WorldWideScience

Sample records for beutenbergia cavernae type

  1. Complete genome sequence of Beutenbergia cavernae type strain (HKI 0122T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam; Pukall, Rudiger; Abt, Birte; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2009-05-20

    Beutenbergia cavernae (Groth et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. cavernae HKI 0122T is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a cave in Guangxi (China). B. cavernae grows best under aerobic conditions and shows a rod-coccus growth cycle. Its cell wall peptidoglycan contains the diagnostic L-lysine - L-glutamate interpeptide bridge. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the poorly populated micrococcineal family Beutenbergiaceae, and this 4,669,183 bp long single replicon genome with its 4225 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  2. Lentzea cavernae sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from a karst cave sample, and emended description of the genus Lentzea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bao-Zhu; Han, Ming-Xian; Liu, Lan; Zhang, Zi-Tong; Liu, Wei-Liang; Shen, Jing-Ting; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Da-Qiao; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-07-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated SYSU K10001T, was isolated from a limestone sample collected from a karst cave in Xingyi county, Guizhou province, south-western China. The taxonomic position of the strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the strain were aerobic and Gram-stain-positive. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SYSU K10001T was most closely related to the type strains of the genus Lentzea, Lentzea albida NBRC 16102T (98.8 % similarity) and Lentzea waywayandensis NRRL B-16159T (98.6 %), and is therefore considered to represent a member of the genus Lentzea. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain SYSU K10001T and related type strains of the genus Lentzea were less than 70 %. In addition, meso-diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars were arabinose, fructose, mannose and xylose. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SYSU K10001T was 69.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain SYSU K10001T represents a novel species of the genus Lentzea, for which the name Lentzea cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SYSU K10001T (=KCTC 39804T=CGMCC 4.7367T=NBRC 112394T).

  3. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  4. Dating stalagmite from Caverna do Diabo (Devil´S Cave by TL and EPR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIGUEO WATANABE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A cylindrical fragment of stalagmite from Caverna do Diabo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, has been studied and dated by thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The thermoluminescence glow curves of stalagmite samples and subsequently gamma irradiated, have shown rise of three peaks at 135, 180 and 265 °C. From electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of stalagmite was possible to clearly identify three paramagnetic centers in the g = 2.0 region: Centers I, II and III are due to , and , respectively. The additive method was applied to calculate the accumulated dose using thermoluminescence peak at 265 °C and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal at g = 1.9973 of CO- 2 radical. The ages of the different slices of stalagmite were determined from the Dac- values and Dan- value, obtaining an average of 86410 for central slice, 53421 for second slice, 31490 for third slice and 46390 years B.P. for the central region of upper end.

  5. Historia, literatura y ciencia en la exploración de las cavernas de Cacahuamilpa en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Salas, José Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article an inventory of texts about Caverns Cacahuamilpa written in the nineteenth century is made from the literary and scientific aspects, in order to raise awareness of the approaches that were addressed and monitor the contribution of these documents at the imaginary proposal on the natural richness of Mexican geography. On the literary side, expression of Mexican romanticism and the reminiscences of this in the encyclopedic travelers are observed. As scientific discourse, it is clear the effort to study the territory, find exploitable materials and discuss deeper issues such as the age of the Earth or the antiquity of the man in America.En el presente artículo se realiza un inventario de los textos sobre las cavernas de Cacahuamilpa escritos en el siglo XIX, desde las vertientes literaria y científica, con el objetivo de dar a conocer los enfoques con que fueron abordadas y observar la contribución de dichos documentos a la propuesta de imaginario sobre la riqueza natural de la geografía mexicana. En el aspecto literario, se observa la expresión del romanticismo mexicano y las reminiscencias de esta corriente en los viajeros enciclopédicos. En cuanto al discurso científico, es notorio el esfuerzo por estudiar el territorio, encontrar materiales explotables y discutir temas más profundos, como la edad de la Tierra o la antigüedad del hombre en América.

  6. CAVERNAS E RELIGIÃO: OS RITUAIS DE MATRIZ AFRICANA NA GRUTA DA MACUMBA E NA GRUTA DO FEITIÇO, LAGOA SANTA, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lane GUIMARÃES

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar alguns dos aspectos básicos da umbanda e do candomblé e sua associação com a Gruta da Macumba e a Gruta do Feitiço, proporcionando uma primeira aproximação sobre a temática. O trabalho ainda busca compreender como tais manifestações afrodescendentes ocorrem. É apresentado um breve relato histórico sobre a função social das cavernas e da sua relação com a religiosidade em suas diversas formas.

  7. La isla desierta de Roberto Arlt: una contertulia con el teatro de la crueldad de Antonin Artaud en la caverna de Platón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavridis, Spyros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the convergences between the theatre of cruelty of Antonin Artaud and the parallel search of Roberto Arlt’s specific case of his work The desert island. It indicates the traceable influences in this piece and highlights its inspiration as it originates from Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. Furthermore, a synthesis of these two theatrical projects is performed where both simalarities and differences of the two versions of cruelty are presented.El artículo explora las convergencias entre el teatro de la crueldad de Antonin Artaud y la búsqueda paralela de Roberto Arlt en el caso concreto de su obra La isla desierta. Se apuntan las influencias rastreables en esta pieza y se señala su inspiración como originada en el símil de la caverna de Platón. Asimismo, se realiza una síntesis de estos dos proyectos teatrales, donde se exponen las afinidades, como también las diferencias entre las dos versiones de la crueldad.

  8. El diseño gráfico: de las cavernas a la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Itanel Bastos de Quadros Junior

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Los expertos discrepan sobre las raíces del diseño gráfico. Algunos identifican las pinturas rupestres como ejemplos ancestrales de los signos gráficos; otros reconocen sus formas embrionarias en Egipto, Grecia, México y Roma. Varios autores consideran que el diseño gráfico surge al mismo tiempo que la imprenta. Una corriente apunta a las vanguardias artísticas del inicio de este siglo. Otros, todavía, emplazan al pensamiento contemporáneo, con respecto al diseño gráfico, después de la segunda guerra mundial, como un fenómeno adjunto al fuerte desarrollo industrial y de los medios de comunicación.

  9. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  10. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  11. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  12. Klebsiella Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D S; Skov, R; Benedí, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    unit (NICU) were K-typed by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE), O-typed by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI. RESULTS: Typing data for the 104 bacteremia isolates were compared......OBJECTIVE: To compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and O:K-serotyping of Klebsiella in two different epidemiological settings. METHODS: One hundred and four bacteremia isolates without known epidemiological relation and 47 isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care...

  13. Type Tricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    an expert as a typography professor, Sofie Beier knows exactly what the students need to know and how they can improve their skills. ‘Type Tricks’ is not only perfect for students, it also comes in handy for every type designer. It gives them the opportunity to reread information they were thaught at during...

  14. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  15. Cavity types

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In the field of particle accelerators the most common use of RF cavities is to increase the particle velocity of traversing particles. This feature makes them one of the core ingredients of every accelerator, and in the case of linear accelerators they are even the dominant machine component. Since there are many different types of accelerator, RF cavities have been optimized for different purposes and with different abilities, e.g., cavities with fixed or variable RF frequency, cavities for short or long pulses/CW operation, superconducting and normal-conducting cavities. This lecture starts with a brief historical introduction and an explanation on how to get from Maxwell's equations to a simple cavity. Then, cavities will be classified by the type of mode that is employed for acceleration, and an explanation is given as to why certain modes are used in particular cavity types. The lecture will close with a comparison of normal versus superconducting cavities and a few words on the actual power consumption ...

  16. Do Liceu à bat-caverna. Batman um super-herói aristotélico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Vanderlei Weschenfelder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2014v48n1p94 Um dos ícones da cultura pop da atualidade é o ressurgimento das aventuras dos super-heróis dos quadrinhos, as quais não trazem apenas entretenimento aos nossos olhos. Tais histórias abordam questões enfrentadas por todo ser humano comum. Questões como justiça, moral, ética e tantas outras. Estas questões são temas usados nas discussões filosóficas de muitos filósofos durante anos. Um dos grandes personagens das histórias em quadrinhos de super-aventuras, Batman, traz em seu enredo, tramas com várias questões filosóficas. Tais questões encontramos na filosofia do filósofo grego Aristóteles, principalmente em sua obra ‘Ética a Nicômaco’. Batman é um personagem sem super-poderes, porém treina seu corpo e alma para combater o crime em sua cidade. Este ‘treinar’, é para Aristóteles, uma das características para chegar à virtude, pois segundo ele, somente com treinamento poderíamos chegar ao hábito, o hábito de fazer as coisas certas.

  17. Ocorrência do Grilo Endecous em Quatro Cavernas no Município de Uruará - PA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cajaiba

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. The genus Endecous (Ensifera: Phalangopsidae can be found in the entire neotropical region. Five species of this genus occur in Brazil: Endecous arachnopis Saussure, Endecous cavernicolus Costa Lima, Endecous itatibensis Rehn, Endecous abbreviatus Piza and Endecous betariensis de Mello & Pellegatti-Franco. The present study was aimed to analyze the abundance of crickets of the genus Endecous in four caves in the city of Uruará-PA. The collections were performed from August to November 2011, using pitfall without bait. 832 specimens were collected. Significant values were obtained for the low temperature (R² = 0.9.

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning ... Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  19. Guarded Dependent Type Theory with Coinductive Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Ales; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    , type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call ‘delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...

  20. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    MPS IV; Morquio syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA; MPS IVA; Galactosamine-6-sulfatase deficiency; Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB; MPS IVB; Beta galactosidase deficiency; Lysosomal storage disease - mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two- ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ... Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  5. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  6. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  7. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  9. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  10. Different Types of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Share on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, 2017 Resource Content There are four different types of lupus. Learn more about each type ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  14. Type I Versus Type II Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Ottesen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Two distinct types of endometrial carcinoma (EC) with different etiology, tumor characteristics, and prognosis are recognized. We investigated if the prognostic impact of comorbidity varies between these 2 types of EC. Furthermore, we studied if the recently developed ovarian cancer....... A consistent association between increasing levels of comorbidity and poorer survival was observed for both types. Cox regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between cancer stage and comorbidity indicating that the impact of comorbidity varied with stage. In contrast, the interaction between...

  15. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  16. Types and Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...... from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees...

  17. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking...

  18. Fix Your Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Swords

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When using existing ACL2 datatype frameworks, many theorems require type hypotheses. These hypotheses slow down the theorem prover, are tedious to write, and are easy to forget. We describe a principled approach to types that provides strong type safety and execution efficiency while avoiding type hypotheses, and we present a library that automates this approach. Using this approach, types help you catch programming errors and then get out of the way of theorem proving.

  19. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for ...

  2. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common ... of Events Local Offices Volunteer Opportunities Signature Events Camps ...

  4. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Heart Failure Updated:May 8,2017 Left-sided heart failure ... This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  5. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds ... It Together celebrates the steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. » « Connect With ...

  9. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like ... may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, ...

  11. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 ... Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose ... type 2 diabetes than others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African ...

  16. Type T Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Frank; Carlson, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Briefly reviews Farley's Type T theory of personality and then considers a range of issues in marital therapy from the perspective of Type T. Suggests that Type T theory may be relevant in dealing with infidelity, sexual problems, love, marital abuse, child rearing, drug and alcohol use, money, division of household labor, recreation, and…

  17. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a ...

  18. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  3. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  4. TypeSan : Practical type confusion detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haller, Istvan; Jeon, Yuseok; Peng, Hui; Payer, Mathias; Giuffrida, Cristiano; Bos, Herbert; Van Der Kouwe, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The low-level C++ programming language is ubiquitously used for its modularity and performance. Typecasting is a fundamental concept in C++ (and object-oriented programming in general) to convert a pointer from one object type into another. However, downcasting (converting a base class pointer to a

  5. Mastering TypeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  6. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  7. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ...

  11. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common ... 5% back to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book- ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form ... program will help you live well. More from diabetes.org Healthy Recipes: Delicious Recipe Kits Delivered - 2017- ...

  14. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  15. Types of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth / For Teens / Types of Anesthesia What's in ... Get? Print en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites ... Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower ...

  18. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ... to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ... insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle ... (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in the blood instead ...

  1. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  2. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both...

  3. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessio...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ ... Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways ...

  6. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  8. Typing polymorphic recursion

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Lucília Camarão de; Camarão, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses some advantages of supporting polymorphic recursión in programming languages and describes a decidable type inference algorithm for typing polymorphic and possibly mutually recursive definitions, using Haskell to provide an executable high level specification of the algorithm.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- #GiveForDiabetes - givefordiabetes.html #GiveForDiabetes Every 21 seconds, someone is diagnosed with ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Free Type ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form ... Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage ...

  11. Personality types of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, G H; Grandy, T G; Erskine, C G

    1991-12-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to determine the personality types of dental graduates, 1964-1984, from Creighton University, School of Dentistry. The MBTI reveals the strength and nature of preferences along four dimensions: extraversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceptive. In sample (N = 472), four personality types: ISTJ (108), ESTJ (66), ISFJ (48), and ENTJ (37), accounted for 54.9% (N = 259) of the dentists. The remaining 45.1% (N = 213) were divided among 12 personality types without any type accounting for more than 6.1% (N = 29). Comparisons with a general population (N = 9,320) revealed that the dental sample included more introverts (58.9%), thinkers (65.9%) and judgers (75.0%). The implications of personality characteristics, as applied to dentistry through communication patterns, relationships with co-workers and management styles were discussed.

  12. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  13. DE LA CAVERNA PLATÒNICA A LES PRESONS MODERNES: VISIÓ I FOSCOR EN LA LITERATURA, EL CINEMA I L’ART POLÍTICS DEL SEGLE XX

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    La llum ha estat associada, des de Plató fins a la Il·lustració, al Bé, al coneixement i a la Veritat. No obstant això, a partir del segle XIX, s’observa un repensar del discurs que valora la lluminositat com una cosa positiva i la foscor com ignorància. L’èmfasi en l’ombra i en la foscor, que comença amb el Romanticisme, es desenvolupa en la literatura, l’art i el cinema polítics del segle XX. La lluminositat apareix associada als excessos de la raó, que porten a la deshumanització de les so...

  14. Comentario: A la Presentación del Hombre de las Cavernas. De los Primeros Homínidos al Neanderthal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Correal Urrego

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Luego de la ponderada exposición del doctor Mendoza, en el corto espacio de que disponemos solo nos resta recapitular algunos de los aspectos más relevantes de su disertación y resumir algunos hitos que precedieron y otros que tuvieron continuidad luego de la aparición de Homo antecesor.

    Los hallazgos paleoantropológicos de las últimas décadas han sido muy importantes. Connotadosinvestigadores discuten en la actualidad si Sahelantropus Tchadensis, Orrin Tugenensis y Ardipithecus ramidus con una antigüedad que los aproxima a los 6 millones de años pueden ser considerados como precursores de los homínidos. Mientras se acrecientan las discusiones sobre los orígenes de los Homínidos, Meave Leakey cree que el fragmento de mandíbula de 5’600.000 años desenterrado en Lothagan, Kenya, en 1967 es el fósil de homínido más antiguo que se ha descubierto hasta hoy; otros hallazgos verificados en las postrimerías de los noventa corresponden a ejemplares del antiguo homínido Australopithecus afarensis descubierto por Donald Johansson, esqueleto que fuera bautizado con el nombre de Lucy.

