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Sample records for betuloides mirb blume

  1. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    VÍCTOR GERDING; OSCAR THIERS

    2002-01-01

    En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O) se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume) y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E.) Krasser) y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.). Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos p...

  2. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR GERDING

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.. Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos por la actividad volcánica, topografía y clima. Se observó la presencia de los órdenes Spodosol e Iceptisol, principalmente. En general los suelos eran delgados a muy delgados (mayoritariamente entre 10 y 40 cm, con un alto volumen de esqueleto, textura franca, estructura masiva a granular, capacidad de agua aprovechable baja y drenaje externo e interno moderado a lento. Además, presentan una alta acidez (pH 4-5,5, una baja oferta nutricional y muy altos niveles de saturación de aluminio (promedio > 60 %. El mantillo (Oe/Oa presentó condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo radicular. Existe comúnmente un horizonte blanco (frecuentemente 10 YR 5/1-2 inmediatamente debajo del mantillo, con textura franco limosa y estructura masiva, con arraigamiento muy bajo. Se plantea como hipótesis que este horizonte se originó por depósitos de cenizas volcánicas y procesos de podzolización. Se concluye que la fertilidad de estos suelos es baja debido a limitantes físicas (dificultades de arraigamiento y químicas (acidez, toxicidad de aluminio, baja oferta de basesSoils under coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, located in the oriental part of Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' W, were characterized morphologically, physically and chemically. Associated tree species were lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser and canelo (Drimys winterii Forst.. A total of 85 soil profiles and approximately 250 soil

  3. Variabilidad topográfica y edáfica en bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en el suroeste de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Edaphic and topographic variability in Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in southwestern Tierra del Fuego, Chile

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    OSCAR THIERS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la variabilidad de las relaciones topográficas y edáficas en sitios con presencia de Nothofagus betuloides y especies arbóreas asociadas en el suroeste de Tierra del Fuego. Estas relaciones se analizaron con métodos estadísticos bivariados y multivariados. Las relaciones del suelo con la topografía estarían fuertemente ligadas a características climáticas (temperatura y humedad de los sitios. Los suelos más fértiles por su mayor profundidad y mejor drenaje, se ubicaron en terrenos de menor elevación (We examined the topographic and edaphic variability of sites dominated by Nothofagus betuloides and associated tree species in southwestern Tierra del Fuego. Edaphic and topographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. The relationships between soil and topography were strongly related to climatic characteristics (temperature and humidity of different sites. Soils with the highest degree of fertility, deep and well drained, were located at the lowest elevations (< 150-200 m and had gentle slopes (< 5 %. Pure forests of N. betuloides occurred in a wide topographic range with high soil variation. The different associations of N. betuloides, with the species N. pumilio, N. antárctica and Drimys winteri, occupy more specific site conditions. Nothofagus betuloides - N. pumilio occurred mostly in the most favorable sites with fertile soils. Nothofagus betuloides - N. antárctica occurred at higher elevations, and steeper slopes, characterized by very thin soils. Nothofagus betuloides - D. winteri occurred in coastal lowlands, with greater humidity and heavier rainfall, and deep soils with limited drainage

  4. Towards intergeneric hybridization between Alstroemeria L. and Bomarea Mirb.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashihara, Yukiko; Shinoda, Koichi; Araki, Hajime; Hoshino, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    There are many interspecific hybrids of Alstroemeria. In this study, the possibility of intergeneric hybridization between Alstroemeria and Bomarea Mirb. was examined through the development of pollination procedures and ovule culture based on the histological observation of embryo and endosperm development after intergeneric pollination. Three methods of pollination (stigmatic, cut-style, and non-style) were combined with four different pollen types (fresh, frozen, non-germinated, and pre-ge...

  5. Influence of a sand soil plough base on the growth of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, F; Nick, L

    2000-01-01

    The root/shoot growth of eight year old Douglas fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) planted on ploughed agricultured land in the first generation was investigated. One half of the field was 60 cm deeply ploughed before afforestation. The second half was not deeply ploughed and was compa

  6. Origin matters! Difference in drought tolerance and productivity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Ouden, den J.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sauren, P.; Sass, U.G.W.

    2013-01-01

    Forests of the future should be resistant to exacerbating climatic conditions, especially to increasing drought, but at the same time provide a sufficient amount and quality of timber. In this context coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) is a promising species since it remains product

  7. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) from Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    VELE TEŠEVIĆ; SLOBODAN MILOSAVLJEVIĆ; VLATKA VAJS; IRIS ĐORĐEVIĆ; MARINA SOKOVIĆ; VERA LAVADINOVIĆ; MIROSLAV NOVAKOVIĆ

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of fresh young needles with twigs of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Ten compounds, accounting for 94.26 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were bornyl acetate (34.65 %), camphene (29.82 %), a-pinene (11.65 %) and santene (5.45 %). The antifungal activity of the essential oil was tested again...

  8. Lepidopetalum Blume (Sapindaceae): taxonomy, phylogeny, and historical biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Piskaut, P.; Windadri, F.I.

    1922-01-01

    The genus Lepidopetalum Blume (Sapindaceae) contains 6 species, of which one, L. fructoglabrum, is newly described. Four species are found on New Guinea of which one also occurs in Australia, one on the Nicobar Islands and Sumatra and one on the Philippines. Specimens from Java, Sulawesi, the Molucc

  9. A New Diterpene from Suregada glomerulate(Blume) Baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Li HE; Ruo Yun CHEN

    2005-01-01

    A new diterpene with an abietane skeleton, 3β-hydroxy-8α, 14α-epoxyabieta-11,13(15)-dien-16,12-olide, was isolated from the root of Suregada glomerulate(Blume) Baill. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  10. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco from Serbia

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    VELE TEŠEVIĆ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of fresh young needles with twigs of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Ten compounds, accounting for 94.26 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were bornyl acetate (34.65 %, camphene (29.82 %, a-pinene (11.65 % and santene (5.45 %. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was tested against various fungal species. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Douglas fir essential oil ranged from 1.5 to 4 µg mL-1. The fungi most sensitive to the tested oil were Phomopsis helianthi, while Penicillium species, along with Microsporum canis, were the most resistant. Compared to the commercial fungicidal agent bifonazole, the studied essential oil demonstrated higher antifungal activity.

  11. Therapeutic potential of Gastrodia elata Blume for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Biao Huang; Soo-Hyun Park; Eun-Ock Park; Eun-Kyung Choi; Young-Chul Chung; Tong Zhao; Sushma Shrestha Muna; Hong-Mei Jin; Jong-Il Park; Kyu-Sik Jo; Bo-Hee Lee; Soo-Wan Chae; Sun-Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata Blume can protect against amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ)-induced cell death. To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of Gastrodia elata Blume on Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting Aβ25 35 into bilateral hippocampi. These rats were intragastrically administered 500 or 1 000 mg/kg Gastrodia elata Blume per day for 52 consecutive days. Morris water maze tests showed that Gastrodia elata Blume treatment significantly improved the spatial memory of Alzheimer's disease rats. Congo red staining revealed that Gastrodia elata Blume significantly reduced the number of amyloid deposits in the hippocampus of these rats. Western blot analysis showed that choline acetyltransferase expression in the medial septum and hippocampus was significantly increased by the treatment of Gastrodia elata Blume, while Ellman method showed significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in all three regions (prefrontal cortex, medial septum and hippocampus). These findings suggest that long-term administration of Gastrodia elata Blume has therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Blume-Emery-Griffiths dynamics in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Hui

    2010-08-01

    We introduce the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model in a social networks to describe the three-state dynamics of opinion formation. It shows that the probability distribution function of the time series of opinion is a Gaussian-like distribution. We also study the response of BEG model to the external periodic perturbation. One can observe that both the interior thermo-noise and the external field result in phase transition, which is a split phenomena of the opinion distributions. It is opposite between the effect acted on the opinion systems of the amplitude of the external field and of the thermo-noise.

  13. Random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritan, Amos; Cieplak, Marek; Swift, Michael R.; Toigo, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    The results are described of studies of a random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 Ising model using mean-field theory, transfer-matrix calculations, and position-space renormalization-group calculations. The interplay between the quenched randomness of the anisotropy and the annealed disorder introduced by the spin-1 model leads to a rich phase diagram with a variety of phase transitions and reentrant behavior. The results may be relevant to the study of the phase separation of He-3 - He-4 mixtures in porous media in the vicinity of the superfluid transition.

  14. Growth dynamics and productivity of pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco plantations in northern Portugal

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    Nunes Leónia --

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980’s the productivity of monocultures versus mixed-species forests has been the object of special interest and study by forest managers and ecologists. All over the world mixed plantations have been established in different proportions to analyse if mixtures can provide greater yields and more benefits than monocultures of the component species and also to understand if they can be an interesting economic option. An experimental design trial was set up in the north of Portugal in a replacement series with pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. The objective of this study was to assess growth dynamics and compare the aboveground biomass and net primary production of the two species in pure and mixed treatments in proportions 1:1 and 1:3. The growth was measured at 7, 11, 15, 17, 19, 27 and 28 years after planting and aboveground net primary production was estimated at age 28 years. As a component of the mixed treatments, P. menziesii exhibited greater height, diameter and aboveground biomass than C. sativa. Relative yield total indicated a higher productivity in the mixtures compared with the pure treatments. Early in the development the pure treatments had a similar aboveground biomass per hectare as the mixtures, but later the mixtures had more yield than the pure treatments. The mixture productivity increase trough time appears to be a result of both canopy stratification and better use of site resources. The aboveground net primary production was also higher in mixed than in the pure treatments. This study shows the importance of comparing mixed and pure stands.

  15. Taksonomic study on Micromelum Blume (Rutaceae in Indonesia

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    TAHAN UJI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic study on Micromelum Blume was conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense (BO and Kew Herbarium (K and using 84 collections number of herbarium specimen. This research used descriptive method based on morphological characters. Terminology by Stearn (1983 was used, whereas the revision method as described by Rifai (1976 and Vogel (1987 were used. Based on this study were produced two species only of Micromelum respectively which occurred in Indonesia. They were Micromelum diversifolium Miq. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. M. diversifolium had two varieties, i.e. M. diversifolium Miq. var. diversifolium and M. diversifolium Miq. var. cuneata Miq. Whereas M. minutum had three varieties, i.e. M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. var. minutum, M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. tomentosum Tan. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. villosum Tan. New record specimen collections of M. diversifolium from Biak Island (Papua was reported also.

  16. Magnetocaloric properties of a frustrated Blume-Capel antiferromagnet

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    Žukovič Milan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature magnetization processes and magnetocaloric properties of a geometrically frustrated spin-1 Blume-Capel model on a triangular lattice are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The model is found to display qualitatively different behavior depending on the sign of the single-ion anisotropy D. For positive values of D we observe two magnetization plateaus, similar to the spin-1/2 Ising antiferromagnet, and negative isothermal entropy changes for any field intensity. For a range of small negative values of D there are four magnetization plateaus and the entropy changes can be either negative or positive, depending on the field. If D is negative but large in absolute value then the entropy changes are solely positive.

  17. Gewöhnliche Wegwarte – Cichorium intybus (Asteraceae) : Blume des Jahres 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Höggemeier, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Die Stiftung Naturschutz Hamburg und Stiftung LOKI SCHMIDT zum Schutze gefährdeter Pflanzen hat zur "Blume des Jahres 2009" die Wegwarte (Cichorium intybus) ausgewählt. Sie bevorzugt einen ähnlichen Lebensraum wie die Nickende Distel, die Blume des Jahres 2008. Die Wegwarte ist aber häufiger zu finden, sie wächst an Weg- und Ackerrändern und auf bäuerlichen Schuttplätzen. Mich hat schon als Kind diese Pflanze fasziniert, deren strahlend blaue Blüten sich morgens öffnen, aber am frühen Nachmit...

