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Sample records for bevalac 1977-1980 lead

  1. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A. (eds.)

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  2. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  3. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980

  4. Radiobiology Department. Report of Activities 1977-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The different research activities carried out by the Radiobiology Department of the CNEA over the 4-year period 1977-1980 are summarized. These activities were devoted to the study of the effects of radiation on different biological systems, to the search for adequate experimental models, and to the development of techniques permiting a correct evaluation of the information obtained. Topics covered are genetics, microbiology, somatic effects of radiation, pathology and the operation of the animal's house. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Bevalac user's handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment

  6. Bevalac computer support group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McParland, C.; Bronson, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year, a group was created and placed under the leadership of Charles McParland. This is an expansion of previous Bevalac software efforts and has responsibilities in three major hardware and software areas. The first area is the support of the existing data acquisition/analysis VAX 11/780s at the Bevalac. The second area is the continued support of present data acquisition programs. The third principal area of effort is the development of new data acquisition systems to meet the increasing needs of the Bevalac experimental program

  7. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  8. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  9. The Bevalac Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact

  10. Bevalac operations update. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported in these areas: Bevatron operations (including a list of major experimental runs), user support at the Bevalac, modifications to the local injector, accelerator improvements at the Super HILAC, and general Bevalac upgrading. Modifications are reported for six individual beam lines

  11. Recent results from the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    In a collision between a 1.8 GeV/amu argon ion and a lead target, the overlapping regions of projectile and target undergo violent interaction while the non-overlapping regions either continue with beam velocity and break up into projectile fragments or remain at rest and break into target fragments. Projectile fragements are the easiest to study; the participants, in the mid-rapidity region, are the next easiest, while the target fragments have not been extensively studied, except by radiochemistry techniques. This talk concentrates (with the exception of a discussion of anomalous projectile fragments) on the participant region, where one would expect to find high densities and temperatures and where evidence of any phase transition might be found. The extensive evidence for a high degree of equilibration at Bevalac energies is omitted, even though the stopping power of nuclei is crucial for possible studies at higher energies

  12. The Bevalac long flattop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.; Abbott, S.; Bennett, M.; Bordua, M.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Howard, D.; Hunt, D.; Feinberg, B.; Force, R.; Frias, R.; Kalnins, J.; Lewis, S.; Nyman, M.; Shalz, L.; Solomons, S.R.; Tekawa, M.

    1992-10-01

    Until July of 1992, the maximum length of the Bevalac flattop was 2 seconds, limiting the beam spill to 1.5 seconds. The normal running condition was a 1.5 second flattop, with a 1.0 second beam spill. If we define the duty factor as the spill length (in time) divided by the synchrotron pulse length, that is, the percentage of time the Bevalac can deliver beam to experiments, the duty factor for the 1.5 second flattop ranged from 17% (at full field, i.e., 12575 G) to 25% (low field). The purpose of the Long Flattop Project was to increase the length of the flattop, thus increasing the duty factor of the machine, and its efficiency for experiments. This has been done, with resultant increase in the duty factor and experimental data rate. It is now possible to run with duty factor of about 80% for low fields, falling to about 60% at 10 kG, and 34% at full field. This report documents what was done, and its limitations. It should be noted that increasing the length of the beam spill is only possible if the source can produce more beam per pulse than is usable by the experimenter. Experimenters running at full intensity with a short flattop (1.5 seconds) cannot benefit from a longer flattop. This paper describe the changes that have been made to Bevalac systems to make the long flattop possible, the limits put on the length of the flattop by existing hardware, and the procedure for tuning for the long flattop

  13. Bevalac Radiotherapy Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Howard, J.; Criswell, T.

    1979-03-01

    Patient Treatment Room at the Bevalac is now in full operation. In the design of this facility, emphasis has been placed on creating an atmosphere appropriate to a clinical facility; the usual features of an irradiation cave have been hidden behind carpets, curtains and paint. Patient positioning is done with a Philips Ram-style couch, with additional fixtures to accommodate a patient in the seated or standing, as well as the supine, position. Dosimetry apparatus, collimators, ion chambers and the beam flattening system used to produce the highly uniform 20 cm diameter therapy field are described

  14. Bevalac beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.; Behrsing, G.; Morgado, R.; Rondeau, D.; Salsig, W.; Selph, F.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

    1975-03-01

    The Bevalac consists of, in part, a 200 meter long transfer line between the SuperHILAC and the Bevatron, which are at differing elevation. Unique features in the construction of the transfer line are described. The line, located largely outside, must cope with a natural environment. Part of the line passes through a hillside, requiring some unique support and alignment techniques. The dipoles are of the tape-wound variety and the steering magnets use printed circuit conductors. The vacuum system and an inexpensive and effective destructive monitoring system are described. (U.S.)

  15. Bevalac Radiotherapy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.; Howard, J.; Criswell, T.

    1979-03-01

    Patient Treatment Room at the Bevalac is now in full operation. In the design of this facility, emphasis has been placed on creating an atmosphere appropriate to a clinical facility; the usual features of an irradiation cave have been hidden behind carpets, curtains and paint. Patient positioning is done with a Philips Ram-style couch, with additional fixtures to accommodate a patient in the seated or standing, as well as the supine, position. Dosimetry apparatus, collimators, ion chambers and the beam flattening system used to produce the highly uniform 20 cm diameter therapy field are described.

  16. Bevalac operations update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Bevalac passed the recent Tiger Team assessment with flying colors, thanks to the unremitting effort of countless people over the last several months, pulling miles of cables, sending tons of ''valuable'' junk to salvage, painting, pushing brooms, writing operating procedures. It is time to look ahead now and plan for doing science again; however, it is not business as usual. The Bevalac survived, but not without changes. There are more procedures to be followed, safety appraisals to be made, training to be gone through. The primary goal is not just to get a task done, but to get it done in a safe manner according to code. If this means a delay in a run because enough time wasn't allotted for making a change in the setup, then the experiment will be delayed. Many of the obvious changes you will find the next time you come to work here are summarized in this newsletter. We will inform you of others as they are forthcoming. Also we will discuss these changes at our ''We Survived the Tigers, but hor-ellipsis'' Users' Information Meeting at the Washington APS meeting. Details are inside this report

  17. High purity radioactive beams at the bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Chatterjee, A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1979-03-01

    Peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions of primary Bevalac heavy ion beams are used to produce secondary beams of radioactive nuclei. The large cross section and small deflection of the projectile fragments lead to high production and delivery efficiency for these beams. Dispersive beam transport allows good separation and purification of the desired secondary beams. 11 C and 19 Ne beams of high purity and good intensity (almost 0.2% of the primary beam current) are presently being used for biomedical experiments

  18. Bevalac user's handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment.

  19. Bevalac Minibeam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Alonso, J.; Morgado, R.; Tobias, C.A.; Grunder, H.; Upham, F.T.; Windsor, A.; Armer, R.A.; Yang, T.C.H.; Gunn, J.T.

    1977-03-01

    The Minibeam Facility is a biomedical heavy-ion beam area at the Bevalac designed to satisfy the following requirements: (1) provide a beam incident in a vertical plane for experiments where a horizontal apparatus significantly increases the convenience of performing an experiment or even determines its feasibility; (2) provide an area that is well shielded with respect to electronic interference so that microvolt signals can be detected with acceptable signal-to-noise ratios; (3) provide a beam of small diameter, typically a few millimeters or less, for various studies of cellular function; and (4) provide a facility for experiments that require long setup and preparation times and apparatus that must be left relatively undisturbed between experiments and that need short periods of beam time. The design of such a facility and its main components is described. In addition to the above criteria, the design was constrained by the desire to have inexpensive, simple devices that work reliably and can be easily upgraded for interfacing to the Biomedical PDP 11/45 computer

  20. BERKELEY: Farewell to the Bevatron/Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Nearly a hundred current and former Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory employees gathered at the Bevatron accelerator on 21 February to watch Ed Lofgren turn off the beam for the last time. Lofgren, in charge of the venerable machine from its completion in 1954 until his retirement in 1979, pushed a button that someone long ago labeled ''atom smasher offer'', bringing to an end four decades of accomplishment in high energy and heavy ion physics. Owen Chamberlain, who shared the 1959 physics Nobel with Emilio Segré for the discovery of the antiproton at the Bevatron, was among those present at the closing ceremony. The shutdown came 39 years to the week after Bevatron beam first circulated, and a touching moment came just after Lofgren shut the machine down when the poignant strains of the ''Taps'' salute wafted out over the PA system. The Bevatron - or Bevalac, as it was called after being linked to the Super HILAC linear accelerator in the 1970s - made major contributions in four distinct areas of research: high energy physics, heavy ion physics, medical research and therapy, and space-related studies of radiation damage and heavy particles in space. As well as the discovery of the antiproton, the early years of the Bevatron saw classic studies of the kaon, leading to a deeper understanding of both strong and weak interaction physics. With Luis Alvarez' development of Donald Glaser's original bubble chamber idea into a prolific physics technique, the Bevatron was a major focus of the heady days of resonance hunting in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Most recently the Bevalac (Bevatron-SuperHILAC combination) pioneered relativistic heavy ion physics. The central focus of this research programme was the production and study of extreme conditions in nuclear matter. Highlights include the first definitive evidence of collective flow of nuclear matter at high temperatures and densities, studies of the nuclear

  1. Investigation of radioactive contaminations of the environment in the surroundings of the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk in the years 1977-1980. Badanie zanieczyszczen promieniotworczych srodowiska w otoczeniu Instytutu Badan Jadrowych w Swierku w latach 1977-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensko, J; Stpiczynska, Z; Hryczuk, O; Kowalska, A

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of the contamination level of the environment in the surroundings of the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk and in surroundings of the repository of radioactive wastes at Rozan including the possible paths of migration of the radionuclides in the years 1977-1980 have been presented. The investigations proved that the radioactive fall-out from nuclear weapon tests was the main source of contamination. In the period of investigation the quantities of the radionuclides discharged into the sanitary sewage system did not exceed the weekly limit of 2590 MBq (70mCi). They had no influence on the level of the radioactive contaminations of the Vistula river water. Sporadically observed, the increased level of the radioactive contamination of the draining system water at Swierk exceeded at most 3 times the permissible concentration of /sup 90/Sr for drinking water 2.6 Bq dm/sup -3/. The radioactive contamination of the water, soil, grass and rye investigated around the Centre have been shown in the same level as for the reference points being out of the range of the influence of the Institute.

  2. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  3. Radioactive beam production at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Tanihata, I.

    1989-10-01

    At the Bevalac radioactive beams are routinely produced by the fragmentation process. The effectiveness of this process with respect to the secondary beam's emittance, intensity and energy spread depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics and the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific reaction product. The on-going radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example with applications, present performance and plans for the future. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Synchrotrons for heavy ions: Bevalac experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Bevalac should be viewed not as a model of accelerator hardware - a modern heavy ion complex will look quite different, but as a model for an operating versatile multifaceted, multiuser heavy ion facility. Of value to the planning of a new accelerator such as MARIA is the knowledge of operating modes peculiar to heavy ions and specific hardware requirements to carry out its mission with the mandated flexibility and reliability. This paper starts with a discussion of parameters and machine characteristics most suitable for medical and nuclear science applications. It then covers experience in interleaving these two research programs, and finally, concentrates on accelerator configuratin questions; injectors, repetition rate, vacuum systems and cost criteria which will be relevant to the design of MARIA

  5. Dilepton (e+e-) production at Bevalac energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1990-09-01

    The use of dilepton production in p-A and A-A collisions as a probe of nuclear matter under extreme conditions is described. Recent results from the DLS collaboration at the Bevalac are presented. 10 refs., 2 figs

  6. Radioactivity in the environment of the RA nuclear reactor in Vinca for the period 1977-1980. Material prepared for the RA reactor safety report; Radioaktivnost okoline nuklearnog reaktora RA u Vinci u periodu 1977-1980, Materijal pripremljen za izradu Sigurnosnog izvestaja za reaktor RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajdacic, N; Martinc, R [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1980-12-15

    Review of the environmental monitoring data presented in this report is prepared for the RA reactor safety report. These data resulted from four-year monitoring of precipitations and deposited dust. Measurements were done daily. In addition to these data, tables contain mean daily values, total monthly values of beta activities of precipitation from 1977 - 1980. Radioactivity control of the RA reactor environment showed that there was no significant discrepancy compared to the mean values for several years, apart from seasonal variations and meteorological influences. In the period from October 1976 to mid 1978 a number of higher values were recorded probably due to nuclear explosions. During 1979 the general activity level was relatively low, showing increase tendency during 1980.

  7. Bevatron/Bevalac user's handbook: biology and medicine. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Bevalac Biomedical Facility develops a source of near-relativistic heavy ions for applications to radiation biology, radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. Pulsed beams of high LET heavy ions with variable pulse width, frequency, intensity and energy are produced and delivered to the Biomedical Facility by the Bevatron/Bevalac accelerator complex. Dosimetry equipment under computer control provides accurate determinations of absorbed doses in all regions of the Bragg curve. Depth-dose modifying devices and precise specimen positioning equipment are available. Animal housing and tissue culture facilities are convenient to the experimenter. This handbook is designed to provide the user with the relevant information for planning, proposing and executing an experiment

  8. Bevalac versatility: Operations achievements in the multi-tasking mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothrop, F.; Alonso, J.; Miller, R.; Tekawa, M.

    1989-03-01

    Demand for relativistic heavy ion beams at the Bevalac has increased dramatically in the past two years. To keep pace, the Bevalac make use of five injectors, precise guide field control, preset beam transport line tunes, nine nuclear science target areas, and three biology/radiotherapy areas, along with elegant control computer algorithms, to achieve high operating efficiency. Routine operation includes as many as ten ion/energy/beamline changes per day, 15 major nuclear science experiments each year, radiotherapy on nearly a daily basis, with biology experiments operating biweekly. High operating efficiency and low failure rates combine to produce high annual research hours. 12 refs., 2 figs

  9. Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980. Annual report 1977 on efficient uses of energy fossil sources of primary energy new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives within the policy of the Federal Government Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980 can be summarized as follows: guaranteeing the continuity of energy supply in the medium to long term in the Federal Republic at economically favourable costs considering the requirements necessary for the protection of the environment and population. The financial support is effected under the general headings of Development of Energy Resources, Energy Conservation and Efficient Use of Energy. An additional aspect of the support policy is the development of technologies which are of importance for other countries, specifically for the developing countries. Support of a project is effected through a research and development grant from the Federal Government and this can range from less than 50% to 100%. For this the Government receives an irrevocable, free of charge and non-exclusive right to make use of research and development results. In special cases full repayment is agreed subject to commercial success. Based on agreements signed by the Federal Minister of Research and Technology and the Federal Minister of Economic Affairs on the one hand and the Juelich Nuclear Research Establishment (KFA) on the other, the Project Management for Energy Research (PLE) in KFA Juelich is acting on behalf of these Ministries. The Project Management's activities in non-nuclear energy research in general (for the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) and development and innovation in coal mining and preparation (for the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs) have the following general objectives: to improve the efficiency of Government support; to ensure that projects are efficiently handled; and to reduce the workload of the Ministries. The individual projects are listed and described briefly.

  10. First results on dilepton production at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, G.; Claesson, G.; Hendrie, D.

    1987-12-01

    We report on preliminary results of direct electron pair measurements in p+Be at 4.9 GeV and 2.1 GeV and Ca+Ca at 1.95 GeVA collisions at the Bevalac. The results are compared to existing data in p+Be at 12.1 GeV and π - p at 15.9 and 16.9 GeV

  11. Design of a pulsed switching magnet for the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, S.; Alonso, J.; Brown, J.; Kalnins, J.; Krebs, G.; Reimers, R.

    1989-03-01

    The design and construction of a water cooled, pulsed, laminated core dipole magnet which has recently been installed at the Bevalac is described. This new, energy efficient magnet was funded by the DOE In-House Energy Management Program. The magnet has been specifically designed for maximum efficiency in power utilization and has replaced two dc powered magnets in the Bevalac switchyard. It will reduce energy usage by 747 MWh/yr, and it provides the capability of pulse-to-pulse switching in 0.7 seconds between two major beamline channels serving the nuclear science and radiotherapy programs at the /Bevalac. A unique feature of this magnet is the core design which utilizes an external structure that remains integral with the core laminations after assembly. The structure provides for both torsional and longitudinal rigidity of the core while also facilitating the precision assembly and compression of the core laminations without the use of special assembly fixtures. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Equipment proposal for Bevalac experiments. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Romero, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A large Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) has been developed as a part of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS). This facility is being used for the study of relativistic nuclear collisions at the Bevalac of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. We have measured for MUSIC a single event resolution of 15% for Fe beam and a charge resolution better than 0.5 units of charge for a Ne beam. These results indicate that a charge resolution of one unit from Z = 7 to Z = 100 should be achieved with the present detector

  13. Beam profile monitor system for the bevalac transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1985-01-01

    Incorporated in the current Bevalac transfer line upgrade project is a proposal for a new electronic beam monitoring system. It will be designed to amplify, convert, and transmit the signals of twelve 16 by 16 multi-wire grids to a central computer located in the Bevatron control room. Each station will contain interface amplifiers and a local microprocessor to convert wire grid currents into digitized values which will then be transmitted via a serial data channel to the main computer. The system will have a large dynamic range (1 nano to 1 milli-ampere of beam current), be designed for distributed operation, and will be easily expandable. This paper describes the basic electronic hardware and software components of the proposed system

  14. Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: from the BEVALAC to RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    I briefly describe the initial goals of relativistic nuclear collision research, focusing on the LBL Bevatron/Bevalac facility in the 1970s. An early concept of high hadronic density fireball formation, and subsequent isentropic decay (preserving information of the high-density stage), led to an outline of physics observables that could determine the nuclear matter equation of state at several times the nuclear ground state matter density. With the advent of QCD the goal of locating and characterizing the hadron-parton deconfinement phase transformation suggested the need for higher √s, the research thus shifting to the BNL AGS and CERN SPS, and finally to RHIC at BNL. A set of physics observables is discussed where present data span the entire √s domain, from Bevalac and SIS at GSI, to high RHIC energy. Referring, selectively, to data concerning bulk hadron production, the overall √s evolution of directed and radial flow observables, and of pion pair Bose-Einstein correlation is discussed. The hadronization process is studied in the grand canonical statistical model. The resulting hadronization points in the plane T versus μ B converge onto the parton-hadron phase boundary predicted by finite μ B lattice QCD, from high SPS to RHIC energy. At lower SPS and high AGS energy a steep strangeness maximum occurs at which the Wroblewski parameter λ s ∼ 0.6; a possible connection to the QCD critical point is discussed. Finally the unique new RHIC physics is addressed: high-p T hadron suppression and jet 'tomography'

  15. Operating results for the beam profile monitor system currently in use at Bevalac Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.; Fowler, K.

    1987-03-01

    Three stations of a soon to be completed multi-station, multi-wire beam monitoring system have been installed in the Bevalac transfer line. The following article will provide a cursory analysis of the electronic circuitry, discuss new design additions and summarize the operating results obtained over the last year

  16. Collective flow and azimuthal correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, G.

    1993-09-01

    The EOS experiment at the Bevalac has recently carried out exclusive event-by-event measurements of relativistic heavy ion collisions with a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. The data was obtained using the EOS Time Projection Chamber. We present preliminary results on inclusive spectra, collective flow and azimuthal correlations obtained from a study of Au + Au reactions with beam energies covering 0.6 - 1.2 A GeV

  17. Studies at LBL's Bevalac will help resolve uncertainties about radiation risks to astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Plans to operate the LBL's Bevalac facility for space research are discussed. The proposed program includes the use of cell cultures and animal models to assess the biological consequences of exposures to different particles that are components of the space radiation environment. Research will also be conducted on measures to counter radiation. Experiments will be carried out to examine how various materials that could be used in a spacecraft wall would alter the cascade of particles that would ultimately reach an astronaut

  18. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, S.

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery

  19. Workshop summary. Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W.; Curtis, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of papers presented at a workshop on Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Goals of the meeting were to determine the critical experiments using heavy ions as probes in radiation physics, radiation chemistry, macromolecular and cellular biology, evolution science, basic neurophysiology, and medical therapies; how beam lines and facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory can be improved for these experiments; and implications in priorities and funding for national policy. Workshop topics included physics and facilities, cellular and molecular biology, tissue radiobiology, and the future of heavy ion research.

  20. Relativistic nuclear collisions from the EOS experiment at the Bevalac: collective observables and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insolia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The EOS Collaborations has completed an exclusive study of relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac using a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. We report here results on directed sidewards flow in Au+Au between 0.25 AGeV and 1.2 AGeV, using a standard in-plane transverse momentum analysis. We also report on projectile fragmentation of Au in C at 1 AGeV. An analysis of fluctuations and critical exponents for small systems seems to support the idea that the multifragmentation regime is associated with a liquid gas phase transition in nuclear matter. (authors)

  1. Heavy ion physics challenges at Bevalac/SIS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses where the future of higher energy heavy ion acceleration may lead in terms of understanding the nucleus. The discussion concerns obstacles to formulating an equation of state for nuclear matter at high temperature and density. Implications of this research for astrophysical problems is also presented. (LSP)

  2. Progress in collective flow studies from the onset to Bevalac/SIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisa, M.A.

    1995-03-01

    Collective flow in heavy ion collisions was first observed experimentally more than a decade ago at the Bevalac by the Plastic Ball collaboration. Although early calculations had suggested that measurement of the flow would place tight constraints on the nuclear equation of state, uncertainties in other input parameters of microscopic models, which also affect the flow, led to large ambiguities in the equation of state. This talk will discuss recent flow studies that attempt to overcome these difficulties. The EOS and FOPI experiments at the Bevalac and SIS accelerators have measured flow in the 200--2000 A-MeV bombarding energy range with better acceptance, particle identification, and systematics than was previously available. Meanwhile, programs at MSU and GANIL are studying the disappearance of flow around 50 A-MeV. Systematic comparison of these data with predictions of microscopic models is beginning to reduce the ambiguities in the extraction of physics quantities. Also, new directions in flow studies, such as the flow of produced particles and radial flow, offer the possibility of further information from flow studies. Recent accomplishments and new directions in flow studies are discussed, and areas where further study is needed are pointed out

  3. The scintillating optical fiber isotope experiment: Bevalac calibrations of test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.; Binns, W.R.; Dowkontt, P.F.; Epstein, J.W.; Israel, M.H.; Klarmann, J.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Webber, W.R.; Kish, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Isotope Experiment (SOFIE) is a Cherenkov dE/dx-range experiment being developed to study the isotopic composition of cosmic rays in the iron region with sufficient resolution to resolve isotopes separated by one mass unit at iron. This instrument images stopping particles with a block of scintillating optical fibers coupled to an image intensified video camera. From the digitized video data the trajectory and range of particles stopping in the fiber bundle can be determined; this information, together with a Cherenkov measurement, is used to determine mass. To facilitate this determination, a new Cherenkov response equation was derived for heavy ions at energies near threshold in thick Cherenkov radiators. Test models of SOFIE were calibrated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac heavy ion accelerator in 1985 and 1986 using beams of iron nuclei with energies of 465 to 515 MeV/nucleon. This paper presents the results of these calibrations and discusses the design of the SOFIE Bevalac test models in the context of the scientific objectives of the eventual balloon experiment. The test models show a mass resolution of σ A ≅0.30 amu and a range resolution of σ R ≅250 μm. These results are sufficient for a successful cosmic ray isotope experiment, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the detector system. The SOFIE test models represent the first successful application in the field of cosmic ray astrophysics of the emerging technology of scintillating optical fibers. (orig.)