    Procedente de Hadar, en Etiopía, su edad se calcula en 3´900.000 años. Testimonio silencioso del paso de legendarios primates, son las huellas de pisadas impresas en el fango de la ceniza volcánica de la llanura de Laetoli en Tanzania, y que han sido fechadas en 3’600.000 años. Una mandíbula exhumada en Tanzania por Mary Leaky, fue fechada en 3’500.000 años, y con los hallazgos de Turkana en 1994 el horizonte retrocede otros 600.000 años, con Australopitecus amanensis.

    Hoy se conocen cinco especies de Australopithecus, algunos como Australopithecus garghi elaboraron artefactos líticos muy rudimentarios.

  15. Del registro en cavernas al formato digital: Las instancias de evolución de la gestión documental

    OpenAIRE

    Prada Madrid, Ennio

    2007-01-01

    By defining three levels are intended to identify periods of evolution of document management, which is formulated as an activity linked to the institutionalization of mechanisms of social order that the human being has developed in its evolution and states that its third instantiates the globalized environment of a digital economy involves understanding the document management as a subsystem integration of a knowledge management system, as the document management manages much of the detailed...

  16. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  17. Parametric compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala......In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...

  18. Griscelli syndrome type-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela J Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Griscelli syndrome (GS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder of pigmentary dilution of skin, silver gray hair, variable immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. GS type 3 is characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunological and neurological manifestation. Prognosis is very good in type 3 GS and usually require no active intervention, as opposed to type 1 and 2 where early diagnosis and treatment plays a crucial role in patient's survival. The characteristic phenotypic appearance, especially the pigment dilution of the patient's hair, is emphasized here.

  19. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events Local ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts ... their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

  5. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance Marketplace Health Insurance From an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes ... Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ...

  1. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  3. [Types of insulin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez de la Fuente, J; Granja Berna, V; Ferrari Piquero, J M; Valero Zanuy, M A; Herreros de Tejada López-Coterilla, A

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with a series of long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications that requires continuing therapeutic control. In recent years, the pharmaceutical industry has developed new types of insulin and administration systems in order to more closely mimic human insulin secretion. In this way, insulin therapy is divided into conventional and intensive regimens according to their complexity. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, the treatment of choice is the one which achieves intensive glycemic control. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, we can start with a simplified conventional regimen which could progress into an intensive one similar to that of T1DM treatment. Both types of diabetes require an individualized treatment prescription based on the needs and characteristics of each patient.

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call to Congress ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do- ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ... help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ... 1995-2018. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  10. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and follow a meal plan get regular exercise ... with scheduling meals and insulin injections. Remember, a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and a healthy weight can ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics ... hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ask the Experts: Learn to Live Well ... It Together celebrates the steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. » « Connect With ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form'). ...

  20. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue ... and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ... new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes ... Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Call to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ... Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 ...

  11. Types of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unbreakable Spirit® OI Golf Classic Awareness Week Fine Wines Strong Bones Bone China Tea Blue Jeans for Better Bones Upcoming Events Online Store Facts About OI Types of OI Myths About OI OI ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  13. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    is based on a fixed set of elementary bigraphs and operators on these. An essential elementary bigraph is an ion, to which a control can be attached modelling its kind (its ordered number of channels and whether it is a guard), e.g. an input prefix of pi-calculus. A model of a calculus is then a set......; and the possibility of modularly adapting the type systems to extensions of the BRS (with new controls). As proof of concept we present a model of a pi-calculus, develop an i/o-type system with subtyping on this model, prove crucial properties (including subject reduction) for this type system, and transfer...... these properties to the (typed) pi-calculus....

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to ... Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices ... Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type ... Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  4. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  5. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...

  6. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  7. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  9. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  10. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  12. Types of Funerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Speed Internet Service Shopping for Used Mattresses Solar Power for Your Home The FTC Funeral Rule The Language of Recycling Travel Tips Types of Funerals Using Layaway Plans Warranties You Are Here Bookmark Buying & Owning a Car Credit & Loans Dealing with Debt Resolving Consumer Problems ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  15. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  17. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. A......-oriented languages practical....

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  20. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TypeScript essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  2. Plaque Type Eryrhema Nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Mittal

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Three young females developed plaque type erythema nodosum. The underlying causes in them were tuberculosis chest, recurrent furunculosis and malaria respectively. All the three cases were under treatment at the time of development of erythema nodosum plaques and the onset was acute.

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics ... up to ride in Tour de Cure and create your team today! More from diabetes.org Healthy ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes.org Healthy Recipes: Delicious Recipe Kits Delivered - 2017-03-chefd.html Healthy Recipes Delicious ... Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock- ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning ... to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes ... Online Chat Closed engagement en -- So…Do You Have Prediabetes? - 2017-01-ad-council.html So…Do ...

  10. Types of Timberland Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel

    1999-01-01

    The form of ownership in which you hold your woodland is important from a tax standpoint. Further, if your forest property is structured as a business, the type of business organization chosen also has significant tax implications. Additionally, non-tax factors bear on choosing an ownership and/or business format. These include forest management goals, size of the...

  11. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    -cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...

  12. Types of CMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for MDA Blog Donate Search MDA.org Close Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Share print email share facebook twitter ... disrupt these interactions. The many different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) are distinguished by age of onset, inheritance ...

  13. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  14. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Yoh; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-07

    Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP) has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney) and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of regulatory T-cells are assumed

  15. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  16. Tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The substantial societal and individual burdens associated with tension-type headache (TTH) constitute a previously overlooked major public health issue. TTH is prevalent, affecting up to 78% of the general population, and 3% suffer from chronic TTH. Pericranial myofascial nociception probably...... is important for the pathophysiology of episodic TTH, whereas sensitization of central nociceptive pathways seems responsible for the conversion of episodic to chronic TTH. Headache-related disability usually can be reduced by identification of trigger factors combined with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic...

  17. Variations of interferometer types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeff, W.

    1978-01-01

    The search for other interferometer configurations than the LLL interferometer that has been proved to work satisfactorily, has two reasons: first some disadvantages of the LLL interferometer like the smearins of the beams over the Borrmann fan or the loss of half of the intensity in the Laue case mirror may be overcome by changing the geometry. Secondly, problems of neutron optics like details of wave propagation in perfect and nearly perfect crystals coherence etc. can be investigated by varying the properties of the interferometer components. The discussion is restricted to those inteferometer types where Bragg diffracting single crystals are used for beam handling

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...... that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt...

  19. Representing Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Peter Brottveit; Murawska, Agata; Bruni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a logical foundation of processes and their focused normal forms. We use a linear meta-language based on substructural operational semantics to describe focused forms of processes, and compare them to standard π-calculus processes with their respective operational semantics....... The overall goal of this research is to understand how to reason about processes, multiparty communication and global types, and how to mechanize properties such as deadlock freeness and liveness. We are also interested in establishing the limitations of this approach....

  20. Type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...... attack, and this is supported by evidence of both environmental and genetic factors pointing toward an involvement of the immune system. However, definitive proof of an autoimmune etiology is still missing. Several different immune-mediated disorders targeting neurons are known, and many...

  1. Extending record typing to type parametric modules with sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte , Maria Virginia

    1993-01-01

    Projet FORMEL; We extend term unification techniques used to type extensible records in order to solve the two main typing problems for modules in Standard ML : matching and sharing. We obtain a type system for modules based only on well known unification problems, modulo some equational theories we define. Our formalization is simple and has the elegance of polymorphic type disciplines based on unification. It can be seen as a synthesis of previous work on module and record typing.

  2. Desmoid-type fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, S.; Moskovic, E.C.; Strauss, D.C.; Benson, C.; Miah, A.B.; Thway, K.; Messiou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a rare, locally infiltrative, mesenchymal neoplasm that is associated with high rates of local recurrence but lacks the potential to metastasise. The disease affects younger individuals, with a peak age of 30 years, and is the most common cause of an anterior abdominal wall mass in young women of childbearing age. It may, however, involve nearly every body part, including the extremities, head and neck, trunk, and abdominal cavity; as such, desmoid-type fibromatosis may present to a range of general and subspecialty radiologists. These rare tumours have a widely variable clinical presentation and unpredictable natural history, hence input from a soft-tissue tumour centre is recommended, although much of the imaging may be performed at the patient's local hospital. The consensus for treatment has changed over the past decade, with most centres moving away from primary radical surgery towards a front-line ‘watch-and-wait’ policy. Therefore, imaging has an increasingly important role to play in both the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. This review will discuss the typical imaging characteristics of these lesions and suggest diagnostic and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging protocols, with details of suitable sequences and scanning intervals

  3. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  4. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  5. Glutaric aciduria type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.; Berant, M.; Braun, J.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa; El-Peleg, O.; Christensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Serial CT findings in an infant with glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) are reported. The major CT features were dilatation of the insular cisterns, regression of the temporal lobes, with 'bat wings' dilatation of the Sylvian fissures and hypodensity of the lenticular nuclei. CT changes preceded the onset of symptoms by 3 months. An improvement in the temporal lobe atrophy was seen after a period of treatment, coinciding with marked clinical improvement. A peculiar feature was the presence of external hydrocephalus, which diverted the attention from manifestations of the primary disease and thus constituted a diagnostic pitfall. The delineation and recognition of the characteristic radiologic manifestations of GA-I are essential for allowing an adequate radiologist/clinician interaction in diagnosing this inborn error of metabolism. (orig.)

  6. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  7. Type 1 Tyrosinaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, MA

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (TYR1, OMIM# 276700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that results from an enzyme defect that leads to a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetase (FAH)1. We present 3 cases of TYR1 in the Irish population over a 9 year period, the only cases known to have been diagnosed in Ireland since 1989. The common presenting symptom was hypoglycaemia and the diagnosis was made by the identification of the pathognomonic biomarker succinylacetone on urine organic acid analysis. We discuss the clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic results including one novel mutation. We also highlight the importance of early initiation of Nitisinone (NTBC), which reduces the complications of TYR1 and the incidence of liver transplantation in this population2.

  8. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMONIA (FRIEDLANDER TYPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, W R; Walker, I C

    1915-12-01

    The foregoing experiments show that in cats a definite lobar pneumonia may be caused by Bacillus mucosus capsulatus. Judging both from the clinical course and from the pathological findings, this form of pulmonary infection differs from the usual pneumococcus types of pneumonia and closely resembles the so called Friedländer's bacillus or Bacillus pneumonioe in man. In all instances in which a lobar pneumonia was found after the injection of the bacillus, a similar organism was recovered from the lung, and in no case was this associated with other organisms. The course of the disease in cats is very short, the animals developing early symptoms of profound toxemia. In 87 per cent of the animals showing a lobar pneumonia positive blood cultures were obtained. The pathological findings, judging from the early stages of the disease, are subject to considerable variation. In some instances the process may suggest a pseudolobar or confluent lobular distribution. In these cases the lung has a mottled, marble-like appearance. In the majority of cases, however, the process gave a more homogeneous appearance, suggesting a diffuse and uniform distribution. Foci of hemorrhage were not uncommon in both. Such areas cause the mottled appearance sometimes found. In all instances the consolidated lung presents a greater infiltration of tissue than is usually seen in other types of experimental pneumonia. Although the exudate as seen on the cut surface may be abundant and especially viscid in character, this is not present in most cases. The cut surface of the consolidated lung does not present a granular appearance. The histological findings are also subject to considerable variation. In most instances the infundibular and alveolar spaces are completely filled with an exudate made up chiefly of polymorphonuclear cells. Associated with these are the capsulated bacilli, large vacuolated mononuclear phagocytic cells, and red blood cells, and occasionally small amounts of fibrin. The

  10. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  11. Pediatric obesity & type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, Tara L

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on (a) identifying obesity and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, (b) differentiating between pediatric type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and (c) treating pediatric type 2 diabetes. Obesity has significant implications on a child's health, including an increased risk for insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in children, characterized by insulin resistance and relative pancreatic b-cell failure due to the increased demand for insulin production, has now reached epidemic proportions. Longitudinal research on pediatric type 2 diabetes, however, is lacking because this epidemic is relatively new. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children is focused on lifestyle modification with weight management/increased physical activity, and pharmacological management through oral medication or insulin therapy. Because children with type 2 diabetes are at risk for developing diabetes-related complications earlier in life, they need to be closely monitored for comorbidities.

  12. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  13. Presenting symptoms in type 1 vs. type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, L.; Sarkisian, Laura; Poulsen, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The classification of myocardial infarction (MI) into five types was introduced in 2007 as a component of the Universal definition. However, data outlining clinical symptoms in different MI types are limited. Purpose: To describe the presenting symptoms in patients with type 1 MI vs...... on the debut symptoms at the time of MI. The diagnosis and classification of MI were according to the Universal definition. Thus, a rise/fall pattern of troponin values was required with at least one value above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. Also, clilinical evidence of myocardial ischemia...... had to be present. Results: During the inclusion period 360 patients with a type 1 MI were indentified, whereas 119 patients had a type 2 MI. As shown in the Table patients with type 1 MI more frequently had chest pain/discomfort than type 2 MI patients. However, patients with type 2 MI more often...

  14. A dependently-typed construction of semi-simplicial types

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a dependently-typed construction of semi-simplicial sets in type theory where sets are taken to be types. This addresses an open question raised on the wiki of the special year on Univalent Foundations at the Institute of Advanced Study (2012-2013).

  15. LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Kawamura, Yutaka.

    1990-01-01

    A main vessel support skirt is supported by a base mat of reactor buildings and the base mat is supported by means of an earthquake-proof device on concretes of a lower raft disposed on ground rocks. The earthquake-proof device is constituted by alternately stacking, laminating and press-bonding thin steel plates together with thin rubber layers between an upper flange and a lower raft. Thus, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, the period of the swinging in the horizontal direction of the buildings is made greater than the swinging period of earthquakes by the earthquake-proof device to reduce the impact shocks of earthquakes. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, the input seismic movements are not amplified during transmission from the base mat of the buildings to the reactor structure by way of the support skirt of the main vessel, due to the shortened load transmission path and the seismic power design to the reactor structure can be moderated sufficiently. A safety LMFBR type reactor with reduced construction cost and improved reliability can be attained. (N.H.)

  16. Miniaturized stirling type cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pundak, N.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a cryogenic Stirling type cooler system, an axially extending casing, a compressor unit located within the casing and including a crankshaft extending transversely of the casing axis, an expander and expander connecting rod arranged co-axially in and with the casing the casing including a cover having an axis in coaxial relation with the crankshaft, the casing and cover forming a sealed housing for the compressor unit and crankshaft. The cover consists of a cup-shaped non-magnetic partition, a drive for the compressor unit comprising a D.C. brushless motor including a stator, a rotor and driving electronics. The rotor located within the cover in the sealed housing and coupled directly to the crankshaft, the crankshaft connected to the expander and compressor connecting rods, the stator located outwardly of an encircling the cover in co-axial relation with the rotor. The drive electronics located outwardly of the casing, whereby the rotor is located within the sealed housing in driving engagement with the crankshaft while the stator is located outside the sealed housing for driving the rotor so that the rotor supplies rotational movement to the crankshaft which is converted by the crankshaft cam for driving the expander and compressor connecting rod

  17. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  18. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Manipulator type book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manipulators and similar equipment operated by personnel constitute one of the two major branches of handling technology besides program controlled units (industrial robots and feeding machines). Despite the widespread use of remote handling equipment in nuclear engineering, its growing importance and increasing application also in other areas, a comprehensive treatment of the field has so far been missing. This gap is now filled with the manipulator type book. The bulk of the volume is reserved to remote handling equipment for nuclear purposes available in the international market. However, the survey would be incomplete, also for potential interactions, without manipulators now used also for purposes other than nuclear technology, and without a reference to experimental units and developments which may be assumed to reach practical application one day. This book has been written to help all those who are involved in remote handling technology in one way or the other - plant designers, public authorities and users of such equipment. The text is printed both in German and English for the benefit of foreign readers. A standardized language is proposed to improve communication. (orig./HP) [de

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution while maintaining the flattening in the axial power distribution in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Main system control rods are divided into control rods used for the operation and starting rods used for the starting of the reactor, and the starting rods are disposed in the radial periphery of the reactor core, while the control rods are disposed to the inside of the starting rods. With such a constitution, adjusting rods can be disposed in the region where the radial power peaking is generated to facilitate the flattening of the power distribution even in such a design that the ratio of the number of control rods to that of fuel assemblies is relatively large. That is, in this reactor, the radial power peaking is reduced by about 10% as compared with the conventional reactor core. As a result, the maximum linear power density during operation is reduced by about 10% to increase the thermal margin of the reactor core. If the maximum linear power density is set identical, the number of the fuel assemblies can be decreased by about 10%, to thereby reduce the fuel production cost. (K.M.)

