) indicated that they would consult a health practitioner for advice and around half would modify their driving in some way. However, one fifth (20.9%) would drive when the traffic was thought to be less heavy and over a third (37.7%) would modify their medication regime so that they could drive. The findings from the follow-up survey of a subsample taking target drugs at the time of the first interview were also of concern. Only just over half (51%) recalled seeing the warning label on their medications and, of this group, three quarters (78%) reported following the warning label advice. These findings indicated that there remains a large proportion of people who either did not notice or did not consider the warning when deciding whether to drive. There was a very high level of confidence in this group that they could

  19. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  1. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  2. Framing Indoor Tanning Warning Messages to Reduce Skin Cancer Risks Among Young Women: Implications for Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the impact of indoor tanning device warnings that communicate the risks associated with indoor tanning (i.e., loss framed) or the benefits of avoiding indoor tanning (i.e., gain framed). A convenience sample of non-Hispanic White women aged 18 to 30 years who tanned indoors at least once in the past year (n = 682) participated in a within-subjects experiment. Participants completed baseline measures and reported indoor tanning intentions and intentions to quit indoor tanning in response to 5 warning messages in random order. A text-only control warning was based on Food and Drug Administration-required warnings for indoor tanning devices. Experimental warnings included graphic content and were either gain or loss framed. In multivariable analyses, gain-framed warnings did not differ from the control warning on women's intentions to tan indoors, but they prompted stronger intentions to quit than the control message. Loss-framed warnings significantly reduced intentions to tan indoors and increased intentions to quit indoor tanning compared with control and gain-framed warnings. The public health impact of indoor tanning device warnings can be enhanced by incorporating graphic content and leveraging gain- and loss-framed messaging.

  3. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  4. Beverages consumption in Brazil: results from the first National Dietary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rosangela A; Souza, Amanda M; Duffey, Kiyah J; Sichieri, Rosely; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of beverage consumption patterns using the first nationally representative survey of dietary intake in Brazil. Design Beverage consumption data were obtained by 1-day food records in an individual dietary survey. Setting nationwide cross-sectional survey, 2008–09. Subjects nationally representative sample of individuals ≥10 years (n=34,003). Results Beverages contributed to 17.1% of total energy consumption. Caloric coffee beverages provided the greatest level of energy overall (464 kJ or 111 kcal/d). Individuals from 10 to 18 (243 kJ or 58 kcal/d) and from 19 to 39 years old (230 kJ or 55 kcal/d consumed higher proportion of energy from sugar sweetened soft drinks than individuals over this age (142 kJ or 34 kcal/d for those 40–59 and 79 kJ or 19 kcal/d for those >60 years old). Conclusions Overall, the contribution of beverages, particularly sugary beverages, to total energy consumption in Brazil represents an important public health challenge and is comparable with those from other countries. PMID:25158687

  5. Taxation and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Position of Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Dietitians of Canada recommends that an excise tax of at least 10-20% be applied to sugar-sweetened beverages sold in Canada given the negative impact of these products on the health of the population and the viability of taxation as a means to reduce consumption. For the greatest impact, taxation measures should be combined with other policy interventions such as increasing access to healthy foods while decreasing access to unhealthy foods in schools, daycares, and recreation facilities; restrictions on the marketing of foods and beverages to children; and effective, long-term educational initiatives. This position is based on a comprehensive review of the literature. The Canadian population is experiencing high rates of obesity and excess weight. There is moderate quality evidence linking consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to excess weight, obesity, and chronic disease onset in children and adults. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages holds substantiated potential for decreasing its consumption. Based on economic models and results from recent taxation efforts, an excise tax can lead to a decline in sugar-sweetened beverage purchase and consumption. Taxation of up to 20% can lead to a consumption decrease by approximately 10% in the first year of its implementation, with a postulated 2.6% decrease in weight per person on average. Revenue generated from taxation can be used to fund other obesity reduction initiatives. A number of influential national organizations support a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

  6. Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hemalatha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature (RT: 27 ± 2 °C were evaluated for 90 days for microbial, sensorial and physicochemical quality parameters. The stability of RTS beverage stored at LT (4 ± 1 °C was excellent with a retention of the primary quality attributes ascorbic acid (15.44 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content (15.50 mg GAE/100 mL, total carotene (1.07 mg/100 mL, β-carotene (0.78 mg/100 mL, high viscosity (30.29 cp, and with high sensory scores of the product (8.3 up to 90 days as compared to the overall acceptability (6.5 of RT stored RTS for 60 days. Additionally, both the LT and RT stored RTS beverages had microbial counts within the permissible limits. Therefore, both beverages were safe to consume at the end of storage duration. In conclusion, the RTS beverage developed from Cape gooseberry could be served as functional health drink alternative to synthetic soft drinks due to its unique features (high nutritive values, high organoleptic values and high stability of the product.