  4. A proposal to pulse the Bevatron/Bevalac main guide field magnet with SCR power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, B.; Alonso, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lothrop, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Bevatron/Bevalac Main Guide Field Power Supply was originally designed to provide a 15,250 Volt DC. at sign 8400 Ampere peak magnet pulse. Protons were accelerated to 6.2 Gev. The 128 Megawatt (MW) pulse required two large motor-generator (MG) sets with 67 ton flywheels to store 680 Megajoules of energy. Ignitron rectifiers are used to rectify the generator outputs. Acceleration of heavy ions results in an operating schedule with a broad range of peak fields. The maximum field of 12.5 kilogauss requires a peak pulse of 80 MW. Acceleration of ions to 1.0 kilogauss requires an 8 MW peak pulse. One MG set can provide pulses below 45 MW. Peak pulses of less than 15 MW are now a large block of the operating schedule. A proposal has been made to replace the existing MG system with eight SCR power supplies for low field operation. The SCR supplies will be powered directly from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 12.3 KV. power distribution system. This paper describes the many advantages of the plan. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Bevalac, a high-energy heavy-ion facility: status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    The high-energy heavy-ion facility, which has commonly been referred to as the Bevalac, is a synchrotron with B rho of 9000 [kG-in or 2.3 x 10 2 kG-m] having special injectors. The synchrotron has three injectors. The 50 MeV proton injector, originally from BNL, is a tool left over from the high-energy high-intensity days of this productive synchrotron. The 20 MeV linac is a proton linac, designed so conservatively that it was possible to accelerate modest but useful beams of 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O as well as deuterons and alpha particles in the 2 β lambda mode. This was accomplished in 1971. After our first trials, a suggestion made earlier by A. Ghiorso to inject from the SuperHILAC into the synchrotron was actively pursued. Reasons as to why the SuperHILAC is being used as injector to the Bevatron are given

  6. Metallic wedge degraders for rapid energy measurement of Bevalac heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, R.; Alonso, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    An ever-present need in an accelerator-based research program is knowing the energy of the beam delivered to the experimenter. Knowledge of accelerator parameters is generally good enough to predict the beam energy to within a few percent as it leaves the machine, but after passage through a complex switchyard, with air gaps, and non-destructive monitors, substantial changes in the energy can occur. Knowledge of the material in the beam path allows for calculations of expected energy loss, but this knowledge is not always complete, and the unforeseen often plays tricks on the unwary experimenter; for example, a section of beam-pipe inadvertently let up to air, or a monitor left in the beam-line from the previous run. Although such occurrences are rare, to say they do not happen would be grossly inaccurate. The only defense of the experimenter, then, is to have an accurate technique for determining the beam energy at his target location, a technique which requires little beam time and which is non-disruptive of his experimental setup. The device described meets all of these criteria, and is now used extensively in the Nuclear Science and Biomedical programs at the Bevalac.

  7. Metallic wedge degraders for rapid energy measurement of Bevalac heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, R.; Alonso, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    An ever-present need in an accelerator-based research program is knowing the energy of the beam delivered to the experimenter. Knowledge of accelerator parameters is generally good enough to predict the beam energy to within a few percent as it leaves the machine, but after passage through a complex switchyard, with air gaps, and non-destructive monitors, substantial changes in the energy can occur. Knowledge of the material in the beam path allows for calculations of expected energy loss, but this knowledge is not always complete, and the unforeseen often plays tricks on the unwary experimenter; for example, a section of beam-pipe inadvertently let up to air, or a monitor left in the beam-line from the previous run. Although such occurrences are rare, to say they do not happen would be grossly inaccurate. The only defense of the experimenter, then, is to have an accurate technique for determining the beam energy at his target location, a technique which requires little beam time and which is non-disruptive of his experimental setup. The device described meets all of these criteria, and is now used extensively in the Nuclear Science and Biomedical programs at the Bevalac

  8. Light-ion therapy in the US: From the Bevalac to ??

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Castro, Joseph R.

    2002-01-01

    While working with E.O. Lawrence at Berkeley, R.R. Wilson in 1946 noted the potential for using the Bragg-peak of protons (or heavier ions) for radiation therapy. Thus began the long history of contributions from Berkeley to this field. Pioneering work by C.A. Tobias et al at the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron led ultimately to clinical applications of proton and helium beams, with over 1000 patients treated through 1974 with high-energy plateau radiation; placing the treatment volume (mostly pituitary fields) at the rotational center of a sophisticated patient positioner. In 1974 the SuperHILAC and Bevatron accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory were joined by the construction of a 250-meter transfer line, forming the Bevalac, a facility capable of accelerating ions of any atomic species to relativistic energies. With the advent of these new beams, and better diagnostic tools capable of more precise definition of tumor volume and determination of the stopping point of charged-particle beams, large-field Bragg-peak therapy with ion beams became a real possibility. A dedicated Biomedical experimental area was developed, ultimately consisting of three distinct irradiation stations; two dedicated to therapy and one to radiobiology and biophysics. These facilities included dedicated support areas for patient setup and staging of animal and cell samples, and a central control area linked to the main Bevatron control room

  9. Design of the Bevalac heavy ion spectrometer system and its performance in studying /sup 12/C fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelage, J; Crawford, H J; Flores, I; Baumgartner, M E; Beleal, E; Bieser, F; Bronson, M; Greiner, D E; Greiner, L; Lindstrom, P J

    1989-05-01

    A description is given of the design and operation of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac. The general characteristics of the apparatus, which include a large superconducting magnet with drift chambers before and after for precise angle and momentum analysis of high multiplicity events and a large scintillation array for charge and velocity measurements, are explained. The performance of each part as measured in a /sup 12/C fragmentation experiment is discussed in detail. The main feature of the data-acquisition and apparatus-monitoring systems and of the off-line event reconstruction are given.

  10. NPP Grassland: Shortandy, Kazakhstan, 1977-1980, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains biomass measurements and cumulative ANPP calculations made between 1977 and 1980 on a...

  11. Study of radiative effects in 1.8 GeV/n 40Ar incident on Pb (Bevalac Experiment E486H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, T.; McIntyre, E.; Madansky, L.; Carroll, J.; Mulera, T.; Sagle, A.; Koontz, R.; Roche, G.; Schroeder, L.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental setup, instrumentation, and results of Experiment 486H at Bevalac to test the feasibility of studying two photon inclusive and inclusive lepton pair production in the presence of a high multiplicity of background secondaries are described. Some preliminary observations are discussed

  12. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977. [Planning for use for radiotherapy and as radiation source for diagnostic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, S. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery.

  13. The Bevalac accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacal, A.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the characteristics of the Bevatron and SuperHilac heavy ion accelerators in a very general manner. Some aspects of their application in the field of biological medicine and some of the interesting results obtained in experiments on nuclear physics are mentioned. (Author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. United States Security Assistance 1977-1980: Human Rights Issues Affecting Arms Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    police attempted to break up the gathering, the crowd became enraged and proceeded to destroy a number of banks, cinemas , and hotels (Brown:296...According to Carter’s National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, the Peruvian government released over 300 prisoners in April 1977; "disappearances

  15. The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, 1977-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Not only did the higher number offer greater flexibility for negotiating purposes but also it provided a degree of built- in resilience should one or...the three M-X basing alternatives the President received, the front- runner in the competition now appeared to be the mul- tiple protective shelter

  16. Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel of the Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Project (1977-1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-13

    effects. This conclusion is supported by the Health Physics Society’s position statement regarding radiation health risks: Substantial and...support from DoD’s Dose Assessment and Recording Working Group (DARWG) and professional health physics experts of the military services who are ECUP...sample.8 At the time ECUP was underway, a trigger level was established based on the proposal of the American Health Physics Society Plutonium

  17. Properties and interactions of neutrino (1977-1980) beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Data on search of instantaneous muon and electron neutrinos in experiments of beam dump type are presented in the review. Neutrino is formed in decays of particles rusulted from pN interactions. First experiments of the dump beam type have been realized at the CERN/SPS accelerator in 1975 and Serpukhov accelerator by the ITEF-IFVE group in 1977 with proton energies of 26 and 70 GeV, respectively. The results of beam dump experiments of the second generation in 1979 in CERN are considered in detail. These experiments have been intended for measuring the effect of instantaneous neutrino. The conclusion is drawn on the presence of instantaneous muon neutrinos in the above experiments [ru

  18. Comparative cost analysis -- computed tomography vs. alternative diagnostic procedures, 1977-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gempel, P.A.; Harris, G.H.; Evans, R.G.

    1977-12-01

    In comparing the total national cost of utilizing computed tomography (CT) for medically indicated diagnoses with that of conventional x-ray, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, and exploratory surgery, this investigation concludes that there was little, if any, added net cost from CT use in 1977 or will there be in 1980. Computed tomography, generally recognized as a reliable and useful diagnostic modality, has the potential to reduce net costs provided that an optimal number of units can be made available to physicians and patients to achieve projected reductions in alternative procedures. This study examines the actual cost impact of CT on both cranial and body diagnostic procedures. For abdominal and mediastinal disorders, CT scanning is just beginning to emerge as a diagnostic modality. As such, clinical experience is somewhat limited and the authors assume that no significant reduction in conventional procedures took place in 1977. It is estimated that the approximately 375,000 CT body procedures performed in 1977 represent only a 5 percent cost increase over use of other diagnostic modalities. It is projected that 2,400,000 CT body procedures will be performed in 1980 and, depending on assumptions used, total body diagnostic costs will increase only slightly or be reduced. Thirty-one tables appear throughout the text presenting cost data broken down by types of diagnostic procedures used and projections by years. Appendixes present technical cost components for diagnostic procedures, the comparative efficacy of CT as revealed in abstracts of published literature, selected medical diagnoses, and references

  19. Reappraising Defense Organization: An Analysis Based on the Defense Organization Study of 1977-1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    agencies, and even private groups. As contended in chapter 1, reorganization.propos- als insensitive to ambient political conditions-that is, the...functions with the aid of service secretariats. Integrating the military headquarters staffs, although encumbered with politica ; obstacles, is the

  20. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered

  1. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  2. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  3. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  4. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  5. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  6. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  7. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  8. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  9. Leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  10. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  11. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  12. Charge-exchange products of BEVALAC projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1982-11-01

    There is a substantial production of fragments of all masses lighter than the projectile, such fragments being centered in a narrow region of velocity space around the beam velocity. The exciting studies about anomalons deal with the curious enhanced reactivity of some of these secondary fragments. I direct attention here to the rather rare fragments of the same mass number as the projectile but differing in charge by one unit. We also keep track, as a frame of reference, of the products that have lost one neutron from the projectile

  13. Bevalac operations update: Pub. 496, No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This report contains information on the following experiments: Beam 30-1 (Dilepton Spectrometer); Beam 30-2 (Janus Spectrometer); Beam 39 I Low Energy Program; Beam 39 II Irradiation Station; Beam 39 III Irradiation Station; Beam 40 I RTE; Beam 40 II NASA; Beam 42 I EOS; Beam 42 II Radioactive Beams-Nuclear Radii; Beam 42 III Fragmentation; Beam 42 IV TPC; Beam 42 V Time of Flight Wall; Beam 44 I Low Energy Program; Beam 44 II Radioactive Beams-Magnetic Moments; Beam 44 III Antiprotons; AIP 86-Uranium Intensity; AIP 87-SHILAC Drift Tubes; AIP 88-Computer Control Upgrade I; AIP 89-Computer Control Upgrade II; AIP 90-External Particle Beam Lines Control; AIP 91-Power Supplies; BEVAX Developments; Spiller Control; and, New Pulsed Switching Magnet. 20 figs

  14. Di-leptons at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matis, H.S.

    1988-03-01

    Recent results on the production of di-leptons measured by the Di-Lepton-Spectrometer (DLS) collaboration are discussed. Results are reported from observations made on p /plus/ Be collisions with proton beams from 1.0 to 4.9 GeV and on Ca collisions with calcium beams of 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/A. The shape of the distributions are similar to that at higher energies. The low mass cross section appears to be explained by π-π annihilation, but detailed calculations are needed to substantiate that hypothesis

  15. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  16. Fragmentation cross sections of relativistic 8436Kr and 10947Ag nuclei in targets from hydrogen to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B.S.; Waddington, C.J.; Cummings, J.R.; Garrard, T.L.; Klarmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    With the addition of krypton and silver projectiles we have extended our previous studies of the fragmentation of heavy relativistic nuclei in targets ranging in mass from hydrogen to lead. These projectiles were studied at a number of discrete energies between 450 and 1500A MeV. The total and partial charge-changing cross sections were determined for each energy, target, and projectile, and the values compared with previous predictions. A new parametrization of the dependence of the total charge-changing cross sections on the target and projectile is introduced, based on nuclear charge radii derived from electron scattering. We have also parametrized the energy dependence of the total cross sections over the range of energies studied. New parameters were found for a previous representation of the partial charge-changing cross sections in hydrogen and a new parametrization has been introduced for the nonhydrogen targets. The evidence that limiting fragmentation has been attained for these relatively light projectile nuclei at Bevalac energies is shown to be inconclusive, and further measurements at higher energies will be needed to address this question

  17. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  18. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  19. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  20. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  1. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... billion people had toxic (poisonous) blood lead levels. Food Sources Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the ... to bottled water for drinking and cooking. Avoid canned goods from foreign ... cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil ...

  2. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  3. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Roelant, David; Kumar, Sachin

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  4. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  5. Uranium-lead systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    The method of Levchenkov and Shukolyukov for calculating age and time disturbance of minerals without correction for original lead is generalized to include the cases when (1) original lead and radiogenic lead leach differently, and (2) the crystals studied consist of a core and a mantle. It is also shown that a straight line obtained from the solution of the equations is the locus of the isotopic composition of original lead. (Auth.)

  6. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  7. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  8. Superconductivity in nanostructured lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.

  9. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  10. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  11. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.

    1990-10-16

    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  12. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  13. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  14. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R

    1949-01-01

    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  15. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  16. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  17. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  18. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  19. A history of central collisions at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskanzer, A.M.

    1989-07-01

    You have heard a great deal about Plastic Ball results at this conference. There were talks on the first morning by Hans-Georg Ritter and Karl-Heinz Kampert on the Plastic Ball at Berkeley, there will be a talk next week by Rudi Schmidt on the Plastic Ball at CERN, and many other speakers have mentioned Plastic Ball results. The young students may think that when the new field of relativistic heavy ion physics opened up, an ideal detector was designed and built, data immediately analyzed, and results produced. The theme of my talk is to show that this is incorrect. The experiments proceeded in logical stages, one building upon the other, increasing in complexity and sophistication. The analysis techniques and the theory developed along with the experiments. If the more senior people in the audience easily remember this history of the development of the relativistic heavy ion field, they may spend their time during this talk thinking about what is happening now and what will happen in the future in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion field, where I believe history is repeating itself. 18 refs., 18 figs

  20. From the Bevalac to RHIC: Recent results and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    There has been considerable theoretical progress and experimental development in the study of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions towards understanding the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. At high energies, research has concentrated on the search for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and possible chiral symmetry restoration. In these lectures I comment on similarities and trends observed in recent results over a wide range of incident energies and attempt to provide a common framework where possible. I also point out future perspectives in the search for the QGP at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and in Particular focus on one experiment to be undertaken

  1. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  2. Radiation shielding lead shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei, Shoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns lead shields for radiation shielding. Shield boxes are disposed so as to surround a pipeline through which radioactive liquids, mists or like other objects are passed. Flanges are formed to each of the end edges of the shield boxes and the shield boxes are connected to each other by the flanges. Upon installation, empty shield boxes not charged with lead particles and iron plate shields are secured at first at the periphery of the pipeline. Then, lead particles are charged into the shield boxes. This attains a state as if lead plate corresponding to the depth of the box is disposed. Accordingly, operations for installation, dismantling and restoration can be conducted in an empty state with reduced weight to facilitate the operations. (I.S.)

  3. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  4. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  5. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  6. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  7. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  8. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  9. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... it has some beneficial uses, it can be toxic to humans and animals causing of health ... some types of industrial facilities, and past use of lead-based paint ...

  10. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  11. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    covers the opposite view, where a company actively searches and involves lead users, however, with limited success also. Based on both cases, we analyze how, in these emerging processes of relating, meaning is co-created in a way that narrows the shared conceptual space for imagination and collaboration...

  12. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  13. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  14. Lead Time Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    1979, the number of titanium fabrications dropped from 16 to 4, primarily because of the sponge shortage and EPA and OSHA requirements. Non-military...East - Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong. In addition, a significant amount of ceramic parts, lead frames and high technology

  15. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-01-01

    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)

  16. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    increase in the production of poultry meat at a reasonable cost (Alam et al., ...... 36(4): 537-541. Taggart MA, Figuerola J, Green AJ, Mateo R, Deacon C, Osborn D, ... selenium, lead and copper levels in the livers and bones of five waterfowl ...

  17. Intoxication for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Ruben Dario; Tamayo, Margarita Maria

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of a hospitalized girl with bronchopneumonia, who needed mechanic ventilation. Also she had a developmental delay and Burtons border in gums. Radiological studies showed dense transverse metaphiseal bands in long bones and hyperdensity in basal ganglia. We found high serum lead levels

  18. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  19. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Results: The primary form of lead toxicity is by oxidative stress mechanisms, apoptosis and necrosis involving ... néfastes sur la reproduction à l'avenir. Résultats:La forme ... prostate cancers, abnormal sexual ..... ensure this work is a success.

  20. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en82/european-scene/ scientometry -leading-us-astray

  1. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  2. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  3. Safety and Health Topics: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ammunition, pipes, cable covering, building material, solder, radiation shielding, collapsible tubes, and fishing weights. Lead is also ... lead linings in tanks and radiation protection, leaded glass, work involving soldering, and other work involving lead ...

  4. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  5. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  6. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  7. Leading change: 3--implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    The potential for all staff to contribute to service improvement, irrespective of discipline, role or function, is outlined in the 2011 NHS leadership framework. This advocates developing the skills of the entire workforce to create a climate of continuous service improvement. As nurses are often required to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice, this final article in a three-part series focuses on implementing ande potentia reviewing change.

  8. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.

    2006-06-01

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  9. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  10. Leading change: 2--planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  11. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View.

  12. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  13. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  14. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  15. Who will lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, R P; Schlosser, J R

    1997-01-01

    A recent survey conducted by the UCLA Center for Health Services Management and the Physician Executive Practice of Heidrick & Struggles, an executive search firm, sheds light on the emerging physician executive's role. The goal of the research was to identify success factors as a means of evaluating and developing effective industry leaders. Respondents were asked to look at specific skills in relation to nine categories: Communication, leadership, interpersonal skills, self-motivation/management, organizational knowledge, organizational strategy, administrative skills, and thinking. Communication, leadership, and self-motivation/management emerged, in that order, as the three most important success factors for physician executives. An individual's general competencies, work styles, and ability to lead others through organizational restructuring defines his or her appropriateness for managerial positions in the health care industry.

  16. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities

  17. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  18. Drowning: a leading killer!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Domingos Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drowning kills at least 372,000 people worldwide every year and is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional death, accounting for 7% of all deaths stemming from accidents (WHO, 2014. Conceptually, “drowning” is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, characterized as a chain of events (Bierens, 2006. Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from immersion or submersion in liquid. Research on drowning as a phenomenon presents several difficulties - most of all, that global data concerning the number of occurrences are not accurate. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the registered incidents allows the identification of risk factors of drowning. An in-depth analysis of the risk factors is the basis for the creation of targeted and effective strategies to prevent drowning. Due to variability of situations which could lead to a drowning episode, experts suggest the adoption of a multi-layer prevention model, rather than opting for isolated measures, since no single measure can prevent all deaths and injuries caused by submersion. Among the preventive measures we would like to emphasize instruction in swimming and water safety. So, what does "knowing how to swim" really mean? Some authors define mastery of this competence as swimming a given distance, while others put the emphasis on how this/any given distance is swum (Stallman, Junge, & Blixt, 2008. It has long been realized that there is no contradiction between learning those competencies which make a person less susceptible to drowning and those competencies which prepare the path towards higher levels of performance and competition. Aquatic movement researchers and practitioners and drowning prevention researchers and practitioners, share in the responsibility for drowning prevention though they are often unaware of it. The question “What should be taught to children?” is too infrequently asked. There remains great variation in what is taught and programs

  19. Leading Your Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  20. Manurial properties of lead nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R A

    1924-01-01

    Water culture, pot and field experiments were conducted in order to determine the toxic and stimulating limit of lead nitrate in solution. Oats and rye grass were evaluated for evidence of lead poisoning. Results indicate that except in solutions of fairly high concentration, soil adsorbs the lead and destroys the toxicity of soluble lead salts. There was evidence to show that the addition of lead salts increased the rate of nitrification in soil.

  1. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, varied from 0.6 to 80 μg g -1 . Linear regression of whole tooth lead (μg g -1 ) on the cumulative lead dose received by the animal (g) yielded a slope of 1.2, with r 2 =0.647 (p -1 , were found in circumpulpal dentine. Linear regression of circumpulpal lead (μg g -1 ) on cumulative lead dose (g) yielded a slope of 23 with r 2 =0.961 (p=0.0001). The data indicated that whole tooth lead, and especially circumpulpal lead, of dosed goats increased linearly with cumulative lead exposure. These data suggest that circumpulpal dentine is a better biomarker of cumulative lead exposure than is whole tooth lead, at least for lead-dosed goats

  2. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  3. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ABSTRACT: Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin. City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest ...

  4. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest concentrations ...

  5. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    2001-01-01

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  6. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  7. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Bush, S.P.; Lyon, C.E.; Walker, V.

    1988-01-01

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  8. Forming lead-based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogorodnichuk, V I; Voitsekhovich, R I

    1972-01-01

    Lead-based anodes can be produced by forming a layer of lead dioxide by chemical treatment in a solution of sulfuric acid in potassium permanganate at 80 to 100/sup 0/. The solution is mixed by compressed air. (RWR)

  9. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Waldron, H. A. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 195-199. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication. Use has been made of data collected over a number of years from workers exposed to a lead hazard in a motor-car factory. The correlations between various parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication were computed, including blood and urine lead concentrations, urinary coproporphyrin, ALA and PBG concentrations, and haemoglobin concentration. In all, 15 correlation coefficients were calculated, of which only six showed a statistically significant result (i.e., Plead and urine lead (r = 0·38, Plead and coproporphyrin (r = 0·42, Plead and ALA (r = 0·43, Plead and PBG (r = 0·19, P<0·05). PMID:5572689

  10. Common ECG Lead Placement Errors. Part I: Limb Lead Reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison V. Rosen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiography (ECG is a very useful diagnostic tool. However, errors in placement of ECG leads can create artifacts, mimic pathologies, and hinder proper ECG interpretation. It is important for members of the health care team to be able to recognize the common patterns resulting from lead placement errors. Methods: 12-lead ECGs were recorded in a single male healthy subject in his mid 20s. Six different limb lead reversals were compared to ECG recordings from correct lead placement. Results: Classic ECG patterns were observed when leads were reversed. Methods of discriminating these ECG patterns from true pathologic findings were described. Conclusion: Correct recording and interpretation of ECGs is key to providing optimal patient care. It is therefore crucial to be able to recognize common ECG patterns that are indicative of lead reversals.

  11. Lead user projects in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Earlier research on the lead user method is focused on individual case studies and how the method was applied in a specific context. In this paper, we take a broader approach, analyzing a sample of 24 lead user projects, which included working with 188 lead users. These projects were analyzed...

  12. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  13. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  14. Lead- or Lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Courouau, J.L.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Latge, C.; Martinelli, L.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2014-01-01

    Lead-cooled fast reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. So far no lead-cooled reactors have existed in the world except lead-bismuth-cooled reactors in soviet submarines. Some problems linked to the use of the lead-bismuth eutectic appeared but were satisfactorily solved by a more rigorous monitoring of the chemistry of the lead-bismuth coolant. Lead presents various advantages as a coolant: no reactivity with water and the air,a high boiling temperature and low contamination when irradiated. The main asset of the lead-bismuth alloy is the drop of the fusion temperature from 327 C degrees to 125 C degrees. The main drawback of using lead (or lead-bismuth) is its high corrosiveness with metals like iron, chromium and nickel. The high corrosiveness of the coolant implies low flow velocities which means a bigger core and consequently a bigger reactor containment. Different research programs in the world (in Europe, Russia and the USA) are reviewed in the article but it appears that the development of this type of reactor requires technological breakthroughs concerning materials and the resistance to corrosion. Furthermore the concept of lead-cooled reactors seems to be associated to a range of low output power because of the compromise between the size of the reactor and its resistance to earthquakes. (A.C.)

  15. Electrical properties of a novel lead alkoxide precursor: Lead glycolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangboriboon, Nuchnapa; Pakdeewanishsukho, Kittikhun; Jamieson, Alexander; Sirivat, Anuvat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of lead acetate trihydrate Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and ethylene glycol, using triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a catalyst, provides in one step access to a polymer-like precursor of lead glycolate [-PbOCH 2 CH 2 O-]. On the basis of high-resolution mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis composition, FTIR, 13 C-solid state NMR and TGA, the lead glycolate precursor can be identified as a trimer structure. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of lead glycolate; the peaks at 1086 and 1042 cm -1 can be assigned to the C-O-Pb stretchings. The 13 C-solid state NMR spectrum gives notably only one peak at 68.639 ppm belonging to the ethylene glycol ligand. The phase transformations of lead glycolate and lead acetate trihydrate to lead oxide, their microstructures, and electrical properties were found to vary with increasing temperature. The lead glycolate precursor has superior electrical properties relative to those of lead acetate trihydrate, suggesting that the lead glycolate precursor can possibly be used as a starting material for producing electrical and semiconducting ceramics, viz. ferroelectric, anti-ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials

  16. Current leads for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Current leads for superconducting magnets have been studied since 1960's. The technology of current leads may seem to have been established both in theory and experiment before the middle of 1970's. Nevertheless, a wide variety of superconducting magnets have been introduced in the last 15 years, and the demands for special current leads have increased in accordance to the variety. A steady advance has been made in the design theory and fabrication of current leads. This paper describes the recent current lead technology regarding the design theory, safety in accidents, and high current capability. (author)

  17. Presence of lead in opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  18. Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, I.; Wildt, K.; Gullberg, B.; Berlin, M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of neurophysiological variables was measured for men occupationally exposed to lead. The results were related to the degree of lead exposure and to the concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin in blood. A small but significant correlation was observed between lead exposure and motor and sensory conduction velocities in the lower limbs, the conduction velocities of slow motor fibers in the upper limbs, and also sensory nerve action potentials. It is suggested that a neurophysiological examination should be considered in the surveillance of the health of lead workers.