  1. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  2. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a desire to learn how one determines blood types, their differences and which ones are compatible for blood transfusions. ” See a Video about the Blood Typing Game 3 min. Play 1. ploster 3480 2. Yokota ...

  3. Treatise on intuitionistic type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Granström, Johan Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science.  In particular, intuitionistic type theory is a foundation for mathematics and a programming language.

  4. Types of Cancer Teens Get

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual ... for Educators Search English Español Types of Cancer Teens Get KidsHealth / For Teens / Types of Cancer Teens ...

  5. Pneumococcal Disease: Types of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Types of Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, or pneumococcus, can cause many types of illnesses. Some of these illnesses ...

  6. Computing effects for correspondence types

    OpenAIRE

    Hüttel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they  appear in type judgments. 

  7. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  8. Dynamic Typing: Syntax and Proof Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic typing, coercions, dynamically typed lambda-calculus, type inference coherence, completions, safety, minimality......Dynamic typing, coercions, dynamically typed lambda-calculus, type inference coherence, completions, safety, minimality...

  9. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on

  10. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  11. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  12. Computing effects for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...

  13. Magnetoelastic Generator Type Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Efremov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some issues relating to usage of magnetoelectric generator type transducers as the means of measuring intense dynamic loads and as a sensitive element of fuse contact target sensor (CTS are considered. Particular attention is paid to the magnetoanisotropic transducer (MAT, the principle of operation of which is based on the change of the magnetic field form caused by the applied mechanical load leading to the appearance of EMF in the output winding. The MAT, especially monolithic, has such advantages as high strength, reliability, endurance and design simplicity.The functional transducer schemes have been analyzed and for the first time it was shown that there is a possibility of using a version with only one output winding arranged in the magnetic conductor made of magnetically soft material such as structural steel. A mathematical model of transducer is proposed showing that the input signal formed by the external load is proportional to its derivative. With a sufficiently large time constant of the electric circuit and the implementation of a number of additional conditions the transducer may function as an integrator. By that it becomes possible to measure the parameters of dynamic processes having the duration of a few to tens of microseconds. Unlike the traditional transducers such as piezoelectric the output signal is not “masked” by the natural oscillations.The mechanism of the generator effect was considered leading to the “piezomagnetodynamic” model, which includes a number of phenomenological parameters. Some corresponding experimentally derived hysteresis curves are presented. Their vertical shift quantifies the generator effect and does not depend on the intensity of the magnetic field.As an example of practical application of the MAT some results of evaluation of the dynamic force characteristic of the heading part of a piezoelectric fuse are presented. The MAT was also used for the evaluation of back effects of the bullet

  14. TypePad For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    TypePad for Dummies will be on guiding readers through the technical tasks necessary for starting, using and customizing a TypePad blog. It will comprehensively explain choosing the right TypePad membership plan, singing up, configuring, using and customizing a blog using the TypePad system. It will also include: Illustrations from real-world blogs with screenshots and specific examples that bring the book's concepts and ideas to life.; Step-by-step tutorials that will walk readers through the process of signing up for a new TypePad blog and getting down the business of publishing their conten

  15. Hand functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpinar Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hand functions have an enormous impact on activities of daily living in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, such as self-care, administering insulin injections, and preparing and eating meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Methods. This was an observational case-control study investigating the hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. The study comprised 41 patients with type 1 DM aged 25–50 years sex- and age-matched, 40 non-diabetic controls, and 91 patients with type 2 DM aged 40–65 years sex- and age-matched 60 non-diabetic controls. Patients with documented history of diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy and adhesive capsulitis were excluded. The Duruoz Hand Index was used to assess the functional hand disability. Grip strength was tested with a calibrated Jamar dynamometer. Results. The Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with type 2 DM were significantly higher than in persons in the control group (p 0.05. Grip strength values of patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower compared to those in the control group (p < 0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between patients with type 2 DM and their control group. There was a negatively significant correlation between grip strength and the Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with both type 1 and type 2 DM (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with type 1 DM and type 2 DM have different degrees of hand disability as compared to healthy control groups.

  16. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...... restrictive, disallowing subtypings that lead to more than one possible injection and should therefore be considered programming errors. Furthermore, from this refined subtyping constraint we derive a new constraint to express type isomorphism. We show how this isomorphism constraint allows us to decompose...

  17. Type-2 fuzzy sets: geometric defuzzification and type-reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the geometric defuzzifier for general type-2 fuzzy sets. This novel method has the potential to transform the fuzzy control paradigm. General type-2 fuzzy logic is better able to model noise and uncertainty but suffers from the massive computational cost of defuzzification. This paper uses geometry to eliminate this problem, paving the way for general type-2 fuzzy control. This paper was shortlisted for the best paper award at this prestigious international conference.

  18. Typing is writing: Linguistic properties modulate typing execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Svetlana; Ziegler, Johannes C; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Typing is becoming our preferred way of writing. Perhaps because of the relative recency of this change, very few studies have investigated typing from a psycholinguistic perspective. In addition, and despite obvious similarities between typing and handwriting, typing research has remained rather disconnected from handwriting research. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by evaluating how typing is affected by a number of psycholinguistic variables defined at the word, syllable, and letter levels. In a writing-to-dictation task, we assessed typing performance by measuring response accuracy, onset latencies - an index of response preparation and initiation - and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) - an index of response execution processes. The lexical and sublexical factors revealed a composite pattern of effects. Lexical frequency improved response latencies and accuracy, while bigram frequency speeded up IKIs. Sound-spelling consistency improved latencies, but had an inhibitory effect on IKI. IKIs were also longer at syllable boundaries. Together, our findings can be fit within a framework for typed production that combines the previously developed theories of spelling and typing execution. At their interface, we highlight the need for an intermediate hierarchical stage, perhaps in the form of a graphemic buffer for typing.

  19. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...... was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2...

  20. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  1. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out......-ofbounds reading from memory. The second extension is based on two major modifications of the baseline type system: • Abandoning the type-invariance principle of memory locations and using a variation of alias types instead. • Introducing aggregate types, making it possible to have different views of a block...... in assembler language. However, programming in assembler causes numerous problems, such as memory corruption, for instance. To test the thesis I define a model assembler language called Featherweight DSP which captures some of the essential features of a real custom DSP used in the industrial partner's digital...

  2. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  3. Behavioral types in programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Nobuko; Vasconcelos, Vasco T.; Padovani, Luca; Bono, Nicholas Ng; Neykova, Rumyana; Montesi, Fabrizio; Mascardi, Viviana; Martins, Francisco; Johnsen, Einar Broch; Hu, Raymond; Giachino, Elena; Gesbert, Nils; Gay, Simon J.; Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Castagna, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A recent trend in programming language research is to use behav- ioral type theory to ensure various correctness properties of large- scale, communication-intensive systems. Behavioral types encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, contracts, and choreography. The successful application of behavioral types requires a solid understanding of several practical aspects, from their represen- tation in a concrete programming language, to their integration with other programmi...

  4. Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saha, Bratin; Trifonov, Valery; Shao, Zhong

    2005-01-01

    Compilers for polymorphic languages can use run-time type inspection to support advanced implementation techniques such as tagless garbage collection, polymorphic marshalling, and flattened data structures...

  5. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saha, Bratin; Trifonov, Valery; Shao, Zhong

    2005-01-01

    Compilers for polymorphic languages can use runtime type inspection to support advanced implementation techniques such as tagless garbage collection, polymorphic marshalling, and flattened data structures...

  6. Fungal type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nonaka, Takamasa; Fujii, Isao

    2014-10-01

    This article covers the literature on fungal type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) published from 2005 to 2014. Since the first discovery of fungal type III PKS genes in Aspergillus oryzae, reported in 2005, putative genes for type III PKSs have been discovered in fungal genomes. Compared with type I PKSs, type III PKSs are much less abundant in fungi. However, type III PKSs could have some critical roles in fungi. This article summarizes the studies on fungal type III PKS functional analysis, including Neurospora crassa ORAS, Aspergillus niger AnPKS, Botrytis cinerea BPKS and Aspergillus oryzae CsyA and CsyB. It is mostly in vitro analysis using their recombinant enzymes that has revealed their starter and product specificities. Of these, CsyB was found to be a new kind of type III PKS that catalyses the coupling of two β-keto fatty acyl CoAs. Homology modelling reported in this article supports the importance of the capacity of the acyl binding tunnel and active site cavity in fungal type III PKSs.

  7. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  8. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  9. Equations of the mixed type

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsadze, A V

    1963-01-01

    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  10. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  11. Safety Analysis versus Type Inference with Partial Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    perspectives, however. Safety analysis is global in that it can only analyze a complete program. In contrast, type inference is local in that it can analyze pieces of a program in isolation. In this paper we prove that safety analysis is sound, relative to both a strict and a lazy operational semantics. We......Safety analysis is an algorithm for determining if a term in an untyped lambda calculus with constants is safe, i.e., if it does not cause an error during evaluation. This ambition is also shared by algorithms for type inference. Safety analysis and type inference are based on rather different...... also prove that safety analysis accepts strictly more safe lambda terms than does type inference for simple types. The latter result demonstrates that global program analysis can be more precise than local ones....

  12. Discriminating the reaction types of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yugo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Functional prediction of paralogs is challenging in bioinformatics because of rapid functional diversification after gene duplication events combined with parallel acquisitions of similar functions by different paralogs. Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), producing various secondary metabolites, represent a paralogous family that has undergone gene duplication and functional alteration. Currently, there is no computational method available for the functional prediction of type III PKSs. We developed a plant type III PKS reaction predictor, pPAP, based on the recently proposed classification of type III PKSs. pPAP combines two kinds of similarity measures: one calculated by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) built from functionally and structurally important partial sequence regions, and the other based on mutual information between residue positions. pPAP targets PKSs acting on ring-type starter substrates, and classifies their functions into four reaction types. The pHMM approach discriminated two reaction types with high accuracy (97.5%, 39/40), but its accuracy decreased when discriminating three reaction types (87.8%, 43/49). When combined with a correlation-based approach, all 49 PKSs were correctly discriminated, and pPAP was still highly accurate (91.4%, 64/70) even after adding other reaction types. These results suggest pPAP, which is based on linear discriminant analyses of similarity measures, is effective for plant type III PKS function prediction. pPAP is freely available at ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/tools/ppap/. goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Types of subtalar joint facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Ji Yong; Han, Chang Sung; Lee, Jin Suk; Yang, Young Chul; Cho, Byung Pil

    2015-08-01

    Articular facets of the clinical subtalar joint (CSTJ) were analyzed using a total of 118 (right 57, left 61) dry, paired calcanei and tali from 68 Korean adult cadavers. The CSTJ facets were classified into the following three types depending on their continuity: type A, all three facets are separated; type B, the anterior and middle facets are partially connected; and type C, the anterior and middle facets are fused to form a single facet. The continuity between the anterior and middle facets was represented by the degree of separation (DS), which ranged between 2.00 (type A) and 1.00 (type C). Type A was most common (39.0 %) in calcanei and rarest (11.0 %) in tali. Matching of calcaneus-talus pairs yielded five combined types: A-A (11.0 %), A-B (28.0 %), B-B (18.6 %), B-C (13.6 %), and C-C (28.8 %). The mean DS was slightly greater in calcanei (1.53) than in tali (1.32), and decreased in the order of types A-A, A-B, B-B, B-C, and C-C. The intersecting angles between the anterior and middle facets, which are related to the mobility of the CSTJ, were inversely related to the DS. These findings indicate that the anterior and middle facets are fused more frequently in tali than in calcanei, and combinations of different CSTJ facet types (A-B, B-C) exist over 40 % of feet. Our results indicate that types with a smaller DS (such as B-C and C-C) are relatively mobile but less stable compared to those with a greater DS (such as A-A and A-B).

  14. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  15. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  16. Teacher Type and Technology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles that people adopt when encountering new technology, i.e., innovators, resisters, and leaders; explains the Myers Briggs Type Indicator personality measure; and describes a study that was conducted to identify the personality types of high school teachers who participated in technology training and were successful in adopting…

  17. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Nov 6,2017 Prescription blood ... will find an overview of the classes of blood pressure medication. To expand the information on a type of medication, simply click on the subject tab. ...

  18. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sidered to portray early universe reasonably well. Letelier [2] obtained some particular. Bianchi type I string-dust models in which at a certain epoch, strings disappear with a phase transition to an anisotropic fluid. Another Bianchi type I model has been presented by Banerjee et al [3] which obeys Takabayashi's equation of ...

  19. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  20. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  1. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  2. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th...

  4. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  5. Personality types of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C A; Holcombe, J K

    1993-12-01

    Personality type influences the choice of occupation. The breadth of specialty areas within oncology nursing allows for divergent activities and relationships and, thus, the accommodation of different personality characteristics. This exploratory study examined personality types for a convenience sample of oncology nurses predominantly employed in hospitals. According to the personality typology defined by Carl Jung, a person demonstrates a preference among four dimensions, i.e., extraversion/introversion, sensory/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The type with the strongest self-selection for these oncology nurses was ISFJ, where feeling is introverted and perception is practical, so that helping others is both a responsibility and a pleasure. The discussion relates the personality types to Jung's theory and their impact in clinical practice. Strengths and weaknesses of each personality type are described.

  6. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  7. Types of hydrogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Lisitsin, A.K.; Komarova, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Principles of uranium deposit systematics are considered. Systematization, presented in this paper, is based on a regularity that the main industrial exogenic epigenetic uranium concentrations are formed in zones of reduction geochemical barriers. Types of uranium-bearing ground waters and nature of uranium reducing agents were taken into account during systematization. Hydrogenic uranium deposits are related to 3 types: formed by ground (1 type), stratal (2 type) and vein (3 type) waters. By the nature of uranium reducing agents 2 deposit subtypes are marked out: A - in rocks with syngenetic reducing agents, B - in rocks with epigenetic reducing agents. Uranium deposits are also differentiated by nature of reducing agents distribution in ore-containing rocks [ru

  8. Intersection Types and Related Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Parys

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to the following meta-problem: given a quantitative property of trees, design a type system such that the desired property for the tree generated by an infinitary ground lambda-term corresponds to some property of a derivation of a type for this lambda-term, in this type system. Our approach is presented in the particular case of the language finiteness problem for nondeterministic higher-order recursion schemes (HORSes: given a nondeterministic HORS, decide whether the set of all finite trees generated by this HORS is finite. We give a type system such that the HORS can generate a tree of an arbitrarily large finite size if and only if in the type system we can obtain derivations that are arbitrarily large, in an appropriate sense; the latter condition can be easily decided.