  7. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  8. Prevalence of child-directed and general audience marketing strategies on the front of beverage packaging: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano Stoltze, Fernanda; Barker, Joshua O; Kanter, Rebecca; Corvalán, Camila; Reyes, Marcela; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R

    2018-02-01

    Front-of-package (FOP) marketing strategies of a wide variety of beverages were catalogued to examine the prevalence of each strategy prior to a sweeping Chilean restriction of child-directed marketing aimed at reducing obesity-related disease among Chile's youth. Photographs of 1005 beverage packages were quantitatively content-analysed to code whether a variety of child-directed, health-oriented and other marketing strategies (e.g. sales promotions) were present on each product's FOP. Strategies were then analysed based on beverages' product category, total sugar, energy and tax status (beverages with added sugars are taxed at different rates). Photographs were taken in six urban supermarkets in Santiago, Chile, representing five different supermarket chains. Beverages using child-directed characters or nature/fruit references were higher in total sugar and beverages with child-directed characters or childhood/family references were higher in energy than beverages without these respective strategies. Of the beverages taxed at the highest rate (greatest amount of added sugars), 49 % used nutrition and health appeals and 80 % used nature or fruit appeals. Plain waters and plain milks were less likely than other selected product categories to use health-oriented appeals or multiple FOP strategies in combination. FOP marketing on beverages varied according to the nutritional quality of the product, with heavier use of health-oriented and child-directed strategies in less healthy products. Marketing activities warrant continued observation to evaluate how industry responds to new marketing restrictions as these restrictions are evaluated in the light of existing taxes and other regulatory efforts to improve diets and reduce obesity-related disease.

  9. Association between excess weight and beverage portion size consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Nogueira Bezerra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the beverage portion size consumed and to evaluate their association with excess weight in Brazil. METHODS We used data from the National Dietary Survey, which included individuals with two days of food record aged over 20 years (n = 24,527 individuals. The beverages were categorized into six groups: soft drink, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, alcoholic beverage, milk, and coffee or tea. We estimated the average portion consumed for each group and we evaluated, using linear regression, the association between portion size per group and the variables of age, sex, income, and nutritional status. We tested the association between portion size and excess weight using Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, income, and total energy intake. RESULTS The most frequently consumed beverages in Brazil were coffee and tea, followed by 100% fruit juices, soft drinks, and milk. Alcoholic beverages presented the highest average in the portion size consumed, followed by soft drinks, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, and milk. Portion size showed positive association with excess weight only in the soft drink (PR = 1.19, 95%CI 1.10–1.27 and alcoholic beverage groups (PR = 1.20, 95%CI, 1.11–1.29, regardless of age, sex, income, and total energy intake. CONCLUSIONS Alcoholic beverages and soft drinks presented the highest averages in portion size and positive association with excess weight. Public health interventions should address the issue of portion sizes offered to consumers by discouraging the consumption of large portions, especially sweetened and low nutritional beverages.

  10. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  11. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  12. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  13. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.

  14. Alcohol consumers’ attention to warning labels and brand information on alcohol packaging: Findings from cross-sectional and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Kersbergen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol warning labels have a limited effect on drinking behavior, potentially because people devote minimal attention to them. We report findings from two studies in which we measured the extent to which alcohol consumers attend to warning labels on alcohol packaging, and aimed to identify if increased attention to warning labels is associated with motivation to change drinking behavior. Methods Study 1 (N = 60 was an exploratory cross-sectional study in which we used eye-tracking to measure visual attention to brand and health information on alcohol and soda containers. In study 2 (N = 120 we manipulated motivation to reduce drinking using an alcohol brief intervention (vs control intervention and measured heavy drinkers’ attention to branding and warning labels with the same eye-tracking paradigm as in study 1. Then, in a separate task we experimentally manipulated attention by drawing a brightly colored border around health (or brand information before measuring participants’ self-reported drinking intentions for the subsequent week. Results Study 1 showed that participants paid minimal attention to warning labels (7% of viewing time. Participants who were motivated to reduce drinking paid less attention to alcohol branding and alcohol warning labels. Results from study 2 showed that the alcohol brief intervention decreased attention to branding compared to the control condition, but it did not affect attention to warning labels. Furthermore, the experimental manipulation of attention to health or brand information did not influence drinking intentions for the subsequent week. Conclusions Alcohol consumers allocate minimal attention to warning labels on alcohol packaging and even if their attention is directed to these warning labels, this has no impact on their drinking intentions. The lack of attention to warning labels, even among people who actively want to cut down, suggests that there is room for