  19. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially of planned decommissioning operations. Thus lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for contaminated lead is removing the superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a scaled-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling

  20. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium trader pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of contaminated lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling

  1. Involving Lead Users in Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Bilgram, Volker; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Research on the lead user method has been conducted for more than thirty years and has shown that the method is more likely to generate breakthrough innovation than traditional market research tools. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper shows a detailed view on the broad variety...... of research on lead user characteristics, lead user processes, lead user identification and application, and success factors. The main challenge of the lead user method as identified in literature is the resource issue regarding time, manpower, and costs. Also, internal acceptance and the processing...... of the method have been spotted in literature, as well as the intellectual property protection issue. From the starting point of the initial lead user method process introduced by Lüthje and Herstatt (2004), results are integrated into a revisited view on the lead user method process. In addition, concrete...

  2. Large-capacity current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarino, A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding superconducting magnets with reliable low-loss devices is a key issue for any cryo-electrical system. Conventional or HTS current leads can be used, and cooling methods, materials, and geometries can be chosen to optimize the thermo-electrical performance of the system. The LHC magnets are powered via more than 3000 current leads transporting altogether about 3 MA of current. With thousands of leads, the LHC lead project represents today the largest project of its kind ever undertaken. Following a review of the LHC lead project, an overview of the choices that can be made for the optimization of large capacity current leads is presented. Examples are given of other leads for large scale magnet systems for which the use of HTS is being envisaged

  3. Blood lead and lead-210 origins in residents of Toulouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.; Delapart, M.

    1981-01-01

    Blood lead and lead-210 analyses were performed on blood samples from non-smoking residents of Toulouse (city of 400,000 inhabitants). Simultaneous surface soil lead content determinations were carried out by the same procedure on rural zone samples of southwestern France. The observed isotopic ratios were compared in order to evaluate food chain contamination. For an average of 19.7 +- 5.8 μg 100 cc -1 of lead in blood, atmospheric contamination amounts to 20%, estimated as follows: 6% from direct inhalation and 14% from dry deposits on vegetation absorbed as food. The natural levels carried over by the food chain reach 14.9 μg 100 cc -1 and have a 210 Pb/Pb concentration ratio of 0.055 dpmμg -1 . These results lead to a maximum value of 15 μg 100 cc -1 for natural lead in human blood according to the ICRP model. (author)

  4. Lead isotope ratios in artists' lead white: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, B; Callahan, R C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-07-01

    The lead isotope ratios in over four hundred samples of lead white have been determined. The samples represent various geographical sources and dates from the thirteenth century to the present. A new method for organizing this large volume of data is described which helps with the visualization of temporal and geographic patterns. A number of interesting relationships between lead isotope ratio and date or source are shown to exist. Some examples of successful applications of this methodology are described.

  5. Lead isotope ratios in artists' lead white: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisch, B.; Callahan, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The lead isotope ratios in over four hundred samples of lead white have been determined. The samples represent various geographical sources and dates from the thirteenth century to the present. A new method for organizing this large volume of data is described which helps with the visualization of temporal and geographic patterns. A number of interesting relationships between lead isotope ratio and date or source are shown to exist. Some examples of successful applications of this methodology are described. (author)

  6. Superconducting magnets and leads thereto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biltcliffe, M.N.; Hanley, P.E.; McKinnon, J.B.; Wheatley, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The magnet described comprises a cryostat containing a superconducting coil for the generation of a magnetic field, with a short-circuiting superconducting link connected across the coil, and electrical leads extending through the cryostat to the coil; these leads are provided with joints within the cryostat to enable them to be detached from the coil and removed from the cryostat without interrupting the current through the coil, thus reducing heat conduction to the cryostat through the leads. The joints are arranged so that the leads can be readily detached and re-attached to the coil from outside the cryostat. Gas-tight seals are provided where the leads pass through the outer wall of the cryostat, with caps that can be secured after removal of the leads. This kind of magnet can provide a stable magnetic field continuously over long periods, such as is required in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers. (U.K.)

  7. Taking the Lead : Gender, Social Context and Preference to Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, A.P.C.I.; Schaafsma, J.; van der Wijst, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that women tend to emerge as leaders less often than men. In the present study, we examined to what extent women's and men's preference to lead is influenced by social context. It was hypothesized that women have a less strong preference to lead than men in a

  8. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  9. Safe leads and lead changes in competitive team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  10. Lead user projects in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Earlier research on the lead user method is focused on individual case studies and how the method was applied in a specific context. In this paper, we take a broader approach, analyzing a sample of 24 lead user projects, which included working with 188 lead users. These projects were analyzed....... Moreover, crowdsourcing contests and netnography proved to be of significant value for the need, trend, and lead user identification phases. This paper concludes by discussing theoretical and practical implications, the limitations of this study, and recommendations for future studies....

  11. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radionuclides and is therefore a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Lab. decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 100 metric tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 280 kPa (40 psig) rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a pump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process

  12. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H

    1980-05-08

    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  13. Lead (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change ...

  14. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  15. Enhanced Leads and Appointment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The data asset contains information on current or upcoming appointments, individuals who will be attending the appointment, potential intent to file a claim (lead),...

  16. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  17. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  18. Leading change: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Ford, Debra J

    2017-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations, and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. Concept analysis. CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change. Literature published in English from 2001 - 2015 in the fields of nursing, medicine, organizational studies, business, education, psychology or sociology were included. Walker and Avant's method was used to identify descriptions, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents of the concept. Model, related and contrary cases were developed. Five defining attributes of leading change were identified: (a) individual and collective leadership; (b) operational support; (c) fostering relationships; (d) organizational learning; and (e) balance. Antecedents were external or internal driving forces and organizational readiness. The consequences of leading change included improved organizational performance and outcomes and new organizational culture and values. A theoretical definition and conceptual model of leading change were developed. Future studies that use and test the model may contribute to the refinement of a middle-range theory to advance nursing leadership research and education. From this, empirically derived interventions that prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health may be realized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  20. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  1. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Lead What's ... español Análisis de sangre: plomo What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  2. Photocatalyzed removal of lead ion from lead-chelator solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Na, Jung Won; Sung, Ki Woung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of such chelating agents on the ease and speed of photocatalyzed metal removal and deposition. With excess EDTA, the free EDTA competes with Pb for oxidation, and at a ten fold excess, no lead oxidation (hence removal) occurs. With insufficient EDTA, the corresponding initial concentration of Pb-EDTA is decreased; after its destruction, the remaining Pb{sup 2+} is removed more slowly, at rates found with lead nitrate solution. The net result is that the maximum rate of lead deposition occurs at the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 EDTA : Pb{sup 2+}.

  3. Distribution of lead in teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fremlin, J H; Tanti-Wipawin, W [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1976-07-01

    There is currently much concern with the amount of lead in the environment. Measurement of lead in teeth is being used to give information on the integrated uptake of lead by the individual over a period. The distribution of lead within individual teeth, is examined with the object of distinguishing lead deposited during formation or calcification from that taken up by the tooth over its working life after eruption. A tooth is sectioned and bombarded with 30-MeV ions of helium-3 from the Birmingham 1.52-m cyclotron, which produces polonium isotopes. The main useful activity is due to polonium-206, an ..cap alpha.. emitter, half-life 8 d. These ..cap alpha.. particles can be recorded by a plastic solid-state track detector.

  4. Distribution of lead in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremlin, J.H.; Tanti-Wipawin, W.

    1976-01-01

    There is currently much concern with the amount of lead in the environment. Measurement of lead in teeth is being used to give information on the integrated uptake of lead by the individual over a period. The distribution of lead within individual teeth, is examined with the object of distinguishing lead deposited during formation or calcification from that taken up by the tooth over its working life after eruption. A tooth is sectioned and bombarded with 30-MeV ions of helium-3 from the Birmingham 1.52-m cyclotron, which produces polonium isotopes. The main useful activity is due to polonium-206, an α emitter, half-life 8 d. These α particles can be recorded by a plastic solid-state track detector. (U.K.)

  5. Biosorption of lead phosphates by lead-tolerant bacteria as a mechanism for lead immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Viridiana; Guzmán-Moreno, Jesús; Rodríguez-González, Vicente; Flores-de la Torre, Juan Armando; Ramírez-Santoyo, Rosa María; Vidales-Rodríguez, Luz Elena

    2017-08-01

    The study of metal-tolerant bacteria is important for bioremediation of contaminated environments and development of green technologies for material synthesis due to their potential to transform toxic metal ions into less toxic compounds by mechanisms such as reduction, oxidation and/or sequestration. In this study, we report the isolation of seven lead-tolerant bacteria from a metal-contaminated site at Zacatecas, México. The bacteria were identified as members of the Staphylococcus and Bacillus genera by microscopic, biochemical and 16S rDNA analyses. Minimal inhibitory concentration of these isolates was established between 4.5 and 7.0 mM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in solid and 1.0-4.0 mM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in liquid media. A quantitative analysis of the lead associated to bacterial biomass in growing cultures, revealed that the percentage of lead associated to biomass was between 1 and 37% in the PbT isolates. A mechanism of complexation/biosorption of lead ions as inorganic phosphates (lead hydroxyapatite and pyromorphite) in bacterial biomass, was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, the ability of the lead-tolerant isolates to transform lead ions into stable and highly insoluble lead minerals make them potentially useful for immobilization of lead in mining waste.

  6. Environmental lead hazard to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, S K

    1992-01-01

    Clinically evident lead poisoning is rare in Indian children but is more common than in adults. In children, lead poisoning may appear as fever, seizures, anemia, or abdominal pain, while in adults it is more likely to manifest as chronic minor peripheral neuropathy or gum pigmentation. Children with acute lead poisoning can be treated with chelators such as EDTA and BAL, but many are left with permanent brain damage. The most common sources of acute lead poisoning in Indian children are inhalation of fumes from burned car batteries, ingestion of flaking paint, consuming food cooked in cheap aluminum or brass utensils, and eating contaminated soil. The sources of chronic lead poisoning are water from lead pipes and fumes from industrial or automotive exhaust. Another common source in India is application of "kajjal" to children's eyes. Sources of lead in Western countries, such as drinking water, canned food, residential paint, automotive fuel, and ambient air quality, are regulated by law. None of these are regulated in India.

  7. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  8. Chronic lead intoxication in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, G

    1963-01-01

    Four calves born in the winter of 1961-1962 died on a farm after a disease which had run its course for periods ranging from six weeks to a few months. A calf had also died showing similar symptoms during the previous year. All calves showed identical symptoms. Initially, their liveliness diminished; subsequently, they drank less and showed signs of pica. They finally died after the disease had run its course for about six weeks. The last calf, born late in February 1962, was in poor health as early as May, improved slightly when it had been sent out to grass but died in September, having fallen ill again in August. Autopsy was performed on three calves; all three were affected with chronic interstitial nephritis and uraemic endocarditis of the left auricle was present as well. The results obtained on toxicological investigation were indicative of lead poisoning. The liver of the calf was found to contain two mg of lead per kg, the cortex of the kidney containing twenty-five mg of lead per kg. These figures did not provide direct evidence of lead poisoning, but in evaluating these figures the fact was taken into account that the calf had no longer been able to ingest any lead for several months. Meanwhile, it was found that the stock-owner had fitted an old painted door in the calf-shed, which door was constantly being licked by the calves. The paint contained 18.6% of lead. This finding was followed by examination of the liver of a calf that had died previously. It was found to contain 49.7 mg of lead per kg. Accordingly, the calves had been affected with a form of lead poisoning running a relatively slow course, as a result of which the animals had developed chronic interstitial nephritis. The calves eventually died from uraemia. 4 references.

  9. Lead isotope in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date state-of-the-art review of lead isotopes in mineral exploration. Beginning with an historical review on suggested uses of lead isotopes in mineral exploration, the author then outlines the theoretical aspects of lead isotopes and illustrates that the method is based on well-known principles of radioactive decay, from which isotopic signatures for different styles of mineralization are derived. The varying isotopic signatures are then introduced. The major part of the book details over 40 case histories for base and precious metals, uranium and tin using sampling media such as sulfides, gossans, soils, weathered bedrock, vegetation and groundwaters. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Examples are given of the use of lead isotopes in testing conceptual models for exploration. The success rate and cost-effectiveness of the method are illustrated by actual exploration examples. Analytical advances which should lower the cost of the method and future uses are outlined. Many of the case histories use recently published or unpublished data, 27 tables of which are given in an appendix. Details of sampling, the methods for obtaining the isotope ratios, and a commercially-available integrated lead isotope service are also provided. (Auth.)

  10. Lead poisoning after gunshot wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the absence of symptoms in the majority of patients carrying lead bullet fragments in their bodies, there needs to be an awareness of the possible signs and symptoms of lead intoxication when bullets are lodged in large joints like knees, hips and shoulders. Such patients merit closer follow-up, and even surgical procedure for removing the fragments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication several years after a gunshot wound. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A single white 23-year-old male, regular job as a bricklayer, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse, showed up at the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with colic, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea with black feces. All the symptoms had a duration of two to three weeks, and had been recurrent for the last two years, with calming during interval periods of two to three weeks. Abdominal radiograms showed a bullet lodged in the left hip, with a neat bursogram of the whole synovial capsule. A course of chelating treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2 intravenously was started. After the chelation therapy the patient had recurrence of his symptoms and a radical solution for the chronic mobilization of lead was considered. A hip arthroplasty procedure was performed, leading to complete substitution of the left hip.

  11. Lead and Hyperactivity: Lead Levels Among Hyperactive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Oliver J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In the study it is shown that within a group of 84 hyperactive children (4 to 11 years old) those for whom an organic etiology is present have lead burdens lower than in those for whom no apparent cause could be found. (Author/SBH)

  12. Microcirculation in experimental lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimiani, R; Silvestroni, A; Iavicoli, N

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the microvascular system of the auricle of the ear in 15 rabbits to which a 10 percent solution of lead acetate (0.5cm/sup 3//kg) was administered daily for 15 days through the gastric tract. Every 5 days up to the 35th day, determinations of blood and urine lead, free erythrocyte protoporphyrins and urinary coproporphyrins were carried out. Observations of the microvascular system were carried out in basic conditions after 6, 11, 16, 26 and 36 days. On the 6th day there was no pathological finding; on the 11th day small changes of the vascular content were observed, progressively assuming a sludge-like aspect. These findings confirm the hypothesis that the earliest changes caused by lead appear in the vascular content, before parietal changes occur.

  13. Jet calculus beyond leading logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, J.; Konishi, K.; Taylor, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the evolution of hadronic jets produced in hard processes can be studied in terms of a simple parton branching picture, beyond the leading log approximation of QCD. The jet calculus is generalized to any given order of logs (but always to all orders of αsub(s)). We discuss the general structure of the formalism. Universality of jet evolution is discussed. We consider also a jet calorimetry measure and the multiplicity distribution of final states in a form which allows a systematic improvement of approximation. To the next-to-leading order, we prove the finiteness and elucidate the scheme dependence of parton subprocess probabilities. The physical inclusive cross section is shown to be scheme independent: next-to-leading results for e + e - → q (nonsinglet) + X agree with those of Curci and others. (orig.)

  14. Initial occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forni, A.; Cambiaghi, G.; Secchi, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    Serial chromosome and biochemical studies were carried out in 11 subjects before and during initial occupational exposure to moderate quantities of lead fumes in a storage battery plant. The rate of abnormal metaphases, mostly with chromatid and one-break chromosome aberrations, was approximately doubled after one month of work; it further increased after two months of work; remained in this range up to seven months of exposure; and then tended to decrease somewhat. Blood lead levels increased progressively in the first few months, then reached a steady state. Urinary lead and coproporphyrin levels increased sharply after one month of work, while urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) levels increased moderately. The ALA dehydratase (ALAD) activity of red blood cells (RBCs) was reduced to almost 50 percent of the initial values after one month, decreased further in subsequent months, and remained decreased through the remainder of the study.

  15. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  16. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF 0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180 Pb and 184 Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF 0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF 0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  17. Mortality study of lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W C; Gaffey, W R

    1975-01-01

    The mortality of 7,032 men employed for one or more years in lead production facilities or battery plants was followed over a 23-year period, 1947-70. Lead absorption in many of these men was greatly in excess of currently accepted standards based upon urinary and blood lead concentrations available for a portion of the group. There were 1,356 deaths reported. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 107 for smelter workers and 99 for battery plant workers. Death from neoplasms were in slight excess in smelters, but not significantly increased in battery plants. There were no excess deaths from kidney tumors. The SMR for cardiovascular-renal disease was 96 for smelter workers and 101 for battery plant workers. There was definitely no excess in deaths from either stroke or hypertensive heart disease; however, deaths classified as other hypertensive disease and unspecified nephritis or renal sclerosis were higher than expected. The life expectancy of lead workers was calculated to be approximately the same as that of all U.S. males.

  18. High temperature superconductor current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimetz, B.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of superconductors in high electrical current applications (magnets, transformers, generators etc.) usually requires cooling with liquid Helium, which is very expensive. The superconductor itself produces no heat, and the design of Helium dewars is very advanced. Therefore most of the heat loss, i.e. Helium consumption, comes from the current lead which connects the superconductor with its power source at room temperature. The current lead usually consists of a pair of thick copper wires. The discovery of the High Temperature Superconductors makes it possible to replace a part of the copper with superconducting material. This drastically reduces the heat losses because a) the superconductor generates no resistive heat and b) it is a very poor thermal conductor compared with the copper. In this work silver-sheathed superconducting tapes are used as current lead components. The work comprises both the production of the tapes and the overall design of the leads, in order to a) maximize the current capacity ('critical current') of the superconductor, b) minimize the thermal conductivity of the silver clad, and c) optimize the cooling conditions

  19. Lead apron: room for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothroyd, A.E.; Russell, J.G.B.

    1987-02-01

    The amount of red bone marrow not protected by a lead apron was used as an assessment of protection efficiency, and the effect of change of shape was calculated. It was concluded that change of shape would increase protection and cut down cost. (U.K.).

  20. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  1. Copper, lead and zinc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, J.; Ternan, S.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter provides information on the by-products and residues generated during the production of copper, lead and zinc. The purpose of this chapter is to describe by-products and residues which are generated, how these may be avoided or minimised, and available options for the utilization and management of residues. (author)

  2. Lead-iron phosophate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses (LIPNWG) are the subject of the present chapter. They were discovered in 1984 while the authors were attempting to find a sintering aid for certain types of crystalline monazite ceramic high-level nuclear waste forms. In the present chapter, the term waste glass is synonymous with nuclear waste glass (NWG), and the acronym LIP is often used for lead-iron phosphate. Lead-iron phosphate glasses, like many of the previously studied phosphate glasses, are corrosion resistant in aqueous solutions at temperatures below 100 degrees C, and they can be melted and poured at temperatures that are relatively low in comparison with the processing temperatures required for current silicate glass compositions. Unlike the phosphate glasses investigated previously, however, LIPNWGs do not suffer from alteration due to devitrification during realistic and readily, achievable cooling periods. Additionally, lead-iron phosphate glass melts are not nearly as corrosive as the sodium phosphate melts investigated during the 1960s; and, therefore, they can be melted and processed using crucibles made from a variety of materials

  3. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  4. Triplet states in lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb; Abusara, H.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and triaxial calculations within RHB have been done to study the shape coexistence phenomena in the lead isotopes. Triplet states have been found in the 184-190 Pb which are in accordance with the experimental and other theoretical observations. The energy difference (in MeV) between the first two excited states also gives the evidence for the same

  5. Implementation Guide: Leading School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Todd

    2010-01-01

    This two-part "Implementation Guide" will help to deepen your understanding and sharpen your ability to implement each of the strategies discussed in "Leading School Change: Nine Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board" (ED509821). Part One offers discussion questions and activities which focus on each of the nine strategies. They can be completed…

  6. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  7. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  8. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarino, A [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  9. Leading in a Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  10. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers.

  11. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  12. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  13. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without

  14. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  15. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  16. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  17. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  18. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    The Ph.D. thesis contributes to a relational orientation to leading, emphasizing leadership as a shared, collaborative and co-creative activity. In this paradigm major emphasis is put on dialogue and interaction. Inspired by social constructionist ideas, the thesis considers approaches to learning...... and knowledge building as related to relational leading. The practices developed in the thesis research demonstrate that it is possible to create organizational learning and development through collaborative, dialogic practices in groups and teams, for instance combined with the use of roleplaying. In the work...... with the thesis, dialogically based practices inspired by action research with the aim to enhance collaborative knowledge building, reflexivity and dialogical skills in groups and teams were carried out, analyzed and documented. Participants included school principals, leaders of kindergartens, teachers...

  19. Leading Hadron Production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buniatyan Armen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e'γX as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep → ejjXn. The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

  20. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  1. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E., E-mail: saper43-7@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF{sup 0} Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, {sup 180}Pb and {sup 184}Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF{sup 0} functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron

  2. String Formation Beyond Leading Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper R.

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading $N_C$ are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of $SU(3)$ is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In $e^+e^-$collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in $pp$ collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive $1/N_C^2$ suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important $\\left(n_\\mathrm{charged})$ distribution but also with measured rates (and ra...

  3. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Leading Indian Business-Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandrovna Vorobyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the leading Indian business-groups under the conditions of economical liberalization. It is shown that the role of modern business-groups in the Indian economy is determined by their high rate in the gross domestic product (GDP, huge overall actives, substantial pert in the e[port of goods and services, as well as by their activities in modern branch structure formatting, and developing labor-intensive and high-tech branches. They strongly influence upon economical national strategies, they became a locomotive of internationalization and of transnationalization of India, the basis of the external economy factor system, the promoters of Indian "economical miracle" on the world scene, and the dynamical segment of economical and social development of modern India. The tendencies of the development of the leading Indian business groups are: gradual concentration of production in few clue sectors, "horizontal" structure, incorporation of the enterprises into joint-stock structure, attraction of hired top-managers and transnationaliziation. But against this background the leading Indian business-groups keep main traditional peculiarities: they mostly still belong to the families of their founders, even today they observe caste or communal relations which are the basis of their non-formal backbone tides, they still remain highly diversificated structures with weak interrelations. Specific national ambivalence and combination of traditions and innovations of the leading Indian business-groups provide their high vitality and stability in the controversial, multiform, overloaded with caste and confessional remains Indian reality. We conclude that in contrast to the dominant opinion transformation of these groups into multisectoral corporations of the western type is far from completion, and in the nearest perspective they will still possess all their peculiarities and incident social and economical

  5. Tevatron HTS power lead test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two pairs of ASC 6 kA power leads developed for the Tevatron were successfully tested at Fermilab at over-current conditions. Stable operation was achieved while operating at a current of 9.56 kA for five hours and while continuously ramping between 0-9.56 kA at a ramp rate of 200 A/s for one hour. The minimum required liquid nitrogen flow rate was measured to be 1.5 g/s at 10 kA. After ramping up to 10 kA at 200A/s, it took only 15 minutes to stabilize the upper copper section of the lead with a flow of 1.8 g/s of liquid nitrogen vapor. Testing under extreme operating conditions--270-370 kPa liquid nitrogen vapor pressure and over 0.1 T external magnetic field--demonstrated that the HTS part of the lead can safely operate in the current sharing mode and that this design has large operating margin

  6. The LHC Lead Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

  7. Natural convection in enclosures containing lead-bismuth and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzodzo, M.; Cuckovic-Dzodzo, D.