  9. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  10. CT findings of muscular dystrophy; Limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Hiroshi (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    CT scans of muscles in patients with limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD) dystrophies were obtained at five different body levels: the neck, L3 vertebral body, pelvic girdle, thigh and lower leg. CT numbers, cross sectional areas (CSA) and %CSA of muscle or fat were evaluated in each muscle. The characteristic CT patterns for each type of muscular dystrophy were obtained. Compared with DMD, the gracilis and soleus were more severely damaged in LG and the biceps femoris remained relatively preserved among the hamstrings. In addition, the multifidus of the neck and sternocleidomastoid also were more severely damaged in MYD. This study suggests that CT scan will be useful in the differential diagnosis of these types of muscular dystrophy as well as in planning appropriate rehabilitation and detecting damaged muscles. (author).

  11. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  12. Types and Forms of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For the study of tourism, the most suitable method from the geographic point of view is typify it, because it allows the delimitation oftourist areas. Tourist areas are characterized by a specific type of travel or by a reunion of some types that may vary dynamically over time. Thetypes of tourism result mainly from the different motivations of the journey, i.e. the purpose of doing. Each type of tourism is distinguished by suchspecific purpose and it is specific to those regions where fixed purpose can be achieved by the existence of some specific facilities.

  13. Modalities in homotopy type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijke, Egbert; Shulman, Michael; Spitters, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Univalent homotopy type theory (HoTT) may be seen as a language for the category of ∞-groupoids. It is being developed as a new foundation for mathematics and as an internal language for (elementary) higher toposes. We develop the theory of factorization systems, reflective subuniverses......, and modalities in homotopy type theory, including their construction using a "localization" higher inductive type. This produces in particular the (n-connected, n-truncated) factorization system as well as internal presentations of subtoposes, through lex modalities. We also develop the semantics...

  14. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    Type inference is generally thought of as being an exclusive property of the functional programming paradigm. We argue that such a feature may be of significant benefit for also standard imperative languages. We present a working tool (available by WWW) providing these benefits for a full version...... of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  15. Polymorphic Types in ACL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Selfridge

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a tool suite for the ACL2 programming language which incorporates certain ideas from the Hindley-Milner paradigm of functional programming (as exemplified in popular languages like ML and Haskell, including a "typed" style of programming with the ability to define polymorphic types. These ideas are introduced via macros into the language of ACL2, taking advantage of ACL2's guard-checking mechanism to perform type checking on both function definitions and theorems. Finally, we discuss how these macros were used to implement features of Specware, a software specification and implementation system.

  16. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Florence Nightingale. Her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, B M

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to cast new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging (INTJ) type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  18. Lepromatous leprosy of histoid type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annigeri S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoid leprosy is a variant of lepromatous leprosy, which develops as a result of resistance to dapsone monotherapy. Here we report two cases of lepromatous leprosy of histoid type, one with typical and another with atypical presentations.

  19. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  20. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  1. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... Balancing nutrition, exercise and proper blood glucose management techniques with the rest of your life's priorities mean ...

  2. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormone (GnRH). GnRH is normally secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle ... do not require treatment. Treatment of Pancreatic Endocrine Cancer in MEN1 Because the type of pancreatic endocrine ...

  3. Dermatomyositis and Type 1 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is a poorly understood multisystem disease predominantly affecting skin and muscle. This review focuses on the potential role of a group of related cytokines, the type 1 interferons, in the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis. Type 1 interferon–inducible transcripts and proteins are uniquely elevated in dermatomyositis muscle compared with all other muscle diseases studied to date. The endothelial cell tubuloreticular inclusions present in affected dermatomyositis muscle are biomarkers of type 1 interferon exposure. The cell-poor lichenoid reaction in skin with predominant involvement of the basal epidermal cell layer and its topologic equivalent in muscle, perifascicular atrophy, may be lesions that develop directly in response to type 1 interferon signaling. PMID:20425524

  4. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir H. influenzae most often cause pneumonia, but can also cause severe illnesses like ...

  5. Type I Glycogen Storage Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Glycogen Storage Disease Type ...

  6. UX Ori-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinin, V.

    2017-06-01

    The brief review of the properties of the UX Ori type stars is presented. A special attention is given to the results of the Crimean program of the multi-year photometric and polarimetric observations of these stars.

  7. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...... by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in the IEC61400-27-1 Committee Draft for electrical simulation models for wind power generation, which is currently under review, [1]. The Type 4 wind turbine model described in this report includes a set of adjustments of the standard Type 4 wind turbine model...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  8. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...... moment distributions are of special interest in areas like demography and economics, and we calculate explicit formulas for the Lorenz curve and Gini index used in these disciplines....

  9. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Fernhall, Bo; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Rubin, Richard R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Albright, Ann L.; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. High-quality studies establishing the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes were lacking until recently, but it is now well established that participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular ...

  10. Computational semantics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Aarne

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show how Montague-style grammars can be completely formalized and thereby declaratively implemented by using the Grammatical Framework GF. The implementation covers the fundamental operations of Montague’s PTQ model: the construction of analysis trees, the linearization of trees into strings, and the interpretation of trees as logical formulas. Moreover, a parsing algorithm is derived from the grammar. Given that GF is a constructive type theory with dependent types, the te...

  11. Type II canal configuration and Type I Dens invaginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liji, Mele Puthukudy; Chandrababu, Krishnankutty; Kumar, Maroli Ramesh; Jayashree, Santhadevi

    2014-07-01

    The prevalent notion about maxillary central incisor with normal external morphology is a tooth with single root and root canal. A case in which all four maxillary incisors were having Type II canal configurations (Vertucci's classification) is reported, in addition, the lateral incisors revealed dens invaginatus with a Type I pattern as suggested by Ohler's classification and a large periapical lesion was seen in relation to the right lateral incisor. The diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of spiral computed tomography (CT) and canals obturated. Nonsurgical healing of the lesion was assessed by reviewing the case at prefixed intervals of time.

  12. Vein-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.A.; Holland, H.D.; Petersen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of published data bearing on the mineralogy, paragenesis, geochemistry, and origin of veiw-type uranium deposits. Its aim is to serve as a starting point for new research and as a basis for the development of new exploration strategies. During the formation of both vein and sandstone types of deposits uranium seems to have been dissolved by and transported in rather oxidized solutions, and deposited where these solutions encountered reducing agents such as carbon, sulfides, ferrous minerals and hydrocarbons. Granitic rocks abnormally enriched in uranium have apparently been the most common source for uranium in vein-type deposits. Oxidizing solutions have been derived either from the surface or from depth. Surface solutions saturated with atmospheric oxygen have frequently passed through red bed or clean sandstone conduits on their way to and from uranium source rocks. Deep solutions of non-surface origin have apparently become sufficiently oxidizing by passage through and equilibration with red beds. The common association of clean sandstones or red beds with uranium-rich granites in the vicinity of vein-type uranium deposits is probably not fortuitous, and areas where these rock types are found together are considered particularly favorable targets for uranium exploration

  13. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger , Michaela; Junglas , Benjamin; Framme , Carsten; Helbig , Horst; Gabel , Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer , Rudolf; Tamm , Ernst R; Hillenkamp , Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  14. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  15. Five types of organizational strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2014-01-01

    Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...... presents a new model including five types of organizational strategy. The model emphasizes that key influencers may make heterogeneous contributions to an organization’s strategy and also that significant effects may result from interaction between types of strategy....

  16. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Development of the existing classification systems has been very difficult and time consuming tasks, where many considerations have been taken and many compromises have been made. The results reveal that, although the theoretical foundation was clarified, many deviations and shortcuts have been m...... and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types....... be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...

  17. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  18. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  19. Ameloblastoma, Solid/Multicystic Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    The ameloblastoma, particularly the solid/multicystic type, is the most clinically significant odontogentic tumor. The tumor is often locally aggressive and has a significant impact and may have a patient’s morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of a large ameloblastoma that presented with the typical radiographic features of variably sized radiolucent loculations. Microscopically the tumor showed a variety of histologic types, with plexiform and follicular predominating. The tumor was treated with a partial resection of the mandible. PMID:20596851

  20. Interpretations of Recursive Type Definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1992-01-01

    of intermediate value assignments: In terms of the predicates that describe them as subsets of the maximal values, and in terms of computational stability. As an application we introduce rational infinite values in our system. Programs can then work on infinite imperative data structures which are allocated......A system of hierarchical imperative types is extended to allow infinite values. The general structure of value assignments to types in the context of a hierarchy is considered, and it is shown that both a minimal and a maximal value assignment exist. We give two different characterizations...

  1. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By making use of Letelier's form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic field equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi's equation of state whereas a class ...

  2. Update on type 2 diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-23

    Feb 23, 2009 ... the incretins and DPPIV inhibitors) and the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Legacy effec t and macrovascular disease. Ten years ago, the UKPDS, a randomised trial of newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes allocated to either intensive. (sulphonylurea-insulin group) or conventional ...

  3. Type 2-diabetes i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2012-01-01

    Our vision is that the opportunistic screening system will be improved in order to find patients with occult type 2 diabetes (T2D), since an early treatment based on a correct phenotyping is the goal. Individual goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids must be set up, and the number of drugs used...

  4. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  5. Type V glycogen storage disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type V glycogen storage disease (GSD V) is a rare inherited condition in which the body is not able to break down glycogen. ... can provide more information and resources: Association for ... Disease -- www.agsdus.org National Organization for Rare Disease ...

  6. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Update on type 2 diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-23

    Feb 23, 2009 ... described benefits on myocardial infarction and death from any cause in the metformin-treated group persisted at follow-up (33%, p=0.005, and 27%, p=0.002 respectively). In type 1 diabetics too, the appearance of a delayed benefit of earlier improved glycaemic control on macrovascular events has been ...

  8. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if a proper initial condition, viz., inflation is imposed on the very early universe. Various types of inflationary cosmologies are being considered and the string cosmology is one. It is generally believed that the very early universe underwent phase transitions, which gave rise to topologically stable structures; of particular ...

  9. Vacuum type D initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  10. Standard types of regulation loops; Chaines de regulation types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M. [ENSAM, Centre d`Enseignement et de Recherche de Lille, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give help in the analysis of industrial regulation problems using different types of real installations. The increasing complexity of industrial systems requires the use of a decomposition-recomposition procedure using a scheme with different blocs. Examples are given to help the non-specialist users in the mastery of essential choices and in the distinction between operational and material separations. The examples concern: the heating loop of a central heating installation, the sensors and actuators of industrial systems (the temperature regulation of a tubular furnace, the electro-hydraulic positioning systems used in machine tools, forming, aeronautics etc.., the regulation of a mixing system for hot and cold fluids, and the regulation of a fluidizing system. The usual types of regulation loops are presented with the different steps of the resolution of a regulation problem. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  11. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  12. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...

  13. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made......A 30-yr-old woman presented with 2 consecutive miscarriages within 7 mo. Histopathologic examination of the placental tissue showed intracytoplasmic inclusion vacuoles with a strong reaction in Periodic acid-Schiff staining and a slightly pallor reaction in alcian blue staining. Additional...... on histopathologic examination. Genetic analysis is required to confirm the diagnosis and to offer prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies....

  14. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale is...

  15. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  16. LEARNING DISABILITIES: ETIOLOGY AND TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Geetha Gopinath,; Tintu Mathew,

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper deals with the Etiology and Types of Learning disabilities. Learning disabilities are actually a failure on the part of the child who lacks adequate intelligence, maturation level, cultural background and educational experience to learn a scholastic skill. Such disabilities can only be determined by a psychologist, a paediatrician, or a psychiatrist. People with these disorders can find difficulty to learn as quickly as others who are not aff...

  17. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  18. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  19. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  20. Productive vocabulary across discourse types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J

    2011-01-10

    AIMS: The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups - young adults (20-29 years old) and older adults (70-89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity.

  1. Stack-Based Typed Assembly Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrisett, Greg

    1998-01-01

    .... This paper also formalizes the typing connection between CPS based compilation and stack based compilation and illustrates how STAL can formally model calling conventions by specifying them as formal translations of source function types to STAL types.

  2. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6047 - Type 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6047 Type 54. That type of cigar-leaf tobacco commonly known as Southern Wisconsin Cigar-leaf or Southern Wisconsin Binder-type, produced principally south and east of the...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6048 - Type 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6048 Type 55. That type of cigar-leaf tobacco commonly known as Northern Wisconsin Cigar-leaf or Northern Wisconsin Binder-type, produced principally north and west of the...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: neurofibromatosis type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Neurofibromatosis type 2 Neurofibromatosis type 2 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a disorder characterized by the ...

  6. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; T. Vasconcelos, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns...... of interaction using expressive type languages, so types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two related important notions of behavioural types are those of session types and behavioural contracts. This article surveys the main accomplishments...

  7. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  8. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (type IV) reactions in dental anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Julian; Beaucher, Wilfred N

    2007-01-01

    The recommended methodology of evaluating patients who have presented with reactions to local anesthetics consists of epicutaneous skin testing and serial subcutaneous challenge. However, the role of type IV reactions in this group has been poorly documented. Epicutaneous routine testing and subcutaneous challenge to local anesthetic was performed, as well as patch testing and subcutaneous rechallenge of both at 24 and 48 hours with evaluation up to 72 hours was performed. Three patients presented with a history of localized edema after dental anesthesia. All had negative lidocaine and mepivacaine testing as well as negative lidocaine challenge on evaluation at 1 hour. The first patient, who had previously reacted to EMLA, reacted to both lidocaine and mepivacaine patch testing and challenge, with delayed swelling at 24 and 48 hours after challenge. This patient subsequently tolerated the ester anesthetic chloroprocaine. Two other patients had strong histories of contact dermatitis. Patch testing and challenge with lidocaine was negative, but strong reactions were found to benzocaine on patch testing. Patients undergoing local anesthetic testing should be screened historically for features and risk factors associated with type IV reactions. This should be considered in patients who react to multiple amide anesthetics, who have delayed swelling, or who have a history of severe contact dermatitis. We confirm previous data showing that patients reacting to benzocaine can tolerate lidocaine and that lidocaine-allergic individuals can tolerate ester anesthetics.

  9. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection......Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...

  10. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection......Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...

  11. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  12. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles....... Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. A classifier is defined based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. The overall recognition rate is 88.2% on a large and diverse test set. The recognition rate is better than...

  13. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129 Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  14. Lettre type d'approbation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    aux fins des concours visant l'attribution de bourses du CRDI. Tous les candidats sont tenus de présenter une lettre-type d'approbation signée par le directeur de thèse ou de mémoire sur papier à en-tête officiel d'une université reconnue. La lettre doit confirmer ce qui suit : a) l'approbation par le directeur de thèse ou de ...

  15. [Femicides: concepts, types and scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Portella, Ana Paula

    2017-09-01

    This text is a theoretical essay that discusses the concepts, types and scenarios of feminicides, and presents some proposals for the prevention of these premature, unjust and avoidable deaths. The text revisits the original concept of femicide proposed by Diana Russell and Jane Caputti and shows new and old scenarios where these crimes occur. It points to patriarchy, understood as being a hierarchical system of power between men and women, as one of the main determinants of these deaths. It ends by presenting actions and proposals to prevent and combat these gender crimes.