  15. Alcohol consumers' attention to warning labels and brand information on alcohol packaging: Findings from cross-sectional and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt

    2017-01-26

    Alcohol warning labels have a limited effect on drinking behavior, potentially because people devote minimal attention to them. We report findings from two studies in which we measured the extent to which alcohol consumers attend to warning labels on alcohol packaging, and aimed to identify if increased attention to warning labels is associated with motivation to change drinking behavior. Study 1 (N = 60) was an exploratory cross-sectional study in which we used eye-tracking to measure visual attention to brand and health information on alcohol and soda containers. In study 2 (N = 120) we manipulated motivation to reduce drinking using an alcohol brief intervention (vs control intervention) and measured heavy drinkers' attention to branding and warning labels with the same eye-tracking paradigm as in study 1. Then, in a separate task we experimentally manipulated attention by drawing a brightly colored border around health (or brand) information before measuring participants' self-reported drinking intentions for the subsequent week. Study 1 showed that participants paid minimal attention to warning labels (7% of viewing time). Participants who were motivated to reduce drinking paid less attention to alcohol branding and alcohol warning labels. Results from study 2 showed that the alcohol brief intervention decreased attention to branding compared to the control condition, but it did not affect attention to warning labels. Furthermore, the experimental manipulation of attention to health or brand information did not influence drinking intentions for the subsequent week. Alcohol consumers allocate minimal attention to warning labels on alcohol packaging and even if their attention is directed to these warning labels, this has no impact on their drinking intentions. The lack of attention to warning labels, even among people who actively want to cut down, suggests that there is room for improvement in the content of health warnings on alcohol packaging.

  16. Giving the wrong impression: food and beverage brand impressions delivered to youth through popular movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marketing on television showcases less-healthful options, with emerging research suggesting movies promote similar products. Given the obesity epidemic, understanding advertising to youth should be a public health imperative. The objective of this study was to estimate youth impressions to food and beverages delivered through movies. Methods Impressions were calculated by dividing US receipts annually into average movie ticket prices, then multiplying this by the number of brand appearances. Examination by ratings, product types and ages were conducted by Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests. Results Youth in the USA saw over 3 billion food, beverage or food–retail establishment (FRE) impressions on average, annually from 1996 to 2005. Those aged 12–18 viewed over half of all impressions, with PG-13-rated movies containing 61.5% of impressions. There were no significant trends in brand appearances by food, beverage or FRE impressions over the decade, although there was a decreasing trend in R-rated impressions for both foods (P< 0.01) and beverages (P< 0.01), but not FREs (P= 0.08). Conclusions Movies promote billions of food and beverage impressions annually to youth. Given the public health crisis of obesity, future research should further investigate these trends, as well as the potential association of these unhealthy exposures in youth. PMID:22076600

  17. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  18. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85

  19. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  20. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW) becomes a new entrant in the Philippine be...

  1. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pictorial warnings and their ability to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youth in Egypt. Through semi-structured in-depth interviews with a sample of cigarette smokers, the research argues that various social, cultural, and economic factors constrain the effectiveness of pictorial warnings. A key finding is that ...

  2. Radiation warning system in Slovenia (ROSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arh, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing that a radiological accident may have a widespread effect, the Slovenian government has decided to establish an early warning system. The aim of it is to detect any incident (domestic or foreign) involving radioactivity as fast as possible, to initiate appropriate measures, and to give immediate warning to the population

  3. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations.