    2001-01-01

    The design of liquid metal reactors such as Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) which are based predominantly on the flow generated by natural convection effects demands knowledge of velocity and temperature fields, distribution of the local Nusselt numbers and values of the average Nusselt numbers for small coolant velocity regimes. Laminar natural convection in rectangular enclosures with different aspect ratios, containing lead-bismuth and lead is studied numerically in this paper. The numerical model takes into account variable properties of the liquid metals. The developed correlation for average Nusselt numbers is presented. It is concluded that average Nusselt numbers are lower than in 'normal' fluids (air, water and glycerol) for the same values of Rayleigh numbers. However, the heat flux, which can be achieved, is greater due to the high thermal conductivity of liquid metals. Some specific features of the flow fields generated by natural convection in liquid metals are presented. Their consequences on the design of heat exchangers for liquid metals are discussed. An application of the obtained results to the design of a new type of steam generator, which integrates the intermediate heat exchanger and secondary pool functions of the ENHS reactor, is presented. (authors)

  8. Correlations in particle production in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00361447

    In high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a hot and dense state of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is formed. The initial collision geometry and the subsequent expansion during the QGP stage result in the correlations of produced particles, through which the properties of the QGP can be investigated. Two analyses based on the geometrical correlations of produced particles, one in proton-lead (p–Pb) collisions and the other in lead-lead (Pb–Pb) collisions, are presented in this thesis. The data analyzed in this thesis were collected with the ALICE detector at the LHC in p– Pb collisions at a nucleon–nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV, and Pb–Pb collisions at a nucleon–nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV. In the forward-central two-particle correlation analysis in p–Pb collisions, two-particle an- gular correlations between trigger particles in the forward pseudorapidity range (2.5 < |η| < 4.0) and associated particles in the central ran...

  9. Leading Baryon Production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.; Schmitt, S.

    2009-01-01

    The production of highly energetic forward neutrons has been studied in deep-inelastic scattering. The data were taken with the H1 detector at HERA in the years 2006-2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 117 pb -1 . Semi-inclusive cross sections have been measured in the kinematic region 4 2 2 , 0.7*10 -4 -1 and the fractional momentum of the neutron 0.3 L T and compared to the predictions of models of leading neutron production. Differential cross sections for dijet photoproduction and in association with a leading neutron have been measured in the reaction e + p → e + jet jet X n with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 40pb -1 . The data are consistent with a simple pion exchange model. The ratio of the neutron-tagged and dijet cross sections show violations of factorization of the lepton and photon vertices which can be explained by kinematic effects constraining the phase space for neutron production. Normalised double-differential leading-neutron cross sections have been measured in dijet photoproduction for the first time. The distributions can be fully characterised by only two energy dependent parameters extracted from fits to the data. Absorption effects were studied by comparing the dijet photoproduction measurements and similar results in deep inelastic scattering. No clear effect, not related to kinematics, was observed. In a resolved-enriched dijet photoproduction sample, significantly fewer neutrons were seen than for direct. This depletion can also be accounted for by kinematic constraints. The semi-inclusive reaction e + p → e + X p was studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 12.8 pb -1 . The final state proton, which was detected with the ZEUS leading proton spectrometer, carried a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, x L > 0.32, and its transverse momentum squared satisfied p T 2 2 ; the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , was greater than 3 GeV 2 and the range of

  10. The art of leading meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, C B

    1987-05-01

    The ability to skillfully lead meetings can contribute to a manager's effectiveness. There are four types of meetings, each serving different needs and requiring different leadership. A manager must know when to hold meetings, what leadership style is appropriate, how and when to use participative management, and how to facilitate a consensus. Considerable planning must be done before a meeting is held. Various leadership and communication skills are required to effectively open, conduct, and close a meeting. Finally, the leader needs to know how to deal with participants who become problems.

  11. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  12. Lead reactor strategy economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: • A first attempt to evaluate LFR power plant electricity production cost has been performed; • Electricity price is similar to Gen III + plants; • The estimation accuracy is probably low; • Possible costs reduction could arise from coolant characteristics that may improve safety and simplicity by design; • Accident perception, not acceptable by public opinion, may be changed with low potential energy system (non exploding coolant); • Sustainability improvement could open to a better Public acceptance, depending on us. • Problems may arise in coupling a high capital cost low fuel cost plant in a grid with large amount of intermittent sources with priority dispatch. • Lead fast reactors can compete

  13. Soft mode of lead zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, G.F.; Prisedskij, V.V.; Klimov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Anisotropic diffusional scattering of electrons on PbZrO 3 crystal in the temperature range of phase transition has been recorded. As a result of its analysis it has been established that in lead zirconate the rotational vibrational mode G 25 plays the role of soft mode. The experiment is carried out using PbZrO 3 monocrystals in translucent electron microscope EhM-200, operating in the regime of microdiffraction at accelerating voltage of 150 kV and beam current 50 μA; sample preparation is realized using the method of shearing and fragmentation

  14. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  15. Lead -- supply/demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnull, T.

    1999-01-01

    As Japan goes--so goes the world. That was the title of a recent lead article in The Economist that soberly discussed the potential of much more severe global economic problems occurring, if rapid and coordinated efforts were not made to stabilize the economic situation in Asia in general, and in Japan in particular. During the first 6 months of last year, commodity markets reacted violently to the spreading economic problems in Asia. More recent currency and financial problems in Russia have exacerbated an already unpleasant situation. One commodity after another--including oil, many of the agricultural commodities, and each of the base metals--have dropped sharply in price. Many are now trading at multiyear lows. Until there is an overall improvement in the outlook for these regions, sentiment will likely continue to be negative, and metals prices will remain under pressure. That being said, lead has maintained its value better than many other commodities during these difficult times, finding support in relatively strong fundamentals. The author takes a closer look at those supply and demand fundamentals, beginning with consumption

  16. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  17. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  18. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  19. Lead pollution, disease, and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce-Smith, D; Waldron, H A

    1974-01-01

    Sources and health effects of atmospheric lead pollution are reviewed. Most of the Pb in gasoline is emitted in the exhaust gases as an aerosol containing particles of inorganic Pb. Some organic Pb is present, but the amount is usually less than 10% of the total. The size of these particles (0.18 to 0.90 micron) ensures maximum pulmonary penetration and absorption. The fallout of airborne particles produces very high concentrations of Pb in city dust, both inside and outside houses. Unpolluted soil contains about 15 ppM Pb, but samples of city dust contain 1000 to 6000 ppM. A daily intake of as little as 30 mg of dust containing 3% Pb produces clinical Pb poisoning in a few months. There is clear evidence to support the thesis that current levels in the environment are capable of producing behavioral abnormalities of types associated with educational disorders and delinquency, and also evidence that delinquents tend to have abnormal lead metabolism.

  20. What is lead-based paint?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The number of variety of lead-abatement regulations and requirements make it difficult and confusing to identify and properly respond to dangerous levels of lead in every situation. Definitions of ''lead-based paint'' and three test methods for lead detection are described to help determine when and how to test for the presence of lead

  1. Lead poisoning in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, H M

    1963-08-17

    During the period 1957 to 1959 a considerable number of dogs were seen which were suffering from colic. Colic is not normally a condition commonly encountered in the dog, and the number of cases seen was large in proportion to the number of dogs in the population concerned. A number of other dogs exhibited nervous signs which varied from symptoms of mild anxiety to exaggerated fits. There was a certain amount of overlapping between the 2 groups in that some cases which originally only showed signs of colic later progressed to the stage where they showed nervous symptoms. The following report deals with 28 cases of lead poisoning in dogs and cats which occurred at Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia. 8 references, 4 tables.

  2. Anti-cancer Lead Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-04-17

    Derivatives of plumbagin can be selectively cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. Derivative `A` (Acetyl Plumbagin) has emerged as a lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer and has shown low hepatotoxicity as well as overall lower toxicity in nude mice model. The toxicity of derivative `A` was determined to be even lower than vehicle control (ALT and AST markers). The possible mechanism of action identified based on the microarray experiments and pathway mapping shows that derivative `A` could be acting by altering the cholesterol-related mechanisms. The low toxicity profile of derivative `A` highlights its possible role as future anti-cancer drug and/or as an adjuvant drug to reduce the toxicity of highly toxic chemotherapeutic drugs

  3. Anti-cancer Lead Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.

    2014-01-01

    Derivatives of plumbagin can be selectively cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. Derivative `A` (Acetyl Plumbagin) has emerged as a lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer and has shown low hepatotoxicity as well as overall lower toxicity in nude mice model. The toxicity of derivative `A` was determined to be even lower than vehicle control (ALT and AST markers). The possible mechanism of action identified based on the microarray experiments and pathway mapping shows that derivative `A` could be acting by altering the cholesterol-related mechanisms. The low toxicity profile of derivative `A` highlights its possible role as future anti-cancer drug and/or as an adjuvant drug to reduce the toxicity of highly toxic chemotherapeutic drugs

  4. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.

  5. Heavy flavour production in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions with LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The LHCb experiment offers the unique opportunity to study heavy-ion interactions in the forward region (2 kinematic domain complementary to the other 3 large experiments at the LHC. The detector has excellent capabilities for reconstructing quarkonia and open charm states, including baryons, down to zero pT. It can separate the prompt and displaced charm components. In pPb collisions, both forward and backward rapidities are covered thanks to the possibility of beam reversal. Results include measurements of the nuclear modification factor and forward-backward ratio for charmonium, open charm and bottomonium states. These quantities are sensitive probes for nuclear effects in heavy flavour production. Perspectives are given with the large accumulated luminosity during the 2016 pPb run at the LHC. In 2015, LHCb participated successfully for the first time in the PbPb data-taking. The status of the forward prompt J/ψ nuclear modification factor measurement in lead-lead collisions is discussed.

  6. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S.; Wainman, Bruce C.; Martin, Ian D.; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-01-01

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, and a significant negative correlation for 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden

  7. Shorts due to diagnostic leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 mΩ. As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened

  8. Leading local politicians visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Left to right:  Professor Maiani, Ernest Nycollin, Anne-Marie Comparini, and Jean Pépin surrounded by young PRAC. On the 13th of November leading local politicians : Mme Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhône-Alpes, M. Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie et M. Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain took part in a ceremony which featured the insertion of one of the first LHC magnets into its cryostat.  The department of l'Ain financed a large part of the contruction of building SMA 18 which will see intense activity during the assembly of LHC magnets over the next four years. The department of Haute-Savoie helped in the development of the ultrasonic welding machine for the superconducting cables and the conception of integrated circuits that will be used to measure temperature and pressure inside the magnets. T...

  9. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 10 6 m -1 . The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 10 6 A m -1 . This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  10. Dietary exposure to lead in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon PE; te Biesebeek JD; van Donkersgoed G; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Uptake from the soil is the main route by which lead ends up in food. Lead in soil has its origin in both natural and anthropogenic sources. The lead concentration in food has decreased over the last decennia by the use of unleaded petrol and paint, and the replacement of lead water pipes.

  11. Women researchers lead wage hikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Women employed in the research and development fields in universities, government, and industry made substantial increases and lead men in salary gains in 1981, according to a far-reaching survey of 5000 respondents (Industrial Research and Development, April 1982). At the upper end, 20% of women researchers received salary increases of 14% or more, compared to 13% of the men. The raises were high in 1981; more than half the women in research and development had salary gains of over 9%.The employment picture for women in the scientific and technical fields is somewhat complicated by the affirmative efforts of hiring. More women were hired in 1981, and most newly hired women and men begin at the lowest salaries. This factor contributed to the reality that more women than men at the lower salary ranges received zero raises. However, according to the survey, this is not a trend, since the current efforts to add women in research fields are providing more rewards for women per amount of experience than for men: “…women working in R&D have far less experience than their male counterparts.” (IR&D, op cit.). The median years of experience is down in 1981 from previous years. Some 40% of the women surveyed had less than 6 years experience, compared to about 14% of the men. These figures contrast with those of the survey trends of previous years, which indicated a direct relation between salary and experience. It is still true that because larger numbers of men have over 16 years of experience, the highest paid employees in research and development fields are men. It is noted, however, that in the beginning salary scales ($16-27 k/yr) women outnumber men.

  12. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  13. Measurement of lead compound in stack gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y; Hori, M; Tanikawa, N

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and particle-size distribution of lead compounds in the exhaust gas from various stationary sources are examined. The stationary sources concern lead production from battery scraps, lead smelting of cable mold, steel production from iron scraps, plastic combustion furnace, and a heavy oil boiler. A lead concentration of 0.2-100 mg/cu m in exhaust gas is detected. Furthermore, exhaust gas lead compounds are affected by the raw materials used.

  14. Melatonin reduces lead levels in blood, brain and bone and increases lead excretion in rats subjected to subacute lead treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo; Quiroz-Compeán, Fátima; Ramírez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Barrientos, Eunice Yáñez; Rodríguez-Morales, Nadia M; Flores, Alberto; Wrobel, Katarzina; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Méndez, Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Robles, Juvencio; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva

    2015-03-04

    Melatonin, a hormone known for its effects on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects of melatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatonin had lower lead levels in blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increases lead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we first assessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMR analysis showed no evidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effects of MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonin directly affects lead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute and chronic lead poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosif, C

    1966-02-01

    Three cases of acute plumbism in cows are detailed: one of a six-year-old cow who accidentally ate about 100 gm. of lead (in 1956); the second of a 12-year-old cow who accidentally ate a packet containing about 100 gm. of lead used in painting; and the third of a three-week-old heifer who licked a freshly painted bucket. Route of exposure to lead can be gastrointestinal following deposition of lead fumes (lead oxide, sulfide, and sulfate) on pasturage and in exposed drinking water, or respiratory following the inhalation of such fumes. The presence of CO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract is thought to provide a favorable situation for the dissolution of lead and the formation of soluble lead complexes. One author has calculated that 12% of respired lead is absorbed into the organism, while only 1-2% of ingested lead is absorbed.

  16. Lead-Binding Proteins: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey C. Gonick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-binding proteins are a series of low molecular weight proteins, analogous to metallothionein, which segregate lead in a nontoxic form in several organs (kidney, brain, lung, liver, erythrocyte. Whether the lead-binding proteins in every organ are identical or different remains to be determined. In the erythrocyte, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD isoforms have commanded the greatest attention as proteins and enzymes that are both inhibitable and inducible by lead. ALAD-2, although it binds lead to a greater degree than ALAD-1, appears to bind lead in a less toxic form. What may be of greater significance is that a low molecular weight lead-binding protein, approximately 10 kDa, appears in the erythrocyte once blood lead exceeds 39 μg/dL and eventually surpasses the lead-binding capacity of ALAD. In brain and kidney of environmentally exposed humans and animals, a cytoplasmic lead-binding protein has been identified as thymosin β4, a 5 kDa protein. In kidney, but not brain, another lead-binding protein has been identified as acyl-CoA binding protein, a 9 kDa protein. Each of these proteins, when coincubated with liver ALAD and titrated with lead, diminishes the inhibition of ALAD by lead, verifying their ability to segregate lead in a nontoxic form.

  17. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  18. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  19. Kinetics of oil saponification by lead salts in ancient preparations of pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, M; Checroun, E; Susini, J; Dumas, P; Tchoreloff, P; Besnard, M; Walter, Ph

    2006-12-15

    Lead soaps can be found in archaeological cosmetics as well as in oil paintings, as product of interactions of lead salts with oil. In this context, a better understanding of the formation of lead soaps allows a follow-up of the historical evolution of preparation recipes and provides new insights into conservation conditions. First, ancient recipes of both pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums, mixtures of oil and lead salts, were reconstructed. The ester saponification by lead salts is determined by the preparation parameters which were quantified by FT-IR spectrometry. In particular, ATR/FT-IR spectrometer was calibrated by the standard addition method to quantitatively follow the kinetics of this reaction. The influence of different parameters such as temperature, presence of water and choice of lead salts was assessed: the saponification is clearly accelerated by water and heating. This analysis provides chemical explanations to the historical evolution of cosmetic and painting preparation recipes.

  20. Leading gravitational corrections and a unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading...... nonlocal term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis...

  1. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  2. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  3. A Public Health Approach to Addressing Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes EPA’s achievements in reducing childhood lead exposures and emphasizes the need to continue actions to further reduce lead exposures, especially in those communities where exposures remain high.

  4. Lead Intoxication in Children in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, P. R.; Astley, R.; Raine, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Of 38 children investigated between 1966 and 1971 who had a blood lead concentration greater than 37 μg/100 ml eight had encephalopathy and one died; all these eight had a blood lead concentration of 99 μg/100 ml or above. Blood lead levels are related to haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia is common in children with blood lead concentrations of 37-60 μg/100 ml, levels previously accepted as harmless. Children with blood lead concentrations greater than 60 μg/100 ml show radiological evidence of lead intoxication, and treatment for this should be considered when blood lead concentration exceeds 37 μg/100 ml. Children presenting with unexplained encephalopathy should be radiographed for evidence of lead intoxication. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:4691065

  5. Lead's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. There are many ways in which humans are exposed to lead: through air, drinking water, food, contaminated soil, deteriorating paint, and dust.

  6. Leading particle in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading particle effect in deep inelastic scattering is considered. The change of the characteris cs shape of the leading particle inclusive spectrum with Q 2 is estimated to be rather significant at very high Q 2

  7. Lead contamination of inexpensive plastic jewelry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, Jamie L. [Department of Chemistry, Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio (United States); Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D. [Department of Chemistry, Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio (United States)], E-mail: jweiden@ashland.edu

    2008-04-15

    The neurological hazards of lead to children are well-known. As a result of recent documented cases of lead poisoning, regulatory attention in the United States has focused on the lead content of children's metal jewelry. By contrast, little is known about the possible hazards of plastic jewelry items. The objective of this study was to determine whether inexpensive plastic jewelry is a possible source of toxic lead for children. Samples of more than 100 inexpensive plastic jewelry items were analyzed for lead content. Beads were screened by soaking in 1 M nitric acid. Nine items found to release more than 30 {mu}g of lead per bead were further tested for accessible lead, and scrapings of the bead coatings were analyzed for total lead content. The maximum accessible lead found was 49 {mu}g per bead, which is below the current US Consumer Product Safety Commission limit of 175 {mu}g. However, when the number of beads in each item was taken into account, six of the nine leaded samples contained more than 175 {mu}g accessible lead per item. The lead in these items appears to be associated with lead-based paints used to produce glossy coatings on imitation pearls and similar items. Coatings obtained by scraping individual beads contained 3.5-23% lead, which far exceeds the US regulatory limit of 0.06% lead in paints on items intended for children. Our results demonstrate that plastic jewelry items merit the attention of public health and consumer protection agencies seeking to limit the exposure of children to lead.

  8. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  9. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  10. Lead contamination of inexpensive plastic jewelry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, Jamie L.; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The neurological hazards of lead to children are well-known. As a result of recent documented cases of lead poisoning, regulatory attention in the United States has focused on the lead content of children's metal jewelry. By contrast, little is known about the possible hazards of plastic jewelry items. The objective of this study was to determine whether inexpensive plastic jewelry is a possible source of toxic lead for children. Samples of more than 100 inexpensive plastic jewelry items were analyzed for lead content. Beads were screened by soaking in 1 M nitric acid. Nine items found to release more than 30 μg of lead per bead were further tested for accessible lead, and scrapings of the bead coatings were analyzed for total lead content. The maximum accessible lead found was 49 μg per bead, which is below the current US Consumer Product Safety Commission limit of 175 μg. However, when the number of beads in each item was taken into account, six of the nine leaded samples contained more than 175 μg accessible lead per item. The lead in these items appears to be associated with lead-based paints used to produce glossy coatings on imitation pearls and similar items. Coatings obtained by scraping individual beads contained 3.5-23% lead, which far exceeds the US regulatory limit of 0.06% lead in paints on items intended for children. Our results demonstrate that plastic jewelry items merit the attention of public health and consumer protection agencies seeking to limit the exposure of children to lead

  11. Severe Neurotoxicity Following Ingestion of Tetraethyl Lead

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Brandon K.; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80–90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symp...

  12. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing the...

  13. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  14. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  15. Early Reading Proficiency. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  16. Radioactive lead studies in the human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, K.C.H.

    1980-08-01

    The differing susceptibility of individuals to the toxic effects of chronic lead exposure has never been fully understood. As the major intake of lead in the human is from food and beverages, any variation between individuals of the quantity of lead absorbed from the gut, and of the distribution and excretion of this lead, may account for the differences in individual susceptibility. The food and beverages themselves may have an influence, and to investigate their effects on absorption, distribution and excretion of lead, experiments were performed on normal subjects using a short lived radionuclide of lead, 203 Pb, and instruments generally available in Nuclear Medicine. Lead absorption between different individuals showed a wide variation when 203 Pb was taken as a single dose between meals. Minerals were found to be mainly responsible for affecting absorption when one subject ingested 203 Pb in control meals from which one dietary constituent at a time was omitted. Calcium and phosphorous were found to reduce the absorption of 203 Pb to approximately the same level as that produced by the total minerals. Calcium reduced absorption more than phosphorous when these minerals were ingested separately with 203 Pb. It was concluded that the calcium and phosphorous in the diet could influence susceptibility to lead toxicity through changes in the absorption of food and water lead and in the distribution of lead in the body. The results suggest that the prophylactic effect of calcium on lead absorption should be recognised and applied in this time of increased environmental levels of lead

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  18. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  19. A green lead hydrometallurgical process based on a hydrogen-lead oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junqing; Sun, Yanzhi; Li, Wei; Knight, James; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    The automobile industry consumed 9 million metric tons of lead in 2012 for lead-acid batteries. Recycling lead from spent lead-acid batteries is not only related to the sustainable development of the lead industry, but also to the reduction of lead pollution in the environment. The existing lead pyrometallurgical processes have two main issues, toxic lead emission into the environment and high energy consumption; the developing hydrometallurgical processes have the disadvantages of high electricity consumption, use of toxic chemicals and severe corrosion of metallic components. Here we demonstrate a new green hydrometallurgical process to recover lead based on a hydrogen-lead oxide fuel cell. High-purity lead, along with electricity, is produced with only water as the by-product. It has a >99.5% lead yield, which is higher than that of the existing pyrometallurgical processes (95-97%). This greatly reduces lead pollution to the environment.

  20. [Effect of lead on the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-11-01

    Lead is a metal widely spread in the natural environment. It is strongly toxic, particularly to the peripheral and central nervous systems. The toxic influence on the cardiovascular system is most pronounced in case of higher exposures, where myocardium and the renal circulation are affected, in consequence of which secondary arterial hypertension can develop. It seems that lead affects the cardiovascular system mainly by changing the peripheral autonomic nervous system and leading to chronic neuropathy. Chronic exposure, even to low doses of lead, can impair conduction in myocardium. In order to assess those changes thoroughly prospective studies involving newly employed workers with occupational exposure to toxic activity of lead will be necessary.

  1. Spill control and intensity monitoring for the Bevatron--Bevalac external particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, J.J.; Crebbin, K.C.

    1975-03-01

    Time-intensity modulation in beam spill can be of primary concern in some experiments. The major source of this beam structure is from main-guide field-magnet power supply ripple. If the time constants are appropriate, then final control of beam structure can be accomplished by closed loop control of the intensity of beam spill. The response characteristics of the feedback system will determine the final structure. At high beam fluxes signal to noise ratio of beam detectors, in the feedback loop, can be improved by at least four orders of magnitude by using photomultiplier tubes and a water Cherenkov counter in place of the normal secondary emission monitor. At beam fluxes below 10 10 particles per second (PPS), a plastic scintillator and photomultiplier tube are used in the feedback system. A plastic scintillator and photomultiplier are also used in the beam as intensity monitors. At intensities below about 10 7 PPS standard counting techniques are used. For intensities between 10 6 to 110 9 PPS, the photomultiplier is used as a current source driving an integrating circuit which is then calibrated to read the number of particles per pulse. (U.S.)

  2. Evidence for anomalous nuclei among relativistic projectile fragments at Bevalac energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent emulsion experiments using beams of 16 O and 56 Fe at approximately 2 GeV/nucleon find that the reaction mean free paths of projectile fragments (PF) with Z between 3 and 26 are shorter for a few centimeters after their emission than at larger distances, or than predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. Under the assumption that there are two populations of PF, a best fit to the data is obtained when approximately 6% of the PF have an anomalously short mean free path. The anomalous property of PF persists in subsequent fragmentation reactions. 6 figures

  3. Operational results for the raster scanning power supply system constructed at the Bevalac Biomedical Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.; Halliwell, J.; Nyman, M.; Dwinell, R.

    1989-03-01

    A raster scanning power supply for controlling an 8.0 Tesla-meter relativistic heavy-ion beam at the Biomedical Facility has been recently completed and is undergoing electrical testing before on- line operation in 1989. The scanner system will provide tightly controlled beam uniformity and off-axis treatment profiles with large aspect ratios and unusual dimensions. This article will discuss original specifications, agreement with measured results and special device performance (i.e. GTOs, FET actuator assembly, etc.). 5 refs., 4 figs

  4. Use of a time-projection chamber in multifragmentation experiments at the BEVALAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porile, N.T.

    1991-01-01

    An exclusive study of multifragmentation is described. The moments of the fragment charge distribution are used to extract the critical exponents associated with the phase transition to which the breakup is ascribed. The fragmentation of 1 GeV/nucleon La and Au is studied by reverse kinematics using a carbon target. Fragments with Z ≤ 6 will be identified with the EOS time projection chamber (TPC) while heavier fragments will be identified with a multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC). The experimental setup using these detectors will be described

  5. Multi-wire chamber system for heavy ion beam monitoring at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperus, J.; Morgado, R.