  16. Mobile Balkans: Temporality, types, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to scrutunize the Balkan migration phenomenon, highlightening the alloy between continuity and discontinuity in the explanation of migrations; the former expressed in the trends, the latter - in breakthroughs, ruptures, changes. Four periods are articulated and characterized through the major trends. The typology of Balkan migrations identifies ten types, classified in three larger categories. The article distinguishes and compares the national migration models and draws a panoramic picture of the major trends during the last quarter of a century.

  17. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    From around 2100 BC a glyptic tradition emerges in the Arabian Gulf, which is dependant on the well-established schools of the Indus Valley seal cutters. These circular hybrids of classic Harappan seals rapidly became popular amongst the merchants of Dilmun, centered on Bahrain Island. At first...... these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...... Type seals....

  18. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  19. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  20. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2014-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. New type radiation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Kenichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Fujita, Kazuhiko

    2001-01-01

    The radiation management system is a system to carry out entrance and leaving room management of peoples into radiation management area, information management on radiation obtained from a radiation testing apparatus, and so on. New type radiation management system developed by the Mitsubishi Electric Corp. is designed by concepts of superior maintenance and system practice by using apparatus and its interface with standard specification, upgrading of processing response by separating exposure management processing from radiation monitoring processing on a computer, and a backup system not so as to lose its function by a single accident of the constructed computer. Therefore, the system is applied by the newest hardware, package software, and general use LAN, and can carry out a total system filled with requirements and functions for various radiation management of customers by preparing a basic system from radiation testing apparatus to entrance and leaving room management system. Here were described on outline of the new type management system, concept of the system, and functions of every testing apparatus. (G.K.)

  2. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens. PMID:25082003

  3. Microseismic sources of rotational type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; He, Junxian

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally the sources of seismic and microseismic events are related to shear fractures. The analysis of the seismic moment tensors of the sources associated with rock fracturing and hydraulic fracturing in the laboratory experiments and in-situ reveals that while there exist tensile and compressive sources, the shear sources prevail. The appearance of multiple shear sources, accompanied rock fracturing contradicts the results of the direct experiments suggesting that the rock as well as other materials not exhibiting clear plastic flow fail in tension. This contradiction is conventionally resolved by assuming the presence of multiple pre-existing shear fractures (faults or microfaults) whose sudden sliding provides microseismic events of shear type. We consider alternative mechanisms associated with bending of links between rotating particles and fragments of geomaterial and bending of bridges connecting opposite sides of hydraulic fractures. In both cases the fracturing is caused by the action of moments (or moment stresses) leading to bending, while at microscale the failure is associated with tensile microstresses leading to formation of tensile microcracks. In other words, at microscale the moment-related failure is failure in tension, as routinely observed in materials even in compression. It is easy to demonstrate that from a distance the sources of rotational type are equivalent to a standard double couple, similar to the one associated with shear fracturing. In other words what is currently interpreted as shear microseismic sources can in fact be rotational sources. This calls for new methods of detecting and interpreting microseismic sources; some possible methods are discussed.

  4. Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellink, M.P.A.

    In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented

  5. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the funct...

  6. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed

  7. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this...

  8. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    of interaction using expressive type languages, so types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two related important notions of behavioural types are those of session types and behavioural contracts. This article surveys the main accomplishments...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  10. ¿Y antes de Fauchard qué? La odontología en las cavernas, los templos, los hospitales y las universidades And what was there before Fauchard? Dentistry in caverns, temples, hospitals and universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ramírez Skinner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra los orígenes de la odontología entre los primitivos habitantes del planeta, entre los médicos de la Antigüedad, el Renacimiento y la Edad Media hasta los tiempos modernos y la instauración del concepto de hospital clínico universitario. Sostiene que la práctica de la odontología es por definición un acto médico que tiene por objeto al ser humano en la sociedad y la salud a restablecer como bien único e indivisible, siendo ambos conceptos los que delimitan y enmarcan toda la práctica médica. La odontología nace junto con el ser humano, junto con el enfermar, el envejecer y el morir.This paper shows the origin of dentistry among the primitive inhabitants of the planet, the physicians of the Antiquity, Renaissance and Middle Ages up to the modern times and the establishment of the concept of university clinical hospital. It endorses the practice of dentistry by definition as a medical act that has the human being in the society as the object of the act itself, and the health to restore as the one and indivisible good to enhance. Both concepts are the limits and natural frame of all the medical practice. Dentistry was born with the human being, together with getting sick, ageing and dying.

  11. La caverna iluminada: una singular lámpara gravetiense arroja luz sobre el arte parietal de la cueva de La Pileta (Benaoján, Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Sánchez, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an archaeological, paleontological, taphonomical, chronological and geochemical study of a fossil oyster valve retrieved at the cave of La Pileta. The specimen was taken from Neogene fossiliferous deposits located more than 10 km away from the site. The shell was worked so as to become a portable lamp. 14C/AMS dating of the carbonate crust overlying the shell indicates a Gravettian chronology. Different lines of evidence indicate that during its use life, the valve was used to harbor or process pigments. The data presented throw light on the spread of symbolism in the southwestern corner of Europe during the Early Upper Palaeolithic, and add elements to the debate on the existence of a pre-Solutrean stage in the rock art of La Pileta and, by extension, of the southern Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo presentamos el estudio arqueológico, paleontológico, tafonómico, cronológico y geoquímico de una valva de ostra hallada en la cueva de La Pileta. El ejemplar procede de depósitos fosilíferos neógenos distantes más de 10 km del yacimiento. Una vez adaptada, la concha fue empleada como lámpara portátil. La cronología 14C/AMS de la costra carbonatada que sellaba la cubeta nos remite al periodo Gravetiense. Según diversos indicios en la lámpara, durante su vida útil se procesaron o almacenaron pigmentos. Los datos aportados informan sobre la dispersión del simbolismo del Paleolítico Superior Inicial hasta el extremo sudoccidental europeo, así mismo, suma nuevos elementos al debate sobre la existencia de una fase presolutrense en el arte parietal de La Pileta y, por ende, de todo el sur de la Península Ibérica.

  12. Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.

  13. Simas, cavernas y pozos para ocultar cadáveres en la Guerra Civil española (1936-1939. Aportaciones desde la Antropología Forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETXEBERRIA, F., SERRULLA, F., HERRASTI, L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Son miles las víctimas de la Guerra Civil (1936-1939 que permanecen enterradas en fosas comunes repartidas por todo el territorio. Pero además de las fosas en zonas marginales o en cementerios, se emplearon también pozos artificiales y simas naturales para hacer desaparecer las evidencias de los crímenes cometidos. Este recurso ha sido utilizado a lo largo de toda la historia en situaciones de conflicto y explica algunos hallazgos que se han realizado: la ocultación de los cuerpos en espacios aparentemente imposibles para su localización y rescate posterior. Sin embargo, el avance en las técnicas arqueológicas implicadas en el ámbito de las Ciencias Forenses han posibilitado la adecuada recuperación de estos restos y su posterior análisis.

  14. DE LA CAVERNA PLATÓNICA A LAS PRISIONES MODERNAS: VISIÓN Y OSCURIDAD EN LA LITERATURA, EL CINE Y EL ARTE POLÍTICOS DEL SIGLO XX

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Vieira

    2014-01-01

    La luz ha sido asociada desde Platón hasta la Ilustración al Bien, al conocimiento y a la Verdad. Sin embargo, a partir del siglo XIX, se observa un repensar del discurso que valoriza la luminosidad como algo positivo y la oscuridad como ignorancia. El énfasis en la sombra y en lo oscuro, que empieza con el Romanticismo, se desarrolla en la literatura, el arte y el cine político del siglo XX. La luminosidad aparece asociada a los excesos de la razón que llevan a la deshumanización de las soci...

  15. De la caverna platónica a las prisiones modernas: visión y oscuridad en la literatura, en el cine y el arte políticos del Siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    La luz ha sido asociada desde Platón hasta la Ilustración al Bien, al conocimiento y a la Verdad. Sin embargo, a partir del siglo XIX, se observa un repensar del discurso que valoriza la luminosidad como algo positivo y la oscuridad como ignorancia. El énfasis en la sombra y en lo oscuro, que empieza con el Romanticismo, se desarrolla en la literatura, el arte y el cine político del siglo XX. La luminosidad aparece asociada a los excesos de la razón que llevan a la deshumanización de las soci...

  16. A new species of starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea from an anchialine cave in the Mexican Caribbean Una especie nueva de estrella de mar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de una caverna anquialina en el Caribe mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. is described from an anchialine cave system in Cozumel, Mexico. Copidaster cavernicola differs from its congeners in having 1-8 papulae in each papular area, and numerous excavate pedicellariae on all surfaces, except between furrow spines and subambulacral spines. C. cavernicola is possibly endemic to the anchialine system which it inhabits.Se describe una especie nueva de la estrella de mar del género Copidaster encontrada en un sistema de cuevas anquihalinas del Caribe, en Cozumel, México. Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. es la primera especie cavernícola de equinodermo que es descrita, y se caracteriza por tener de 1 a 8 pápulas por cada zona papular, numerosos pedicelarios excavados presentes en toda la superficie del cuerpo excepto en el surco ubicado entre las espinas ambulacrales y subambulacrales. Se sugiere que C. cavernicola es una especie endémica propia del sistema anquihalino en el que habita.

  17. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  18. O FENÔMENO CÁRSTICO EM SÃO THOMÉ DAS LETRAS (MG) E A MINERAÇÃO: EVOLUÇÃO E DEGRADAÇÃO DE CAVERNAS EM QUARTZITO

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Marques Neto

    2013-01-01

    Reconhecidamente, os processos de dissolução química não atacam exclusivamente rochas carbonáticas, podendo gerar morfologias cársticas também em rochas silicáticas, como arenitos e quartzitos. No Sul de Minas, as faixas quartzíticas remanescentes de dobramentos pré-cambrianos deram margem à formação de uma série de distritos espeleológicos entre os quais o de São Thomé das Letras vem sofrendo impactos ambientais de maior vulto em função de depredatória mineração de quartzito que ocorre no mu...

  19. O FENÔMENO CÁRSTICO EM SÃO THOMÉ DAS LETRAS (MG E A MINERAÇÃO: EVOLUÇÃO E DEGRADAÇÃO DE CAVERNAS EM QUARTZITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marques Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconhecidamente, os processos de dissolução química não atacam exclusivamente rochas carbonáticas, podendo gerar morfologias cársticas também em rochas silicáticas, como arenitos e quartzitos. No Sul de Minas, as faixas quartzíticas remanescentes de dobramentos pré-cambrianos deram margem à formação de uma série de distritos espeleológicos entre os quais o de São Thomé das Letras vem sofrendo impactos ambientais de maior vulto em função de depredatória mineração de quartzito que ocorre no município. Em face a tal problemática, o presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos genéticos e evolutivos dos processos cársticos em questão e suas relações com a mineração.

  20. DE LA CAVERNA PLATÓNICA A LAS PRISIONES MODERNAS: VISIÓN Y OSCURIDAD EN LA LITERATURA, EL CINE Y EL ARTE POLÍTICOS DEL SIGLO XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La luz ha sido asociada desde Platón hasta la Ilustración al Bien, al conocimiento y a la Verdad. Sin embargo, a partir del siglo XIX, se observa un repensar del discurso que valoriza la luminosidad como algo positivo y la oscuridad como ignorancia. El énfasis en la sombra y en lo oscuro, que empieza con el Romanticismo, se desarrolla en la literatura, el arte y el cine político del siglo XX. La luminosidad aparece asociada a los excesos de la razón que llevan a la deshumanización de las sociedades contemporáneas y al totalitarismo. En cambio, la oscuridad y la ceguera dejan de ser simplemente condiciones negativas y se transforman en una metáfora de la resistencia del individuo cuando confronta la opresión política. En este artículo, se explorará esta nueva comprensión de la oscuridad y la ceguera en el arte de Ana Maria Pacheco, en la obra teatral La Muerte y la Doncella de Ariel Dorfman, en la película Garaje Olimpo, dirigida por Marco Bechis, y en la novela Ensayo sobre la Ceguera de José Saramago.

  1. Associations between dru Types and SCCmec Cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette D; Boye, Kit; Oliveira, Duarte C

    2013-01-01

    types (dt) in 283 isolates, while eighteen isolates contained no dru repeats and one isolate resisted sequencing. The most common dru type, dt10a, was present in 53% of the sequenced isolates and was found in all SCCmec types, except type II. Seven (10%) of the 68 epidemiologically related patients had...... isolates with dru type variants indicating that dru typing is not useful as a first line epidemiological typing tool. However, MRSA isolates cultured from a single patient over a three year period exhibited a single dru type. The finding of dt10a in most SCCmec types suggests that dru and mecA originate......Molecular typing is an important tool in the investigation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and in following the evolution of MRSA. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) contains a hypervariable region with a variable number of 40 bp repeats named direct...

  2. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...... vastus lateralis across all groups. No significant differences between groups were observed in ceramide content in either of the two substudies. In human skeletal muscle, ceramide content was higher in type I than in type II fibers in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese subjects, but overall...

  3. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  4. Exercise and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical...... metabolic effects of exercise in T2DM patients with special focus on which parameters to consider for optimizing metabolic improvements. We then discuss the mechanisms whereby exercise exerts its anti-inflammatory and related metabolic effects. Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved...... in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α appears to be a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. Mechanistic studies in humans suggest that moderate acute elevations in IL-6, as provoked by exercise, exert direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF...

  5. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  6. An Abel type cubic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Nicklason

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider center conditions for plane polynomial systems of Abel type consisting of a linear center perturbed by the sum of 2 homogeneous polynomials of degrees n and 2n-1 where $n \\ge 2$. Using properties of Abel equations we obtain two general systems valid for arbitrary values on n. For the cubic n=2 systems we find several sets of new center conditions, some of which show that the results in a paper by Hill, Lloyd and Pearson which were conjectured to be complete are in fact not complete. We also present a particular system which appears to be a counterexample to a conjecture by Zoladek et al. regarding rational reversibility in cubic polynomial systems.

  7. Genetics of Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Moltke, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects millions of people worldwide. Improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and ultimately improving the treatment strategies are, thus, of great interest. To achieve this, identification of genetic variation predisposing to T2D is important. A large number...... disease-associated variants due to genetic drift. Collectively, this increases the statistical power to detect association signals in isolated populations compared to large outbred populations. In this review, we elaborate on why isolated populations are a powerful resource for the identification...... of complex disease variants and describe their contributions to the understanding of the genetics of T2D. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York....

  8. Dens invaginatus (Type III B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Sudheendra, Us; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2012-05-01

    Dens invaginatus or 'dens in dente' is a developmental malformation of the tooth resulting from infolding of the dental papilla before calcification. This article presents a case of dens invaginatus occurring in maxillary right lateral incisor of a 45-year-old male patient. The patient presented with pain and clinically missing maxillary right canine. The tooth was found to be non-vital. Radiographic examination revealed the tooth-in-tooth appearance of lateral incisor with a dilated pulp chamber. The crown of impacted canine was found within the pulp chamber of lateral incisor. Owing to this unique clinical presentation, both the lateral incisor and the impacted canine were extracted. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Dens invaginatus Type III B. A brief review on etiopathogenesis, radiographic features and treatment of dens invaginatus has also been included.

  9. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, A and Post, D.M. Life history differences in alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) alter the ontogenetic trajectory of juvenile largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) (manuscript) MS III Boel, M. & Koed, A. Habitat specific avian predation on brown trout (Salmo trutta) (manuscript) MS IV Boel, M., Aarestrup, K., Koed......, A., Baktoft, H. and Skov, C.. Field based evaluation of the effect of 23 mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on the length-mass relationship in wild juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) (submitted manuscript: Fisheries Management and Ecology) The thesis was focused on the life history...