  4. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Geelen, Anouk; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-06-15

    The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver enzymes and dietary patterns. Cross-sectional study. The Dutch Longitudinal Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) Study. 1653 men and women aged 20-77 years. Diet, including alcohol, was assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. Based on the average number of reported glasses of alcoholic beverage, a person was classified as having a preference for beer, wine, spirit/no specific preference, or as a non-consumer. Mixed linear models were used to calculate crude and adjusted means of cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipids, HbA1c, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, liver enzymes and dietary patterns. In the study population, 43% had a wine preference, 13% a beer preference, 29% had a spirit or no specific preference, and 15% did not consume alcohol. Men who preferred wine had lowest measures of adiposity; the preference for alcoholic beverages was not associated with adiposity measures in women. Wine consumers had higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lower HbA1c and were more likely to follow the 'Salad' pattern. Beer consumers had highest levels of triglycerides and liver enzymes, and had higher scores for the 'Meat' and 'Bread' pattern. Few differences in dietary patterns across alcoholic beverage preference categories were observed. Those differences in cardiometabolic parameters that were observed according to alcoholic beverage preference, suggested that wine consumers have a better health status than beer consumers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  7. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  10. ATTACK WARNING: Costs to Modernize NORAD's Computer System Significantly Understated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, F

    1991-01-01

    ...) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. These subsystems provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to United States and Canadian leaders...

  11. Exposure to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: Effects on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Yeung, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the effect of exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking. Design and methods A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18–25 years old. During session one, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current U.S Surgeon General’s text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Results Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p=.004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current U.S. Surgeon General’s text warnings (p=.014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Conclusion Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking. PMID:26442992

  12. Exposure to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages: Effects on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Yeung, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of exposure to the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking. A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18-25-years-old. During session one, demographics, smoking behaviour, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current US Surgeon General's text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p = .004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current US Surgeon General's text warnings (p = .014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers' implicit attitudes towards smoking.

  13. The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2010-04-26

    Epidemiological data suggest that consumption of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced risk of several chronic and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Both coffee and tea are a rich source of phenolic compounds including chlorogenic acids in coffee; and flavan-3-ols as well as complex theaflavins and thearubigens in tea. Coffee and tea are two of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and thus represent a significant opportunity to positively affect disease risk and outcomes globally. Central to this opportunity is a need to better understand factors that may affect the bioavailability of specific phenolic components from coffee and tea based beverages. An overview of the phenolic composition of coffee and tea is discussed in the context of how processing and composition might influence phenolic profiles and bioavailability of individual phenolic components. Specifically, the impact of beverage formulation, the extent and type of processing and the influence of digestion on stability, bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive phenolics from tea and coffee are discussed. The impact of co-formulation with ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals are discussed as strategies to improve absorption of these health promoting phytochemicals. A better understanding of how the beverage composition impacts phenolic profiles and their bioavailability is critical to development of beverage products designed to deliver specific health benefits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sports Sponsorships of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Roberto, Christina A; Sam, Rachel; Sarda, Vishnudas; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2018-04-01

    Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth. This descriptive study used Nielsen audience data to select 10 sports organizations with the most 2-17 year old viewers of 2015 televised events. Sponsors of these organizations were identified and assigned to product categories. We identified advertisements promoting food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsorships on television, YouTube, and sports organization Web sites from 2006 to 2016, and the number of YouTube advertisement views. The nutritional quality of advertised products was assessed. Youth watched telecasts associated with these sports organizations over 412 million times. These organizations had 44 food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (18.8% of sponsors), second to automotive sponsors ( n = 46). The National Football League had the most food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors ( n = 10), followed by the National Hockey League ( n = 7) and Little League ( n = 7). We identified 273 advertisements that featured food and/or nonalcoholic beverage products 328 times and product logos 83 times (some advertisements showed multiple products). Seventy-six percent ( n = 132) of foods had unhealthy nutrition scores, and 52.4% ( n = 111) of nonalcoholic beverages were sugar-sweetened. YouTube sponsorship advertisements totaled 195.6 million views. Sports sponsorships are commonly used to market unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, exposing millions of consumers to these advertisements. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn E.; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. Objective To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. Design, Setting, and Partipicants This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor’s product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. Exposures The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Main Outcomes and Measures Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Results Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (−19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, −369 fl oz; 95% CI, −469 to −269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (−15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (−0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, −342 fl oz