    1975-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical integrated beam-current profiles are generated by a system of multi-wire chambers (32 wires/profile) operating in either the ionization or proportional mode. Sixteen distinct displays (1024 words) are digitally stored and any four may be simultaneously displayed. A new display can be generated at 64 ms intervals. A central control unit selects the mode of operation, the amount of delay after an appropriate trigger, the chamber integration time, and the particular chambers to be displayed. Operating in the proportional mode, the system can detect relativistic heavy-ion beam intensities as low as 10 4 charges cm -2 sec -1 . (U.S.)

  6. Thirty years at the forefront: a perspective on the Bevatron/Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    The operational experience of the Bevatron can be divided into four major periods: first, the commissioning and early experimental period, when the Bevatron was among the highest-energy machines available (1954-1962); second, a period of increasing beam intensity and higher sophistication in the experimental program (1963-1973); third, the light-ion (A less than or equal to 56) period (1974-1981; and finally, the ongoing heavy-ion period. Reference material for this paper was taken mainly from internal LBL reports and log books

  7. Mixing and matching Bevalac programs: Rapid-switching of ions and other operations highlights: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothrop, F.; Alonso, J.; Krebs, G.; Miller, R.; Stevenson, R.

    1987-03-01

    Rapid switching of ion, energy, and beam line has been accomplished on a routine basis; typical transfer time is 1 to 2 minutes in worst case situations. Operational efficiency has been improved by substantial reduction of inter-experiment tune time and improved optics in the external beam area installed in 1985. A comparison of current research efficiency and previous year efficiency is given. It is shown that compatibility and productivity for two simultaneous, independent research programs are not mutually exclusive

  8. FASTBUS based data acquisition system for the DI-lepton spectrometer at the BEVALAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matis, H.S.; Claesson, G.; Hendrie, D.

    1985-10-01

    A data acquisition system using FASTBUS has been developed. FASTBUS TDC's are used to record hits from a drift chamber, while FASTBUS ADC's digitize the pulse heights from the chambers. FASTBUS data are transferred to CAMAC and then written to a VAX 11/750 using a MBD. The performance of this system is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  9. High-temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for current leads to deliver power to devices at liquid helium temperature is near commercial realization. The use of HTSs in this application has the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements and helium boiloff to values significantly lower than the theoretical best achievable with conventional leads. Considerable advantage is achieved by operating these leads with an intermediate temperature heat sink. The HTS part of the lead can be made from pressed and sintered powder. Powder-in-tube fabrication is also possible, however, the normal metal part of the lead acts as a thermal short and cannot provide much stabilization without increasing the refrigeration required. Lead stability favors designs with low current density. Such leads can be manufactured with today's technology, and lower refrigeration results from the same allowable burnout time. Higher current densities result in lower boiloff for the same lead length, but bumout times can be very short. In comparing experiment to theory, the density of helium vapor needs to be accounted for in calculating the expected boiloff. For very low-loss leads, two-dimensional heat transfer and the state of the dewar near the leads may play a dominant role in lead performance.

  10. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  11. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  12. Association of Lead Levels and Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Neha; Aggarwal, Anju; Faridi, M. M. A.; Sharma, Tusha; Baneerjee, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029). No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children. PMID:28491920

  13. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  14. Update on Recovering Lead From Scrap Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E. R.; Lee, A. Y.; Paulson, D. L.

    1985-02-01

    Previous work at the Bureau of Mines Rolla Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, resulted in successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling lead from scrap batteries by using waste fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) as electrolyte.1,2 This paper describes larger scale experiments. Prior attempts to electrowin lead failed because large quantities of insoluble lead dioxide were deposited on the anodes at the expense of lead deposition on the cathodes. A major breakthrough was achieved with the discovery that lead dioxide formation at the anodes is prevented by adding a small amount of phosphorus to the electrolyte. The amount of PbO2 formed on the anodes during lead electrowinning was less than 1% of the total lead deposited on the cathodes. This work recently won the prestigious IR·100 award as one of the 100 most significant technological advances of 1984.

  15. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  16. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eider......, contain high concentrations of lead. In a cross-sectional population survey in Greenland in 1993-1994, blood lead adjusted for age and sex was found to be associated with the reported consumption of sea birds. Participants reporting less than weekly intake of sea birds had blood lead concentrations...... of approximately 75 microg/L, whereas those who reported eating sea birds several times a week had concentrations of approximately 110 microg/L, and those who reported daily intake had concentrations of 170 microg/L (p = 0.01). Blood lead was not associated with dietary exposure to other local or imported food...

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Lead Levels and Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bansal MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P < .05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean blood lead levels were 9.20 ± 8.31 µg/dL in cerebral palsy cases and 2.89 ± 3.04 µg/dL in their controls (P < .001. Among children with cerebral palsy, 19 (55.88% children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Lead levels in children with pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029. No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children.

  19. Determining tissue-lead levels in large game mammals harvested with lead bullets: human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; VanSpronsen, E P; Liberda, E N

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the use of lead isotope ratios has definitively identified lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people, but the isotope ratios for lead pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden; however, few studies have determined if lead bullet fragments are present in big game carcasses. We found elevated tissue-lead concentrations (up to 5,726.0 microg/g ww) in liver (5/9) and muscle (6/7) samples of big game harvested with lead bullets and radiographic evidence of lead fragments. Thus, we would advise that the tissue surrounding the wound channel be removed and discarded, as this tissue may be contaminated by lead bullet fragments.

  20. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J.; Finlow, D.E. [Key Lab of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-06-01

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for

  1. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J.; Finlow, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  2. Bulk diffusion and solubility of silver and nickel in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenzou-Badrour, H.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study of solubility and bulk diffusion of /sup 110/Ag and /sup 63/Ni in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions in the temperature range 220 to 88 0 C are reported. Owing to the low solubility of silver and nickel in lead, Fick's solution corresponding to the boundary condition of a constant concentration of solute at the surface has been used. Depth profile concentration analysis suggests a fundamental difference between the diffusion mechanisms of silver and nickel. Since silver penetration profiles in pure lead give diffusion coefficients independent of the penetration depth and silver concentration, it is suggested that slight decreases of silver diffusivity in lead-silver solid solutions have no significance. This implies that the interstitial silver atoms do not associate significantly with each other to form Ag-Ag dimers. In contrast, different behaviors of /sup 63/Ni depth profile concentration in pure lead and saturated PbNi solid solutions agree with a Ni-Ni interaction leading to the formation of less mobile dimers near the surface in pure lead

  3. Lead in soils, plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheltinga, H

    1955-01-01

    The toxicity of lead for plants is small, except in the case of water cultures. Animals can absorb more lead without toxic effect than was previously expected. This applies to acute poisoning as well as chronic poisoning. As a result of experiments over many years (Allcroft and Blaxter, 1950) the possibility of chronic lead poisoning has been found to be minute. Rations containing 240 mg lead/kg dried fodder, given daily over a period of three years, did not cause any poisoning at all in cattle thus fed. Where lead poisoning did take place, it was observed that the ratio of lead in the dried fodder was > 1000 mg/kg; the proportion was generally much higher. In normal cases grass contains only 5 to 15 mg lead/kg. The total lead content of samples from arable land was 10 to 25 mg/kg soil. For grassland on peat or clay the amount was slightly higher. The influence on the lead status of soils and plants of fertilizing with compost or copper slag flour, both containing a small percentage of lead, proved to be negligible. It is definite that in normal use, these fertilizers cannot cause any danger for either plant or animal. 24 references, 3 tables.

  4. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  5. Air pollution from lead added to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingeon, B; Collombel, C

    1973-01-01

    General hygienic and toxicological problems of lead added to gasoline are discussed. Lead emitted by motor vehicles pollutes the air especially in cities and along highways, and is accumulated by soil and plants. The lead levels found in the blood of subjects living in cities and near highways was significantly higher than in rural dwellers. Close correlation between the atmospheric lead concentration and the carbon monoxide concentration as well as the traffic density was established, indicating traffic as the source of atmospheric lead. The effect of traffic on the atmospheric lead concentration extended over a distance of up to 4 km. The lead, emitted by motor vehicles in the form of submicron particles, is retained in the organism at rates of 5-10 percent following ingestion, and at rates of 30-50 percent when inhaled. Lead is partially excreted by the liver, kidney, hair, and nails. Some 95 percent of the retained lead is found in the blood, and accumulation in the bones with potential mobilization due to increases in the corticosteroid level was observed. Exposure to lead can be diagnosed by basophil granulation test, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid test, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase test.

  6. Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraiko, Carol; Wright, Eva M; Ralston, Faye

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to lead has been shown to be harmful to adults; it is a teratogen, it can damage the peripheral nervous system, and it adversely affects the reproductive system. Professional lead-based paint remediation workers are at risk of exposure to lead dust. The authors' study was conducted to determine if these remediation workers transfer lead from their work site to their vehicles and then potentially expose their families. It was hypothesized that remediation workers transported the lead from the remediation work site to the floorboards of their vehicles due to not following required protective equipment use. The laboratory's level of quantitation for lead on the wipe samples, 10 microg/ft2, was used to indicate lead contamination. This level was exceeded in 50% of the floorboards sampled. These results confirm that many vehicle floorboards used by remediation workers are contaminated with lead dust, potentially resulting in transfer of lead dust. The ultimate detrimental outcome could be the transfer of lead particles to other family members, causing the poisoning of a child or other at-risk person.

  7. Impacts of aerosol lead to natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Yoshida, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    Impacts of aerosol lead have changed the concentration and isotopic ratios of the element circulating in remote ecosystems in the Hidaka and Tarumae mountains. Concentrations of lead in successive each 10 years ring veneer of Cercidiphyllum Japonica show that amount of the element residing on the bark and supwood layers has increased by a factor of 2 or more in comparison with that of the core part. The isotopic ratios of lead in the basement rocks and soils under the ecosystems converge to a certain narrow spot along the isochron Iine of the element, and distinguish their geochronogical characteristics from other leads of different sources. In these ecosystems, however, the lead isotopic ratios of materials exposed to the atmosphere are similar to those of foreign and anthropogenic aerosol lead but are evidently dissimilar to those of the rocks and soils. Furthermore, the lead isotopic ratios in yearly ring veneers of Ceridiphyllum Japonica and Ostrya Japonica show a certain differentiation towards the bark from the core, i.e., an approach to those of anthropogenic aerosol lead from those of the basement rocks and soils, as listed in Table 7. The lead burden per hectare in these remote ecosystems has increased to 4 g by the impact of 2 g of aerosol lead. (author)

  8. Lead exposures from varnished floor refinishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Joseph; Havlena, Jeff; Jacobs, David E; Dixon, Sherry; Ikens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of lead in varnish and factors predicting lead exposure from floor refinishing and inexpensive dust suppression control methods. Lead in varnish, settled dust, and air were measured using XRF, laboratory analysis of scrape and wipe samples, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300, respectively, during refinishing (n = 35 homes). Data were analyzed using step-wise logistic regression. Compared with federal standards, no lead in varnish samples exceeded 1.0 mg/cm(2), but 52% exceeded 5000 ppm and 70% of settled dust samples after refinishing exceeded 40 μg/ft(2). Refinishing pre-1930 dwellings or stairs predicted high lead dust on floors. Laboratory analysis of lead in varnish was significantly correlated with airborne lead (r = 0.23, p = 0.014). Adding dust collection bags into drum sanders and HEPA vacuums to edgers and buffers reduced mean floor lead dust by 8293 μg Pb/ft(2) (pairborne lead exposures to less than 50 μg/m(3). Refinishing varnished surfaces in older housing produces high but controllable lead exposures.

  9. The refining of secondary lead for use in advanced lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Mirza, Abbas H.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary lead, i.e. material produced by the recycling of lead-acid batteries has become the primary source of lead in much of the world. This has been important to the secondary lead industry as other uses have dwindled, e.g. lead based pigments, chemicals, fuel additives, solders and CRT glasses. Presently, battery manufacturing accounts for greater than 80% of lead consumption while recycled lead accounts for approximately the same market share of lead supply. These two facts strongly demonstrate the battery manufacturing and recycled lead are intimately coupled in everyday life. In this paper we will explore how recycled lead has become the material of choice for battery construction through the development of a recovery and refining process that exceeds the industries requirements. Particular focus will be on addressing the results presented by Prengaman on the effects of contaminant or tramp elements on gassing in lead-acid batteries. (author)

  10. High human exposure to lead through consumption of birds hunted with lead shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, P.; Asmund, G.; Riget, F.

    2004-01-01

    Lead shot contaminates the edible parts of birds so that tolerable human lead intake is exceeded. - We assess lead contamination of Greenland seabirds killed with lead shot having studied thick-billed murre and common eider, the two most important species in the diet. The lead concentration is very high in meat of eiders killed with lead shot (mean 6.1 μg/g-wet wt, 95% CL 2.1-12). This level is about 44 times higher than in drowned eiders and eight times higher than in shot murres. Analyzing whole breasts instead of sub-samples reveals about seven times higher lead levels in birds' meat. We conclude that in some cases the lead intake by Greenland bird eaters will largely exceed the FAO/WHO tolerable lead intake guideline and that lead shot is a more important source of lead in the diet than previously estimated

  11. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E; Durio, P

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  12. Isolation of radioactive thallium from lead targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preperation from Pb-targets irradiated with protons: precipitation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. When the target irraiated is extracted during the time necessary for bismuth-201 transformation into lead-201, lead macroquantity containing lead-201 was separated from undesirable thallium radionuclides, which are formed in direct nuclear reactions. The lead fraction was extracted to accumulate thallium-201, and it was separated from lead mocroquantity. The target was dissolved in the nitric acid. The 1st method differs from the 2nd one by the fact that before thallium-201 extraction, lead was precipitaed by the nitric acid. The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - ≥95 %. 2 refs

  13. Narrow Lead Aprons under Medical Fluoroscopy Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Lead aprons are the major protective item of the medical staff whose work involves x-ray exposure. Heart catheterization and angiography procedures represent the most common exposures of the medical staff. The lead equivalent thickness of lead aprons worn by the medical staff is defined by many national standards. The frontal side of the aprons should be 0.25 mm lead equivalent at working conditions under 100 kV, 0.35 mm for working conditions above 100 kV, and 0.5 mm for heart catheterization and angiography. The back side of the body needs less protection and usually is covered by 0.25 mm of lead equivalent. The lead equivalent thickness is defined at the 80 kV level

  14. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  15. Radiation effects on lead silicate glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.W.; Zhang, L.P.; Borgen, N.; Pannell, K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of lead silicate glass were investigated in situ under Mg K α irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lead-oxygen bond breaking resulting in the formation of pure lead was observed. The segregation, growth kinetics and the structural relaxation of the lead, with corresponding changes in the oxygen and silicon on the glass surfaces were studied by measuring the time-dependent changes in concentration, binding energy shifts, and the full width at half maximum. A bimodal distribution of the oxygen XPS signal, caused by bridging and non-bridging oxygens, was found during the relaxation process. All experimental data indicate a reduction of the oxygen concentration, a phase separation of the lead from the glass matrix, and the metallization of the lead occurred during and after the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  16. Apparatus and methods for purifying lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunison, Harmon M.

    2016-01-12

    Disclosed is an exemplary method of purifying lead which includes the steps of placing lead and a fluoride salt blend in a container; forming a first fluid of molten lead at a first temperature; forming a second fluid of the molten fluoride salt blend at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; mixing the first fluid and the second fluid together; separating the two fluids; solidifying the molten fluoride salt blend at a temperature above a melting point of the lead; and removing the molten lead from the container. In certain exemplary methods the molten lead is removed from the container by decanting. In still other exemplary methods the molten salt blend is a Lewis base fluoride eutectic salt blend, and in yet other exemplary methods the molten salt blend contains sodium fluoride, lithium fluoride, and potassium fluoride.

  17. Solubility of iron in liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Khan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The use of liquid lead in high temperature chemical and metallurgical processes is well known. The structural materials applied for the containment of these processes are either iron base alloys or possess iron as an alloying element. Besides that, lead itself is alloyed in some steels to achieve some very useful properties. For understanding the effect of liquid lead in such structural materials, it is important to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead which would also be indicative of the stability of these alloys. At the institute of reactor materials of KFA Juelich, investigations have been conducted to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead up to a temperature of about 1000 0 C. In this presentation the data concerning the solubility of iron in liquid lead are brought up to date and discussed including the results of our previous investigations. (orig.)

  18. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  19. Petrol with isotopically differentiated lead added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magi, F.; Facchetti, S.; Garibaldi, P.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment is proposed aimed at determining the role of motor traffic in the pollution of the environment by lead, in particular of air, soil, vegetation, food and the human body. The technique of determining the isotopic composition of lead, used in the right way, should enable the whole problem to be solved. It is intended to add lead with a constant isotopic composition different from that of normally occuring lead, whether natural in origin or otherwise, to petrol in at least two regions of Italy. Analyses of lead samples taken from the principal mines have shown that Australian lead (Broken Hill Mine) has quite a different isotopic composition. This lead will therefore be used to prepare the antiknock additives for petrol sold in the regions in question. Adequate sampling should make it possible to determine the contribution to pollution of lead from motor vehicle exhausts. The regions chosen for the experiment are Piedmont (city and province of Turin) and Sardinia (city and province of Cagliari) - the first because of its high traffic density and level of industrialization, the second because of its remoteness and the lead content of the soil, which may affect food. Both regions present favourable conditions for supplying petrol of the intended type. The experiment is intended to last three years; the petrol with Australian lead will be marketed for a period of 18 months. The first results of analyses of the isotopic composition of lead contained in atmospheric dust in the city of Turin and of lead from a number of blood samples are reported in the paper

  20. Verification of radiation exposure using lead shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenyu; Azuma, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A long time use of radiation during IVR (intervention radiology) treatment leads up to an increased exposure on IVR operator. In order to prepare good environment for the operator to work without worry about exposure, the authors examined exposure reduction with the shields attached to the angiography instrument, i. e. lead curtain and lead glass. In this study, the lumber spine phantom was radiated using the instrument and the radiation leaked outside with and without shields was measured by the ionization chamber type survey meter. The meter was placed at the position which was considered to be that for IVR operator, and changed vertically 20-100 cm above X-ray focus by 10 cm interval. The radiation at the position of 80 cm above X-ray focus was maximum without shield and was hardly reduced with lead curtain. However, it was reduced with lead curtain plus lead glass. Similar reduction effects were observed at the position of 90-100 cm above X-ray focus. On the other hand, the radiation at the position of 70 cm above X-ray focus was not reduced with either shield, because that position corresponded to the gap between lead curtain and lead glass. The radiation at the position of 20-60 cm above X-ray focus was reduced with lead curtain, even if without lead glass. These results show that lead curtain and lead glass attached to the instrument can reduce the radiation exposure on IVR operator. Using these shields is considered to be one of good means for IVR operator to work safely. (author)

  1. Forecasting Irish Inflation: A Composite Leading Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Terry; Mawdsley, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the construction of a composite leading indicator of the Irish rate of inflation, as measured by the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). It follows the work of Fagan and Fell (1994) who applied the business cycle leading indicator methodology, initially established by Mitchell and Burns (1938,1946), to construct a composite leading indicator of the Irish business cycle.

  2. Load Dependent Lead Times and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia; Voss, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    to prevent decreased quality or waste of production parts and products. This gains importance because waiting times imply longer lead times charging the production system with work in process inventories. Longer lead times can lead to quality losses due to depreciation, so that parts need to be reworked...... if possible or discarded. But return flows of products for rework or remanufacturing actions significantly complicate the production planning process. We analyze sustainability options with respect to lead time management by formulating a comprehensive mathematical model. We consider a deterministic, mixed...

  3. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  4. Lead in some food crops and trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, H V; Delavault, R E

    1962-02-01

    An investigation has been made of the lead content of trees and some of the more common vegetables and cereals (maize, cabbage, potatoes, carrots, beets, onions, peas, hops, oats, rhubarb, lettuce, cauliflower, leeks, barley, rye, and wheat) grown in British Columbia and in Great Britain. The lead content of the lime, yew, willow, birch, oak, ash, hazel and cypress was determined. It was concluded that in areas where soils have an abnormally high lead content, food products may acquire up to ten times as much lead, or more, than those grown on normal soil.

  5. Lead level in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Macinic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on a hunting ground belonging to AJVPS Arad, county Arad. Lead (Pb was determined in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos tissues (muscles and organs (liver, kidneys to see the contamination level of this tissues and organs and also the impact on humans health because in our days more and more wild game meat take a increasing percentage in humans food ratio. The Mallard is one of the most widespread duck species. Mallard has 50-62 cm length, 800-1400 g weight and lives about 11 years. It prefers rivers and shallow pounds with a lot of reed. It is a migratory species that is flying long distances to find food and unfrozen water, so it is a exposed to lead contamination that is under dust form in atmosphere. But another reason why lead level in Mallard can be higher that in other flying specie (pheasant, woodcock, quail, and pigeons are the lead shot shells that are used for duck hunting. It is known that the ducks can ingest these lead shot shells and so they are often exposed to lead intoxications. This is why in our days more ammunition for waterfowl are steel made or different type of alloys. Lead is known to be one of the most common pollutants with a large range of effects on human health: lead affects nervous system, digestive tract, kidneys, bones, enzymes. Lead has also mutagenic effect, carcinogenic effect, teratogenic effect.

  6. Production Planning with Load Dependent Lead Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Lead times impact the performance of the supply chain significantly. Although there is a large literature concerning queuing models for the analysis of the relationship between capacity utilization and lead times, and there is a substantial literature concerning control and order release policies...... that take lead times into consideration, there have been only few papers describing models at the aggregate planning level that recognize the relationship between the planned utilization of capacity and lead times. In this paper we provide an in-depth discussion of the state-of-the art in this literature......, with particular attention to those models that are appropriate at the aggregate planning level....

  7. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: RECLAMATION OF LEAD FROM SUPERFUND WASTE MATERIAL USING SECONDARY LEAD SMELTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This process involves incorporating lead-contaminated Superfund waste with the regular feed to a secondary lead smelter. Since secondary lead smelters already recover lead from recycled automobile batteries, it seems likely that this technology could be used to treat waste from ...

  8. Lead dust in Broken Hill homes: effect of remediation on indoor lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lyle, D M

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether home remediation effectively reduced indoor lead levels in Broken Hill, a long-established silver-lead-zinc mining town in outback Australia. A before-after study of the effect of home remediation on indoor lead levels was embedded into a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of remediation for reducing elevated blood lead levels in young children. Moist towelettes were used to measure lead loading (microg/m2) on internal windowsills and internal and entry floors of 98 homes; samples were collected before, immediately after, and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months after remediation. Data were log(10) transformed for the analysis. Remediation reduced average indoor lead levels by approximately 50%, and lead levels remained low for the duration of the follow-up period (10 months). The greatest gains were made in homes with the highest initial lead levels; homes with low preremediation lead levels showed little or no benefit. Before remediation, homes located in areas with high soil lead levels or with "poor" dust proofing had higher lead levels than those in areas with lower soil lead levels or with "medium" or "good" dust proofing; these relative differences remained after remediation. There was no evidence that lead loading was reduced by an increased opportunity to become aware of lead issues. We conclude that remediation is an effective strategy for reducing the lead exposure of children living in homes with high indoor lead levels.

  9. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children : a study in environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.
    Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at

  10. Lead, arsenic, and copper content of crops grown on lead arsenate-treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, D

    1972-01-01

    Increased lead and arsenic concentrations in the surface soil (0-15 cm), resulting from applications of lead arsenate (PbHAs0/sub 1/), increased both lead and arsenic levels in crops grown on treated plots. The lead levels in some crops approached or exceeded the Canadian residue tolerance of 2.0 ppM. Lead arsenate soil treatments did not affect copper absorption by crops. On areas such as old orchard land contaminated with lead arsenate residues it may be advisable to ascertain crops, and also to determine the lead affinity and arsenic sensitivity of the plants to be grown.

  11. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  12. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-05-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilized into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol and 107 mumol CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol to 120 mumol in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg. There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale.

  13. Interactions of lead with sediments and meiofauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D. (Queens Univ., Belfast); Maguire, C.

    1976-11-01

    Harpactacoid copepods and Turbellaria appear to be the most sensitive faunal groups in surface sand meiofauna when subjected to contamination by lead; in subsurface sand, nematodes are found to be the most sensitive group. Simple laboratory attempts to assess lead partitioning in littoral sand gave variable results and the problems and merits of such experimental approaches are discussed.