  18. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Typhonium Flagelliforme (Lodd. Blume Tuber

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    Syam Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Multiple drug resistance in human pathogenic micro organisms has developed due to indiscriminate use of modern antimicrobial drugs generally used in the management of infectious diseases. This increases the importance of exploiting the natural sources instead modern drugs. Approach: The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of different extracts from of Typhonium flagelliforme (L. Blume tuber (family: Araceae commonly called ‘Rodent Tuber’ was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. The antibacterial screening was carried out by disc diffusion method. Two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and total phenolic compounds, were used for the antioxidant analysis. Results: Except hexane extract none of the other exacts shown anti bacterial activity against the selected strains. The hexane extract from Typhonium flagelliforme tuber had interesting activity against both the gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11±1.0 mm diameter and Salmonella choleraesuis (12±1.1 mm diameter. The positive control, Streptomycin had shown zone of inhibition of 20±1.5 mm, 20±1.3 mm, 23±1.5 mm and 23±1.0 mm in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Bacillus subtilis respectively. All the extracts were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity. The DPPH assay showed that the inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate (77.6±0.9 % and dichloromethane (70.5±1.7 % extracts were having comparatively admirable inhibition capacity when compared to the positive control BHT (95.3±1.3 %. Total phenolic content of all extracts was also evaluated, and dichloromethane extracts (5.21±0.82 GAE mg/g extract was superior to all other extracts, followed by hexane and ethyl acetate. Conclusion: Considering all the results collectively T. flagelliforme appears to

  19. Bioactivities and chemical constituents of a vietnamese medicinal plant Che Vang, Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai Hue, Ngan; Thi Cam, Hoai; Le Mai, Huong;

    2008-01-01

    Five crude extracts were made from leaves and stems of Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae) and investigated for antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The extractions were done with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol or water. All extracts exhibited anti-bacteria...

  20. The Effects of Davallic Acid from Davallia divaricata Blume on Apoptosis Induction in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsu-Liang Chang; Kai-Yu Chen; Kai-Hsien Chen; Yu-Hsiang Cheng; We-Chang Chang; An-Sheng Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Traditional or folk medicinal herbs continue to be prescribed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions in many cultures. Recent scientific efforts have focused on the potential roles of extracts of traditional herbs as alternative and complementary medications for cancer treatment. In Taiwan, Davallia divaricata Blume has been traditionally employed in folk medicine for therapy of lung cancer, davallic acid being the major active compound of D. divaricata Blume. In this study, we i...

  1. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME) SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf) and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blad...

  2. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buenor Adinortey; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Nicholas Oteng Asamoah

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for futu...

  3. Isolasi Senyawa Flavonoida Dari Daun Tumbuhan Ingul (Toona Sureni (Blume) Merr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Iwan Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of flavonoid from the leaves of ingul (Toona sureni (Blume) Merr.) has been done by using extraction methods. Extract Ingul leaves separated by using Column Cromatography methods. Identification process was analyzed by Spectroscopy Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Spectroscopy Infra Red (FT-IR) and Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonancy (1H-NMR). The result analysis of spectrum showed that isolation compound a flavonoida group isoflavone, is yellow crystal with a mass = 47mg a...

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Polyphenols and Tannins from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Ma; Ling Ling Shi; Yu Jun Liu; Si Yu Chen; Jie Yuan Liu; Shan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Spiny burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) are usually discarded as industrial waste during post-harvesting processing. The objective of this study was to establish an extraction and isolation procedure for tannins from chestnut burs, and to assess their potential antioxidant activity. Aqueous ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent, and HPD 100 macroporous resin column was applied for isolation. The influence of solvent concentration in the extraction and elution proc...

  5. Study of the Antiferromagnetic Blume-Capel Model on kagomé Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Park, Sojeong; Kwak, Wooseop

    2016-09-01

    We study the anti-ferromagnetic (AF) Ising model and the AF Blume-Capel (BC) model on the kagomé lattice. Using the Wang-Landau sampling method, we estimate the joint density functions for both models on the lattice, and we obtain the exact critical magnetic fields at zero temperature by using the micro-canonical analysis. We also show the patterns of critical lines for the models from micro-canonical analysis.

  6. The kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model with competing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied by means of Monte-Carlo simulation and exact finite-size analysis, the spin-1 Blume Capel model with Glauber and Kawasaki dynamics. The Kawasaki spin exchange process flows energy into the system from an external source. Some phase diagrams of the model are presented. For some values of the parameters, the system displays a kind of self organization phenomenon within the disordered phase. (author)

  7. BIOACTIVITIES AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF A VIETNAMESE MEDICINAL PLANT JASMINUM SUBTRIPLINERVE BLUME (CHE VANG )

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hue Ngan

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis encompasses two parts. The first part deals with general introduction to isolation, characterization, and bioactivities of natural products, with emphasis on Jasminum Subtriplinerve Blume spp., and its genus. The second is experimental study of J.subtriplinerve Bl. about its bioactivities and chemical constituents. In first part (from chapter 1 to 6), the botanical of two varieties of J.subtriplinerve Bl., a medicinal plant widely distributed in Middle area of Viet...

  8. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jorge; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  9. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats*

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Masran; Omar, Baharuddin; Taib, Izatus Shima; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4 000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecu...

  10. The storage capacity of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the so-called Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) neural network at zero temperature. An upper bound on its storage capacity is given if we want the stored patterns to be fixed points of the retrieval dynamics. Besides, we discuss a more liberal notion of storage capacity introduced by Newman (1988 Neural Netw. 1 223-38) in the context of the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 79 2554-8). We show that, similar to the findings in the neural networks literature, the BEG model with this notion of storage capacity can store a number of patterns proportional to the number of neurons in the model

  11. Goniothalamin, a cytotoxic compound, isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus

    OpenAIRE

    Niwat Keawpradub; Arunporn Itharat; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Puttachat Sangprapan; Boonsong Wangsintaweekul

    2005-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation by brine shrimp lethality test led to isolation of a cytotoxic compound, goniothalamin, from the root and stem of Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus. Goniothalamin showed a promising cytotoxicity (SRB assay) against colon cancer cell line (IC50 = 0.51±0.02 μg/ml), breast cancer cell lines (IC50= 0.95±0.02 μg/ml) and lung carcinoma (IC50 = 3.51± 0.03 μg/ml). LDH assay of goniothalamin suggested that it had no toxicity on cell m...

  12. Effect of Basal Media and Sugar Types on in Vitro Regeneration of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Montakarn PIMSEN; Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2011-01-01

    Protocorms of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. were initiated from immature seeds on solid MS medium containing 15% (v/v) coconut water (CW) and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Protocorms, 2-4 mm in length were used as explants and subcultured to MS and VW (Vacin and Went, 1949) media containing 15% (v/v) CW and 2 or 3% (w/v) sucrose. Protocorms gave the highest formation of PLBs (protocorm-like bodies) at 3.1 PLBs/explant on MS solid medium containing 15% CW and 2% sucrose. For the test with different car...

  13. Metastability of the Two-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model with Zero Chemical Potential and Small Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, C.; Lemire, P.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model with zero chemical potential and small magnetic field evolving on a large but finite torus. We obtain sharp estimates for the transition time, we characterize the set of critical configurations, and we prove the metastable behavior of the dynamics as the temperature vanishes.

  14. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMARWOTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  15. Schelling segregation in an open city: a kinetically constrained Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 system

    CERN Document Server

    Gauvin, L; Vannimenus, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 70's Schelling introduced a multi-agent model to describe the segregation dynamics that may occur with individuals having only weak preferences for 'similar' neighbors. Recently variants of this model have been discussed, in particular with emphasis on the links with statistical physics models. Whereas these models consider a fixed number of agents moving on a lattice, here we present a version allowing for exchanges with an external reservoir of agents. The density of agents is controlled by a parameter which can be viewed as measuring the attractiveness of the city-lattice. This model is directly related to the Blume Emery Griffiths (BEG) spin-1 model at zero temperature, with kinetic constraints. These constraints lead to a new variety of "phases" whose main features are the characteristics of the interfaces between clusters of different agents. The domains of existence of each type of interface are obtained analytically as well as numerically. These interfaces may completely isolate the agents lead...

  16. Geometrical mutual information at the tricritical point of the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Ipsita; Melko, Roger G

    2016-01-01

    The spin-1 classical Blume-Capel model on a square lattice is known to exhibit a finite-temperature phase transition described by the tricritical Ising CFT in 1+1 space-time dimensions. This phase transition can be accessed with classical Monte Carlo simulations, which, via a replica-trick calculation, can be used to study the shape-dependence of the classical R\\'enyi entropies for a torus divided into two cylinders. From the second R\\'enyi entropy, we calculate the Geometrical Mutual Information (GMI) introduced by St\\'ephan et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 127204 (2014)] and use it to extract a numerical estimate for the value of the central charge near the tricritical point. By comparing to the known CFT result, $c=7/10$, we demonstrate how this type of GMI calculation can be used to estimate the position of the tricritical point in the phase diagram.

  17. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  18. Application of the genetic algorithm to blume-emery-griffiths model: Test Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium properties of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEO) model Hamiltonian with the arbitrary bilinear (1), biquadratic (K) and crystal field interaction (D) are studied using the genetic algorithm technique. Results are compared with lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (CVM), which is identical to the mean field approximation. We found that the genetic algorithm to be very efficient for fast search at the average fraction of the spins, especially in the early stages as the system is far from the equilibrium state. A combination of the genetic algorithm followed by one of the well-tested simulation techniques seems to be an optimal approach. The curvature of the inverse magnetic susceptibility is also presented for the stable state of the BEG model

  19. Goniothalamin, a cytotoxic compound, isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat Keawpradub

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation by brine shrimp lethality test led to isolation of a cytotoxic compound, goniothalamin, from the root and stem of Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus. Goniothalamin showed a promising cytotoxicity (SRB assay against colon cancer cell line (IC50 = 0.51±0.02 μg/ml, breast cancer cell lines (IC50= 0.95±0.02 μg/ml and lung carcinoma (IC50 = 3.51± 0.03 μg/ml. LDH assay of goniothalamin suggested that it had no toxicity on cell membrane. Cytotoxic evaluation of goniothalamin to normal cell revealed moderate toxicity against skin fibroblast (IC50 = 26.73± 1.92 μg/ml and human fibroblast (IC50 = 11.99±0.15 μg/ml.

  20. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely...

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata...

  2. The inhibition of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume leaf extract on COX-2 expression of WiDr colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Setiawati; Handika Immanuel; Mery Tri Utami

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the inhibition activity of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume (T. flagelliforme) leaf extract on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression of colon cancer cells. Methods: T. flagelliforme leaf extract was prepared to macerate in ethyl acetate. In vitro anticancer activity was assayed by MTT method on WiDr colon cancer cells. This study applied apoptosis induction assay to investigate the mechanism of cell death using double staining method. COX-2 expression was stained b...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Porang Populations (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume) In Central Java and West Java Based on LEAFY Second Intron Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Arofatun Nikmah; Rodiyati Azrianingsih; Didik Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is dispersed and grew well in Java island. This research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of porang populations in Central Java and West Java based on LEAFY second intron (nuclear genome encoding flower development). DNA samples of porang were from previous study, which were obtained from Central Java (Pamedaran, Grobogan, Wonogiri, Karangtengah) and West Java (Cisompet) as in-group. Amorphophallus variabilis from Pamedaran Brebes, Amorphophallus...

  4. Aplicación de relaciones de densidad-diámetro y de área potencial aprovechable en bosques de Nothofagus Dombeyi (mirb.) Oerst, como herramientas de planificación silvícola .