  16. Sweet and salty. An assessment of the snacks and beverages sold in vending machines on US post-secondary institution campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Michelle; Quick, Virginia M; Walsh, Jennifer; Greene, Geoffrey W; Hoerr, Sharon; Colby, Sarah M; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Phillips, Beatrice W; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the nutritional quality of snacks and beverages sold in vending machines. The contents of snack and beverage vending machines in 78 buildings on 11 US post-secondary education campuses were surveyed. Of the 2607 snack machine slots surveyed, the most common snacks vended were salty snacks (e.g., chips, pretzels) and sweets (i.e., candy and candy bars). The 1650 beverage machine slots assessed contained twice as many sugar-sweetened beverages as non-calorie-containing beverages. Only two institutions sold both milk and 100% juice in vending machines. The portion of snacks and beverages sold averaged more than 200 cal. Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient dense. The majority of snacks were low in fiber and high in calories and fat and almost half were high in sugar. Most beverages were high in calories and sugar. This study's findings suggest that vending machines provide limited healthful choices. Findings from benchmark assessments of components of the food environment, like the vending options reported here, can provide valuable input to campus administrators, health services, food service, and students who want to establish campus policies to promote healthful eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Overall, 87 % of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by >60 %. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32 %, respectively), but water was served 68 % of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day.

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE INFLUENCING FACTORS TO MENU PLANNING IN BIG SIZED FOOD&BEVERAGE FIRMS (SAMPLE OF TURKEY)

    OpenAIRE

    SARIOĞLAN, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    AbstractIndividuals who spend their time in destinations far away from their home because of the facts such as business, education, health, vacation and meeting has brought about eating habit in locations (outdoors). Since that increasing rate of eating habits outdoors of the individuals day by day, bigsized Food&Beverage firms has been showed up. Big sized Food&Beverage firms become influential as a supportive role on producing factors of the public, private or corporate ente...

  19. Adult Smokers? Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C. K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers? reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representat...

  20. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  1. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  2. Biomarker discovery and applications for foods and beverages: proteomics to nanoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bansal, Vipul; Shukla, Ravi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-11-20

    Foods and beverages have been at the heart of our society for centuries, sustaining humankind - health, life, and the pleasures that go with it. The more we grow and develop as a civilization, the more we feel the need to know about the food we eat and beverages we drink. Moreover, with an ever increasing demand for food due to the growing human population food security remains a major concern. Food safety is another growing concern as the consumers prefer varied foods and beverages that are not only traded nationally but also globally. The 21st century science and technology is at a new high, especially in the field of biological sciences. The availability of genome sequences and associated high-throughput sensitive technologies means that foods are being analyzed at various levels. For example and in particular, high-throughput omics approaches are being applied to develop suitable biomarkers for foods and beverages and their applications in addressing quality, technology, authenticity, and safety issues. Proteomics are one of those technologies that are increasingly being utilized to profile expressed proteins in different foods and beverages. Acquired knowledge and protein information have now been translated to address safety of foods and beverages. Very recently, the power of proteomic technology has been integrated with another highly sensitive and miniaturized technology called nanotechnology, yielding a new term nanoproteomics. Nanoproteomics offer a real-time multiplexed analysis performed in a miniaturized assay, with low-sample consumption and high sensitivity. To name a few, nanomaterials - quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires - have demonstrated potential to overcome the challenges of sensitivity faced by proteomics for biomarker detection, discovery, and application. In this review, we will discuss the importance of biomarker discovery and applications for foods and beverages, the contribution of proteomic technology in

  3. Glycaemic, uricaemic and blood pressure response to beverages with partial fructose replacement of sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natasha; Peng, Mei; Oey, Indrawati; Venn, Bernard Joseph

    2018-03-20

    The European Food Safety Authority approved a health claim (ID558) relating to lowered postprandial glycaemia when fructose replaces 30% of sucrose in foods and beverages. We assessed the effects of partial replacement of sucrose with fructose on serum glucose, uric acid and blood pressure. A randomised, crossover, double blind trial of 12 normoglycaemic participants consuming beverages containing 50 g blends of fructose and sucrose in proportions; 67% sucrose/33% fructose (67%S:33%F); 50% each (50%S:50%F) and 33%S:67%F; a 100% sucrose reference beverage was tested twice. Serum glucose and uric acid concentrations were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min and incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC) calculated. The geometric mean (95% CI) glycaemic iAUC following the 100% sucrose, 67%S:33%F, 50%S:50%F and 33%S:67%F blended beverages were 96 (63,145), 71 (46,109), 60 (39, 93) and 39 (12, 86) mmol/L min, respectively. At 33% fructose replacement, the proportionally lower iAUC of -28.5% (95% CI: -62.1, 5.2) mmol/L min was not different to sucrose alone. The response was lowered by fructose replacement of 50 and 67% and overall there was an inverse association (p beverages were 1320 (393, 2248), 3062 (1553, 4570), 3646 (2446, 4847), 3623 (2020, 5226) µmol/L min. Uric acid concentration was raised by all fructose-containing beverages with 33% fructose replacement causing an increase of 1741 (95% CI: 655, 2829) µmol/L min compared with sucrose alone. Blood pressure was not different among beverages. Reduced postprandial glycaemia was achieved by the substitution of sucrose with fructose although elevated uricaemic responses should be cautioned.