  14. Lead use and recycling at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    As part of DOE's efforts to develop a Department-wide management strategy for the use, reuse, and recycle of lead, DOE has requested that each site provide site-specific management and use practices for lead, specifically management and use information that responds to four specific questions of interest. This report provides the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's response to those areas of interest

  15. The Time, Space and Matter of Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops an ethical framework of leadership learning from Hannah Arendt’s writing. The intention is to identify important principles of a framework of leadership leading that help empower actors to lead themselves and to engage, interact, influence and inspire others through...

  16. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  17. Lead arthropathy: radiographic, CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Luiz; Lopes Rocha, Arthemizio Antonio; Veloso Ayrimoraes Soares, Mayra; Lopes Viana, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Lead arthropathy is a well-known complication of gunshot injuries with retained intra-articular bullets. Although several previous reports have discussed the radiological findings of this entity, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have never been described before in this setting. In this paper the authors review the imaging findings of 11 patients with lead arthropathy (1 of whom had clinical signs of lead poisoning as well), all of them studied by means of radiographs. In addition, non-enhanced CT scans were obtained in 3 patients and gadolinium-enhanced MRI in 1. Classic findings of intra-articular speckled lead deposits (occasionally with a ''lead arthrogram'' appearance), joint space narrowing and preserved bone density were found at radiographs in the great majority of cases. Furthermore, extension of intra-articular lead to adjacent tendon sheaths was observed in almost half of the patients, an observation rarely reported in the literature. CT scans and MRI, in their turn, were superior with regard to soft tissue abnormalities, accurately depicting joint effusion and the thickened synovium with lead particles embedded in it. Post-gadolinium MRI had the advantage of showing the enhancement pattern of the inflamed synovium and associated bone marrow edema pattern. Although it is not possible to establish the role of axial imaging in lead arthropathy from the small number of cases studied, this initial experience shows that both methods hold promise in this setting and may be useful, at least in selected cases. (orig.)

  18. Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Elgaard; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2017-01-01

    all reported surgical interventions due to defibrillator lead events in the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register (DPIR) from 2000 to 2013. Medical records of all patients (n = 753) were examined blinded for 5 predefined intervention types and 18 reasons for lead intervention. The overall level...

  19. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Leading Causes of Death Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Number of deaths for leading causes of death Heart disease: 633,842 • Cancer: 595,930 • Chronic ...

  20. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  1. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  2. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Sheldon; Tarrago, Rod

    2006-12-01

    A 4-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital with vomiting, low-grade fever, and dehydration that were thought to be caused by viral gastroenteritis. He proceeded over the next 12 hours to rapidly deteriorate with brain herniation leading to brain death. The ultimate cause of death was found to be acute lead intoxication from a swallowed foreign body.

  3. Leading quantum correction to the Newtonian potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    I argue that the leading quantum corrections, in powers of the energy or inverse powers of the distance, may be computed in quantum gravity through knowledge of only the low-energy structure of the theory. As an example, I calculate the leading quantum corrections to the Newtonian gravitational potential

  4. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Abdulsalam S.; Latif, Ali H.

    2002-01-01

    A 56-year-old Indian lady presented with one week history of abdominal pain, jaundice and chronic polyarthralgia. She had evidence of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis. Her blood lead level was high and a peripheral blood film showed dense basophilic stippling. It is believed that the lead toxicity was due to the use of Indian herbal medicine. (author)

  5. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcroft, R

    1951-09-15

    The danger of paint and other lead compounds to the bovine is well recognized and has been recorded and discussed fairly extensively from time to time. The literature indicates that the calf is extremely susceptible to lead poisoning, but relatively little has been reported regarding the levels of lead in tissues of animals which have died as a result of lead poisoning, and still less in animals suspected of suffering from sub-lethal doses of lead compounds. In order to provide sufficient data to enable interpretation of figures obtained from tissues in cases of suspected lead poisoning sent in from the field, and to provide information on the metabolic fate of lead in ruminants, investigations were made at Weybridge on the absorption, excretion, retention and general metabolic effects of lead in both cattle and sheep and the results have been published in a series of five papers. In this brief review it is intended to discuss points from these and subsequent investigations which are likely to be of interest to the veterinarian.

  6. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1025 - Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead. 1915.1025 Section 1915.1025 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Lead. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to...

  8. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.

  9. Snapshots from a leading eco-city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    The government of Singapore wants to make Singapore the leading Eco-city in Asia. Professor Kim Chuan Goh explains why this might be an achievable goal.......The government of Singapore wants to make Singapore the leading Eco-city in Asia. Professor Kim Chuan Goh explains why this might be an achievable goal....

  10. Leading Learning: Science Departments and the Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…

  11. Evaluating lead isotope data: further observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, P.; Gale, D.; Pollard, A.M.; Thomas, R.G.; Williams, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper analytical data, relating to the lead isotope composition of mineral deposits in the Taurus mountain region of Turkey, is evaluated. The importance of lead isotope studies to the evidence as to the origin of prehistoric metal artefacts is discussed. (UK)

  12. Design chart of optimum current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, K.; Katase, A.; Maechata, K.

    1986-01-01

    The heat flow through current leads is one of major heat losses in a superconducting magnet system. To reduce the heat flow, current leads have been optimized in a complex way by varying such quantities as conductor length, cross-sectional area, heat transfer coefficient and cooling perimeter. Therefore, this study is made to simplify the design procedure, and to explain the general characteristics of the current leads. A new combined parameter which takes turbulent flow into account is introduced in the present work to enable us to draw a useful design chart. This chart gives, to a wide variety of current leads, detailed information about the optimum design-viz. geometric dimensions, heat flow into liquid helium, and pressure drop of the cooling gas. Change of the cross-sectional area along the conductor may improve the current lead performance. The effects of this area change are examined in detail

  13. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  14. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems.24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group.The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  15. Vector boson and Charmonium production in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00241320; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak bosons do not interact strongly with the dense and hot medium formed in nuclear collisions, and thus should be sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDFs). The in-medium modification of heavy charmonium states plays an important role in studying the hot and dense medium. The ATLAS detector, optimized to search for new physics in proton-proton collisions, is well equipped to measure Z and W bosons as well as quarkonium in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy ion collisions. Results from the ATLAS experiment on W and Z boson yields as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead and proton-lead collisions are presented. Quarkonium results from proton-lead collisions are also presented.

  16. Health care of people at work. Workers exposed to lead. I. Inorganic lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The risks associated with exposure to inorganic lead and the means by which these risks can be minimized are outlined. Lead is used to make a variety of metal products, the grids and oxides in storage batteries, pigments, chemicals, and also for lead plating. In the United States about 70% of the total lead consumption is related to transportation. Uptake of inorganic lead is by ingestion and inhalation. About 90% of the total body burden of lead is contained within the skeletal tissues. Lead is excreted in the kidney, in sweat, and in milk. Toxic effects are directed against the blood, the nervous system, and the kidney. Symptoms of lead poisoning are abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting, asthenia, paresthesia, psychological symptoms, and diarrhea. Physical and biological monitoring can serve to protect workers. Diagnosis of lead poisoning is not easy. Treatment involves removal from exposure and/or treatment with a chelating agent.

  17. Quantification of atmospheric lead emissions from 70 years of leaded petrol consumption in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a persistent pollutant and the subject of many environmental studies, yet, in Australia, the extent of atmospheric lead emissions from the use of leaded petrol is unquantified. This paper details the first comprehensive account of leaded petrol sales and its lead concentrations over the 70 years of use in Australia. The resulting atmospheric lead emissions are calculated to provide the most complete understanding of the volume of lead released to the Australian continent from the consumption of leaded petrol. Atmospheric emissions of lead to the entire Australian continent from leaded petrol are calculated to total 240,510 tonnes over seven decades of use, peaking at 7869 tonnes in 1974. Total emissions for individual states and territories range from 1745 to 67,893 tonnes, with New South Wales responsible for the largest emissions. The effect of regulations on allowable concentrations of tetraethyl-lead additives are observed in the reduction of lead emissions in New South Wales and Victoria. The consequences to human health and the environment of leaded petrol consumption in Australia's populous cities are examined against historical air quality data and blood lead levels.

  18. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-01-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM 2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p  206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  19. Lead pollution of road-side vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinche, J P; Zuber, R; Bovay, E

    1969-01-01

    In Switzerland, investigations have been made in 1967/1968 concerning the distribution of lead issued from the antiknocking additive of petrol. Observations show that the deposits in meadows in the immediate surrounding (first meter) of roads and highways with high traffic density were especially high (50-100 ppm in dry matter). The pollution is still perceptible even as far as 50 meters from the road. Moreover, during the summer (July and August), a second zone of high lead accumulation (more than 100 ppm) was detected 50 to 100 m from the road, particularly along the highways. This probably is caused by certain climatic conditions and the increase of traffic volume. With regard to fruits, only the downy species (e.g. apricots, peaches) retain some quantities of lead on their skin. Vegetables with large leaves, e.g. lettuce, spinach, and particularly vegetables with definite dissected foliage, such as fennel and parsley, may accumulate relatively high quantities of lead. According to some authors, up to 50 percent of these deposits may be eliminated by washing with water. Conversely, root vegetables (e.g. carrots, onions) do not show a perceptible lead contamination. Likewise the flesh of fruits is not markedly polluted by lead. Trials with foddering milk cows using hay harvested along a highway are not yet analyzed. The results from these trials should permit determining the proportion of lead which remains in the tissues (meat etc.) or passes over into the milk.

  20. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C

    1994-07-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed.

  1. Battery lead recycling and environmental pollution hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, C; Urbini, G; Riganti, V

    1986-01-01

    In Italy, lead recycling from discarded electric storage batteries has been developing on an industrial scale, with a yield of approximately 98% and a saving of 37% on lead imports. Moreover, battery plastic coverings can also be profitably recycled. However, the recovery industry has proved to be very polluting, as shown by the recent example of a factory sited in a vast agricultural area south of Milan, Italy. Lead in the atmosphere affects workers exposed to lead concentrations above A.C.G.I.H. standards while lead in wastewaters and fumes from smelting furnaces is the cause of environmental pollution. In particular, pollution over large tracts of cultivated lands surrounding such factories is shown by the considerable quantity of lead in forage which is harmful to cattle fed on it. Tests on dead oxen have revealed lead concentrations in kidneys and liver ranging from 9.1 to 17.4 mg/kg and 6 to 7 mg/kg respectively. Quantities exceeding safety limits have been found also in cattle blood and milk, with maximum values of 51 ..mu..g/100 ml and 0.072 mg/1 respectively. These results prove the need for extremely efficient control systems in this particular recovery industry. (author).

  2. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed

  3. Lead as a pathfinder for uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouls, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of the formation of radiogenic lead anomalies from uranium and thorium mineralization are discussed in the light of differing mobilities of the parent elements and the stable lead daughter. It is concluded that recognizable lead anomalies can persist in the weathered tops of ancient uranium deposits, and such anomalies can be identified from the stable lead isotope ratios. In addition, with mixed U-Th mineralization lead isotopic ratios may be identified after most of the uranium has been leached away. The theoretical models also include possible additions of entrained lead with the mineralization and its effects on the isotopic ratios. This reasoning was tested in the evaluation of a radiometric anomaly in northern Malawi where a discrepancy between the U and eU values suggested a uranium-depleted mixed U-Th deposit. However, the partly coincident lead anomaly did not fit the isotope models proposed in the first part of the paper, and they indicated an unexpectedly young age. The anomaly was therefore downgraded but the adequacy of the theory was not tested. (author)

  4. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There are significant differences (pblood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204)Pb/(206)Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  5. Effect of lead on heme synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, A.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a fair amount of work has been done on the effect of lead on porphobilinogen dehydratase, which has been used as a sensitive indicator of lead poisoning. How far this is in itself harmful depends on the Michaelis constants of both the aminolaevulinic synthetase and of the dehydratase, and in addition on the relative activities of the two enzymes in a cell and also on the tissue concentration of glycine. Information on some of these points is still fragmentary, and a reliable judgement is at the present not very easy. Another step in the heme synthesis, which is sensitive to low concentrations of lead, is the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. Inhibition of this step may be important in accounting to a large extent for the anaemia found in individuals with lead poisoning. Reduction in the tissue concentration of heme or of heme-like compounds may also explain, through the mechanism of de-repression, the excretion of increased amounts of aminolaevulinic acid in the urine observed in cases of lead poisoning. A third step in heme synthesis, which might be sensitive to lead, is the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrin to protoporphyrin, and this may explain why the former derivative is excreted in the urine. Recent work of the Harvard Medical School has indicated that greatly reduced levels of ALA dehydratase may be found in most cases of severe liver damage due to alcoholism. In most of these cases the level of lead in the blood is within normal limits, and there is no history of exposure to toxic amounts of lead. We therefore have to assume that a reduction in the blood level of this enzyme is not necessarily an indication of lead poisoning.

  6. Specificities of reactor coolant pumps units with lead and lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Anotonenkov, M.A.; Bokov, P.A.; Baranova, V.S.; Kustov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis results of impact of lead and lead-bismuth coolants specific properties on the coolants flow features in flow channels of the main and auxiliary circulating pumps are presented. Impossibility of cavitation initiation in flow channels of vane pumps pumping lead and lead-bismuth coolants was demonstrated. The experimental research results of discontinuity of heavy liquid metal coolant column were presented and conditions of gas cavitation initiation in coolant flow were discussed. Invalidity of traditional calculation methods of water and sodium coolants circulation pumps calculations for lead and lead-bismuth coolants circulation pumps was substantiated [ru

  7. Work function of oxygen exposed lead and lead/indium alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, K.H.; Hellemann, H.P.; Hoelzl, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of indium in superconducting tunnel junctions with lead/indium alloy base electrodes is investigated by measuring the vacuum work function of lead, indium, and lead/indium alloy films. It is found that the anomalous decrease of the work function of lead upon exposure to oxygen, explained by the penetration of oxygen into the inner surface of the lead film, is reversed into a slight increase in work function when some indium is added to the lead. This result indicates that the addition of indium provides a protection by suppressing the penetration of oxygen (and probably other gases) into the interior of the thin film

  8. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  9. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  10. Radiation shielding application of lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathuram, R.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine and radiotherapy centers equipped with high intensity X-ray or teletherapy sources use lead glasses as viewing windows to protect personal from radiation exposure. Lead is the main component of glass which is responsible for shielding against photons. It is therefore essential to check the shielding efficiency before they are put in use. This can be done by studying photon transmission through the lead glasses. The study of photon transmission in shielding materials has been an important subject in medical physics and is potential useful in the development of radiation shielding materials

  11. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adventini, N; Santoso, M; Lestiani, D D; Syahfitri, W Y N; Rixson, L

    2017-01-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in C f index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia. (paper)

  12. The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead 203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G

    1992-01-01

    The effect of thiamin on the organ distribution of lead was evaluated in CD-1 mice exposed intragastrically or intraperitoneally to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 microCi lead 203. They were treated with either thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body weight), calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body weight), or combinations of thiamin and CaEDTA. The whole body retention and the organ distribution of lead 203 varied depending upon the route of lead administration, dose of thiamin and the specific treatment combination. Thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg) treatment increased the whole body retention of both intragastric and intraperitoneal lead by approximately 10% in each instance. Calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, either alone or in combination with thiamin (50 mg/kg) reduced the whole body retention of lead by as much as 14% regardless of route of lead exposure. The relative retention of lead by the liver, kidney and spleen was greater in mice exposed to lead by the intragastric route. Regardless of route, CaEDTA in the combined treatment reduced the relative retention of lead in both the liver and kidney, whereas thiamin alone only reduced the retention of lead in the kidney. The results of this study indicate that thiamin in combination with CaEDTA alters the distribution and retention of lead in a manner which may have therapeutic application as it relates to chelation therapy. PMID:1423063

  13. Does thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, R.; Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Optik 125 (2014) 2022-2025) claim to have grown a so called thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal by the slow evaporation method. In this comment we prove that TSLN is actually thiosemicarbazide.

  14. First studies of lead pollution in Guanabara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Branquinho, C.L. da.

    1973-01-01

    The main sources of direct lead intake are studied, and metal concentrations in several medium are examined. Lead was extracted by dithizone in C Cl 4 , being determined by optical spectrophotometry. 2 1 2 Pb was used as a radioactive tracer in low concentration measurements of the metal, and analysis of its 239 KeV peak was done by a Ge-Li detector. In blood samples, the metal was complexed and extracted with APDC in MIBK, being measured by flame less atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Air samples were also collected for periods of 24 hours and 90 minutes. Representative street dust samples were examined, showing a strict correlation with lead in air. It was also estimated the amount of lead in some human blood samples. (author)

  15. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  16. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    ). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due

  17. Optimum input leads for cryogenic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Der Nigohossian, G.

    1967-02-01

    The electrical leads used to introduce a current into a cryostat cause a heat influx due to thermal conduction and to Joule heating. It is very important to be able to minimize this flux. Theoretical calculation of optimized leads takes into account the varying heat and electrical conductivities of the leads as well as the heat exchange coefficient with the effluent gas. Practical results have been summarized in different tables which permit for a specific material i.e. copper, aluminium, brass, stainless steel with the intensity and end temperatures being known (i.e. 4,2 or 18,5 deg. K at the cold end; 77,295 or 320 deg. K at the warm end) to deduce the minimum heat flow and the length-cross section ratio of the optimized leads. A general method is indicated, which would allow to solve the same problem for other materials. (author) [fr

  18. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  19. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Manser, Joseph S.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Bakr, Osman; Kamat, Prashant V.

    2016-01-01

    To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice

  20. Successful treatment of extreme acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, J; Banovcin, P; Jesenak, M; Hamzikova, J; Statelova, D

    2009-03-01

    Severe acute lead intoxications are rare and are associated with accidental or purposeful ingestion. There were only few cases of severe to fatal poisonings reported in literature in children. We report a case of acute lead intoxication in a child with extremely high lead blood level of 20.4 micromol/L (422.7 microg/dL), who was treated with chelation and in whom significant organ dysfunction did not develop. Documented significant high level above 3.37 micromol/L (corresponding to 70 microg/dL) in this patient persisted for approximately 24 h. Adequate, single or combined chelatation therapy in early phase of acute lead poisoning is essential for the further patient's outcome.

  1. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  2. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  3. Current practice in transvenous lead extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Kennergren, Charles

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Current practice with regard to transvenous lead extraction among European implanting centres was analysed by this survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among all contacted centres, 164, from 30 countries, declared that they perform transvenous lead extraction and answered 58 questions...... with a compliance rate of 99.9%. Data from the survey show that there seems to be an overall increasing experience of managing various techniques of lead extraction and a widespread involvement of cardiac centres in this treatment. Results and complication rates seem comparable with those of main international...... registries. CONCLUSION: This survey gives an interesting snapshot of lead extraction in Europe today and gives some clues for future research and prospective European registries....

  4. Lead State Implementation Plan (SIP) Checklist Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance documents and examples to assist air quality agencies of non-attainment areas in developing plans to implement national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), including the lead air emissions standard.

  5. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  6. Treating Lead Toxicity: Possibilities beyond Synthetic Chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhavi Tannir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a ubiquitous metal, is one of the most abundant elements present on earth. Its easy availability and cost effectiveness made it an extremely popular component in the industrial revolution. However, its hazardous health effects were not considered at the time. Over the last few decades, with the adverse effects of lead coming to the forefront, nations across the world have started to recognize and treat lead toxicity. The most reliable and used method until now has been chelation therapy. Recent research has suggested the use of natural products and sources to treat lead poisoning with minimal or no side effects. This review has tried to summarize a few of the natural products/sources being investigated by various groups.

  7. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  8. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, M; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D F; Pischalnikov, Y; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Zbasnik, J

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under "standard" and "extreme" operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  9. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.J.; Sylvester, C.; Zbasnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under ''standard'' and ''extreme'' operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles

  10. OCCUPATIONAL LEAD EXPOSURE AND COGNITION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Nestorova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurotoxicity of lead is a major problem in all countries around the world. Long-term exposure to lead in the environment has recently become of interest as a possible risk factor for cognitive impairment in workers exposed to lead. The consequences for the brain after cessation of the exposure are also subject to research. The aims of our study were: to investigate and analyze cognitive impairment in workers in professional contact with lead. For the purpose of the study, a total of 72 workers in chronic professional contact with lead aerosols were examined. The investigated men (n = 72 were aged 39.4 ± 10.4 (19 - 58 years with an average duration of service of 13.0 ± 8.7 (1 - 33 years and mean lead concentration in blood of 43.4 ± 9.0 μg / dl. The screening set included a subjective cognitive impairment survey, a depression scale, a set of cognitive tests (MMSE, IST, DRT, CDT, and a scale for activities of daily living (4-IADL Score. With the increase of lead levels in the blood, a statistically reliable trend is observed for decrease of MMSE, IST and CDT scores. Eleven of the screened individuals (15.28% achieved a score of <7 which determines them as positively screened according to DRT. Possible mild cognitive impairment manifesting with disturbance of construction praxis, planning, short-term memory and concentration could probably be attributed to the toxic effects of lead and has a potential to be a subclinical marker.

  11. Decoupling of charm beyond leading order

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtli, Francesco; Korzec, Tomasz; Leder, Björn; Moir, Graham

    2017-01-01

    We study the effective theory of decoupling of a charm quark at low energies. We do this by simulating a model, QCD with two mass-degenerate charm quarks. At leading order the effective theory is a pure gauge theory. By computing ratios of hadronic scales we have direct access to the power corrections in the effective theory. We show that these corrections follow the expected leading behavior, which is quadratic in the inverse charm quark mass.

  12. Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  13. Shock induced melting of lead (experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabire, Catherine; Hereil, Pierre L.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate melting on release of lead, two shock compression measurements have been carried out at 51 GPa. In the first one, a pyrometric measurement has been performed at the Pb/LiF interface. In the second one, the Pb/LiF interface velocity has been recorded using VISAR measurement technique. VISAR and radiance profile are in good agreement and seem to show melting on release of lead

  14. Beyond dualism: leading out of oppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To reexamine our beliefs about our gender identity in order to identify new possibilities for leading in nursing. Leadership is complex. This article is the result of a lengthy iterative process of exploring the empowerment, image, leadership, feminist, and oppression literature. All of this was distilled in the context of the author's experience as a nurse and nurse leader. Moving beyond dualism creates new possibilities for leading nurses out of oppression.

  15. Survey Leading Organization Pada Organisasi Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Bantam, Dian J

    2015-01-01

    Islamic University is islamic organization that care with public's need, especially for education. One of the vision of Islamic Universities is leading and islamic, to bravely innovate and develop education based on islam. The aim of this study examined one models of Four God-Guided Organizations, there are leading organization. Sample included Islamic universities in Yogyakarta with 112 employees. MANOVA and descriptive test is used to analyze the data. Results showed approximately 48% of Is...

  16. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  17. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, R W; Kyger, J R; Biagioni, R N; Probst, S [Department of Chemistry, Southwest Missouri State University, 65804 Springfield, MO (United States); Boyer, R; Barke, K [Greene County Health Department, 65802 Springfield, MO (United States)

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r=0.91, P<0.005 for soil lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  18. Lead-resistant Providencia alcalifaciens strain 2EA bioprecipitates Pb+2 as lead phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, M M; Khanolkar, D; Dubey, S K

    2013-02-01

    A lead-resistant bacteria isolated from soil contaminated with car battery waste were identified as Providencia alcalifaciens based on biochemical characteristics, FAME profile and 16S rRNA sequencing and designated as strain 2EA. It resists lead nitrate up to 0·0014 mol l(-1) by precipitating soluble lead as insoluble light brown solid. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometric analysis (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) revealed extracellular light brown precipitate as lead orthophosphate mineral, that is, Pb(9) (PO(4))(6) catalysed by phosphatase enzyme. This lead-resistant bacterial strain also demonstrated tolerance to high levels of cadmium and mercury along with multiple antibiotic resistance. Providencia alcalifaciens strain 2EA could be used for bioremediation of lead-contaminated environmental sites, as it can efficiently precipitate lead as lead phosphate. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Investigations on organolead compounds V. Lead---lead bond cleavage reactions of hexaphenyldilead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1968-01-01

    It has been shown that a number of nucleophilic and weakly electrophilic reagents (organolithium and organomagnesium compounds, metallic lithium, potassium permanganate, sodium ethoxide, diaryl disulphides, sulphur, ozone, hypochlorous acid and iodine/iodide) selectively cleave the lead---lead bond

  20. Relationship Between Total and Biaccessible Lead on Children's Blood Lead Levles in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Relationship Between Total and Biaccessible Lead on Children's Blood Lead Levles in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils. This dataset is not publicly accessible...