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Johnson, Pablo Christian

    2013-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de esta tesis de doctorado fue analizar la aplicación de relaciones de densidad ¿ diámetro en bosques de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) oerst, para la localidad del Río Mirta en la XI Región de Chile, como herramientas de planificación silvícola. El método de análisis consistió en la generación de una muestra de densidad¿diámetro a partir de la que se determinó el índice de densidad máximo (IDmax) a partir del cual se estimaron las máximas densidades que la especie podría alc...

  5. The Effects of Davallic Acid from Davallia divaricata Blume on Apoptosis Induction in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

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    Tsu-Liang Chang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional or folk medicinal herbs continue to be prescribed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions in many cultures. Recent scientific efforts have focused on the potential roles of extracts of traditional herbs as alternative and complementary medications for cancer treatment. In Taiwan, Davallia divaricata Blume has been traditionally employed in folk medicine for therapy of lung cancer, davallic acid being the major active compound of D. divaricata Blume. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of davallic acid on the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. Davallic acid was extracted from D. divaricata Blume, and its effects on cell viability, cell cycle distribution, ROS level, and apoptotic protein expression in A549 cells were determined. Davallic acid significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as well as caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, thereby repressing A549 cell growth and elevating apoptotic activity. Since lung cancer has a high incidence of recurrence, these results indicate that davallic acid may have the potential to be a natural anti-lung cancer compound, and may provide a basis for further study of its use in combating cancer.

  6. Phase diagrams of the random crystal field Blume-Cape model%随机晶场作用的Blume-Capel模型的相图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海霞; 晏世雷

    2011-01-01

    By using a cutting approximation, the phase diagrams of the spin 1 random crystal field Blume-Capel (BCM) model is investigated for a cubic lattice. We discuss in detail the influence of random crystal field concentration and crystal field ratio on the phase diagram. The effect of four kinds of the random crystal field on the phase diagrams is discussed: distribution of diluted crystal field, distribution of positive and negative symmetry crystal field, distribution of positive and negative non-symmetry crystal field and distribution of random negative crystal field, and phase diagrams are given. Under crystal field dilution condition, the tri-critical point (TCP) exists in a range of crystal field concentrations, and, phase diagrams show the reentrant phenomenon and crystal field degeneration pattern. Choosing crystal field ratio α = - 1.0 and a = - 0. 4, the range of crystal field concentration of existing TCP is extended. Phase diagrams show positive crystal field distribution. In particular, choosing a = 0. 4, TCP exists over all crystal field concentration,reentrant phenomenon and crystal field degeneration pattern disappear, and the phase transition lines have no meeting point with the crystal axis and D→∞. And, the range of magnetic order phase is reduced.%在有效场框架下,运用切断近似的方法,取自旋S为1的三维简立方格子,对随机晶场作用的Blume-Capel模型(BCM)相图进行研究,重点探讨随机晶场浓度和不同的晶场分布形式(晶场比率参数α)对相图的影响,具体分析了4种晶场分布形式:晶场稀疏分布,正负晶场对称分布,正负晶场非对称分布和负晶场随机分布,并给出相应的相图.在晶场稀疏情况下,三临界点(TCP)存在于一定的晶场浓度范围内,低温区域出现相变线的重入现象和晶场简并模式;α=-1.0和α=-0.4时;临界点存在的晶场浓度范扩大,相图出现正晶场分布,特别当α=0.4时,三临界点始终存在,重入现象和

  7. Organic Additives Improves the in Vitro Growth of Native Orchid Vanda helvola Blume

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    Devina DAVID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro seed germination has been proven to be the most efficient technique to propagate orchid. The application of this aseptic technique has contributed to conservation of many endangered orchid species. In this study, undehisced capsules of Vanda helvola Blume were collected from Orchid Conservation Centre in Lagud Sebrang Agriculture Park, after 120 days from hand pollination and aseptically cultured on three types of basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS, Knudson C (KC and Vacin and Went (VW. After 90 days of culture, 66.40 ± 4.14% of seeds successfully germinated on KC medium. The effect of organic additives such as tomato juice, coconut water, peptone and yeast extract at different level of concentrations in KC basal medium were also tested on seed germination and seedling development of this native orchid. After 90 days of culture, over 90% of seeds were tremendously germinated on KC medium supplemented with 10% or 15% (v/v of tomato juice. The incorporation of peptone at 0.1% (w/v in KC basal media promoted rapid development of protocorm to seedling. Seedlings on this treatment produced an average of three leaves and two roots after 90 days of culture and were successfully acclimatized.

  8. Tensor Renormalization Group Study of the General Spin-S Blume-Capel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    We focus on the special situation of D = 2J in the general spin-S Blume-Capel model on a square lattice. Under an infinitesimal external magnetic field, the phase transition behaviors due to the thermal fluctuations are investigated by the newly developed tensor renormalization group method. We clearly demonstrate the phase transition process: in the case of an integer spin-S, there are S first-order phase transitions with the stepwise magnetizations M = S,S - 1, ldots ,0; in the case of a half-odd integer spin-S, there are S - 1/2 first-order phase transitions with corresponding M = S,S - 1, ldots ,1/2 in addition to one continuous phase transition due to spin-flip Z2 symmetry breaking. At low temperatures, all first-order phase transitions are accompanied by the successive disappearance of the spin-component pairs (±s); furthermore, the transition temperature for the nth first-order phase transition is the same, independent of the value of the spin-S. In the absence of a magnetic field, a visualization parameter characterizing the intrinsic degeneracy of the different phases provides a different reference for the phase transition process.

  9. Protective Effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume on Rat Model of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Mukundray Bhatt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Poor glycemic control and oxidative stress is implicated as a common pathway in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Approach: In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Enicostemma littorale Blume (EL (2.5 g kg-1, a hypoglycemic and antioxidant herbal medicine in alloxan-induced diabetic neuropathy in male Charles foster rats. Results: Tail flick latency in hot immersion test and the formalin test were used to evaluate nociceptive responses in diabetic rats compared to non-diabetic rats. Preventive treatment of EL (for 45 days and standard drug glibenclamide (Glib significantly improved nociception in diabetic rats. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and anti-oxidant enzymes (super-oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels observed in diabetic rats, were significantly restored by EL and glib treatment. Decrease in Na-K+ ATPase activity was also significantly restored by EL. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug in present study. Conclusion: This study provided experimental evidence to preventive effect of EL on nerve function and oxidative stress in animal model of diabetic neuropathy. Hence EL may be tried clinically for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy since it was used as folk medicine in diabetic patients.

  10. Schelling segregation in an open city: A kinetically constrained Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Nadal, Jean-Pierre; Vannimenus, Jean

    2010-06-01

    In the 70s Schelling introduced a multiagent model to describe the segregation dynamics that may occur with individuals having only weak preferences for “similar” neighbors. Recently variants of this model have been discussed, in particular, with emphasis on the links with statistical physics models. Whereas these models consider a fixed number of agents moving on a lattice, here, we present a version allowing for exchanges with an external reservoir of agents. The density of agents is controlled by a parameter which can be viewed as measuring the attractiveness of the city lattice. This model is directly related to the zero-temperature dynamics of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 model, with kinetic constraints. With a varying vacancy density, the dynamics with agents making deterministic decisions leads to a variety of “phases” whose main features are the characteristics of the interfaces between clusters of agents of different types. The domains of existence of each type of interface are obtained analytically as well as numerically. These interfaces may completely isolate the agents leading to another type of segregation as compared to what is observed in the original Schelling model, and we discuss its possible socioeconomic correlates.

  11. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  12. Study of burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume Hook & Thomson as an anti-oxidative compounds containing fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJADJAT TISNADJAJA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume Hook & Thomson is one of fruit tree that originally was founded in Indonesia. Traditionally burahol is used as natural deodorance, but due to low economic value, the cultivation program of this plant species is almost abandoned. Regarding to this situation, currently this plant species could be categorized as one of endangered species. At present, economic value of this fruit is almost neglected and this is the main reason why not many people interested to cultivate this plant. In order to change the people opinion on this plant and to improve it economic value, study on the chemical content of this plant had been carried out. From the research work, it was founded that burahol fruit have a significant content of anti-oxidative compound. From the anti-oxidative analysis using DPPH (1,1-diphinil pycril hidrazil method, the lowest IC50 was showed by n-buthanol extract of flower (22.44 ppm and ethyl acetate extract of fruit (29.12 ppm. Flower part also showed low IC50 of ethyl acetate extract (35.07 ppm. Further purification through fractionation process of the plant extract was surprisingly followed by the decrease of anti-oxidative activity.

  13. Tricriticality of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in thin films of stacked triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hog, Sahbi; Diep, H. T.

    2016-03-01

    We study in this paper the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in a thin film of stacked triangular lattices. The model is described by three parameters: bilinear exchange interaction between spins J, quadratic exchange interaction K and single-ion anisotropy D. The spin Si at the lattice site i takes three values (-1, 0, +1). This model can describe the mixing phase of He-4 (Si = +1,-1) and He-3 (Si = 0) at low temperatures. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there exists a critical value of D below (above) which the transition is of second-(first-)order. In general, the temperature dependence of the concentrations of He-3 is different from layer by layer. At a finite temperature in the superfluid phase, the film surface shows a deficit of He-4 with respect to interior layers. However, effects of surface interaction parameters can reverse this situation. Effects of the film thickness on physical properties will be also shown as functions of temperature.

  14. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  15. Micropropagation of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume and regeneration induction via adventitious buds and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Codiaeum variegatum (L) Blume cv. "Corazon de oro" and cv. "Norma" are successfully micropropagated when culture are initiated with explants taken from newly sprouted shoots. The establishment and multiplication steps are possible when 1 mg/L BA or 1 mg/L IAA and 3 mg/L 2iP are added to MS medium, according to the cultivar respectively selected.Adventive organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are induced from leaf explants taken from in vitro buds of croton. On leaf-sectioned of "Corazon de oro" cultured in vitro, 1 mg/L BA stimulates continuous somatic embryos development and induces some shoots too. Replacing BA with 1 mg/L TDZ induces up to 100% bud regeneration in the same explants. On the other hand, leaf-sectioned of C. variegatum cv. Norma does not start somatic embryo differentiation if 1 mg/L TDZ is not added to the MS basal medium. Incipient callus is observed after 30 days of culture, and then, subculture to MS with 1 mg/L BA allows the same process to show on the "Corazon de oro" cultivar. Somatic embryos show growth arrest that is partially overcome by transfer to hormone-free basal medium with activated charcoal. Root induction is possible on basal medium plus 1 mg/L IBA. Plantlets in the greenhouse have variegated leaves true-to-type.

  16. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  17. Effect of Basal Media and Sugar Types on in Vitro Regeneration of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume

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    Montakarn PIMSEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Protocorms of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. were initiated from immature seeds on solid MS medium containing 15% (v/v coconut water (CW and 3% (w/v sucrose. Protocorms, 2-4 mm in length were used as explants and subcultured to MS and VW (Vacin and Went, 1949 media containing 15% (v/v CW and 2 or 3% (w/v sucrose. Protocorms gave the highest formation of PLBs (protocorm-like bodies at 3.1 PLBs/explant on MS solid medium containing 15% CW and 2% sucrose. For the test with different carbon sources, protocorms were cultured in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4 kinds of sugar, namely sucrose, glucose, sorbitol and mannitol at 2, 4, 6 or 8% (w/v and cultured for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks. They were then transferred to MS solid medium containing 15% CW and 2% sucrose. Results revealed that after 4 weeks in MS liquid medium, sucrose and glucose had an inhibitory effect and 8% glucose gave a high percentage of protocorm browning. In contrast, sorbitol and mannitol were effective for protocorm regeneration and both sugar alcohols had a positive effect on the formation of PLBs and the development of PLBs into plantlets.