  10. PWR type process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Gilles; Petit, Guy.

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear reactor described is of the pressurized water type. It includes a prestressed concrete vessel, the upper part of which is shut by a closure, and a core surrounded by a core ring. The core fuel assemblies are supported by an initial set of vertical tubes integral with the bottom of the vessel, which serve to guide the rods of the control system. Over the core there is a second set of vertical tubes, able to receive the absorbing part of a control rod when this is raised above the core. An annular pressurizer around the core ring keeps the water in a liquid state. A pump is located above the second set of tubes and is integral with the closure. It circulates the water between the core and the intake of at least one primary heat exchanger, the exchanger (s) being placed between the wall of the vessel and the core ring [fr

  11. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... and disadvantages as management tools for member states in relation to the requirements of the WFD, but due to their different model structures they are distinct in their data needs, transferability, user-friendliness and presentable outputs. Water resource managers need information on what approaches will best...... management tools, but require large amounts of data and the model structure is complex. It is concluded that the use of habitat suitability indices (HSIs) and fuzzy rules in hydraulic-habitat modelling are the most ready model types to satisfy WFD demands. These models are well documented, transferable, user...

  12. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  13. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Saxagliptin for type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio R Chacra, MDDiabetes Center, Federal University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Saxagliptin (Onglyza™ is a potent, selective, once-daily dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor indicated for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. By blocking DPP-4, saxagliptin increases and prolongs the effects of incretins, a group of peptide hormones released by intestinal cells after meals, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion to lower blood glucose. In controlled clinical trials, saxagliptin administered as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, glyburide, or a thiazolidinedione improved glycemic control in a clinically significant manner, reflected by significant decreases in glycated hemoglobin (monotherapy, -0.5%; add-on to metformin, thiazolidinedione, or sulfonylurea, -0.6% to 0.9%; initial combination with metformin, -2.5%, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose compared with controls. Additionally, saxagliptin improved β-cell function, reflected as increases in homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-2β. Saxagliptin was generally well tolerated; it did not increase hypoglycemia compared with controls, and was weight neutral. A meta-analysis of Phase II and III trials showed that saxagliptin did not increase the risk of major cardiovascular events. Professional organizations have updated their guidelines for T2D to include a DPP-4 inhibitor as an early treatment option—either as initial therapy in combination with metformin, or as add-on therapy for patients whose glycemia is inadequately controlled by a single oral antidiabetic drug.Keywords: saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes

  15. [New insulin types in type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jordi

    2015-07-20

    Since its discovery almost a century ago, insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although progress in the synthesis of new formulations has been remarkable, the physiological profile of insulin is still different from that observed with preparations available nowadays. In the last decade, the introduction into clinical practice of insulin analogues has allowed significantly improvement in glycemic control and has facilitated the spread of basal/bolus patterns, the most physiological ones until now. Despite the benefits of basal analogues, glycemia often varies considerably when used as a single daily injection and this is why new molecules have been further investigated. Improvement has been achieved especially in terms of duration and rate of hypoglycemia, the main limiting factor of intensive therapy. This article reviews the available data concerning the new basal insulin analogues, degludec, pegylated lispro and glargine U300, and new formulations currently under development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  17. A Typeful Integration of SQL into Curry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanus, Michael; Krone, Julia

    2017-01-01

    We present an extension of the declarative programming language Curry to support the access to data stored in relational databases via SQL. Since Curry is statically typed, our emphasis on this SQL integration is on type safety. Our extension respects the type system of Curry so that run-time errors due to ill-typed data are avoided. This is obtained by preprocessing SQL statements at compile time and translating them into type-safe database access operations. As a consequence, the type ch...

  18. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  19. Composite type nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Koichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention realizes a high thermal efficiency by heating steams at the exit of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant to high temperature by a thermal super-heating boiler. That is, a thermal superheating boiler is disposed between the steam generator and a turbogenerator to heat steams from the steam generator and supply them to the turbogenerator. In this case, it may be possible that feedwater superheating boiler pipelines to the steam generator are caused to pass through the thermal superheating boiler so that they also have a performance of heating feedwater. If the system of the present invention is used, it is possible to conduct base load operation by nuclear power and a load following operation by controlling the thermal superheating boiler. Further, a hydrogen producing performance is applied to the thermal superheating boiler to produce hydrogen when electric power load is lowered. An internally sustaining type operation method can be conducted of burning hydrogen by the superheating boiler upon increased electric power load. As a result, a power generation system which has an excellent economical property and can easily cope with the load following operation can be attained. (I.S.)

  20. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  1. Genetics of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Emma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Groop, Leif

    2011-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder that is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the disease-affecting genes to better understand the disease pathogenesis, find new targets for clinical therapy, and allow prediction of disease. Our knowledge about the genes involved in disease pathogenesis has increased substantially in recent years, thanks to genomewide association studies and international collaborations joining efforts to collect the huge numbers of individuals needed to study complex diseases on a population level. We have summarized what we have learned so far about the genes that affect T2D risk and their functions. Although more than 40 loci associated with T2D or glycemic traits have been reported and reproduced, only a minor part of the genetic component of the disease has been explained, and the causative variants and affected genes are unknown for many of the loci. Great advances have recently occurred in our understanding of the genetics of T2D, but much remains to be learned about the disease etiology. The genetics of T2D has so far been driven by technology, and we now hope that next-generation sequencing will provide important information on rare variants with stronger effects. Even when variants are known, however, great effort will be required to discover how they affect disease risk.

  2. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r 2 =0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust-Lemoine, Emmanuelle; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-01

    Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrom type 1 (PAS-1) or Autoimmune PolyEndocrinopathy Candidiasis-Ectodermal-Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare recessive autosomal disease related to Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations. AIRE is mainly implicated in central and peripheric immune tolerance. Diagnosis was classically based on presence of at least two out of three "majors" criterions of Whitaker's triad (candidiasis, autoimmune hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency). Presence of one criterion was sufficient when a sibling was previously diagnosed. However, some atypic or poorly symptomatic variants do not correspond to these criterions. As a matter of fact, digestive (malabsorption, pernicious anemia, hepatitis), cutaneous (alopecia, vitiligo, enamel dysplasia) or ophtalmological (keratitis) components could prevail. In these cases, diagnosis could be made by molecular genetics. Prognosis is influenced by genetic (AIRE mutations, HLA), hormonal and environmental (infections) factors. Potentially letal components (hepatitis and severe malabsorption) could be treated by immunosuppressors. Candidiasis and other infections should be carefully screened and treated before beginning those therapies, in order to avoid severe systemic infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [The new types of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  5. Swift-Hohenberg-type model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Dunkel, Joern

    Recent experiments from the Zvonimir Dogic Lab (Brandeis University) demonstrated that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery has sparked considerable theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by modifying the classical Landau-de Gennes theory for liquid crystals, obtaining a tensorial Swift-Hohenberg-type PDE. We simulate the resulting model numerically and develop an algorithm for tracking topological defects. We find that the resulting model agrees quantitatively with recently published data and predicts a regime of antipolar defect ordering. Ordered states go unstable as the activity parameter is increased, yet the chaotic defect dynamics still exhibit local antipolar ordering. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetry-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  6. Natural convection type BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobimatsu, Toshimi.

    1990-01-01

    In a natural convection type BWR reactor, a mixed stream of steams and water undergo a great flow resistance. In particular, pressure loss upon passing from an upper plenum to a stand pipe and pressure loss upon passing through rotational blades are great. Then, a steam dryer comprising laminated dome-like perforated plates and a drain pipe for flowing down separated water to a downcomer are disposed above a riser. The coolants heated in the reactor core are boiled, uprise in the riser as a gas-liquid two phase flow containing voids, release steams containing droplets from the surface of the gas-liquid two phase, flow into the steam dryer comprising the perforated plates and are separated into a gas and a liquid. The dried steams flow to a turbine passing through a main steam pipe and the condensated droplets flow down through the drain pipe and the downcomer to the lower portion of the reactor core. In this way, the conventional gas-liquid separator can be saved without lowering the quality of steam drying to reduce the pressure loss and to improve the operation performance. (N.H.)

  7. A Type System for Certified Binaries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shao, Zhong; Trifonov, Valery; Saha, Bratin; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    ... (CPS and closure conversion) while preserving proofs represented in the type system. Our work provides a foundation for the process of automatically generating certified binaries in a type-theoretic framework.

  8. Diabetes Type 2 Is Serious But Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes Type 2 Is Serious But Manageable Past Issues / ... t have to knock yourself out to prevent diabetes. The key is: small steps that lead to ...

  9. Glucose counterregulation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan, B.E. de; Hoekstra, J.B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Glucose counterregulatory failure and hypoglycaemia unawareness frequently complicate treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially when aiming for intensive metabolic control. Since tight metabolic control reduces microvascular long-term complications in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the integrity

  10. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  11. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye called the macula , which is responsible for sharp central vision. Most people with spastic paraplegia type ... ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the ZFYVE26 gene cause spastic paraplegia type 15 . This gene provides ...

  12. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  13. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  14. Type Soundness in the Dart Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strocco, Fabio

    Many mainstream programming languages are dynamically typed. This allows for rapid software development and programming flexibility because it gives programmers the freedom to use powerful programming patterns that are not allowed in statically typed programming languages. Nevertheless......, this freedom does not come without drawbacks: static bugs detection, IDE support, and compiler optimization techniques are harder to implement. In the last decades, the research literature and mainstream programming languages have been aiming to reach a trade-off between statically typed and dynamically typed...... languages. We investigate the trade-off, focusing on the area of optional typing, which allows programmers to choose when to use static type checking in parts of pro- grams. Our primary focus is Dart, an optionally typed programming language with a type system that is unsound by design. What makes Dart...

  15. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  16. Japanese Small Type Coastal Whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fisher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2016 marks the 70th anniversary of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW as well as the 30th anniversary of the International Whaling Commission’s (IWC moratorium on commercial whaling. It also marks three decades of effort by Japan to overturn this ban. Its strategy to circumvent the moratorium by issuing permits to kill protected whales for scientific research is famous—even the subject of a 2014 lawsuit at the International Court of Justice. Less well known is Japan’s strategy to overturn the ban by persuading the Commission to authorise a category of commercial whaling known as Small Type Coastal Whaling (STCW that is conducted on minke and other small whales in Japanese waters but has never been regulated, or even formally recognised, by the IWC. For three decades Japan has sought STCW catch limits for four communities which it claims are still suffering distress as a result of the moratorium. While the Commission has rejected each proposal, mainly citing concerns that the commercial nature and purpose of STCW violates the moratorium, Japan has persisted, exhibiting great flexibility in its approach. Its tactics changed significantly in 2014; it no longer denied (or defended the commerciality of the hunt, but argued that it is irrelevant since it sought only a small exemption to the moratorium which would remain intact for all other populations. This is a perspective on Japan’s evolving STCW strategy and the risk that lifting, or modifying, the moratorium would pose to the conservation of whales.

  17. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s –1 ) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22 +10 –6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as –5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  19. Band-type microelectrodes for amperometric immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ga-Yeon; Chang, Young Wook; Ko, Hyuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Jung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul, E-mail: jcpyun@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-20

    A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. A circular-type, mm-scale electrode with the same diameter as the band-type microelectrode was also made with an electrode area that was 5000 times larger than the band-type microelectrode. By comparing the amperometric signals of 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) samples at different optical density (OD) values, the band-type microelectrode was determined to be 9 times more sensitive than the circular-type electrode. The properties of the circular-type and the band-type electrodes (e.g., the shape of their cyclic voltammograms, the type of diffusion layer used, and the diffusion layer thickness per unit electrode area) were characterized according to their electrode area using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. From these simulations, the band-type electrode was estimated to have the conventional microelectrode properties, even when the electrode area was 100 times larger than a conventional circular-type electrode. These results show that both the geometry and the area of an electrode can influence the properties of the electrode. Finally, amperometric analysis based on a band-type electrode was applied to commercial ELISA kits to analyze human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. - Highlights: • A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. • The band-type microelectrode was 14-times more sensitive than circular-type electrode. • The influence of geometry on microelectrode properties was simulated using COMSOL. • The band-type electrode was applied to ELISA kits for hHBsAg and hHIV-antibodies.

  20. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hüttel, Hans; Tuosto, Emilio; Vieira, Hugo Torres; Zavattaro, Gianluigi; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco T.; Caires, Luís; Carbone, Marco; Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Mostrous, Dimitris; Padovani, Luca; Ravara, António

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns of interaction using expressive type languages, so that types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two rel...

  1. [Type IA glycogenosis with acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, T E

    1995-01-01

    Type IA glycogenosis, or von Gierke disease, is the most common among the glycogenoses with enlarged liver. Acute pancreatitis is a rare manifestation of type IA glycogenosis and has been attributed to elevated serum fat levels. We report a case of type IA glycogenosis with acute pancreatitis. The radiologists should be familiar with the computed tomography findings in this rare complications of type IA glycogenosis.

  2. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can...... be provided. We also pinpoint several limitations of type classes in this context....

  3. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  4. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  5. Hoare type theory, polymorphism and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanevski, Alexandar; Morrisett, J. Gregory; Birkedal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    with higher-order functions and type polymorphism. We further show that in the presence of type polymorphism, it becomes possible to interpret the Hoare types in the “small footprint” manner, as advocated by separation logic, whereby specifications tightly describe the state required by the computation. We...

  6. Cosmology with type-Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    I review the use of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) for cosmological studies. After briefly recalling the main features of type-Ia SNe that lead to their use as cosmological probes, I briefly describe current and planned type-Ia SNe surveys, with special emphasis on their physics reach in the presence of systematic uncertainties, which will be dominant in nearly all cases.

  7. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  8. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Comparison of PCR-based open reading frame typing, multilocus sequence typing, and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Kozakai, Takahiro; Shima, Mari; Aiso, Yoshibumi; Fujie, Toshihide; Nukui, Yoko; Koike, Ryuji; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2018-04-01

    The recently developed PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) method is a useful molecular typing tool. Here, we evaluated the performance of POT for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and compared its performance to those of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa typing). Thirty-seven MRSA isolates were collected between July 2012 and May 2015. MLST, spa typing, and POT were performed, and their discriminatory powers were evaluated using Simpson's index analysis. The MRSA isolates were classified into 11, 18, and 33 types by MLST, spa typing, and POT, respectively. The predominant strains identified by MLST, spa typing, and POT were ST8 and ST764, t002, and 93-191-127, respectively. The discriminatory power of MLST, spa typing, and POT was 0.853, 0.875, and 0.992, respectively, indicating that POT had the highest discriminatory power. Moreover, the results of MLST and spa were available after 2 days, whereas that of POT was available in 5 h. Furthermore, POT is rapid and easy to perform and interpret. Therefore, POT is a superior molecular typing tool for monitoring nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control the amount of sugar in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age; however, it usually ... Insulin Antibody Test Encyclopedia: Diabetic Ketoacidosis Encyclopedia: Home Blood Sugar Testing Encyclopedia: Type 1 Diabetes Health Topic: Diabetes Medicines Health Topic: Diabetes Type ...