  1. Uptake and accumulation of lead by plants from the Bo Ngam lead mine area in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotkittikhun, P.; Kruatrachue, M.; Chaiyarat, R.; Ngernsansaruay, C.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Paijitprapaporn, A.; Baker, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A field survey of terrestrial plants growing on Bo Ngam lead mine area, Thailand, was conducted to identify species accumulating exceptionally high concentrations of lead. Plant and soil samples were collected from five areas. Lead concentrations in surface soil ranged from 325 to 142 400 mg/kg. The highest lead concentration in soil was found at the ore dressing plant area and lowest at a natural pond area. In different areas, the concentrations of lead in plants were different when comparing various study sites. A total of 48 plant species belonging to 14 families were collected from five sampling sites. Twenty-six plant species had lead concentrations more than 1000 mg/kg in their shoots. Three species (Microstegium ciliatum, Polygala umbonata, Spermacoce mauritiana) showed extremely high lead concentrations in their shoots (12 200-28 370 mg/kg) and roots (14 580-128 830 mg/kg). - Uptake and accumulation of lead by plants

  2. Arkansas People Participating in Lead Education (APPLE): results of a lead-safe training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Bursac, Zoran; Kern, David F

    2011-06-01

    Lead is still seen as one of the most harmful environmental toxins for young children, with the predominant source being deteriorating lead-based paint. Those at continued risk include those living in homes built before 1978, renovators and remodelers, and especially those with limited access to proper healthcare and diets. Proper training on lead-safe work practices focused on preventing and reducing the spread of lead dust can help reduce lead exposure. Presented in this paper are experiences in delivering lead-safe work practices training in six Arkansas cities, and results from pre- and post- surveys delivered before and immediately after the training. Pre- and post-surveys assess strong and weak areas of training. Participants demonstrated positive shifts in attitude and behavior towards lead-safe work practices following training. However, our research found that more emphasis should be focused on clarifying current lead exposure sources and routes for children.

  3. EPA Leads the Way on Lead Exposure Science and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have developed a modeling approach that improves our understanding of the relationship between lead concentrations of various sources (drinking water, soil and dust, food, and air) and children’s blood-lead levels.

  4. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  5. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  6. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  7. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R W; Kyger, J R; Biagioni, R N; Probst, S; Boyer, R; Barke, K

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150,000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r = 0.91, P lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  8. Activity of lead deposited in the tissues in conditions of occupational lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The author measured urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrins and lead, before and after administration of chelating agents (CaEDTA and D-penicillamine) to subjects presenting clinical symptoms of lead poisoning and workers occupationally exposed to lead. He found a great increase in lead following its mobilization in subjects with lead poisoning who had previously shown a high level of haemoglobin precursors and a low urinary lead level. In these subjects ALA excretion was proportional to the duration of exposure. A correlation was found between urinary ALA and coproporphyrins, on the one hand, and lead excretion after provocation, on the other. This suggests that the lead deposited in the tissues, as well as that in circulation, retains all its activity.

  9. Current lead thermal analysis code 'CURRENT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahito; Tada, Eisuke; Shimamoto, Susumu; Hata, Kenichiro.

    1985-08-01

    Large gas-cooled current lead with the capacity more than 30 kA and 22 kV is required for superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils for fusion application. The current lead is used to carry electrical current from the power supply system at room temperature to the superconducting coil at 4 K. Accordingly, the thermal performance of the current lead is significantly important to determine the heat load requirements of the coil system at 4 K. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has being developed the large gas-cooled current leads with the optimum condition in which the heat load is around 1 W per 1 kA at 4 K. In order to design the current lead with the optimum thermal performances, JAERI developed thermal analysis code named as ''CURRENT'' which can theoretically calculate the optimum geometric shape and cooling conditions of the current lead. The basic equations and the instruction manual of the analysis code are described in this report. (author)

  10. Lead exposure among young urban women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moline Jacqueline M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority residents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead levels. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also describe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material and methods. Healthy women aged 18-25 attending a New York City health care center in 1995-1998 were eligible for participation. Participants were recruited by health care providers, the study coordinator and the participants themselves. Venous blood samples were obtained for whole blood lead, ferritin and hematocrit measurements, and detailed questionnaires were administered. Results. 239 women have been recruited to date. The population is predominately minority: 62% African-American, 33% Hispanic and 5% Caucasian/Asian. The average age of participants is 19.3 years. Recruitment of participants into the study is predominantly (55% through "word of mouth" from previously enrolled participants. Few participants learned of the study through their health care providers. The mean blood lead level among study participants is 2.1 ± 1.7 µg/dl, which is consistent with the most recent United States national survey. Conclusions. Blood lead levels are low in young, urban minority women of childbearing age in New York City. In this population, recruitment efforts were substantially enhanced with the help of enrolled participants and the health care community.

  11. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  12. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  13. Lead poisoning in whooper and tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Tetsuya; Tomura, Yoshihiro; Jin, Kazuo; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Mutsuki; Kikkawa, Aya; Miyagi, Kunitaro; Uchida, Eiji; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Mukai, Takeshi; Shirasawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Mamoru

    2005-01-01

    Six weak whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and two weak tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were found at Swamp Miyajima (Hokkaido, Japan) in May 1998. Anorexia, depression, green watery feces, pale conjunctiva, and anemia were observed. Radiographs showed from six to 38 suspected lead pellets in the gizzard. Blood lead concentrations were 2.5-6.7 microg/g (mean+/-SD=4.6+/-1.14 microg/g) on day 1. After blood collection, the birds were treated with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) given intravenously and force fed. Despite treatment, seven birds died the next day. Green, bile-stained livers and pale or green kidneys were observed on necropsy. Microscopically, bile pigment was widespread in the liver and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in renal tubular epithelium. Lead concentrations in livers and kidneys were 14.0-30.4 microg/g and 30.2-122 microg/g wet weight, respectively. Only one bird survived and this whooper swan continued to be treated with CaEDTA and activated charcoal. No lead shot was observed in the proventriculus and gizzard by radiography on day 64 and the blood lead concentration decreased from 2.9 microg/g to 0.09 microg/g during that same period. After 4 mo of rehabilitation, the whooper swan was returned to the wild. Lead intoxication continues to be a problem at Swamp Miyajima.

  14. Monetary benefits of preventing childhood lead poisoning with lead-safe window replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David / E.; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the U.S., we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization ...

  15. Long range correlations, leading particle spectrum and correlations with leading particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.

    1976-05-01

    The unitary cluster emission model by de Groot and Ruijgrok is discussed as an approach to understand the leading particle behaviour. Consequences of the model concerning co--rrelations between leading particles and produced particles in the central region are considered. No satisfactory agreement was found. Production of leading clusters is argued for being an essential feature of these correlations. (author)

  16. Leading by example to protect the environment : Do the costs of leading matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Moxnes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Environmentalists often urge their home countries to take a leading role in reducing global environmental problems like climate change. A pertinent question is, Will examples set by leading nations influence others to follow suit, and if so, do the costs of leading matter? For instance, will costly

  17. Leading by Example to Protect the Environment; Do the Costs of Leading Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Moxnes, E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentalists often urge their home countries to take a leading role in reducing global environmental problems like climate change. A pertinent question is: will examples set by leading nations influence others to follow suit, and if so, do the costs of leading matter? For instance, will costly

  18. Triple leads with longitudinal guarded cathodes in spinal cord stimulation-effect of transversal lead separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankarasubramanian, V.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Holsheimer, J.

    2009-01-01

    In spinal cord stimulation (SCS) clinical practice, longitudinal guarded cathode stimulation by a single lead, placed on the spinal cord midline provides the broadest parasthesia coverage. This study uses a triple lead longitudinal tripole with the center lead placed on the midline. The transversal

  19. High Burden of Subclinical Lead Toxicity after Phase Out of Lead from Petroleum in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hafsa; Khan, Aysha Habib; Khan, Nadeem Ullah; Siddiqui, Imran; Ghani, Farooq; Jafri, Lena

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the frequency of subclinical lead toxicity. Cross-sectional study. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2014. Analysis of laboratory data for blood lead levels (BLL) was performed. Lead was tested by atomic absorption spectrometer. For all subjects, only initial test results were included while the results of repeated testing were excluded. Exemption was sought from institutional ethical review committee. BLL of 2-10 ug/dl and 10-70 ug/dl in children and adults, respectively were taken as subclinical lead toxicity. Amongst the total number of subjects tested (n=524), 26.5% (n=139) were children (lead level 16.9 ug/dl (36.1-4)] and lower level [4.2 ug/dl (6.8-2.6)] in children with lead levels while most had either subclinical (76%, n=106) or toxic lead levels (8%, n=11). In adults, (55%, n=212) subjects had desired lead levels, and 40% (n=154) and 4.99% (n=19) had subclinical and toxic lead levels. Presence of subclinical lead poisoning even after phasing out of lead petroleum in Pakistanis is alarming, especially in children. A national population-based study to determine the lead status and targeted intervention to identify potential sources is need of the time.

  20. Comparative toxicity of tetra ethyl lead and lead oxide to earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, J.; Kavitha, P.; Padmanabha Rao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Leaded gasoline contains tetra ethyl lead (TEL) as an antiknocking agent, which produces major amounts of lead oxide in automobile exhaust along with traces of TEL. To minimize the lead contamination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is used as a substitute for producing unleaded gasoline. It has become increasingly apparent that young children are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of lead. Hence, a study was carried out to monitor lead toxicity in soil, using adult earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Savigny). Leaded gasoline (TEL) and lead oxide are 383- and 211-fold more toxic than unleaded gasoline (MTBE) in 7 days of exposure and 627- and 290-fold more toxic in 14 days, respectively. Results indicate that the presence of TEL in leaded gasoline and lead oxide has a significant effect on behavior, morphology, and histopathology of earthworms. Absorption of TEL into the tissues is comparatively less than that of lead oxide but toxic effects were severe. Rupture of the cuticle, extrusion of coelomic fluid and inflexible metameric segmentation were observed, causing desensitization of the posterior region leading to fragmentation in earthworms

  1. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, Helga R; Ørnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-07-25

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular and biochemical effects have also been reported. Experimental data indicate that a daily dose of around 1 mg lead as lead acetate/kg body weight for ten days may be considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level in dogs. Acute toxicity documentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates 300 mg/kg body weight as the lowest dose of lead acetate causing death in dogs after oral ingestion. Our assessment suggests that dogs fed trimmings of lead-shot game may be affected by the amounts of lead present, and that even deadly exposure could occasionally occur. The intestinal absorption of lead from bullets was assumed to be 10-80 % of that of lead acetate, reflecting both the variability in particle size and uncertainty about the bioavailability of metallic lead in dogs. Despite data gaps, this study indicates that feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game may represent a risk of lead intoxication. More research is needed to assess the exact consequences, if lead-based bullets are still to be used. Meanwhile, we recommend that trimmings close to the wound channel should be made inaccessible to dogs, as well as to other domestic or wild animals.

  2. Effect on blood lead of airborne lead particles characterized by size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Paik, Nam-Won

    2002-03-01

    Worker exposure to airborne lead particles was evaluated for a total of 117 workers in 12 work-places of four different industrial types in Korea. The particle sizes were measured using 8-stage cascade impactors worn by the workers. Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were determined by type of industry and percentage of lead particles as a fraction of airborne lead (PbA) concentration was determined by particle size. Blood lead (PbB) levels of workers who matched airborne lead samples were also examined. A Scheffé's pairwise comparison test showed that MMAD and the fractions of each of respirable particles and lead particles lead particles lead particles (r = 0.82) than that between concentrations of small particles and PbA (r = 0.61). A simple linear regression indicated that PbB correlated better with respirable lead concentration (r2 = 0.35, P = 0.0001) than with PbA concentration and had a higher slope coefficient. Controlling for respirable lead concentration reduced the partial correlation coefficient between PbA concentration and PbB level from 0.56 to 0.20 (P = 0.053). The results indicate that the contribution of respirable lead particles to lead absorption would be greater than that of PbA. This study concludes that the measurement of PbA only may not properly reflect a worker's exposure to lead particles with diverse characteristics. For the evaluation of a worker's exposure to various types of lead particles, it is recommended that respirable lead particles as well as PbA be measured.

  3. Mechanism of lead removal by waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, S.; Saleemi, A.R.; Ahmed, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal ions are priority pollutants, due to their toxicity and mobility in natural water ecosystems. The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic ecosystems has become a matter of concern in Pakistan over the last few decades. These contaminants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as a result of various industrial operations. The metals of concern include lead, chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and uranium. Lead is one of the most hazardous and toxic metals. It is used as industrial raw material in the manufacture of storage batteries, pigments, leaded glass, fuels, photographic materials, matches and explosives. Conventional methods for treatment of dissolved lead include precipitation, adsorption, coagulation/notation, sedimentation, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. Each process has its merits and limitations in applications. Adsorption by activated carbon and ion exchange using commercial ion exchange resins are very expensive processes, especially for a developing country like Pakistan. The present research was conducted to identify some waste materials, which can be utilized to remove lead from industrial wastewater. Natural wastes in the form of leaves and ash have considerable amounts of CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, SiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ which can be utilized for precipitation and adsorption. Utilization of waste materials to remove lead from industrial wastewater is the basic theme of this research. The waste materials used in this research were maple leaves, pongamia pinata leaves, coal ash and maple ago leave ash. Parameters studied were reaction time, precipitant dose, pH and temperature. It was found that maple leaves ash has maximum lead removal capacity 19.24 mg g/sup -1/ followed by coal ash 13.2 mg g/sup -1/. The optimal pH was 5 for maple leaves and pongamia Pinata leaves; and 4 for coal ash and maple leaves ash. Removal capacity decreased with increase in temperature. The major removal mechanisms were adsorption and

  4. Lead exposure from lead pellets: age-related accumulation in mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskildsen, J.; Grandjean, P.

    1984-05-01

    In a cross-sectional study of adult swans and their successfully fledged young in Ringkobing Fjord, West Jutland, Denmark, 128 venous blood samples were taken during the moulting period and analyzed for lead. While the juveniles generally showed blood lead levels below 15 micrograms/100 ml (median, 11 micrograms/100 ml), the values were significantly higher in adults (median, 25 micrograms/100 ml). Adult females showed slightly higher levels than did adult males. None of the birds examined showed signs of acute lead toxicity, and increased blood levels in adults may reflect increased lead body burdens from previous ingestion of lead shot as gizzard stones.

  5. Penetration of a magnetic field into superconducting lead and lead-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, C.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Rinderer, L.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetic field penetration depth of superconducting lead and lead-indium alloys has been studied over the temperature range between about 2 K and T/sub c/. Data are analyzed in terms of the microscopic theory. The difficulties of a unique analysis of the penetration data are pointed out and a strategy for the analysis is discussed. The penetration depth at T = 0K for pure lead is determined as 522 A. This value, though higher than the previously accepted value for lead, is nevertheless consistent with the strong coupling character of lead

  6. The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead 203.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G

    1992-01-01

    The effect of thiamin on the organ distribution of lead was evaluated in CD-1 mice exposed intragastrically or intraperitoneally to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 microCi lead 203. They were treated with either thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body weight), calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body weight), or combinations of thiamin and CaEDTA. The whole body retention and the organ distribution of lead 203 varied depending upon the route of lead a...

  7. Lead elimination by ICRF 158 in rats after chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witting, U; Hultsch, E

    1981-02-01

    Lead elimination by ICRF 158, a lipophilic derivative of ethylene-diaminetetra-acetate (EDTA), was investigated in rats after chronic lead exposure. The animals had received a lead concentration of 550 ppm in their drinking water for 140 days. Subsequent treatment with ICRF 158 for 30 days led to increased mobilization and elimination of incorporated lead, and the lead-induced inhibition of hemosynthesis was removed. ICR 158 produced no renal damage in excess to lead-induced tubular nephrosis. Separate toxicity tests in mice demonstrated that is less toxic than CaNa/sub 2/EDTA. ICRF 158 does not form stable complexes with lead ions in vitro. The mechanism of action of this lipophilic EDTA derivative is compared to that of its hydrophilic correspondent, the chelating agent CaNa/sub 2/EDTA.

  8. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol (7.7 mg) in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg (6-60 microgram/100 g) (mean 1.4 mumol/kg (29 microgram/100 g)). There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale. PMID:6802167

  9. Placental effects of lead in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M; Torregrosa, A; Mora, R; Götzens, V; Corbellla, J; Domingo, J L

    1996-01-01

    Although a number of studies in animal models have shown embryolethal and teratogenic lead effects when this element is administered by a parenteral route, the mechanism of the embryonary changes is well not established. In this study, the embryonic effects of parenteral lead exposure on day 9 of gestation were assessed in the Swiss mouse. Lead acetate trihydrate was injected intraperitoneally at 14, 28, 56 and 112 mg/kg. There was no maternal toxicity evidenced by death, reduced body weight gain or reduced food consumption. However, absolute placental weight at 112 mg/kg and relative placental weight at 14, 56 and 112 mg/kg were diminished significantly. The number of total implants, live and dead fetuses, sex ratio and fetal body weight were unaffected by lead exposure. Most sections of placenta showed vascular congestion, an increase of intracellular spaces and deposits of hyaline material of perivascular predominance. Trophoblast hyperplasia was also observed, whereas there was a reinforcement of the fibrovascular network in the labyrinth. It is concluded that the trophoblast hyperplasia observed in the placenta of pregnant mice after parenteral lead exposure at doses that are not toxic for the dam could act as a repairing mechanism of the extraembryonary tissues.

  10. Radiogenic lead-208 abundance 88.34 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneda, Jose A.; Abrao, Alcidio; Dias, Mauro S.; Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Queiroz, Carlos A.S.; Rocha, Soraya M.R. da; Sato, Key

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in thorium technology, from the monazite ores mining until the production of the nuclear grade thorium compounds. Early in 1969 the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) designed a project for a pilot plant installation to purify the thorium compounds, based on the solvent extraction technique. Thorium compounds used came from monazite's industrialization. During the course of the operation of this plant, a crude sludge were formed containing thorium not extracted and the whole rare earths, plus minor impurities like sodium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, iron, silicon, phosphate and the thorium daughters were accumulated. Included is the radiogenic lead-208. This sludge, hereafter named 'RETOTER', was treated with hydrochloric acid and the lead was separated and recovered by anion exchange technology. The lead-208 was analyzed by mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS) technique. The lead-208 abundance measure was 88.34%, this allowed the calculation of the thermal neutron capture cross section of σ 0 γ = 14,6 +/- 0.7 mb, considerably lower than the σ 0 γ = 174.2 +/- 0.7 mb value of the natural lead. (author)

  11. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed.

  12. Severe neurotoxicity following ingestion of tetraethyl lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80-90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symptoms including agitation, hallucinations, weakness, and tremor. These symptoms were refractory to escalating doses of benzodiazepines and ultimately required endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion. Adjunctive therapies included chelation, baclofen, and nutrition provided through a gastrostomy tube. The patient slowly recovered and was discharged in a wheelchair 20 days after ingestion, still requiring tube feeding. Follow-up at 62 days post-ingestion revealed near-resolution of symptoms with residual slurred speech and slight limp. This case highlights the profound neurotoxic manifestations of acute organic lead compounds.

  13. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vernon G., E-mail: vthomas@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E. [Metals Toxicology Laboratory, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  14. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E.

    2009-01-01

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  15. Behavior of active deposit of lead (Teisinger) in the Japanese free from occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S

    1973-12-01

    Intravenous infusion of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) was given to 45 Japanese adults without occupational exposure to lead for 1 hr at a dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight in 250 ml of 5 percent glucose solution. The urinary excretion of lead was estimated for 24 hr before, and for 2 hr and 24 hr after the administration. The least variation of the lead content was recognized in the 24-hour urinary excretion after the injection of CaEDTA. No sexual difference was noted in the creatinine-corrected lead concentration. By multiple linear regression and correlation analyses, age was found to be significant in determining positively the lead level mobilized in 24-hour urine samples. Height was significant in determining positively the spontaneous 24-hour urinary lead excretion. Certain significant correlations existed among lead in blood, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes, delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine, coproporphyrin in urine, lead in urine, and lead mobilized by CaEDTA. The existence of active body burden of lead was suggested in human subjects under usual urban conditions where the total ambient lead concentration averaged 1.7 micrograms/cm m of air. Based on a few assumptions, it was calculated that about 3 micrograms of lead was retained on the average per day by a Japanese adult. Daily retention of lead by Japanese adults was formularized as lead in micrograms equals a constant (K) times daily creatinine excretion in grams, where K is 1.77 in men and 2.73 in women. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  16. The effect of interior lead hazard controls on children's blood lead concentrations: a systematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Erin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Tohn, Ellen; Farr, Nick; Rhoads, George G

    2002-01-01

    Dust control is often recommended to prevent children's exposure to residential lead hazards, but the effect of these controls on children's blood lead concentrations is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of low-cost, lead hazard control interventions to determine the effect of lead hazard control on children's blood lead concentration. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. We examined mean blood lead concentration and elevated blood lead concentrations (> or = 10 microg/dL, > or = 15 microg/dL, and > or = 20 microg/dL) and found no significant differences in mean change in blood lead concentration for children by random group assignment (children assigned to the intervention group compared with those assigned to the control group). We found no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dL, 29% versus 32% [odds ratio (OR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.3], but there was a significant difference in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 15 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 6% versus 14% (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.80) and in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 20 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 2% versus 6% (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.85). We conclude that although low-cost, interior lead hazard control was associated with 50% or greater reduction in the proportion of children who had blood lead concentrations exceeding 15 microg/dL and > or = 20 microg/dL, there was no substantial effect on mean blood lead concentration.

  17. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  18. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  19. Leading quantum gravitational corrections to scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the non-relativistic scattering amplitude of charged scalars in the combined theory of general relativity and scalar QED. The combined theory is treated as an effective field theory. This allows for a consistent quantization of the gravitational field. The appropriate vertex rules are extracted from the action, and the non-analytic contributions to the 1-loop scattering matrix are calculated in the non-relativistic limit. The non-analytical parts of the scattering amplitude, which are known to give the long range, low energy, leading quantum corrections, are used to construct the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the two-particle non-relativistic scattering matrix potential for two charged scalars. The result is discussed in relation to experimental verifications

  20. Thermoforming plastic in lead shield construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, M.E.; Chow, C.H.; Loyd, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation treatments using low energy X-rays or electrons frequently require a final field defining shield to be placed on the patient's skin. A custom made lead cut-out is used to provide a close fit to a particular patient's surface contours. We have developed a procedure which utilizes POLYFORM thermoplastic to obtain a negative mold of the patient instead of the traditional plaster bandage or dental impression gel. The Polyform is softened in warm water, molded carefully over the patient's surface, and is removed when set or hardened, usually within five minutes. Then lead sheet cut-outs can be formed within this negative. For shielding cut-outs requiring thicker lead sheet, a positive is made from dental stone using this Polyform negative. We have found this procedure to be neat, fast and comfortable for both patient and the dosimetrist

  1. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  2. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E

    2004-12-10

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  3. Effect of lead exposure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing prosperity and population-growth in many developing countries are resulting in accelerated growth in population of vehicles and vehicle-kilometers traveled. In Pakistan also, the number of vehicles has jumped from 0.8 million to about 4.0 million within 20 years, showing an overall increase of more than 400%. Accordingly, the consumption of petrol (motor spirit) has increased from 828,670 metric tons to 1,189,042 metric tons. The high content of lead in petrol is a serious issue, as the end- product is the release of lead into the environment. In Pakistan, prior to July 2001, lead-content in petrol was reported to be as high as 0.35-0.84 gram per liter. The reported lead-levels in air (micrograms/cubic centimeter) in different cities of Pakistan are: Karachi (1980-81) 0.13-0.24; Peshawar (1994-95) 0.21-0.79; Lahore (1993-94) 0.15-8.36 and (1999-2000) 0.89-7.85 and Rawalpindi (1999-2000) 0.71-10.00, indicating the very alarming increase and high levels of lead in the ambient air, at the reported sites and time of monitoring. Children in developing countries, with dietary deficiencies, are very susceptible to lead poisoning. Special concern of lead-poisoning has been that lead is a neurotoxin and it impairs brain-development in children, even at levels that were considered safe. The overall mean BPbLs (micrograms per deciliter) among 900 (boys and girls) of three cities in Pakistan have been reported to be 22.8 +- 3.30, 19.00 +-6.48 and 2.30 +-0.19 (rural site). Details of these investigations and government national environmental action-plan (NEAP) are described and discussed in this paper, with special reference to clean air by providing clean fuel and taking other air-pollution control measures. (author)

  4. Scaling violations beyond the leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Petronzio, R

    1981-01-01

    The authors are concerned with the explicit construction of a method which generalizes beyond leading order the simple probabilistic interpretation of leading scaling violations. The results obtained in this language allow to predict the evolution with the variation of external invariants not only of 'space-like' processes, where the off- shell partons starting the hard interaction have space-like four momenta, like in the case of deep inelastic scattering or Drell-Yan, but also of 'time-like' processes, like the one-particle inclusive e /sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, where the partons acting in the fragmentation functions have 'time-like' off-shell invariant masses. (9 refs).