  4. Sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Talavera, Juan O; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mexican population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns and physical activity were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Sweetened beverage consumption was evaluated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Anthropometric and clinical measures were assessed with standardized procedures. The definition of metabolic syndrome was determined using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The associations of interest were evaluated by means of linear and logistic regression models. The Mexican states of Morelos and Mexico. A total of 5240 individuals aged 20 to 70 years (mean 39.4 (sd 11.5) years) were evaluated. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 56.6 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 26.6 %. We found that for each additional daily sweetened beverage serving consumed, participants experienced an average increase of 0.49 mmol/l in TAG and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 0.31 mmol/l. Subjects consuming more than two servings of sweetened beverages daily were at 2.0 times greater risk of metabolic syndrome than those who did not consume sweetened beverages. We also observed that higher sweetened beverage consumption increased the risk of all components of the metabolic syndrome. Our data support the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults, possibly by providing excess energy and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.

  5. Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.

  6. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  7. Neurociências, artes gráficas e saúde pública: as novas advertências sanitárias para maços de cigarros Neurosciences, graphic arts, and public health: new health warnings on cigarette packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy E.M. Nascimento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A exposição a produtos derivados do tabaco é considerada a mais importante causa de morte evitável no mundo. Ações de controle do tabagismo envolvem uma gama de intervenções para ajudar pessoas a parar de fumar e prevenir que jovens não se tornem dependentes. Advertências sanitárias com imagens mostradas em embalagens de cigarro são uma das formas mais efetivas de informar acerca das consequências do tabagismo. Pesquisas em neurobiologia da emoção demonstram que estímulos visuais afetam atitudes e comportamentos; estímulos agradáveis promovem predisposições para aproximação e os aversivos, afastamento. Os apelos positivos que o marketing da indústria tabagista induz em suas embalagens devem ser neutralizados por advertências que mostrem os riscos de fumar, desconstruindo o apelo prazeroso e induzindo predisposições de afastamento em relação ao produto.Exposure to tobacco products is considered the leading cause of avoidable death in the world. Tobacco control initiatives encompass a gamut of ways of helping people to quit smoking and keeping young people from ever becoming addicted. Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packaging constitute one of the most effective means of conveying information about the consequences of smoking. Research on the neurobiology of emotions shows that visual stimuli affect attitudes and behavior: pleasant stimuli prompt a tendency to approach while unpleasant stimuli prompt a tendency to avoid. The positive appeals placed on packaging by the tobacco industry's marketing departments should be neutralized by warnings that indicate the risks of smoking, thereby deconstructing any pleasurable appeal and prompting a tendency to avoid the product.

  8. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suree Nanasombat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other health-promoting activities. Thus, it is possible to use these plants for the development of new functional beverages. Methods: Ten formulations of beverages were produced. The 5 non-alcoholic beverages contained dried medicinal plants, fresh grapes and others and are as follows: beverage B1: 10.2% K. parviflora rhizomes, 5.1% brown sugar and 84.7% water; beverage B2: 0.45% Ardisia polycephala leaves, 0.45% C. asiatica leaves, 0.36% C. ternatea flowers, 0.45% C. sativus pollens, 0.45% G. biloba leaves, 0.45% Melodorum fruticosum flowers, 0.90% N. nucifera petals, 0.45% Nymphaea lotus petals, 5.43% crystalline sugar and 90.58% water; beverage B3: 0.62% A. polycephala fruits, 0.35% C. ternatea flowers, 0.44% G. biloba leaves, 2.64% K. parviflora rhizomes, 1.76% P. emblica fruits, 0.88% T. chebula fruits, 5.28% brown sugar and 88.03% water; beverage B4: 0.51% Acorus calamus stems, 0.68% C. ternatea flowers, 4.23% K. parviflora rhizomes, 0.85% N. nucifera petals, 0.85% N. lotus petals, 0.85% M. fruticosum flowers, 0.34% R. serpentina roots, 0.34% U. gambir, 1.69% Zingiber officinale rhizomes, 5.08% brown sugar and 84.60% water; beverage B5: 53.09% fresh grapes, 2.65% brown sugar and 44.25% water. After heating, filtering, and cooling, these beverages were put in sterile bottles. One part of each beverage was stored at 4C for 23 weeks before analyzing, but the other two parts were used to prepare the alcoholic beverage of each formulation. Grapes were mixed with the