  10. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  11. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  12. Neurofibromatosis type 1 growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, M; Milani, S; Mammi, I; Boni, S; Monciotti, C; Tenconi, R

    1999-12-03

    Growth abnormalities such as macrocephaly and short stature have been described and are considered a consistent finding in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders in man. We present here a clinical study on the growth profile of a sample of NF1 patients collected through a population-based registry that covers three contiguous regions of North-East Italy (NEI-NF Registry). Auxometric traits of 528 NF1 patients have been measured with the aim of drawing growth charts for height, weight, and head circumference (OFC). Height velocity charts were based on a subset of 143 children who underwent multiple measurements. No differences in height were apparent between NF1 and normal subjects up to age 7 (girls) and 12 (boys) years; subsequently, the 50th centile of NF1 subjects tends to overlap with the 25th centile of normal subjects, and the 3rd centile is much lower in NF1 subjects than in normal subjects, mainly during adolescence. The negatively skewed distribution of height seems to indicate that height growth impairment affects only a proportion of NF1 subjects; height growth impairment does not seem related to disease severity. As for weight, our data suggest that slight overweight is a characteristic of adult NF1 subjects (mainly among males), independent of disease severity. Height growth velocity is normal during childhood for both sexes, whereas the pubertal spurt is slightly anticipated and reduced in NF1 boys but not in girls. Our data confirm previous observations that macrocrania affects most NF1 subjects; the shape of the head growth curve is similar in NF1 and normal girls, whereas NF1 boys present an OFC pubertal growth spurt much more pronounced and delayed than normal boys. The disproportion between OFC and height seems to be related to disease severity in boys but not in girls. Growth charts presented here can be useful in neurofibromatosis clinics for the identification of the effects of secondary growth

  13. Hoare type theory, polymorphism and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanevski, Alexandar; Morrisett, J. Gregory; Birkedal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    with higher-order functions and type polymorphism. We further show that in the presence of type polymorphism, it becomes possible to interpret the Hoare types in the “small footprint” manner, as advocated by separation logic, whereby specifications tightly describe the state required by the computation. We...... establish that HTT is sound and compositional, in the sense that separate verifications of individual program components suffice to ensure the correctness of the composite program....... to statically track and enforce correct use of side effects. The main feature of HTT is the Hoare type {P}x:A{Q} specifying computations with precondition P and postcondition Q that return a result of type A. Hoare types can be nested, combined with other types, and abstracted, leading to a smooth integration...

  14. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D...

  15. EBV Latency Types Adopt Alternative Chromatin Conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Italo; Klichinsky, Michael; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp) or type III (Cp) gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer. PMID:21829357

  16. EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Tempera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp or type III (Cp gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer.

  17. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: Impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2015-01-01

    -responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared to lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I...

  18. Increased vital exhaustion among type-D patients with ischemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, SS; Middel, B

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the "distressed personality" (type-D) in cardiac patients and to explore the relationships between type-D, gender, vital exhaustion and angina pectoris. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 171 patients scheduled for coronary angiography (CAG) at

  19. A Kantorovich-Stancu Type Generalization of Szasz Operators including Brenke Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Aktaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Kantorovich-Stancu type modification of a generalization of Szasz operators defined by means of the Brenke type polynomials and obtain approximation properties of these operators. Also, we give a Voronovskaya type theorem for Kantorovich-Stancu type operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials.

  20. Type 1/Type 2 Cytokine Serum Levels and Role of Interleukin-18 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In view of the conflicting evidence of helper T cell type 1 (Th1) or type 2 (Th2) pattern of cytokine synthesis in steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), this study aimed to assess type-1/type-2 cytokines level in different stages of SSNS and to evaluate the role of IL-18. Methods: We prospectively studied ...

  1. TypingSuite: Integrated Software for Presenting Stimuli, and Collecting and Analyzing Typing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Erin L.; Marchand, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Research into typing patterns has broad applications in both psycholinguistics and biometrics (i.e., improving security of computer access via each user's unique typing patterns). We present a new software package, TypingSuite, which can be used for presenting visual and auditory stimuli, collecting typing data, and summarizing and analyzing the…

  2. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking....... The resulting system supports a flexible style of programming XML transformations and provides static guarantees of validity of the generated XML data....

  3. Odontoma and Analysis of 57 different types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghaei-e- Naeini F

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontoma is an odontogenic lesion with epithelial and mesenchymal origin and is composed"nof differentiated dental parts. Than because of abnormal organization of mature tissues. It seems that it is"na hamartoma rather than real tumor. Odontoma is seen in two types of compound & complex."nOut of 57 studied cases, 31 cases (54.2% were of complex type; 12 cases (21 % were compound & 8"ncases were of cystic. The age of incidence ranged from 5.5 to 68 years. The mean age in complex"nodontoma was 27 years & compound type was 19 years. There was no significant difference regarding the"nsex in the complex type. In compound odontoma women were affected 2 times more than means."nComplex type are found in mandibular posterior era ereas more and compound type in anterior regions .In"nthis studied found 12 cases impaction teeth.

  4. Eating disorders in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    There is some debate in the literature as to whether there is an increased risk of developing eating disorders in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review located 12 empirical studies of eating pathology in females with type 1 diabetes. Review of these papers indicates that there is no evide......There is some debate in the literature as to whether there is an increased risk of developing eating disorders in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review located 12 empirical studies of eating pathology in females with type 1 diabetes. Review of these papers indicates...... that there is no evidence for an increase in the rates of anorexia or bulimia, in females with type 1 diabetes. However, the data do suggest that eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are more prevalent in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Key features of these articles are reviewed and discussed....

  5. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador Cueto-Alvarez, L.; Piriz-Campos, E.; Ruiz-Garcia, T.; Roldan-Lora, F.

    2000-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    the user to annotate arrow types with effect information. It is achieved by delimiting and abstracting control, comparably to continuation-based specialization in direct style. It enables type-directed partial evaluation of programs with effects (e.g., a definitional lambda-interpreter for an imperative...... and Schwichtenberg's normalization algorithm for the simply typed lambda-calculus. Type-directed partial evaluation thus can be used to specialize a compiled, closed program, given its type. Since Similix, let-insertion is a cornerstone of partial evaluators for call-by-value procedural languages with computational...... effects (such as divergence). It prevents the duplication of residual computations, and more generally maintains the order of dynamic side effects in the residual program. This article describes the extension of type-directed partial evaluation to insert residual let expressions. This extension requires...

  7. [Modern treatment of type B dissections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, L.; Baekgaard, N.; Just, S.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid classification is essential in the management of aortic dissections, as Type A dissections require surgery, while the optimal treatment of Type B dissections is controversial. Medical treatment with antihypertensive medication and analgesics has so far been the main treatment of uncomplicated...... Type B dissections, while surgery has been reserved for complications and persistent pain in spite of medical treatment. Endovascular techniques are less invasive than open repair and show promising early results Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/8...

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasche, K; Keller, T; Tautz, B; Hader, C; Hergen?, G; Antosiewicz, J; Di Giulio, C; Pokorski, M

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are diseases with high prevalence and major public health impact. There is evidence that regular snoring and OSA are independently associated with alterations in glucose metabolism. Thus, OSA might be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Possible causes might be intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, which are typical features of OSA. OSA might also be a reason of ineffective treatment of type 2 diabetes. There is furth...

  9. : Diabetes mellitus 1. type and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prouza, Michal

    2014-01-01

    1 Abstrakt Name of thesis Diabetes mellitus I. type and physical activity Aim of thesis The bachelor's thesis deals with diabetes mellitus I. type, the opportunity of compensation by adequate physical aktivity and diet and consecutive complications of diabetes. Methodology Collecting of the data from available literature and internet's resources. There is no personal interviews in this work. Results General description of the diabetes mellitus I. type, question of the physical aktivity with t...

  10. Rural tourism: the content, features and types

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Onoyko

    2017-01-01

    Despite the active development of rural tourism in Ukraine, this phenomenon is still under scientific study nowadays, which has been manifested by the uncertainty of the key terms; by the lack of clear boundaries, which can separate this type of tourism from other types of tourism activities; by debates about the essence and types of rural tourism. After analyzing the available information the author offers own generalized definition of rural tourism. Rural tourism is a specific entertaining ...

  11. Security Types for Dynamic Web Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dezani-Ciancaglini, Mariangiola; Ghilezan, Silvia; Pantovic, Jovanka; Varacca, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Soumis pour la publication à TCS; International audience; We describe a type system for the Xdpi calculus. An Xdpi-network is a network of locations, where each location consists of both a data tree (which contains scripts and pointers to nodes in trees at different locations) and a process, for modelling process interaction, process migration and interaction between processes and data. Our type system is based on types for locations, data and processes, expressing security levels. A tree can...

  12. Legendre transformations and Clairaut-type equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Av. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Merzlikin, Boris S., E-mail: merzlikin@tspu.edu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Av. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-10

    It is noted that the Legendre transformations in the standard formulation of quantum field theory have the form of functional Clairaut-type equations. It is shown that in presence of composite fields the Clairaut-type form holds after loop corrections are taken into account. A new solution to the functional Clairaut-type equation appearing in field theories with composite fields is found.

  13. Homotopy Type Theory: Univalent Foundations of Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Program, The Univalent Foundations

    2013-01-01

    Homotopy type theory is a new branch of mathematics, based on a recently discovered connection between homotopy theory and type theory, which brings new ideas into the very foundation of mathematics. On the one hand, Voevodsky's subtle and beautiful "univalence axiom" implies that isomorphic structures can be identified. On the other hand, "higher inductive types" provide direct, logical descriptions of some of the basic spaces and constructions of homotopy theory. Both are impossible to capt...

  14. A new linear type hydraulic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Tong; Li, Wenhua; Chen, Xinyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the design of liner type hydraulic motor on the base of inner curved radial piston hydraulic motor. The hydraulic cylinders of the new type motor are in the straight line which will improve the utilization of the axial space and different out power can be supplied by changes the number of cylinders. In this paper, the structure and working principle of the liner type hydraulic motor is introduced.

  15. A Typeful Integration of SQL into Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extension of the declarative programming language Curry to support the access to data stored in relational databases via SQL. Since Curry is statically typed, our emphasis on this SQL integration is on type safety. Our extension respects the type system of Curry so that run-time errors due to ill-typed data are avoided. This is obtained by preprocessing SQL statements at compile time and translating them into type-safe database access operations. As a consequence, the type checker of the Curry system can spot type errors in SQL statements at compile time. To generate appropriately typed access operations, the preprocessor uses an entity-relationship (ER model describing the structure of the relational data. In addition to standard SQL, SQL statements embedded in Curry can include program expressions and also relationships specified in the ER model. The latter feature is useful to avoid the error-prone use of foreign keys. As a result, our SQL integration supports a high-level and type-safe access to databases in Curry programs.

  16. Human papillomavirus type 56-associated Bowen disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A; Tamura, A; Abe, M; Amano, H; Motegi, S; Nakatani, Y; Hoshino, H; Ishikawa, O

    2012-11-01

    Some cases of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 56 infection in Bowen disease have been reported. However, the incidence and clinical characteristics are still unclear. To clarify the prevalence of HPV type 56-positive Bowen disease in our department and to characterize the clinical manifestations. Sixty-eight specimens of Bowen disease were examined by polymerase chain reaction using HPV consensus primers, and the amplified products were subjected to DNA sequence analyses. Moreover, positive samples were investigated by in situ hybridization. These findings were used to clarify the clinical characteristics of HPV-positive Bowen disease. Eight out of 68 specimens (12%) of Bowen disease were HPV-positive, of which six specimens were HPV type 56-positive. The HPV type 56-positive lesions were characterized by a longitudinal melanonychia or a deeply pigmented keratotic lesion. The remaining two specimens were genital Bowen disease in which HPV type 16 was detected. In situ hybridization demonstrated the positive cells in the upper layer of epidermis. The HPV type 56 detected in the samples of longitudinal melanonychia can be divided into at least into two types. This study determined the prevalence of HPV type 56-positive Bowen disease. Longitudinal melanonychia is the most characteristic manifestation of HPV type 56-associated Bowen disease. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Rangel, L.; Martinez Martinez, E.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  18. Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Ahsani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen that provokes numerous different diseases. This bacterium is classified into five different types, each of which capable of causing a different disease. There are various methods for the bacterial identification, many are labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive and also present low sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this research was to identify the different types of C. perfringens using PCR molecular method. In this study, 130 sheep-dung samples were randomly collected from areas around the city of Kerman, southeastern Iran. After processing and culturing of samples, the produced colonies were morphologically studied, gram stain test was also carried out and the genera of these bacteria were identified through biochemical tests. DNA extracted from isolated bacteria for genotyping was tested by multiplex PCR with specific primers. Based on length of synthesized fragments by PCR, toxin types and bacterial strains were detected. C. perfringens isolated types were divided as follows: 17.39% type A, 21.74% type B, 34.78% type C and 26.09% type D. It should be emphasized that, up to the present moment, C. perfringens type A has not been reported in Iran.

  19. Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.S. Biliaieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data concerning the problem of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1. A correlation between vitamin D deficiency and compensation of the disease is shown. The examination of adolescent patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus found a connection between levels of vitamin D, duration and the degree of type 1 diabetes compensation. Further studies are focused on studying the impact and the correction of vitamin D status in children with diabetes mellitus type 1, on improving the glycemic control and quality of life of a patient.

  20. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  1. Type I restriction enzymes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenen, Wil A M; Dryden, David T F; Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Wilson, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Type I restriction enzymes (REases) are large pentameric proteins with separate restriction (R), methylation (M) and DNA sequence-recognition (S) subunits. They were the first REases to be discovered and purified, but unlike the enormously useful Type II REases, they have yet to find a place in the enzymatic toolbox of molecular biologists. Type I enzymes have been difficult to characterize, but this is changing as genome analysis reveals their genes, and methylome analysis reveals their recognition sequences. Several Type I REases have been studied in detail and what has been learned about them invites greater attention. In this article, we discuss aspects of the biochemistry, biology and regulation of Type I REases, and of the mechanisms that bacteriophages and plasmids have evolved to evade them. Type I REases have a remarkable ability to change sequence specificity by domain shuffling and rearrangements. We summarize the classic experiments and observations that led to this discovery, and we discuss how this ability depends on the modular organizations of the enzymes and of their S subunits. Finally, we describe examples of Type II restriction-modification systems that have features in common with Type I enzymes, with emphasis on the varied Type IIG enzymes.

  2. Is type-D personality trait(s or state? An examination of type-D temporal stability in older Israeli adults in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H. Zohar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type D personality was suggested as a marker of poorer prognosis for patients of cardiovascular disease. It is defined by having a score of 10 or more on both sub-scales of the DS14 questionnaire, Social Inhibition (SI and Negative Affectivity (NA. As Type D was designed to predict risk, its temporal stability is of prime importance. Methods. Participants in the current study were 285 community volunteers, who completed the DS14, and other personality scales, at a mean interval of six years. Results. The prevalence of Type D did not change. The component traits of Type D showed rank order stability. Type D caseness temporal stability was improved by using the sub-scales product as a criterion. Logistic hierarchical regression predicting Type D classification from Time1 demonstrated that the best predictors were Time1 scores on NA and SI, with the character trait of Cooperation, and the alexithymia score adding some predictive power. Conclusions. The temporal stability of the component traits, and of the prevalence of Type D were excellent. Temporal stability of Type D caseness may be improved by using a product threshold, rather than the current rule. Research is required in order to formulate the optimal timing for Type D measurement for predictive purposes.

  3. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...... of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural......, it shows how a novel kind of dynamic type check can detect compatibility among entire families of classes....