  18. Aboveground Biomass Production of Rhizophora apiculata Blume in Sarawak Mangrove Forest

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    I. A. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mangrove forests are found in tropical and subtropical coastal tidal regions. Rhizophora apiculata Blume is one of the most important species in mangrove forest. It is also one of the commercial mangrove timber species in Asia-Pacific region which dominates large areas of mangrove in this region. In order to understand forest ecosystem characteristics and to establish the proper management system, a precise estimation of biomass is necessary. The objective of this study is to quantify the aboveground biomass production and stem volume of R. apiculata in Awat-Awat mangrove forest, Sarawak. Approach: Seven representative trees were used in this study for sampling from February 2011 to March 2011. Allometric relationships were examined using either independent variable Diameter (D or combination of quadratic of D and Height (D2H. Results: The best fit of allometric equations were developed from the combination of quadratic of D and H (y = 0.055×0.948, R2 = 0.98 which is more recommended to estimate biomass and stem volume of R. apiculata in Awat-Awat mangrove forest, Sarawak. Total aboveground biomass and stem volume of R. apiculata were 116.79 t h-1 and 65.55 m3 h-1, respectively. Conclusion: Aboveground biomass and stem volume is closely related with tree diameter and height which indicates that aboveground biomass and stem volume will increase with increasing diameter and height of R. apiculata.

  19. α -Mangostin from Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume Demonstrates Anti-Ulcerogenic Property: A Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Manal; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Hadi, A Hamid A; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Loke Fai, Mun; Rahmani, Mawardi; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal

    2013-01-01

    Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume is an Asian herbal medicine with versatile ethnobiological properties including treatment of gastric ulcer. This study evaluated the antiulcerogenic mechanism(s) of α -mangostin (AM) in a rat model of ulcer. AM is a prenylated xanthone derived through biologically guided fractionation of C. arborescens. Rats were orally pretreated with AM and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Following treatment, ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological and immunohistochemical analyses, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH) were evaluated. The anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory effect, and antioxidant activity of AM were also investigated in vitro. AM (10 and 30 mg/kg) inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) ethanol-induced gastric lesions by 66.04% and 74.39 %, respectively. The compound induces the expression of Hsp70, restores GSH levels, decreases lipid peroxidation, and inhibits COX-2 activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AM showed an effective in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The efficacy of the AM was accomplished safely without presenting any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the antioxidant properties and the potent anti-H. pylori, in addition to activation of Hsp70 protein, may contribute to the gastroprotective activity of α -mangostin. PMID:23634169

  20. α-Mangostin from Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl Blume Demonstrates Anti-Ulcerogenic Property: A Mechanistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyam M. A. Sidahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl Blume is an Asian herbal medicine with versatile ethnobiological properties including treatment of gastric ulcer. This study evaluated the antiulcerogenic mechanism(s of α-mangostin (AM in a rat model of ulcer. AM is a prenylated xanthone derived through biologically guided fractionation of C. arborescens. Rats were orally pretreated with AM and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Following treatment, ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological and immunohistochemical analyses, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH were evaluated. The anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitory effect, and antioxidant activity of AM were also investigated in vitro. AM (10 and 30 mg/kg inhibited significantly (P<0.05 ethanol-induced gastric lesions by 66.04% and 74.39 %, respectively. The compound induces the expression of Hsp70, restores GSH levels, decreases lipid peroxidation, and inhibits COX-2 activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AM showed an effective in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The efficacy of the AM was accomplished safely without presenting any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the antioxidant properties and the potent anti-H. pylori, in addition to activation of Hsp70 protein, may contribute to the gastroprotective activity of α-mangostin.

  1. Peroxide values of Aglaia argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr., dan A. tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn.

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    PRAPTIWI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical components and the peroxide values of three Aglaia species (A. argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr and A. tomentosa Teijsm & Binn. Phytochemical screening was done by Cuiley method, while peroxide values were determined by iodometri-titration on methanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The result of phytochemical screening indicated that all of Aglaia species tested (three species contained sterol and triterpenoids, base alkaloid, reduction sugar, and anthrasenoid while other components present only in one or two species of Aglaia. Peroxide values of the tested extracts were higher than that of vitamin E (40.996 mili-equivalent/1000 g samples as a standard reductor, except the peroxide value of chloroform extract of A. tomentosa (41.078 milli-equivalent/ 1000 g sample. It can be concluded that A. tomentosa chloroform extract might had similar ability with vitamin E in preventing or delaying oxidation process. A. tomentosa chloroform extract acted as reductor.

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Whole Plant of Enicostemma littorale Blume

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    S. Vinotha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale Blume (Gentianaceae family, which is commonly known as Mamajaka (Sanskrit, Vellarugu (Tamil and Indian gentian (English. E. littorale is a perennial herb which grows in coastal areas of Northern and Eastern province of Sri Lanka. The whole plant is dried and powdered and used to treat rheumatism, swelling, back pain, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and skin diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents in different extracts of E. littorale according to the standard procedures. Quantitative estimation of some of the active constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were also carried out. The preliminary phytochemical screening of hot and cold ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, proteins, reducing sugar coumarins and quinones and absence of anthraquinones. Cold and hot water extracts showed the presence of fat and fixed oil. The total alkaloid and flavonoid contents were found to be 2.25 ± 0.01 % and 25.34 ± 0.24 % respectively and total saponin content was (Foaming Index FI < 100. The phytochemicals identified in the present study may be used as tools for quality control of drugs prepared with E. littorale in the future, for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions.

  3. Magnetic properties of the spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model on a hexagonal Ising nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties, such as magnetizations, internal energy, specific heat, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, and phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model on a hexagonal Ising nanowire with core-shell structure are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The hysteresis behaviors of the system are also investigated and the effects of Hamiltonian parameters on hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The obtained results are compared with some theoretical results and a qualitatively good agreement is found

  4. FERRIMAGNETIC PHASES OF THE BLUME-EMERY-GRIFFITHS MODEL AND THE POTTS MODEL ON THE DIAMOND LATTICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Jun; Gu Bing-lin

    2000-01-01

    The phase transitions in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model andantiferromagnetic Potts model on the diamond lattice are investigatedusing the cluster-variation method in the pair approximation. Theferrimagnetic phases are found to be different from those on thesimple-cubic lattice. The phase diagrams of the BEG model are alsocalculated. In the vicinity of the parameter line where the BEG modelreduces to the three-state antiferromagnetic Potts model, new types ofphase diagram are obtained. The results are different from those of themean-field theory, which is a good approximation only for largecoordination number of the lattice.

  5. Ferromagnetic Properties of Bond-Dilution and Random Positive or Negative Uniaxial Anisotropy Blume-Capel Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hai-Xia; YAN Shi-Lei

    2004-01-01

    We study the ferromagnetic properties of spin-1 system, which is considered in the frame of the bond dilution and random positive or negative anisotropy Blume-Capel model in the effective field theory and a cutting approximation. The investigation of phase diagrams displays some rich properties of the trajectory of tricritical point, reentrant henomena at low temperatures. Under certain both bond concentrations and random negative anisotropy, there are new transition lines of double tricritical points. So special emphasis is placed on the influence of the bond dilution and random anisotropy on phase diagrams. The magnetizations of the system are also discussed. Some results have not been evealed in previous reports.

  6. Spin-1 Blume-Capel model with longitudinal random crystal and transverse magnetic fields:A mean-field approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Albayrak

    2013-01-01

    The spin-1 Blume-Capel model with transverse Ω and longitudinal external magnetic fields h,in addition to a longitudinal random crystal field D,is studied in the mean-field approximation.It is assumed that the crystal field is either turned on with probability p or turned off with probability 1-p on the sites of a square lattice.Phase diagrams are then calculated on the reduced temperature crystal field planes for given values of γ =-Ω/J and p at zero h.Thus,the effect of changing γ and p are illustrated on the phase diagrams in great detail and interesting results are observed.

  7. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih; Sanro Tachibana; Rizna Triana Dewi; Kazutaka Itoh

    2015-01-01

    To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) µmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) µmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) µmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) µmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) µmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) µmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  8. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  9. Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract promotes neuronal growth in cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Tang; Yiren Chen; Xiaosong Gu; Fei Ding

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared an aqueous extract of Achyranthes bidentata Blume,a commonly prescribed Chinese medicinal herb,and reported,in previous studies,that A.bidentata extract benefits nerve growth and prevents neuron apoptosis.In this study,we investigated the actions of ,4.bidentata extract on survival and growth of primarily cultured rat hippocampal neurons.The morphological observation revealed that neurite growth from hippocampal neurons was significantly enhanced by A.bidentata extract with similar effects to those induced by nerve growth factor (NGF),and the greatest neurite growth appeared on treatment with A.bidentata extract at 1 ttg/ml for 24 h.DNA microarray analysis indicated that there were 25 upregulated genes and 47 downregulated genes exhibiting significantly differential expression in hippocampal neurons treated with A.bidentata extract at 1 μg/ml for 6 h when compared to those in untreated hippocampal neurons.Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of growth-associated protein-43 in hippocampal neurons was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels after treatment with A.bidentata extract,and the optimal dosage of the extract was also 1 μg/ml.These data confirm that A.bidentata extract could promote in vitro hippocampal neuronal growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner.(C) 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  10. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  11. 黄杞属植物的研究概况%Research of Engelbardtia Leschen. ex Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永奇; 宋明明; 周辉; 尚志春; 史丽颖; 唐玲; 冯宝民

    2012-01-01

      To review the research summary 4 species Engelbardtia Leschen. ex Blume on the pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and poison. Engelbardtia Leschen. ex Blume contain flavones, polyphenols and saponins, and its effects of pharmacology are lower the blood sugar, lower the blood fatty, anti-coagulant, anti-platelet coagulant, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, anticancer, rising the immunity and anticardivascular system diseases. Its effective constituents are flavones.%  对黄杞属植物的生药学、化学、药理学及毒理学的研究概况进行综述。黄杞属植物主要含有黄酮类、多酚类和皂苷类成分。其药理作用主要表现为降血糖、降血脂、抗凝血、抗血小板凝聚、抗血栓形成、抗炎、抗癌、增强免疫力、抑制心脑血管疾病等作用。初步研究认为其有效部位为黄酮类成分。

  12. Purification and Characterization of a Mannose-binding Lectin from the Rhizomes of Aspidistra elatior Blume with Antiproliferative Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochao XU; Chuanfang WU; Chao LIU; Yongting LUO; Jian LI; Xinping ZHAO; Els Van DAMME; Jinku BAO

    2007-01-01

    A lectin with a novel N-terminal amino acid sequence was purified from the rhizomes of Aspidistra elatior Blume by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100. The A. elatior Blume lectin (AEL) is a heterotetramer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and composed of two homodimers consisting of two different polypeptides of 13.5 kDa and 14.5 kDa held together by noncovalent interactions. Hapten inhibition assay indicated that hemagglutinating activity of AEL towards rabbit erythrocytes could be inhibited by D-mannose, mannan, thyroglobulin and ovomucoid. The lectin was stable up to 70 ℃, and showed maximum activity in a narrow pH range of 7.0-8.0. Chemical modification and spectrum analysis indicated that tryptophan, arginine, cysteine and carboxyl group residues were essential for its hemagglutinating activity. However, they might not be present in the active center, except some carboxyl group residues. AEL also showed significant in vitro antiproliferative activity towards Bre-04 (66%),Lu-04 (60%) and HepG2 (56%) of human cancer cell lines.