  9. Criteria for evaluating the condition of a tropical cyclone warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D

    1999-09-01

    This paper evaluates the condition (i.e. health) of a tropical cyclone warning system (TCWS) during a 'quiet period' between infrequent intense cyclones. Capacity to make pre-disaster evaluations is important--disaster warning systems need to be in sound condition before, not after, disaster. The research--part of the UK's International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction Flagship Programme--focuses upon an evaluatory method first used on flood warning systems. The Criteria-development Matrix comprises social, organisational and institutional criteria by which a TCWS may be assessed using a five-stage development scale. This method is used to evaluate Mauritius's TCWS using in-depth interview data. Ways to enhance the method and apply it to other disaster warning systems are discussed. The TCWS in Mauritius is a relatively sound one from which others can learn. Weaknesses requiring attention for Mauritius's TCWS to progress to an advanced level of development are identified.

  10. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, Jill M; D'Oria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems, describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, and provides considerations for local implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Distribution of new graphic warning labels: Are tobacco companies following regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Peace, Jo; Li, Judy; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Stanley, James; Thomson, George

    2009-08-25

    To test the hypothesis that tobacco companies would not follow a regulation that required seven new graphic health warnings (GHWs) to be evenly distributed on cigarette packs and that they would distribute fewer packs featuring warnings regarded by smokers as being more disturbing. Cross-sectional survey of purchased packs (n = 168) and street-collected discarded packs (convenience sample of New Zealand cities and towns, n = 1208 packs) with statistical analysis of seven types of new GHWs. A priori warning impact was judged using three criteria, which were tested against data from depth interviews with retailers. The GHWs on the purchased packs and street-collected packs both showed a distribution pattern that was generally consistent with the hypothesis ie, there were disproportionately more packs featuring images judged as "least disturbing" and disproportionately fewer of those with warnings judged "more disturbing". The overall patterns were statistically significant, suggesting an unequal frequency of the different warnings for both purchased (p compliance. As an immediate measure, governments should strictly enforce all regulations applying to health warnings, particularly given that these are an effective tobacco control intervention that cost tax payers nothing.

  12. A content analysis of outdoor non-alcoholic beverage advertisements in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Hardoby, Tamara; Pandit, Natasha G; Raji, Yemi R; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2017-06-06

    This was a two-part descriptive study designed to (1) assess the marketing themes and sugar content of beverages promoted in outdoor advertisements (ads) within a portion of Accra, Ghana and (2) quantify the types of ads that appeared along the Accra-Cape Coast Highway. A 4.7 km 2 area of Accra, Ghana and a 151 km region along the highway represented the target areas for collecting photos of outdoor beverage ads. Number and types of beverage ads, sugar content of beverage products featured in ads and marketing themes used in ads. Two researchers photographed outdoor beverage ads in a 4.7 km 2 area of Accra and used content analysis to assess marketing themes of ads, including the portrayal of children, local culture, music, sports and health. Researchers also recorded the number and type of ads along a 151 km stretch of the Accra-Cape Coast Highway. Researchers assessed the added sugar content to determine which beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Seventy-seven photographed ads were analysed. Seventy-three per cent (72.7%) of ads featured SSBs, and Coca-Cola accounted for 59.7% of ads. Sixty-five per cent (64.9%) of all ads featured sodas, while 35.1% advertised energy drinks, bottled or canned juice drinks and coffee-based, milk-based and water-based beverages. Thirteen per cent (13%) of ads featured children and 5.2% were located near schools or playgrounds. Nine per cent (9.1%) of ads contained a reference to health and 7.8% contained a reference to fitness/strength/sport. Along the Accra-Cape Coast Highway, Coca-Cola accounted for 60% of branded ads. This study demonstrates the frequency of outdoor SSB ads within a 4.7 km 2 area of Accra, Ghana. Coca-Cola was featured in the majority of ads, and the child-targeted nature of some ads indicates a need to expand the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pledge to reduce child-targeted marketing on a global scale. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  13. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. New Waste Beverage Cans Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah Burlian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary emphasis of this work is on the development of a new waste beverage cans identification method for automated beverage cans sorting systems known as the SVS system. The method described involved window-based subdivision of the image into X-cells, construction of X-candidate template for N-cells, calculation of matching scores of reference templates for the N-cells image, and application of matching score to identify the grade of the object. The SVS system performance for correct beverage cans grade identification is 95.17% with estimated throughput of 21,600 objects per hour with a conveyor belt width of 18˝. The weight of the throughput depends on the size and type of the objects.