  4. Intensional type theory with guarded recursive types qua fixed points on universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and types. When applied to the groupoid model of intensional type theory with the universe of small discrete groupoids, the construction gives a model of guarded recursion for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between fixed points of functions on the universe of types and fixed points of (suitable......Guarded recursive functions and types are useful for giving semantics to advanced programming languages and for higher-order programming with infinite data types, such as streams, e.g., for modeling reactive systems. We propose an extension of intensional type theory with rules for forming fixed...... points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions...

  5. Extending Dylan's type system for better type inference and error detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    Whereas dynamic typing enables rapid prototyping and easy experimentation, static typing provides early error detection and better compile time optimization. Gradual typing [26] provides the best of both worlds. This paper shows how to define and implement gradual typing in Dylan, traditionally...... a dynamically typed language. Dylan poses several special challenges for gradual typing, such as multiple return values, variable-arity methods and generic functions (multiple dispatch). In this paper Dylan is extended with function types and parametric polymorphism. We implemented the type system...... and aunification-based type inference algorithm in the mainstream Dylan compiler. As case study we use the Dylan standard library (roughly 32000 lines of code), which witnesses that the implementation generates faster code with fewer errors. Some previously undiscovered errors in the Dylan library were revealed....

  6. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Heydorn, Arne; Ragas, Paula Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat image analysis. Flagella and type IV pili were not necessary...... for P. aeruginosa initial attachment or biofilm formation, but the cell appendages had roles in biofilm development, as wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants formed biofilms with different structures. Dynamics and selection during biofilm formation were investigated by tagging the wild type...... and flagella/type IV mutants with Yfp and Cfp and performing time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy in mixed colour biofilms. The initial microcolony formation occurred by clonal growth, after which wild-type P. aeruginosa bacteria spread over the substratum by means of twitching motility. The wild-type...

  7. Gevrey type solutions of nonlinear difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    We prove the existence of Gevrey type solutions for locally analytic, nonlinear difference equations possessing a formal solution that belongs to some (generalized) Gevrey class of divergent power series in z(-1/p). We consider different types of domains: domains bounded by a curve with limiting

  8. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity...

  9. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response...... strategies to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes....

  10. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth / For Parents / Type 2 ... español Diabetes tipo 2: ¿Qué es? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  11. Aspects of type $0$ string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, R; Kumar, A; Lüst, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    A construction of compact tachyon-free orientifolds of the non-supersymmetric Type 0B string theory is presented. Moreover, we study effective non-supersymmetric gauge theories arising on self-dual D3-branes in Type 0B orbifolds and orientifolds.

  12. Sleep Apnea in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Doumit, Jimmy; Prasad, Bharati

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters glucose metabolism, promotes insulin resistance, and is associated with development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a key moderator of the effect of OSA on type 2 diabetes. However, chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia and other pathophysiological effects of OSA affect glucose metabolism directly, and treatment of OSA can improve glucose homeostasis.

  13. On Opial-Type Integral Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chang-Jian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some new Opial-type inequalities involving functions of two and many independent variables. Our results in special cases yield some of the recent results on Opial's inequality and also provide new estimates on inequalities of this type.

  14. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  15. Prevalence, types and psychopathologic consequences of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using GHQ-12, Psychopathologic consequence of FGC was assessed among those who underwent FGC. Results: The prevalence of FGC among respondents in this study was 22.5%. Type 2a (removal of labia minora only) was the predominant type of FGC among respondents accounting for 64.6%; this was followed by ...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... round type shall not be mixed with those of the long type in the same container. ...

  17. Antioxidant phytochemicals against type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Mykkänen, Otto; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2008-05-01

    Dietary phytochemicals, of which polyphenols form a considerable part, may affect the risk of obesity-associated chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This article presents an overview on how phytochemicals, especially polyphenols in fruits, vegetables, berries, beverages and herbal medicines, may modify imbalanced lipid and glucose homeostasis thereby reducing the risk of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes complications.

  18. Outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Moelsted-Pedersen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This nationwide prospective multicenter study took place in eight Danish centers treating pregnant women with type 1 diabetes during 1993-...

  19. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  20. PHAGE TYPING OF VIBRIO "EL TOR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ADIBFAR

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available 33 Stools from 518 patients suspected of having cholera were examined. From 174 of these patients Vibrio EI Tor was isolated. PO of these strains belonged to phage type IV, 53 to phage type V and one strain was untypable. It is suggested that these strains originated from two different sources.

  1. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  2. Manual of the TYPO type checker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. de Nivelle

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTYPO is a type checker which implements typed lambda calculus with the purpose of formalizing mathematical proofs. TYPO has been constructed with the following design objectives: (1) Easy installation. In order to obtain this goal the program has been written in portable C. The program

  3. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectrophotometry of VV Cephei-type systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, J.

    1974-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrophotometry of four VV Cephei-type systems and two related objects is analyzed to derive the visual magnitude differences of the binary components. The results are in good agreement with previous photometric determinations. An extension of the present technique to other types of binary systems is briefly discussed. (U.S.)

  5. Three discussions on object-oriented typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors.......This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors....

  6. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...

  7. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...

  8. Computer Orientation by Holland Type and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Rose M.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Examined differences in computer attitudes by gender and Holland type in 289 college freshmen who completed the Computer Attitude Scale. Found that women and students classified as Artistic and Enterprising in general demonstrated less positive computer attitudes that did males and other Holland types. (NB)

  9. P-adic Schroedinger type equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.

    1988-12-01

    In p-adic quantum mechanics a Schroedinger type equation is considered. We discuss the appropriate notion of differential operators. A solution of the Schroedinger type equation is given. A new set of vacuum states for the p-adic quantum harmonic oscillator is presented. The correspondence principle with the standard quantum mechanics is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Simple algebraic data types for C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Muller, Henk L.

    Adt is a simple tool in the spirit of Lex and Yacc that makes monomorphic algebraic data types, polymorphic built-in types like the list and an efficient form of pattern matching available in C programs. C programs built with ADTs typically use NULL pointers only to indicate don't care values, and

  11. Ynot: Depent Types for Imperative Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanevski, Aleksandar; Morrisett, Greg; Shinnar, Avi

    2008-01-01

    We describe an axiomatic extension to the Coq proof assistant, that supports writing, reasoning about, and extracting higher-order, dependently-typed programs with side-effects. Coq already includes a powerful functional language that supports dependent types, but that language is limited to pure...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The pure types involve only the nerves and muscles controlling the lower limbs and bladder, whereas the complex types also have significant involvement of the nervous system in other parts of the body. ... spasticity of the leg muscles and muscle weakness. People with this condition can ...

  13. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future date...

  14. Compactly Supported Curvelet-Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We study a flexible method for constructing curvelet-type frames. These curvelet-type systems have the same sparse representation properties as curvelets for appropriate classes of smooth functions, and the flexibility of the method allows us to give a constructive description of how to construct...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as “pre-diabetes,” also called metabolic syndrome. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. When What is Pre- ... not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes”, causes acanthosis nigricans — a ... overweight; and obesity occurs when BMI is greater than the 95th ...

  16. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  17. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Cowan, Susan; Gerstoft, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide study is to determine the strain type diversity among patients diagnosed with syphilis by PCR during a 4-year period in Denmark. Epidemiological data, including HIV status, for all patients were obtained from the Danish national syphilis registration system. Molecular s...... diagnosed with a wide spectrum of different strain types of Treponema pallidum....

  18. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine

  19. Uncovering Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-de Winter, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In existing disease-management-programs for type 2 diabetes there is no routine attention for uncovering latent or early stages of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. Between February 2009 and March 2010, 605 patients aged 60 years or over with type 2 diabetes in the south-west of the

  20. Impaired type I immunity to mycobacterial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paus, Roelof Anne de

    2013-01-01

    Type I immune responses play an essential role in the control of mycobacterial infections. Mutations in the genes involved in the type I cytokine pathway were found in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. These patients are highly susceptible to infections with

  1. Simplified interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang-Yin; Liao, Shih-Hui; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a self-evolving interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (FNN) for various applications. As type-1 fuzzy systems cannot effectively handle uncertainties in information within the knowledge base, we propose a simple interval type-2 FNN, which uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets in the premise and the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type in the consequent of the fuzzy rule. The TSK-type consequent of fuzzy rule is a linear combination of exogenous input variables. Given an initially empty the rule-base, all rules are generated with on-line type-2 fuzzy clustering. Instead of the time-consuming K-M iterative procedure, the design factors ql and qr are learned to adaptively adjust the upper and lower positions on the left and right limit outputs, using the parameter update rule based on a gradient descent algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that our approach yields fewer test errors and less computational complexity than other type-2 FNNs.

  2. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property may...

  3. Agreement and Kappa-Type Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.

    2007-01-01

    Kappa-type indices use the concept of agreement to express the reproducibility of nominal measurements. This article grounds kappa-type indices in statistical modeling, making explicit the underlying premises and assumptions. We critically review whether the interpretation of the kappa index as a

  4. Potential biological pathways linking Type-D personality and poor health: A cross-sectional investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera K Jandackova

    Full Text Available Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample.Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41.6±11.5, 12,2% women were available for analysis. Persons with Type-D (negative affect and social isolation score ≥10 were contrasted with those without Type-D. Measures of plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine, triglycerides, and albumin were derived from fasting blood samples. Urine norepinephrine and free cortisol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV measures were calculated for the 24hr recording period and for nighttime separately.Persons with Type-D had higher HbA1c, FPG, and fibrinogen, and lower nighttime HRV than those without Type-D, suggesting worse glycemic control, systemic inflammation and poorer autonomic nervous system modulation in Type-D persons. In addition, those with Type-D reported less social support and greater sleep difficulties while no group differences were observed for alcohol and cigarette consumption, physical activity and body mass index.Findings provide some of the first evidence for multiple possible biological and behavioral pathways between Type-D personality and increased morbidity and mortality.

  5. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    -normal, Pareto and gamma distributions. We provide explicit representations for both the matrix-exponential class and for the phase-type distributions, where the latter class may also use the former representations, but for various reasons it is desirable to establish a phase-type representation when dealing......Both matrix-exponential and phase-type distributions have a number of important closure properties. Among those are the distributions of the age and residual life-time of a stationary renewal process with inter-arrivals of either type. In this talk we show that the spread, which is the sum...... of the age an residual life-time, is also phase-type distributed. Moreover, we give some explicit representations. The spread is known to have a first order moment distribution. If X is a positive random variable and ?i is its i'th moment, then the function fi(x) = xif(x)/?i is a density function...

  6. Piezoresistance in p-type silicon revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Pedersen, Jesper; Brandbyge, Mads

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type Si with a 6×6 k·p Hamiltonian model using the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation. Furthermore, we fabricate and characterize p-type silicon piezoresistors embedded in a (001) silicon substrate. We find that the ...... to experiments. Finally, we present a fitting function of temperature and acceptor density to the 6×6 model that can be used to predict the piezoresistance effect in p-type silicon. ©2008 American Institute of Physics......We calculate the shear piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type Si with a 6×6 k·p Hamiltonian model using the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation. Furthermore, we fabricate and characterize p-type silicon piezoresistors embedded in a (001) silicon substrate. We find...

  7. Intersections and Unions of Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşku Acay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior work has extended the deep, logical connection between the linear sequent calculus and session-typed message-passing concurrent computation with equi-recursive types and a natural notion of subtyping. In this paper, we extend this further by intersection and union types in order to express multiple behavioral properties of processes in a single type. We prove session fidelity and absence of deadlock and illustrate the expressive power of our system with some simple examples. We observe that we can represent internal and external choice by intersection and union, respectively, which was previously suggested by Padovani for a different language of session types motivated by operational rather than logical concerns.

  8. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  9. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuovo, G.J.; Pedemonte, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion

  10. Some continuously variable partial snakes of Type 1 and Type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain polarized beam in proton accelerators, Siberian snakes of two types may be needed in order to establish a spin tune independent of energy. We have done a numerical study to find a type II partial snake and to find more exact solutions for the type I partial snakes previously proposed. We find a type II partial snake. We find that the unequal field integrals needed to modify approximate type I snakes to exactly type I snakes with horizontal and vertical bends result in unacceptably large orbit excursions. We find a new type I snake with smaller field integrals at small overall rotation. An 8 magnet type II snake works from 0 to π but more magnets might be used to reduce the excursion at small angle. Also, no type I partial snake with as few as 8 magnets has been found which will work continuously from 0 to π. It appears that horizontal and vertical bends cannot provide solutions for pure type I or type II that allow the field integrals to approach zero as the rotation goes to zero. Versions of both the new type I and type II partial snakes are presently used as rotators in the external polarized beamline at Fermilab. 8 refs., 7 figs

  11. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  12. Type III polyketide synthases in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are simple homodimers of ketosynthases which catalyze the condensation of one to several molecules of extender substrate onto a starter substrate through iterative decarboxylative Claisen condensation reactions. Type III PKSs have been found in bacteria and fungi, as well as plants. Microbial type III PKSs, which are involved in the biosynthesis of some lipidic compounds and various secondary metabolites, have several interesting characteristics that are not shared by plant type III PKSs. Further, many compounds produced by microbial type III PKSs have significant biological functions and/or important pharmaceutical activities. Thus, studies on this class of enzymes will expand our knowledge of the biosynthetic machineries that generate natural products and generate new findings about microbial physiology. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing has allowed for an increase in the number of microbial genomes sequenced and the discovery of many microbial type III PKS genes. Here, we describe basic methods to study microbial type III PKSs whose genes are easy to clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  14. The five functions of psychological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2016-04-01

    From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Taxonomic relationships among Clostridium novyi Types A and B, Clostridium haemolyticum and Clostridium botulinum type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Kimura, I; Yamakawa, K; Nishida, S

    1983-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the genetic relationships among the closely related species, Clostridium novyi types A and B, C. haemolyticum and C. botulinum type C. These species were tested for DNA-DNA homology and thermostability of DNA duplexes and sorted into three genetically related groups: I, C. novyi type A; II, C. novyi type B, C. haemolyticum and one C. botulinum type C strain (Stockholm); III, the remaining C. botulinum type C strains. A few biochemical criteria corresponding to the genetic differences were recommended to differentiate each group. These studies imply that C. haemolyticum might be considered as C. novyi type D and that there are two genetically different groups in C. botulinum type C.

  16. Simulation of a Novel Bipolar-FET Type-S, Negative Resistance Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new circuit which uses FET and bipolar transistor is given. It exhibits Type-S differential negative resistance and a theoretical explanation is appended along with PSPICE simulation.

  17. comparative analysis of type 1 and type 2 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 CASSAVA PEELING MACHINES. C. Nathan1,* and U. J. Udosen2. 1 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA. 2 DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN ...

  18. Type D (distressed) personality in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, Francois; Pop, Victor J M

    2012-01-01

    D Scale-14 (DS14) in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: 1553 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychological characteristics in 2007. A subgroup (n=1012) completed the DS14 again 1 year later. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the Type D...... or physiological risk factors, but Type D women had a more sedentary lifestyle (p=.003). Type D patients experienced less social support and more stressful life events, loneliness, and more depressed mood, anhedonia and anxiety (p0......OBJECTIVE: In cardiovascular research, Type D personality (high negative affectivity and social inhibition) has been associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examined the validity and clinical correlates of the Type D construct as assessed by the Type...

  19. Diabetic Nephropathy and Microalbuminuria in Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Julie Agner; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Callesen, Nicoline Foged

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol....

  20. Understanding the effect of n-type and p-type doping in the channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type doping in the channel is better with smaller supply voltage compared to higher supply voltage. On increasing the n -type doping concentration, we obtained better on-current and output characteristics in comparison with undoped and p ...