  13. In vitro clonal propagation of Achyranthes aspera L. and Achyranthes bidentata Blume using nodal explants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wesely Edward Gnanaraj; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Mohanamathi RB

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop the reproducible in vitro propagation protocols for the medicinally important plants viz., Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. and Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata) Blume using nodal segments as explants. Methods: Young shoots of A. aspera and A. bidentata were harvested and washed with running tap water and treated with 0.1% bavistin and rinsed twice with distilled water. Then the explants were surface sterilized with 0.1% (w/v) HgCl2 solutions for 1 min. After rinsing with sterile distilled water for 3-4 times, nodal segments were cut into smaller segments (1 cm) and used as the explants. The explants were placed horizontally as well as vertically on solid basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) agar (Hi-Media, Mumbai) and different concentration and combination of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) for direct regeneration.Results:Adventitious proliferation was obtained from A. aspera and A. bidentata nodal segments inoculated on MS basal medium with 3% sucrose and augmented with BAP and Kin with varied frequency. MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of BAP showed the highest percentage (93.60±0.71) of shootlets formation for A. aspera and (94.70±0.53) percentages for A. bidentata. Maximum number of shoots/explants (10.60±0.36) for A. aspera and (9.50±0.56) for A. bidentata was observed in MS medium fortified with 5.0 mg/L of BAP. For A. aspera, maximum mean length (5.50±0.34) of shootlets was obtained in MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of Kin and for A. bidentata (5.40±0.61) was observed in the very same concentration. The highest percentage, maximum number of rootlets/shootlet and mean length of rootlets were observed in 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of IBA. Seventy percentages of plants were successfully established in polycups. Sixty eight percentages of plants were well established in the green house condition

  14. Overexpression of PaFT gene in the wild orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarti, Endang; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Rizal, Rinaldi; Slamet, Agus; Utami, Bekti S.; Bestari, Ida A.; Aziz-Purwantoro, Moeljopawiro, S.; Jang, Soenghoe; Machida, Y.; Machida, C.

    2015-09-01

    To shorten vegetative stage and induce transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in orchids, we overexpressed Phalaenopsis amabilis Flowering LocusT (PaFT) gene under the control of Ubiquitin promoter into protocorm of Indonesian Wild Orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume. The dynamic expression of vegetative gene Phalaenopsis Homeobox1 (POH1) and flowering time gene PaFT has been analyzed. Accumulation of mRNA was detected in shoot and leaves of both transgenic and non transgenic plants by using Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with specific gene primers for POH1 and PaFT in 24 months old plants. To analyze the POH1 and PaFT genes, three pairs of degenerate primers PaFT degF1R1, F2R2 and F3R3 that amplified 531 bp PaFT cDNA were used. We detected 700 bp PaFTcDNA from leaves and shoots of transgenic plants, but not in NT plants. POH1 mRNA was detected in plants. PaFT protein consists of Phospatidyl Ethanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) in interval base 73-483 and CETS family protein at base 7-519, which are important motif for transmembrane protein. We inserted Ubipro::PaFT/pGAS101 into P. amabilis protocorm using Agrobacterium. Analysis of transgenic plants showed that PaFTmRNA was accumulated in leaves of 12 months after sowing, although it is not detected in non transgeic plants. Compare to the wild type (NT plants), ectopic expression of PaFT shows alter phenotype as follows: 31% normal, 19% with short-wavy leaves, 5% form rosette leaves and 45% produced multishoots. Analysis of protein profiles of trasgenic plants showed that a putative PaFT protein (MW 19,7 kDa) was produced in 1eaves and shoots.This means that at 12 months, POH1 gene expression gradually decreased/negatively regulated, the expression of PaFT gene was activated, although there is no flower initiation yet. Some environmental factors might play a role to induce inflorescens. This experiment is in progress.

  15. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  16. Development of Silky Chicken-Gastrodia Elata Blume Oral Solution%乌鸡天麻口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洋; 史崇颖; 穆颖超; 杨兰兰; 肖蓉

    2015-01-01

    The Silky Chicken and Gastrodia Elata Blume as raw material , Silky Chicken-Gastrodia Elata Blume Nutrient Solution were successfully developed , combined with the scientific compatibility of Gastrodia Elata Blume extract and Silky Chicken hydrolysates, and added to honey, citric acid, protein sugar. By single factor test and orthogonal test, the best formula of oral liquid was as follows: oral liquid consisted of 19 mL Gastrodia Elata Blume extract, 68 mL Silky Chicken hydrolysate, 6 % honey, 0.15 % citric acid, 0.075 %protein sugar in one hundred milliliter. Silky Chicken-Gastrodia Elata Blume Nutrient Solution was clear brown liquid, with Gastrodia Elata Blume unique flavor and the fragrance of the chicken, sweet, no odor, and high nutritional value, which conformed to the product quality standard, after 80℃, 10 min sterilization.%以乌鸡和天麻为原料,制备天麻提取液和乌鸡酶解液,两者科学配伍并添加蜂蜜、柠檬酸、蛋白糖辅料,研制了乌鸡天麻口服液。通过单因素试验及正交试验确定口服液的最佳配方:天麻提取液19 mL/100 mL、乌鸡水解液68 mL/100 mL、蜂蜜添加量6%、柠檬酸添加量0.15%、蛋白糖添加量0.075%。乌鸡天麻口服液为澄清透明的棕褐色液体,具有天麻独特的风味和鸡肉的香味,酸甜适口,无异味,营养价值高,经80℃,10 min灭菌后,符合产品质量标准。

  17. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  18. The ± J model for the mixed-spin 1/2 and 3/2 Blume-Capel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    The effects of the bimodal bilinear exchange interaction, ± J model, are investigated for the mixed-spin 1/2 and 3/2 Blume-Capel (BC) model on the Bethe lattice (BL). The bilinear exchange interaction is either turned on ferrimagnetically (J > 0) or turned off antiferrimagnetically (J < 0) with probabilities p and 1 - p for the nearest-neighbor sites on the BL. The phase diagrams of the model are obtained with the inclusion of the crystal field interactions on the sites of spin-3/2 for the coordination number, q=3,4 and 6, for given p values. It was found that the model gives either second- or first-order phase transition lines for each given value of p. The temperatures of these lines increase with the increasing values of q.

  19. Multilayer transition in a spin-1 Blume-Capel model with RKKY interaction and quantum transverse anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Tahiri; H. Ez-Zahraouy; A. Benyoussef

    2011-01-01

    Using mean-field theory, we have studied the effect of quantum transverse anieotropies with RKKY interaction on the multi-layer transition and magnetic properties of the spin-1 Blume-Capel model of a system formed by two magnetic multi-layer materials, of different thicknesses, separated by a non-magnetic spacer of thickness M. It is found that the multilayer magnetic order-disorder transition temperature depends strongly on the value of the transverse anisotropy.The multilayer transition temperature decreases when increasing the transverse anisotropy. Furthermore, there exists a critical quantum transverse anisotropy △xL beyond which the separate transitions occur in the two magnetic layers.The critical transverse anisotropy △xL decreases (increases) on increasing the non-magnetic spacer of thickness M (on increasing the crystal field), and △xL undergoes oscillations as a function of the Fermi level.

  20. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  1. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Asmah Rahmat

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

  2. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxi...

  3. Isolasi Minyak Atsiri dari Simplisia Kulit Kayu Sintok (Cinnamomum sintoc Blume) dengan Metode Destilasi Uap dan Air serta Analisis Komponennya Menggunakan GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Kristiani

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil is volatile oil with different fragrance in accordance to the source and mixture from the physicochemical properties. Cinnamomum sintoc Blume of the family Lauraceae is one of plants that containing essential oil and widely used as traditional medicine mixture. The aim of this research was to compare the components of essential oil from steam distillation and water distillation. This research included the simplex characterization, the essential oil isolation by steam and wate...

  4. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira; Ingrid Carla Guedes da Silva; Leonardo Antunes Trindade; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Hugo Lemes Carlo; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti; Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to a...

  5. The mixed-spins 1/2 and 3/2 Blume-Capel model with a random crystal field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Albayrak

    2012-01-01

    The random crystal field (RCF) effects are investigated on the phase diagrams of the mixed-spins 1/2 and 3/2 Blume-Capel (BC) model on the Bethe lattice.The bimodal random crystal field is assumed and the recursion relations are employed for the solution of the model.The system gives only the second-order phase transitions for all values of the crystal fields in the non-random bimodal distribution for given probability.The randomness does not change the order of the phase transitions for higher crystal field values,i.e.,it is always second-order,but it may introduce first-order phase transitions at lower negative crystal field values for the probability in the range about 0.20 and 0.45,which is only the second-order for the non-random case in this range.Thus our work claims that randomness may be used to induce first-order phase transitions at lower negative crystal field values at lower probabilities.

  6. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  8. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants. PMID:21954355

  9. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ismail, Nur Amalina; Isha, Azizul; Mei Ling, Angelina Lee

    2016-01-01

    Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume) were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays), antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and carotenoid content [21.86 ± 0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17 ± 0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96 ± 0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE)/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity. PMID:27437023

  10. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays, antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25±0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g] and carotenoid content [21.86±0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17±0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96±0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity.

  11. Toxic effects of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil on red blood cells of Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Izatus Shima TAIB; Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Maseran SITI NOR AIN; Jamaludin MOHAMED; Santhana Raj LOUIS; Srijit DAS; Sulaiman SALLEHUDIN; Nor Fadilah RAJAB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2009-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume leaves have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs because of its antimutagenicity, che-mopreventative and insecticidal properties. In this study, the toxic effects of L. elliptica essential oil against Sprague-Dawley rat's red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. L. elliptica essential oil was given by oral gavage 5 times per week for 3 treated groups in the doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/(kg body weight), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. Full blood count, RBC osmotic fragility, RBC morphological changes, and RBC membrane lipid were analyzed 28 d after the treatment. Although L. elliptica essential oil administration had significantly different effects on hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P0.05). It is concluded that structural changes in the RBC membrane due to L. elliptica essential oil administration did not cause severe membrane damage.

  12. Finite-Size Scaling Analysis of a Three-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model in the Presence of External Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Demirel; A. (O)zkan; B. Kutlu

    2008-01-01

    The Blume-Capel model in the presence of external magnetic field H has been simulated using a cellular automaton algorithm improved from the Creutz cellular automaton in three-dimension lattice. The field critical exponent δ is estimated using the power law relations and the finite size scaling functions for the magnetization and the susceptibility in the range -0.1≤h=H/J≤0. The estimated value of the field critical exponent δ is in good agreement with the universal value (δ=5) in three dimensions. The simulations are carried out on a simple cubic lattice under periodic boundary conditions.

  13. The Blume-Emery-Griffiths model at an infinitely many ground states interface and exponential decay of correlations at all non-zero temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the spin-spin correlation function decay properties of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with Hamiltonian located on the interface between the disordered and the anti-quadrupolar phases. On this interface, the BEG model has infinitely many ground state configurations. We show that, for any dimension d, there exists a parameter value, yd, below which the spin-spin correlation function with zero boundary condition decays exponentially fast at all non-zero temperatures. This result suggests that reentrant behaviour predicted by mean-field and numerical calculations may be absent for those values of parameters

  14. Critical behaviours and magnetic properties of three-dimensional bond and anisotropy dilution Blume-Capel model in the presence of an applied field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Lei; Zhu Hai-Xia

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the critical behaviours and magnetic properties of three-dimensional bond and anisotropy dilution Blume-Capel model (BCM) in the presence of an applied field within the effective field theory. The trajectory of tricritical point, reentrant transitions and degenerate patterns of anisotropy are obtained both for the bond and the anisotropy dilutions. The global phase diagrams demonstrate unusually reentrant phenomena. The temperature dependences of magnetization curves undergo remarkable spin glass behaviour at low temperatures, and transform from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism at high temperature in applied fields. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility curve is in qualitative agreement with experimental result.