  16. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  17. [On alcoholic beverage taxation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni

    Review the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages to identify the characteristics we should take into account to make a tax policy proposal. Systematic review of articles in EBSCOhost that include in their abstract and title the words alcohol and elasticity and alcohol and tax, over the last 20 years in academic journals in English. We found 11 references. Although price elasticity is quite similar across countries, it is heterogeneous with regard togender, age, consumption level and type of beverage. Ad-hoc policies proved ineffective due to the substitution effect, and regressive in their impact on populations with lower levels of income and consumption. Tax policies should be applied to all alcoholic beverages based on their volume of alcohol and all measures, such as the minimum price per unit, should be complemented with other policies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  19. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-03-11

    For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  20. Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2017-06-15

    The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sugary beverage taxation in South Africa: Household expenditure, demand system elasticities, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Nicholas; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-12-01

    South Africa faces a severe and growing obesity epidemic. Obesity and its co-morbidities raise public and private expenditures on healthcare. Sugary beverages are heavily consumed in South Africa and are linked to the onset of overweight and obesity. Excise taxation of sugary beverages has been proposed and adopted in other settings as a means to reduce harms from their consumption. A tax on the sugar content of non-alcoholic beverages has been proposed for implementation in South Africa, however, the public health effects and revenue raising potential of this measure hinges on estimates of the targeted beverages own- and cross-price elasticities. This study applies demand system methods by combining expenditure survey data and sub-national price data to provide the first estimates of price and expenditure elasticities for categories of soft drinks that would be subject to South Africa's proposed sugary beverage tax. The results suggest that demand for these products is sufficiently price-elastic such that a significant reduction in consumption may result from a tax. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Whey Beverage Fortified with Vitamin E on Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra sohrabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whey protein can improve quality of life and vitamin E can reduce oxidative stress. Due to the reduced quality of life in hemodialysis patients, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of whey beverage fortified with vitamin E on quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Ninety two 17 to 65 years old patients who were on hemodialysis were randomly assigned to four groups of (i 1 receiving whey beverage fortified with vitamin E, (ii 2 receiving whey beverage, (iii 3 receiving vitamin E, and (iv 4 as the control group receiving no intervention. SF- 12 questionnaire was used for assessing quality of life in the participants. Results: Bodily pain score improved significantly in group 3 while, a significant decline was seen for bodily pain in control group. An improvement was seen in groups 1 and 2. Physical health showed a significant improvement in group 1. Considering social functioning scores, improvement in whey beverage and vitamin E groups was seen. An improvement of quality of life in whey beverage fortified with vitamin E was noticed. Conclusion: Whey protein and vitamin E were shown to reduce oxidative stress and their effect on neurotransmitters in brain such as serotonin and dopamine leads to improvement in quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Doing longer studies with questionnaires such as SF-36, may help precise investigation of whey protein and vitamin E effects on quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

  3. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R(2)>0.99), accuracy (94-104% recovery) and precision (RSD canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology.

  4. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg, while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  5. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited. (b... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is...

  6. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  7. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697

  8. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  9. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn D; Ng, Shu Wen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta; Miles, Donna R; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-04-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and negative in independent corner stores and

  10. Influence of the recall period on a beverage-specific weekly drinking measure for alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.

    2011-01-01

    -reported weekly alcohol intake. Subjects/Methods: The data is derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005, which is based on a region-stratified random sample of 21¿832 Danish citizens aged =16 years (response rate: 67%). The data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Results: A beverage...

  11. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... see the boxed section below for more advice. Stem Cell Uses and FDA Regulation The FDA has the ...

  12. Caltrans fog detection and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has implemented a fog detection and warning system on Highway 99 near Fresno. The entire central valley region is susceptible to Tule fog, which can reduce visibility tremendously, sometimes to n...

  13. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mallarino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children’s eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  14. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American ch