  5. Total neutron cross section of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.

    1976-01-01

    The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes

  6. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  7. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  8. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  9. Holographic QCD beyond the leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngman; Ko, P.; Wu, Xiao-Hong

    2008-01-01

    We consider a holographic QCD model for light mesons beyond the leading order in the context of 5-dim gauged linear sigma model on the interval in the AdS 5 space. We include two dimension-6 operators in addition to the canonical bulk kinetic terms, and study chiral dynamics of π, ρ, a 1 and some of their KK modes. As novel features of dim-6 operators, we get non-vanishing Br(a 1 → πγ), the electromagnetic form factor and the charge radius of a charged pion, which improve the leading order results significantly and agree well with the experimental results.

  10. Large polarons in lead halide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Meggiolaro, Daniele; Trinh, M. Tuan; Joshi, Prakriti P.; Mosconi, Edoardo; Jones, Skyler C.; De Angelis, Filippo; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Lead halide perovskites show marked defect tolerance responsible for their excellent optoelectronic properties. These properties might be explained by the formation of large polarons, but how they are formed and whether organic cations are essential remain open questions. We provide a direct time domain view of large polaron formation in single-crystal lead bromide perovskites CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3. We found that large polaron forms predominantly from the deformation of the PbBr3 ? framewor...

  11. Lead Leached into Water from Select Plumbing Fixtures” Could Lead to Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsey Coles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is an inert metal and is resistant to corrosion. It also increases tensile strength of many common materials in daily use. Lead was used during the Roman period to transport water (hence the name plumbing/plumber is common terminology even in the present day. Lead enters the biological system through the air, water, and dust. Fine particles of lead, having diameter less than 5 nm are directly absorbed by lungs. Inorganic lead is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and organic lead is absorbed by the skin. Lead has long been known to be a toxic heavy metal and exposure is associated with many deleterious health effects. Still, lead remains a popular ingredient in products ranging from paint to batteries. The lead content in any given material is estimated using various methods. The least cumbersome method is found to be X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF. A portable XRF device was used in the present study. Aim: The main aim of this study to investigate whether lead is present in various commonly used plumbing materials. Material and Methods: All types of branded and commonly used pipes were gathered from a market in Bangalore and tested using the XRF machine. In order to evaluate to what extent lead from the pipes could leach into water, seven pipes were randomly selected and filled with Aquafina water (having undetectable level of lead for a 24 hour period. This water was tested at an NABL accredited laboratory in Bangalore, India for lead content. Result: It was determined that lead was present in many of the samples, at an unacceptable levels ranging from, well above the globally accepted level of 0.01 mg/L proof that lead was able to leach from the samples into water. Conclusions: As lead in drinking water represents a direct pathway for human exposure, the authors recommend that significant measures be taken to prevent use of lead in the plumbing industry for prevention of it’s deleterious effects. Authors have also

  12. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 μg/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 μg/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood

  13. Lead and osteoporosis: Mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Environmental Defense Fund, WA (USA)); Schwartz, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Mahaffey, K. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentrations after menopause. The results indicate that bone lead is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.

  14. Pacemaker lead fracture without an increase in lead impedance caused by cardiac fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 64-year-old man who had a permanent pacemaker with a unipolar silicone electrode positioned in the right ventricle in 1989 for sinus node dysfunction. On a routine checkup in June 2011, a 28-mm-diameter mass was discovered, which appeared to adhere to the tricuspid valve and the ventricular lead. The size of the mass did not change for the next 6 months, and the lead impedance was maintained at around 500–600 Ω. Because pacing failure was observed in January 2012, he underwent an urgent pacemaker check; however, the lead impedance was found not to have increased greatly (689 Ω. Nevertheless, the pacemaker lead was noted to be fractured at the tricuspid level. His echocardiogram showed new severe tricuspid regurgitation and a floating mass around the lead. We extracted the fractured lead, enucleated the tumor, replaced the tricuspid valve, and placed an epicardial lead. Macroscopic examination revealed that the tumor surrounded the fractured lead and covered the stump. Pathological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of fibrous connective tissue. We presumed that electric current continued to flow through the stump of the fractured unipolar lead to the generator, and this might have caused the limited increase in lead impedance.

  15. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk (Greenland); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 {mu}g/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 {mu}g/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood.

  16. Lead-210, polonium-210, and stable lead in the food-chain lichen, reindeer and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.

    1972-01-01

    The measurements of stable lead and the natural fallout radionuclides lead-210 and polonium-210 in communities of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden from 1961 to 1970 indicate a quite constant level. The average lead-210 content per unit area in lichen carpets was found to be 15 +- 2 nCi m -2 , the average lead-210 activity concentration 6.7 +- 0.9 nCi per kg dry weight and the lead-210 specific activity 630 +- 60 nCi per g of stable lead. The polonium-210/lead-210 activity ratio was about 0.9 +- 0.1. The vertical distribution of lead-210 in the lichen carpet showed a maximum concentration in the top layer. The distribution was similar during 1967 and 1968 but the low amount of precipitation during 1968 and 1969 disturbed the distribution pattern in 1969 and 1970. The transfer of lead-210, polonium-210 and stable lead through the food chain: lichen, reindeer, and man was characterized. The absorbed dose rate in Lapps due to polonium-210 was estimated to be about 6 to 8 mrad per year in gonads and 8 to 20 mrad per year in bone tissues. This is about ten percent of their entire absorbed dose contribution from all natural radiation sources. (U.S.)

  17. Lead remediation and changes in human lead exposure: some physiological and biokinetic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul

    2003-02-15

    This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the various aspects of lead remediation effectiveness with particular reference to human health risk assessment. One of the key elements of lead remediation efforts at such sites as those under the Superfund program deals with populations at elevated exposure and toxicity risk in the proximity of, or at, the site of remediation, especially remediation workers, workers at other tasks on sites that were remediated down to some action level of lead concentration in soils, and groups at risk in nearby communities. A second element has to do with how one measures or models lead exposure changes with special reference to baseline and post-remediation conditions. Various biomarkers of lead exposure can be employed, but their use requires detailed knowledge of what results using each means. The most commonly used approach is measurement of blood lead (Pb-B). Recognized limitations in the use of Pb-B has led to the use of predictive Pb exposure models, which are less vulnerable to the many behavioral, physiological, and environmental parameters that can distort isolated or 'single shot' Pb-B testings. A third aspect covered in this paper presents various physiological factors that affect the methods by which one evaluates Pb remediation effectiveness. Finally, this article offers an integrated look at how lead remediation actions directed at one lead source or pathway affect the total lead exposure picture for human populations at elevated lead exposure and toxicity risk.

  18. Role of Airborne Lead in Increased Body Burden of Lead in Hartford Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepow, Martha L.; Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.; Markowitz, Steven; Gillette, Marybeth; Kapish, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The ingestion of airborne lead fallout is the mechanism responsible for increased lead body burdens found in 10 urban Connecticut children. The mean indoor lead levels found in housedust was 11,000 μg/g; highest concentrations occurred on windowsills and in floor dust. The mean lead content of Hartford street dirt was 1,200 μg/g; levels were highest near the street and next to the buildings. The mean lead concentration of hand samples taken from the subject children was 2,400 μg/g; the mean weight of hand samples was 11 mg. The concentration of lead in dirt and househould dust was high enough to theoretically result in excessive lead accumulation in young children who are putting their dusty, dirty hands in their mouths during play. While we believe that lead emitted from automobiles contributes significantly to air, dirt and dust lead levels the environmental impact of reducing or eliminating lead from gasoline is not yet completely understood. PMID:4133903

  19. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are asso...

  20. WETTABILITY STUDIES OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... other industries due to its low cost and unique material properties like low melting point, avail- ability etc. However, the toxicity of lead during industrial production of components and the ... Companies in other countries. (for instance, many in the Japanese electronics in- dustries) began to introduce some ...

  1. Influence of uranium and lead upon vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoklasa, M J

    1913-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of radioactive waters on the growth and production of vegetables. Results show that small amounts of radioactive uranium, lead, and radium have a beneficial effect upon the germination and growth of plants. Although uranium is the strongest source of energy, it had less effect than radium.

  2. Leading education professionals: Local, connected, and artful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathurst, R.; van Gelderen, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the work life of a scholar new to academia in her methods of leading informally. We discuss five vignettes that offer moments of learning and reflection, including reducing performance anxiety, privileging financial accountability, the rise of the virtual world, the impact

  3. Crystallization in lead tungsten fluorophosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, R.P.R.D.; Braz, C.E.; Cassanjes, F.C.; Poirier, G.

    2014-01-01

    The glass forming ability was investigated in the ternary system NaPO 3 -WO 3 -PbF 2 with a constant NaPO 3 /WO 3 ratio of 3/2 and increasing amounts of PbF 2 . It has been found that glass samples can be obtained from PbF 2 contents from 0 mole% to 60 mole%. The most lead fluoride concentrated samples (50% and 60%) were chosen for a crystallization study in order to investigate the possibility of obtaining glass-ceramics containing crystalline lead fluoride. DSC measurements allowed to determine the characteristic temperatures such as Tg, Tx, Tp and Tf. These glass samples were heat-treated near the crystallization peaks observed by thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction results of these heat-treated glasses pointed out that the dominant phase which precipitates from the glass sample containing 50% of PbF 2 is the lead fluorophosphates phase Pb 5 F(PO 4 ) 3 whereas the sample containing 60% of PbF 2 exhibits a preferential crystallization of cubic lead fluoride β-PbF 2 . (author)

  4. Easier Said than Done: Leading Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, David A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2013-01-01

    In this case, Mr. Phuture, a district administrator, attempts to lead a diverse team of educators and community members in an effort to develop a district-wide action plan for the integration of instructional technology in K-12 classrooms. Along the way, Mr. Phuture confronts ambiguities in the superintendent's directives, passionate contradicting…

  5. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  6. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  7. Lead free solder mechanics and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, John Hock Lye

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free solders are used extensively as interconnection materials in electronic assemblies and play a critical role in the global semiconductor packaging and electronics manufacturing industry. Electronic products such as smart phones, notebooks and high performance computers rely on lead-free solder joints to connect IC chip components to printed circuit boards. Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability provides in-depth design knowledge on lead-free solder elastic-plastic-creep and strain-rate dependent deformation behavior and its application in failure assessment of solder joint reliability. It includes coverage of advanced mechanics of materials theory and experiments, mechanical properties of solder and solder joint specimens, constitutive models for solder deformation behavior; numerical modeling and simulation of solder joint failure subject to thermal cycling, mechanical bending fatigue, vibration fatigue and board-level drop impact tests. This book also: Discusses the mechanical prope...

  8. Process for lead removal from rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of rare earth chlorides and lead chlorides, with a chloride concentration of at least 2 moles/liter and a pH between 2 and 4, is extracted by an alkylphosphonic acid ester and rare earth(s) is (are) recovered from the organic phase [fr

  9. GRAN SASSO: Roman lead or physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascolini, Alessandro

    1991-09-15

    On June 15 at Oristano (Sardinia) a formal ceremony marked the start of an underwater archaeological campaign sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) to recover the load of a Roman freighter (navis oneraria) which sank off Sardinia carrying an exceptionally large load of lead.

  10. Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page is not intended to catalog all possible health effects for lead. Rather, it is intended to let ... in drinking water at which no adverse health effects are likely to occur with ... on possible health risks, are called maximum contaminant level goals ( ...

  11. Maritime Load Dependent Lead Times - An Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia; Voss, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    in production. Inspired by supply chain planning systems, we analyze the current state of (collaborative) planning in the maritime transport chain with focus on containers. Regarding the problem of congestion, we particularly emphasize on load dependent lead times (LDLT) which are well studied in production....

  12. LEAD POISONING IN ANCIENT ROME 1. INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1983b:661-3) and Woolley (1984:353-61) postulate that it played a major role in ... In the Iron Age (1 200-50 BC) potential lead contamination still posed ..... letons from Peru (500-1 000 AD) and Europe (18th century BC to 20th century AD).

  13. Leading Change in the Primary Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Nicky; Baker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Nicky Waller and Chris Baker believe that change can be a good thing and explain how their training has helped others to adjust to the new science curriculum. In September 2013, teachers across England received the definitive version of the new primary curriculum "Leading Change in the Primary Science Curriculum." This course aimed to…

  14. Electrophoretic growth of lead zirconate titanate nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S.J.; Seraji, S.; Forbess, M.J.; Wu Yun; Chou, T.P.; Nguyen, C.; Cao Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2001-08-16

    Nanorods of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-a ferro- and piezoelectric material-up to 10 {mu}m in length and 70 to 150 nm in diameter are produced by sol-gel electrophoresis of PZT in a track-etched polycarbonate membrane, which is used as a template. (orig.)

  15. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  16. Results from proton–lead collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mischke, André

    2016-01-01

    This contribution summarises recent measurements in small collision systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presented at the 2016 edition of the Annual Large Hadron Collider Physics conference. Three main probes are discussed, namely light flavour (strangeness) production, az- imuthal angular correlations and jets, and open and hidden heavy-flavour production in proton- lead collisions.

  17. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  18. Challenging Tasks Lead to Productive Struggle!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livy, Sharyn; Muir, Tracey; Sullivan, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Productive struggle leads to productive classrooms where students work on complex problems, are encouraged to take risks, can struggle and fail yet still feel good about working on hard problems (Boaler, 2016). Teachers can foster a classroom culture that values and promotes productive struggle by providing students with challenging tasks. These…

  19. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. Does Education Lead to Higher Generalized Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Rothstein, Bo

    2016-01-01

    to ‘trust others'. We hypothesize that higher levels of education will lead to higher social trust in individuals, given that the context (country or regions within countries) in which they reside has a sufficiently impartial and non-corrupt institutional setting. However, the positive effect of education...

  1. Electronic and optical properties of lead iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, R.; Arwin, H.; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2002-01-01

    The electronic properties and the optical absorption of lead iodide (PbI2) have been investigated experimentally by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and theoretically by a full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. PbI2 has been recognized as a very promising...

  2. Strand misalignments lead to quasipalindrome correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Noort, V.; Worning, Peder; Ussery, David

    2003-01-01

    Quasipalindromes, or imperfect inverted repeats, undergo spontaneous mutation to more-perfect inverted repeats. These mutations have been observed in many organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans, where they are associated with mutations leading to disease. We determined the relative frequency...

  3. Quadripolar leads in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Everdingen, Wouter M.; Cramer, MJ; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Meine, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure and conduction delay, a considerable number of patients do not respond substantially. Left ventricular lead position is an important factor in response, restricted by the patient's specific anatomy and

  4. Crystallization in lead tungsten fluorophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, R.P.R.D.; Braz, C.E.; Cassanjes, F.C.; Poirier, G., E-mail: gael.poirier@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2014-07-01

    The glass forming ability was investigated in the ternary system NaPO{sub 3}-WO{sub 3}-PbF{sub 2} with a constant NaPO{sub 3}/WO{sub 3} ratio of 3/2 and increasing amounts of PbF{sub 2}. It has been found that glass samples can be obtained from PbF{sub 2} contents from 0 mole% to 60 mole%. The most lead fluoride concentrated samples (50% and 60%) were chosen for a crystallization study in order to investigate the possibility of obtaining glass-ceramics containing crystalline lead fluoride. DSC measurements allowed to determine the characteristic temperatures such as Tg, Tx, Tp and Tf. These glass samples were heat-treated near the crystallization peaks observed by thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction results of these heat-treated glasses pointed out that the dominant phase which precipitates from the glass sample containing 50% of PbF{sub 2} is the lead fluorophosphates phase Pb{sub 5}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} whereas the sample containing 60% of PbF{sub 2} exhibits a preferential crystallization of cubic lead fluoride β-PbF{sub 2}. (author)

  5. Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal anaesthesia his chest was clear. Trousseau's sign2 was noticed on the left hand, where the sphygmomanometer cuff was placed and inflated for mea- surement. A blood sample for the measurement of ionized calcium and blood gases was drawn. An infusion of ...

  6. Leading Practice Development: Voices from the Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootenboer, Peter; Edwards-Groves, Christine; Rönnerman, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Leadership has long been acknowledged as a significant dimension in effective school functioning and, indeed, school leaders can play a substantial role in professional development of staff. Here we have centred on the "practices of leading" as opposed to the qualities or characteristics of leaders, and this is emphasised by our use of…

  7. India needs to Lead and not follow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. India needs to Lead and not follow. Leadership in decentralised Solar DC (Green Power). define 48V DC standard for low-power home appliances. Plugs / protection / circuit-breakers. Leadership in segregating power-lines as a mechanism for load management and ...

  8. Clean Lead Facility Inventory System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this user's manual is to provide instruction and guidance needed to enter and maintain inventory information for the Clean Lead Facility (CLF), PER-612. Individuals responsible for maintaining and using the system should study and understand the information provided. The user's manual describes how to properly use and maintain the CLF Inventory System. Annual, quarterly, monthly, and current inventory reports may be printed from the Inventory System for reporting purposes. Profile reports of each shipment of lead may also be printed for verification and documentation of lead transactions. The CLF Inventory System was designed on Microsoft Access version 2.0. Similar inventory systems are in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to facilitate site-wide compilations of mixed waste data. The CLF Inventory System was designed for inventorying the clean or non-radioactive contaminated lead stored at the CLF. This data, along with the mixed waste data, will be compiled into the Idaho Mixed Waste Information (IMWI) system for reporting to the Department of Energy Idaho Office, Department of Energy Headquarters, and/or the State of Idaho

  9. INAA, AAS, and lead isotope analysis of ancient lead anchors from the black SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Alexandrova, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lead stock of wooden-lead anchors found along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and typo logically dated VI c. B.C. - III c. A.D. have been analyzed for chemical composition and lead isotope ratios by INAA, AAS and mass spectrometry. Using multivariate methods for analysis as well as simple bi variate plots the lead for production of the stocks was localized as originating from Laurion, Thassos, Troas, Chalkidike and the Rhodopes. In general, the chemical composition is not recommended to be used for provenance study of lead artefacts. Combining the results from this study with the existing typo logical classification certain conclusion about the production and distribution of lead anchors in the Aegean region are made. (author). 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. EP toxicity testing of lead to resolve disposition of radioactively contaminated lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.M.; Boehmer, A.M.

    1986-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in its efforts to comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, is concerned with hazardous waste which is also radioactively contaminated. There are no existing facilities to treat or dispose of these wastes. One such waste is lead, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry as shielding. This paper reports the results of leach testing of lead (both solid lead samples and lead shot) to resolve questions as to whether or not radioactively contaminated waste lead must be treated as a hazardous waste. The results of these tests showed that: some samples passed the leach test. Results of development efforts performed to date to recycle lead and those planned for the future are included in this report

  11. Lead toxicity on hematological parameters in workers with occupational exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, N.; Koese, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lead on hematological parameters were studied in lead exposed male workers occupied for 17.84+-4.22 years in a metal powder producing factory in Kayseri, Turkey and control male workers in same city. Blood lead and plasma zinc levels were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and hematological parameters by Culture Counter S. The lead exposure workers had higher lead levels (13.81+- 9.21 mug/dl) as compared to control subjects (2.37+-0.10 mug/dl). No difference was observed in the plasma zinc levels of both groups. As indices of lead exposure, red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) values significantly decreased. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased except MCV. There was also an increase in MCV, but it was not significant. (author)

  12. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  13. Method of handling of scrap lead from lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytschev, A P; Kim, G V; Larin, V F; Sidorova, G D; Vicharev, I G; Kuur, V P; Achmetov, R S; Moiseev, G L; Maslov, V I; Kabatschek, V G

    1979-12-13

    Scrap lead and the casings of accumulators are mined and molten together in oxidixing atmosphere at a temperature of 1300 to 1500/sup 0/C. The lead oxide contained in the melt is then reduced to blue lead. Due to the combustion of the accumulator casings consisting of organic substances the fuel consumption in the melting process is reduced in accordance. The oxidizing atmosphere in the melting process is produced by use of air or oxygen.

  14. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion

  15. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  16. The impact of the new 36 V lead-acid battery systems on lead consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    The production of vehicles utilizing 36 V battery systems has begun with the introduction of the Toyota Crown. Other vehicles with 36 V batteries are in the near horizon. These vehicles may contain single or dual battery systems. These vehicles will most likely contain valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The battery systems developed to date utilize significantly more lead than conventional 12 V batteries. This paper will evaluate the different proposed 36 V battery systems and estimate the lead requirements for each of the competing systems. It will also project the penetration of and resultant increased lead usage of these new batteries into the future.

  17. Temporal stability of blood lead concentrations in adults exposed only to environmental lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delves, H T; Sherlock, J C; Quinn, M J

    1984-08-01

    The temporal stability of blood lead concentrations of 21 health adults (14 men and 7 women) exposed only to environmental lead was assessed by analysis of 253 blood specimens collected serially over periods from 7 to 11 months. The women had lower blood lead concentrations (mean 8.5, range 7.4-10.8 micrograms/100 ml) than did the men (mean 12.2, range 8.6-15.8 micrograms/100 ml). These are within the expected ranges for non-occupationally exposed persons. Blood lead concentrations in the serial specimens from both men and women changed very little over the study period, with standard deviations of less than 0.5 micrograms/100 ml for the majority of individual mean concentrations: for all except low subjects the standard deviations were less than 0.8 micrograms/100 ml. Two subjects showed significant changes in blood lead concentrations during the study. A temporary increase in oral lead intake was identified for one of these subjects. In the absence of substantial changes in lead exposure blood lead levels in adults are remarkably stable and for their environmental monitoring a single blood lead concentration is an excellent biological indicator.

  18. Prospective evaluation of cinefluoroscopy and chest radiography for Riata lead defects: implications for future lead screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorvidhaya, Peem; Mendoza, Ivan; Sehli, Sharmila; Atalay, Michael K; Kim, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    Lead insulation defects with externalization of the conductors exist in Riata defibrillator leads. Cinefluoroscopy is currently the gold standard to detect such defects. Prospective evaluation of alternative screening options such as chest radiography (CXR), which has been recommended by the FDA, is not well described. Patients with Riata leads underwent cinefluoroscopy, CXR, and device interrogation. Leads were classified as abnormal (clear cable separation), borderline, or normal by independent evaluation of cinefluoroscopy and CXR. CXR evaluation was done in two ways as follows: (1) routine CXR read by daily staff radiologists for lead screening and (2) CXR evaluation by a radiologist educated about the lead defect. One hundred two patients were evaluated at our institution. Cinefluoroscopy showed externalized conductors in 33 patients (32 %). Twenty-five of 33 patients (76 %) who had abnormal cinefluoroscopic findings had abnormal CXR findings on blinded review by the educated radiologist. All 25 patients with abnormal CXR had abnormal findings on cinefluoroscopy. Daily staff radiologists without direct education other than prompts for lead screening detected CXR abnormalities in only 8 out of 102 (8 %) cases. Cinefluoroscopy appears to be more sensitive than CXR for the detection of Riata cable extrusion. Interpretation of CXR by a radiologist with education in lead defects correlates highly with cinefluoroscopy with very high specificity. Depending on available resources for screening, CXR may be a reasonable alternative to cinefluoroscopy. Multidisciplinary collaboration across specialties (radiology and electrophysiology) can lead to improved diagnostic capability and thus the potential for enhanced quality of care.

  19. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K.; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead concentrations were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the period of leaded petrol use in Australian automobiles from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb ratios from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb ratios increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region. - Highlights: • Total lead and isotopic composition can be measured in historic lichen and fungi. • Historic lichen and fungi samples can distinguish polluted and unpolluted areas. • Former leaded petrol depositions remain a significant environmental contaminant. - Analysis of a 120-year record of lichens and fungi from the Greater Sydney basin reveal marked shifts in total lead concentrations and lead isotope ratios in response to geogenic inputs

  20. Occupational exposure to lead--granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, G; Masci, O; Altieri, A; Castellino, N

    1999-07-01

    The amount of airborne lead absorbed by the body during occupational exposure depends not only on lead concentration in workplace air, but also on the granulometric distribution of the aerosol. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set the lead Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) at 50 micrograms/m3 on the basis of Bernard's model and a number of assumptions, including assumption "C", which predicts that the first 12.5 micrograms/m3 are made up of fine particles (aerodynamic diameter 1 micron. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50 micrograms/m3 and a granulometric distribution calculated according to the above mentioned assumption, leads, in the model, to a mean blood level of 40 micrograms/dl. In the present study, we tested the validity of assumption "C" in the environmental air of a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. An 8-stage impactor was used to measure the particle size of airborne dust collected from personal and area samplings. Results indicate that, on the whole, assumption "C" cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study. As a result, lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. We therefore suggest that in order to make a correct evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to lead, it is essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.