  15. Effects of Manganese on Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Antioxidative Defenses of the Hyperaccumulator Polygonum pubescens Blume%Mn对超富集植物短毛蓼(Polygonum pubescens Blume)抗氧化机理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘可慧; 于方明; 邓华; 杨栋林; 周振明; 刘华; 李明顺

    2011-01-01

    采用水培的方法,研究了不同浓度Mn(0、0.5、1、2、4、8 mmol· L-1)对新发现的Mn超富集植物短毛蓼(Polygonum pubescensBlume)生长、Mn吸收及Mn对其抗氧化酶和非酶系统的影响.结果表明,锰处理显著增加了(P<0.05)短毛蓼根、茎、叶中Mn的含量,锰处理还引起了短毛蓼叶片中过氧化氢( H2O2)和丙二醛(MDA)的累积.当Mn处理浓度大于1 mmol·L-1时,显著降低了短毛蓼的株高、株重(P<0.05);当Mn处理浓度为8 mmol· L-1时,短毛蓼叶片中叶绿素a、叶绿素b、叶绿素a+b含量最低,与对照差异显著(P<0.05).Mn处理显著提高了短毛蓼叶片中超氧物歧化酶(SOD)活性(P<0.05),而过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)的活性呈先升后降趋势,表明Mn处理打破了短毛蓼活性氧物质的正常代谢,并启动了抗氧化酶系统.8 mmol·L-1的Mn处理,显著提高了短毛蓼叶片中巯基(-SH)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)的含量(P<0.05),比对照分别提高了10.6%和20%,表明-SH、GSH在短毛蓼缓解Mn毒害的过程中起着重要作用.%The effects of manganese(Mn) on various enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants in Polygonum pubescens Blume were studied. Polygonum pubescens Blume a newly identified Mn hyperaccumulator, was grown in hydroponic culture added with various Mn concentrations(0,0.5, 1,2,4, 8 mmol · L-1) for 8 days. Plant leaves were analyzed for contents of glutathione( GSH), phytochelatins( PCs) and total acid soluble SH, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde( MDA) and activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase(APX). Research findings showed that plant height and biomass had significanT1y(P<0.05) decreased with Mn concentrations beyond 1 mmol·L-1; while chlorophyll contents did not change significanT1y(P<0.05) until Mn concentration reached 8 mmol·L-1. The content of Mn in the tissue of leaves, roots and stems

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with S=3/2 and S=5/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, T.; Arai, H.; Ito, Y. [General Education Center, Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Muraoka, Y., E-mail: muraoka@ariake-nct.ac.jp [Department of General Education, Ariake National Collage of Technology, Omuta, Fukuoka, 836-8585 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The magnetic properties of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths(BEG) model [1] with fractional large spin(S=3/2 and S=5/2) on two-dimensional square lattice are discussed by making use of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the magnetization Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , sublattice magnetizations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(A) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(B) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , the magnetic specific heat C{sub M} and spin structures. The ground state phase diagram of these models has been obtained for exchange parameter J{sub 2}/J{sub 1} and anisotropy parameter D/J{sub 1}. The temperature dependence of sublattice magnetizations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(A) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(B) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket is investigated for various values of the anisotropy D. The relations between the Curie temperature T{sub c} and the critical temperature T{sub s} at which sublattice magnetizations begin taking different values are also studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MC simulation for the S=3/2 and 5/2 BEG model on the square lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ground state phase diagrams are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the spin structure and the temperature dependences of magnetization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The abnormal behaviors of magnetization are explained by sublattice magnetization.

  17. Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO₂ levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O₂), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 400 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 400 µmol/mol CO₂. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO₂ might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO₂, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O₂, H₂O₂, and OH radicals. PMID:21775936

  18. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

  19. A model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume corm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFINAH INDRIYANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indriyani S, Arisoesilaningsih E, Wardiyati T, Purnobasuki H (2011 A model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume corm. Biodiversitas 12: 45-51. The abiotic environment as well as the biotic environment, involved climate and soil affect directly or indirectly to plant growth as well as plant substance. The objective of the research was to obtain a model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang corm. Porang corms were collected from five locations of porang agroforestry in East Java. The locations were (i Klangon Village, Saradan Subdistrict, Madiun District; (ii Klino Villlage, Sekar Subdistrict, Bojonegoro District; (iii Bendoasri Village, Rejoso Subdistrict, Nganjuk District; (iv Sugihwaras Village, Nggluyu Subdistrict, Nganjuk District and (v Kalirejo Village, Kalipare Subdistrict, Malang District. Geography variable consist of altitude. Climate variables consist of percentage of radiation, temperature and rainfall. Soil variables consist of electrical conductivity, pH, soil specific gravity, soil organic matter, available of calcium, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Vegetation variables consist of species of plant tree and percentage of coverage. Porang vegetative growth variables consist of plant height, number of bulbil, canopy diameter, and petiole diameter. Corm variables consist of corm diameter, corm weight, and corm specific gravity. Oxalate variables consist of total oxalate, soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate, and density of calcium oxalate crystal. Oxalate contents were measured based on AOAC method. All of variables were collected from first to fourth growth period of porang. Data were analyzed by smartPLS (Partial Least Square software. The results showed that there were significantly direct effect between altitude and temperature, altitude and CEC of soil, temperature and CEC of soil, altitude and

  20. Comparison Study of Critical Properties of the Bond-Diluted Blume-Capel Model under the Condition of Two Different Random Crystal Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-Lei; DENG Ling-Ling

    2003-01-01

    Critical properties of the bond diluted Blume-Capel model with random crystal field are considered inthe framework of the effective field theory. Special emphasis is placed on the comparison study of critical propertiesunder the condition of two different random crystal fields on square lattice. Calculated results show that the randomcrystal field plays an important role in the determination of the order of phase transition. The distributions of differentrandom crystal fields, such as symmetrical and dilution crystal field, lead to apparent characteristic behaviors. We notonly give the description of a detailed phase diagram but also compare the difference between the critical properties oftwo different random crystal field distributions. This comparison study has not been revealed in previous reports.

  1. Dynamic phase transitions of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model under an oscillating external magnetic field by the path probability method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.

  2. Extension of the constant exchange probability method to multi-dimensional replica exchange Monte Carlo applied to the tri-critical spin-1 Blume-Capel model

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In replica exchange Monte Carlo (REM), tuning of the temperature set and the exchange scheduling are crucial in improving the accuracy and reducing calculation time. In multi-dimensional simulated tempering, the first order phase transition is accessible. Therefore it is important to study the tuning of parameter set and the scheduling of exchanges in the parallel counterpart, the multi-dimensional REM. We extend Hukushima's constant exchange probability method to multi-dimensional REM for the parameter set. We further propose a combined method to use this set and the Bittner-Nussbaumer-Janke's PT tau algorithm for scheduling. We test the proposed method in two-dimensional spin-1 Blume-Capel model and find that it works efficiently, including the vicinity of the first order phase transition.

  3. Critical Exponents for the Re-entrant Phase Transitions in the Three-Dimensional Blume-Emery-Griffiths Model on the Cellular Automaton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Sefero(g)lu; B. Kutlu

    2007-01-01

    The critical behaviour of the three-dimensional Blume-Emery-Grifiiths (BEG) model is investigated at D / J = 0, -0.25 and -1 in the range of-1 ≤ K/J ≤ 0 for J = 100. The simulations are carried out on a simple cubic lattice using the heating algorithm improved from the Creutz cellular automaton (CCA) under periodic boundary conditions. The universality of the model are obtained for re-entrant and double re-entrant phase transitions which occur at certain D/J and K/J parameters, with J and K representing the nearest-neighbour bilinear and biquadratic interactions, and D being the single-ion anisotropy parameter. The values of static critical exponents β, γand v are estimated within the framework of the finite-size scaling theory. The results are compatible with the universal Ising critical behaviour for all continuous phase transitions in these ranges.

  4. Screening of Active Compounds from Gastrodia elata Blume for Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation%云南昭通天麻松弛血管平滑肌活性成分的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维明; 杨莲; 李秀芳; 林青; 李国花; 魏文彬

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effect and explicit the material base of Gastrodia elata Blume. Method:Tension recording for rat isolated aortic artery was used to study the effect of vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Column chromatography and mass spectrography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry were used to isolate and identify the active compounds of G. elata Blume. Result: G. elata Blume.could significantly inhibit the smooth muscle constriction of isolated aortic artery induced by KCI. Five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ-Ⅴ ) were isolated from G. elata Blume, such as p-hydroxybenz aldehyde ( Ⅰ ); phydroxybenzyl methylether ( Ⅱ ); p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol ( Ⅲ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane ( Ⅳ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydibenzyl ether( Ⅴ ). The results showed that the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effects were the result of the role of five compounds. Conclusion: The five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ ) from G. elata Blume.play a combined role for vascular smooth muscle relaxation.%目的:观察天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用,明确其作用物质基础.方法:采用大鼠离体胸主动脉环灌流实验方法,对天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用进行考察,采用柱色谱法、光谱法(MS,NMR)对其活性成分进行了分离鉴定.结果:天麻能够显著抑制KCl引起的大鼠胸主动脉环收缩,从天麻乙酸乙酯提取物中分离并鉴定了5个酯溶性酚性成分(Ⅰ~Ⅴ):对羟基苯甲醛(Ⅰ)、对羟苄基甲醚(Ⅱ)、对羟基苯甲醇(Ⅲ)、4,4'-二羟基二苯基甲烷(Ⅳ),4,4-二羟基二苄醚(Ⅴ),明确了天麻的血管平滑肌松弛作用是这5个成分共同作用的结果.结论:天麻具有显著的血管平滑肌松弛作用,其作用主要由5个酯溶性酚性成分共同发挥.

  5. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  6. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

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    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI, C. zeylanicum (GII, and nystatin (GIII for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α=5%. For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P<0.0001, with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  7. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume, one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

  8. The relationship of nitrogen and C/N ratio with secondary metabolites levels and antioxidant activities in three varieties of Malaysian kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity. PMID:21716173

  9. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah

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    Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

  10. Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of Malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

  11. Random crystal field effect on the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hachimi, A. G.; Dakir, O.; Sidi Ahmed, S.; Zaari, H.; El Yadari, M.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of random crystal-field on the stationary states of the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model is investigated within the framework of the mean-field approach. The Glauber-type stochastic dynamics is used to describe the time evolution of the system which is subject to a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. In addition to the well-known phase transitions and the appearance of the partly ferromagnetic phase characterized by the magnetization m = 1 in equilibrium case, a new dynamical regions between the ferromagnetic phases F1/2, F1 and F3/2 are found where F3/2 +F 1 / 2 ,F3/2 +F1, F1 +F1/2 phases coexist for a weak value of the reduced magnetic field (h). Whereas for higher value of h both solutions ordered F and disordered P phases coexist. Hence we present six types topologies of phase diagrams which exhibit dynamical first-order, second-order transition lines, dynamical tricritical and isolated critical end points. Furthermore, the dynamical thermal behavior magnetizations, susceptibilities and phase space trajectories are given and discussed.

  12. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity ofEnicostema axillare (Lam.)Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume)Raynal:An important medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kousalya Loganathan; VNarmatha Bai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for high frequency plantlets regeneration protocol forEnicostema axillare(Lam.)Raynal ssp.littoralis(Blume)Raynal(E. axillare) without intermediate callus phase and to determine the content and correlation of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity of both the plants derived from nature and nodal culture byDPPH assay.Methods:The nodal explants were cultured onMS basal medium fortified with different concentration of various growth regulators such asBAP,KIN,TDZ and2iP(0.5-2 mg/L) individually and in combinations with or withoutGA3 for shoot bud induction and multiplication.Total phenol and flavonoid content was determined in both plants from nature and nodal culture and antioxidant activity was determined byDPPH assay.Results:The highest number of multiple shoot(108.00±3.55 shoots/explants) was obtained onMS medium supplemented withBAP(2 mg/L) in combination withKIN (0.5 mg/L) andGA3(2 mg/L).Rooting was optimized on half-strengthMS medium supplemented withIAA(0.5 mg/L).The rooted plantlets were transferred to paper cups containing vermiculite and hardening was successfully attained with75% survival.Among the four extract of methanol and water extract from both the plantlet from nature and nodal culture, the concentration of flavonoid was found to be higher in methanol extract of the plants from nature(146.57±1.68 mg rutin/g extract) and phenol content was higher in the water extract of plant from nature(52.53±1.67 mgGAE /g extract).The radical scavenging activity of four extracts.Methanol extract of plant grown in nature showed the highest radical scavenging activity(IC50 =87.10 μg/mL) was investigated byDPPH test.Conculsion:The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations usingex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets.A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major

  13. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves on some food-related bacteria Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre bactérias de interesse em alimentos

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    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, has long been known for having many biological properties. This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves using GC-MS and to assess its inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on MIC and MBC determination and kill-time study. Eugenol (73.27% was the most prevalent compound in the essential oil followed by trans-β-cariophyllene (5.38%, linalool (3.31%, and alcohol cinamic acetate (2.53%. The results showed an interesting antibacterial activity of the oil with MIC ranging from 1.25 to 10 µL.mL-1. MBC values were in the range of 20 - 80 µL.mL-1. A concentration of 10 and 40 µL.mL-1 of the essential oil caused a fast and steady decrease in viable cell count (2 to 5 log cycles of all assayed strains along 24 hours. A concentration of 40 µL.mL-1 of the oil provided a total elimination of the initial inocula of S. aureus after 2 hours. These results show the possibility of regarding the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves as alternative sources of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation systems.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, é uma espécie vegetal reconhecida, a longo tempo, como possuidora de muitas propriedades biológicas. Este estudo objetivou identificar os constituintes do óleo essencial das folhas de C. zeylanicum, utilizando CG-EM, e avaliar seu efeito inibitório sobre Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa através da determinação da CIM e CBM, bem como através da análise do tempo de morte bacteriana. Eugenol (73,27% foi o composto mais prevalente no óleo essencial, seguido por trans-β-cariofileno (5,38%, linalol (3,31% e álcool acetato cinâmico (2,53%. Os resultados mostraram uma interessante atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial com CIM, variando de 1,25 a 10 µL.mL-1. Os valores de

  14. Effects of bimo dal random crystal field on the magnetization and phase transition of Blume-Cap el mo del on nanotub e%双模随机晶场对纳米管上Blume-Cap el模型磁化强度和相变的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓杰; 刘中强; 王春阳; 徐玉良; 孔祥木

    2015-01-01

    近年来,磁性纳米管的物理性质和相关应用得到了人们的广泛关注。利用有效场理论研究了纳米管上双模随机晶场中Blume-Capel模型的磁化强度和相变性质,得到了系统的磁化强度与温度和随机晶场的关系及其相图。结果表明:系统在稀释晶场、交错晶场和同向晶场中会表现出不同的磁学性质和相变行为;稀释晶场和交错晶场会抑制系统的磁化强度,导致其基态饱和值小于1,而同向晶场则不会;随着随机晶场参量的变化,系统存在多个相变温度,并呈现出三临界现象和重入现象。%Recently, the physical properties and applications of the magnetic nanotube have attracted a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention. The magnetization and phase transition of spin-1 Blume-Capel model on a cylindrical Ising nanotube with bimodal random crystal fields are investigated by using the effective field theory. Employing numerical calculations, we obtain the phase diagrams and the magnetization, which depend on the temperature and the parameters of random crystal fields. Our obtained results are as follows. (i) Changing the probability (p) and the ratio of the crystal fields (α), the bimodal random crystal fields may describe different doped atoms acting on spins. Especially, for p=0.5, choosingα=0,−1.0,−0.5 and 0.5, the bimodal random crystal fields can respectively degrade four typical distributions of random crystal fields, i. e., the distribution of diluted crystal fields, the distribution of symmetry staggered crystal fields, the distribution of non-symmetry staggered crystal fields, and the distribution of same-direction crystal field. (ii) The system exhibits different magnetic properties and phase transition behaviors in the diluted, staggered and same-direction crystal field. The diluted and staggered crystal fields may reduce the magnetization of the system, resulting in the ground state saturation value of

  15. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae essential oil and beta-pinene on the growth of dematiaceous moulds Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae e beta-pineno sobre o crescimento de fungos dematiáceos

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    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous moulds are pathogen microorganisms able to act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil and beta-pinene in inhibiting the growth of various strains of dematiaceous moulds (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia sp., Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Antimicrobial assays were led by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC using the solid medium diffusion procedure and observing the interference of the MIC values on the mould radial mycelial growth along 14 days. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil oscillated between 63 and 125 µL/mL. beta-pinene showed MIC value of 125 µL/mL for the most mould strains, however C. resinae and C. globosum were resistant to it in all assayed concentrations. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene presented intense fungicidal effect noted by a total inhibition of the mycelial growth of C. cladosporioides and F. compacta along 14 days of exposure. These results showed the intense antimould potential of C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene which could be regarded in a rational use in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat some mycoses, particularly, those caused by dematiaceous moulds.Os fungos dematiáceos são microrganismos patogênicos capazes de agir como agentes etiológicos de micoses com diferentes graus de severidade. Este estudo avaliou a efetividade do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e beta-pineno em inibir o crescimento de várias cepas de fungos dematiáceos (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia, Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Os ensaios antimicrobianos foram conduzidos através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM utilizando-se da t

  16. Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: caracterização química e antimicrobiana

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    J.M Freire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Illicium verum Hook. f. (star-anise and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil. The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans-anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01 µL mL-1 for star-anise and cinnamon oils, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for A. parasiticus was 0.25, 2 and 2 µL mL-1 for cinnamon, star-anise and marjoram oils, respectively.Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L. (manjerona, Illicium verum Hook. f. (anis estrelado e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (canela foram obtidos pela técnica de arraste a vapor d'água com aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Foram avaliadas as atividades antimicrobianas de cada um sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e para os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus, observando o crescimento e/ou inibição micelial, comparando-se estes com a placa-padrão (sem óleo. Os óleos essenciais foram analisados em cromat

  17. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the rowth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species Efeito do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas

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    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 µL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 µL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume é uma planta conhecida por apresentar ampla variedade de propriedades medicinais. Portanto, este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a interferência do óleo essencial C. zeylanicum sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas. O óleo essencial testado apresentou potente efeito antifúngico demonstrado pela visualização de grandes zonas de inibição de crescimento de todas as linhagens testadas. Os valores de CIM50 e de CIM90 foram 40 e 80 µL/mL, respectivamente. Nas concentrações de 80, 40 e 20 µL/mL o óleo demonstrou um potente efeito fumigante, inibindo o crescimento micelial radial de A. niger, A. flavus e A. fumigatus ao longo de 14 dias de exposição. A 80 e 40 µL/mL o óleo essencial promoveu inibição de 100% da germinação de esporos, das três espécies de Aspergillus citadas

  18. Inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura%板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍雄; 王明月; 王金华; 张敬宜; 思斯; 熊智

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用,为害虫防治及新型植物源生物农药开发提供理论依据.[方法]以10株思茅松毛虫3龄和5龄幼虫肠道细菌为供试菌种,采用牛津杯法测定不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物的抑菌效果.[结果]不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌均有一定的抑菌作用,且随着质量浓度的增大抑菌作用逐渐增强,各提取物的抑菌作用大小顺序为乙酸乙酯>乙醇>氯仿>正丁醇>石油醚,其中以乙酸乙酯提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用最强,最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)为6.250 mg/mL,石油醚提取物的抑菌作用不明显或无抑菌作用.[结论]板栗苞壳提取物可作为新型植物源生物农药在思茅松毛虫防治中加以开发利用.%[Objective]This research studied the inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura in order to create new biological pesticides developed from plant sources and to provide theoretical basis for pesticide development. [Method]Using 10 strains of intestinal bacteria extracted from age 3 and age 5 Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura instar larvae as test strains, the inhibition effect of different organic Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract solvents was determined using the Oxford cup method. [Result]Different organic solvents of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract had some inhibition effects on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. As the quality concentration increased, the inhibition effect became more noticeable; different extractions were arranged in the following rank from the strongest inhibition rate to the weakest inhibition rate: acetic ether> ethanol>chloroform>butyl alcohoblight petroleum. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong inhibition activity on the intestinal bacteria of Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. The minimum

  19. 板栗总苞化学成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅱ)%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀梅; 吴迪; 黄健; 孙博航; 吴立军; 高慧媛

    2010-01-01

    目的 对板栗总苞(Castanea mollissima Blume)的化学成分进行深入研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和制备性HPLC等多种分离方法对板栗总苞体积分数为95%乙醇溶液回流提取物进行成分分离,结合化合物的理化常数、谱学分析等方法鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为8-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propyloctyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-undecylbenzoate(1)、苹果酸二丁酯(dibutylmalate,2)、槲皮素(quercetin,3)、山柰酚(kaempferol,4)、tiliroside(5)、山柰酚3-O-(2",6"-双-反式-对-香豆酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-[2",6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、3',3"-dimethoxylarreatricin(7)、大黄素(emodin,8)、乌索酸(ursolic acid,9)、原儿茶酸(3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid,10).结论 化合物1、2为从栗属植物中首次分离得到,化合物8为该种植物中首次分离得到,以上化合物均为板栗总苞中首次分离得到.

  20. 湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类调查%Investigation on the species of insect pests infesting on the chestnut plant (Castanea mollissima Blume)in Luotian County,Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云丽; 汪玉平; 孙康; 徐向阳; 晏绍良; 钟玉林

    2015-01-01

    The species of insect pests infesting on chestnut plant Castanea mollissima Blume were systematically in-vestigated from 2013 to 2014 in Luotian County,Hubei Province.One hundred and ninety-two chestnut pest spe-cies in 61 families under 5 orders were recorded from Luotian County,among them,62 branch and trunk pests species in 23 families,1 53 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 49 families,1 5 fruit pests species in 8 families. Eighty-one named species in 37 families under 4 orders were firstly reported feeding on chestnut plants,including 24 branch and trunk pests species in 13 families,60 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 28 families,and 7 fruit pests species in 4 families.Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss),Curculio davidi Fairmaire,Niphades castanes Chao,Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée),Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang,Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang,Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot),Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey),and Dryocosmus kuriphi-lus Yasumatsu caused serious damage in the chestnut production.%2013-2014年度系统调查了湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类,经分类整理与鉴定,罗田县板栗害虫共计5目61科192种,其中枝干害虫23科62种,叶芽花序害虫49科153种、果实害虫8科15种;板栗新纪录害虫4目37科81种(已命名种),其中枝干害虫13科24种,叶芽花序害虫28科60种,果实害虫4科7种。对板栗生产造成严重危害的主要有:果实害虫板栗剪枝象[Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss)]、栗实象(Curculio davidi Fairmaire)、栗雪片象(Niphades castanes Chao)和桃多斑野螟[Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée)];枝干害虫昆明兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang)、勐腊兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang)和板栗大蚜[Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot)];叶芽害虫栎掌舟蛾[Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey)]和板栗瘿蜂(Dryo-cosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)。

  1. MIKROPROPAGASI ANGGREK ALMA Grammatophyllum scriptum Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Handini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grammatophyllum scriptum is a beautiful wild orchid that has an interesting economic value. However, the existence of this ornamental plant species is at risk because of irresponsible exploitation of the natural population and insufficient cultivation efforts. Currently, the Bogor Botanic Garden is developing a program of orchid propagation for enhancing the conservation of all potential orchid collections. The propagation of G. scriptum was basically carried out by culturing the seeds in a modified Hyponex or Vacin & Went medium, transplanting the plantlets into a more suitable medium and finally acclimatizing the resulting seedlings. A study was done to observe the effect of fertilizer application on the growth of acclimatized G. scriptum seedlings, as a means to improve the propagation technique of the species. The result showed that the application of 1 and 2 m1/I organic fertilizer (Sugih as well as 1 and 2 g/I inorganic fertilizer (Hyponex increased the seedling mortality, in which the application of 2 g/ml Hyponex fertilizer was being the most damaging treatment, leaving 12,5 % seedlings to survive. However, in terms of seedling growth, the application of 1 m1/I Sugih fertilizer was slightly beneficial to the formation of root and the elongation of stem of the acclimatized seedlings. It may be suggested, therefore, that G. scriptum seedlings require no (or very little amount of supplementary fertilizer to boost their vegetative growth.

  2. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  3. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (BL) preparation on expression of insulin - degrading enzyme gene of liver in type 2 diabetic rats%怀牛膝对2型糖尿病大鼠肝脏IDE基因mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包海花; 郭新民; 聂影

    2005-01-01

    目的研究怀牛膝(Achyranthes bidentata Blume,BL)水煎剂对2型糖尿病大鼠肝脏胰岛素酶(insulin-degrading enzyme,IDE)基因mRNA表达的影响.方法随机选取以不同剂量怀牛膝水煎剂灌胃的2型糖尿病大鼠每组10只,以生理盐水灌胃的2型糖尿病大鼠及正常对照组大鼠各10只,用RT-PCR法测定大鼠肝脏胰岛素酶基因mRNA的表达.结果2型糖尿病大鼠模型组IDE基因mRNA的表达高于正常组(P<0.05).怀牛膝治疗组各组IDE基因mRNA的表达均低于2型糖尿病大鼠模型组(P<0.05),并且与正常对照组相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论怀牛膝水煎剂通过抑制肝胰岛素酶基因mRNA的表达.

  4. Epidermal structure of Pinanga coronata (Blume ex Mart. Blume (Palmae in Java and Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO R. WITONO

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Pinanga coronata is one of palms species that has complex characters in morphology, because distribution of the species is very diverse. In the wild, P. coronata is found throughout Java and Bali, occuring on lowland forest to montane forest at altitude 1.900 m asl. This paper presents leaf anatomy observation on 21 samples from different localities and altitudes throughout Java and Bali. Observation results show that all samples have simillar form and structure of epidermis cells and stomata, so the results gave evidence that leaf anatomy observation has simillar results with morphological observation of this species.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mui-Hung Wong; Li-Fang Lim; Fasihuddin bin Ahmad; Zaini bin Assim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods: In vitro method -2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results:Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11%and 66.85%respectively. Conclusions:Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica.

  6. Epidermal structure of Pinanga coronata (Blume ex Mart.) Blume (Palmae) in Java and Bali

    OpenAIRE

    JOKO R. WITONO

    2003-01-01

    Pinanga coronata is one of palms species that has complex characters in morphology, because distribution of the species is very diverse. In the wild, P. coronata is found throughout Java and Bali, occuring on lowland forest to montane forest at altitude 1.900 m asl. This paper presents leaf anatomy observation on 21 samples from different localities and altitudes throughout Java and Bali. Observation results show that all samples have simillar form and structure of epidermis cells and stomata...

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mui-Hung Wong

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica.

  8. Effects of Mineral Amendment on Manganese Absorption and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities in Hyperaccumulator Polygonum pubescens Blume%改良剂对锰超富集植物短毛蓼锰吸收及抗氧化酶系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶攀骅; 王洋; 刘可慧; 周振明; 陈孟林; 刘华; 苏银萍; 于方明

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the amendments to remediate manganese pollution soil combined hyperaccumulator plants. By using soil incubation experiment, 2.5% and 5% of sepiolite (S2.5, S5.0) and zeolite (Z2.5, Z5.0) were added to study the effects on Mn hyperaccumulator Polygonum pubescens Blume''s growth, Mn absorption and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that sepiolite and zeolite significantly increased Mn in the leaves of P. pubescens (P<0.05). However, sepiolite and zeolite also decreased the plant weight, the contents of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of P. pubescens. S2.5 and Z5.0 treatments increased the height of P. pubescens by 15% and 16%, respectively, compared to the control group, while Z2.5 and Z5.0 decreased the height of P. pubescens by 40.05% and 35.58% respectively. In addition, sepiolite and zeolite significantly increased the contents of MDA and H2O2 (P<0.05) indicating the P. pubescens was under surpress. The content of superoxide radical (·O2–) decreased 4.69%, 16.49% and 21.01% in S2.5, S5.0 and Z2.5 treatments, respectively. Furthermore, sepiolite and zeolite changed the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the content of non-enzymes antioxidant. Sepiolite significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the leaves, as indicated by the results that S2.5 and S5.0 treatments increased SOD activity by 14% and 15% respectively. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) also increased. The activities of POD were 4.63 and 4.23 times of the control in the S2.5 and S5.0 groups respectively. Z2.5 and Z5.0 treatments increased POD activities by 4.71 times and 4.74 times of the controls. However, both sepiolite and zeolite decreased the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), –SH and GSH (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that sepiolite and zeolite have different impacts on the antioxidant enzymes inP. pubescens.%为了探究改良剂与超富集植物联合

  9. Efecto del genotipo en la respuesta a fertilizantes en Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A.Murr.) Parl. y Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) Franco.

    OpenAIRE

    Zas Arregui, Rafael; Pichel, F.

    2001-01-01

    6 páginas, 3 tablas -- Comunicación presentada al 3º Congreso Forestal Español, que se celebró en Granada del 25 al 28 de septiembre de 2001, bajo el lema “Montes para la Sociedad del nuevo milenio”, y con la denominación “Sierra Nevada 2001”.

  10. Pollen morphology and its taxonomic significance in the genus Bomarea Mirb. (Alstroemeriaceae - I. Subgenera Baccata, Sphaerine, and Wichuraea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Khayer Mohammad Golam Sarwar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPollen morphology of 24 of the 33 species of three Bomareasubgenera, Baccata, Sphaerine, andWichuraea, was examined by light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, or SEM alone. The studied species ofBomarea were stenopalynous, characterized by large, monosulcate monads with reticulate exine sculpture in most species. Opercula-like structures were present on the sulcus in B.huanucoand B.involucrosa. Differences in pollen size, exine thickness, and exine sculpture were observed. The studied taxa were divided into four major groups based on exine ornamentation observed under SEM: microreticulate, reticulate, coarsely rugulate, or finely rugulate-perforate. Pollen characters alone did not appear to correlate clearly with the current subgeneric classification of Bomarea, but they may have some taxonomic utility below the subgeneric level. The most reliable infrageneric classification of Bomarea can be achieved through combined analyses of morphological, palynological, and molecular data from larger samples of specimens of all the species.

  11. THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

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    I. Podkovyrov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

  12. Effects of manganese on the growth and nitrogen metabolism in hyperaccumulators Polygonum pubescens blume and Polygonum hydropiper L.%Mn对超富集植物短毛蓼和水蓼生长、Mn吸收及氮素代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于方明; 李燕; 刘可慧; 李明顺; 邓华; 杨栋林; 周振明

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponic culture was conducted to investigate the effects of Mn on the growth, metal accumulation and nitrogen metabolism in hyper- accumulating plants Polygonum pubescens Blume and Polygonum hydropiper L.. The enzymatic activities of nitrogen metabolism were determined including nitrate reducatse (NR) , glutamine synthelase (GS) , glutamate synthase (GOGAT) , glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) as well as the nitrate nitrogen,ammonium nitrogen, and free and soluble prolines. The results indicated that the Mn contents rose significantly (p 〈 0.05) in the tissues of both plants with the increased concentrations of Mn treatment. However, Mn levels in P. pubescens were always higher than those in the same tissue in P. hydropiper L. under the same Mn treatment. The plant height and dry weight of P, pubescens were not affected significantly when exposed to Mn concentrations lower than 1 mmol.L-1, but significant changes were found for P. hydropiper, indicating that P. pubescens is more Mn-tolerant. Compare to the control, the contents of nitrate nitrogen in P. pubescens decreased significantly (p 〈 0.05 ), while the contents of soluble protein increased. The contents of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen as well as soluble protein in P. hydropiper L. increased significantly in the treatment of 8 mmol. L- 1 Mn. The contents of free proline in both plants increased compared with those of the control, indicating that free proline played an important role in detoxifying Mn. Both activities of NR in P. hydropiper and GS in P. pubescens declined significantly (p 〈0.05 ) due to the Mn treatment. The activity of NR reached maximum in P. hydropiper at 1 mmol. L- Mn treatment. The activities of GOGAT in both plant tissues decreased significantly (p 〈 0.05 ) with the Mn concentrations from 2 to 8 mmol. L-1. At 8 mmol. L- 1 treatment, the GDH activities in both plant leaves (p 〈 0.05 ) were 16.29 and 1.29 times of those under control

  13. Antioxidant activity of the medicinal plant Enicostemma littorale Blume

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    P Abirami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the source for wide variety of natural antioxidants. In the study reported here, we have conducted a comparative study between the different parts of the plant Enicostemma littorale. The amount of total phenols and antioxidant enzymes Glutathione-S-Transferase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase activities were evaluated and also the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, α- tocopherol and Glutathione activities were evaluated. The results showed that the antioxidant activities varied greatly among the different plant parts used in this study and some parts are rich in natural antioxidants especially the flowers of E. littorale. These results suggest that Enicostemma littorale have strong antioxidant potential. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of antioxidant agents, which can be used to treat various oxidative stress-related diseases.

  14. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

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    Das Manosi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhita”. The herb is used for the treatment of dyspeptic conditions, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain with diarrhoea, inflammation of the eye, leukorrhoea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, wounds, and toothache. The oil isolated from the different parts of the plant containing cinnamaldehyde and eugenol as major constituents are considered as active principle of cinnamon. Over the past two decades many scientific journals are describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. This review has tried to include an up to date phytochemical and biological research on cinnamon. The ethnobotanical uses have also been discussed.

  15. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    OpenAIRE

    Das Manosi; Mandal Suvra; Mallick Budhimanta; Hazra Jayram

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhi...

  16. Degenerate Blume-Emery-Griffiths model for the martensitic transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vives, E.; Castan, T.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1996-01-01

    between two ordered phases. This is relevant for the martensitic transition problem. Mean-field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. The model predicts a constant entropy change at the transition for various transition temperatures in agreement with the behavior found experimentally....

  17. Die infragenerische Gliederung der Gattung Bomarea Mirb. und die Revision der Untergattungen Sphaerine (Herb.) Baker und Wichuraea (M. Roemer) Baker (Alstroemeriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hofreiter, Anton

    2003-01-01

    Die Gattung Bomarea wurde seit BAKER 1888 nicht mehr revidiert. Seither hat die Zahl gültig veröffentlichter Namen von 105 auf 280 zugenommen. Eine neue Revision ist dringend erforderlich. Ausgedehnte Feldstudien in Peru bilden die Grundlage für die Inangriffnahme dieses Projekts. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die taxonomische Geschichte der Gattung rekonstruiert. Bomarea wird gegen die nahe verwandte Alstroemeria abgegrenzt. HUNZIKER (1973) hatte Bomarea sogar eingezogen. Die meisten Autor...

  18. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Paz Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%. Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%, alfa-felandreno (9,2%, p-cimeno (6,2%, limoneno (7,9%, linalol (10,6%; os sesquiterpenos alfa-copaeno (3,3%, (beta -cariofileno (6,7%, óxido de cariofileno (3,1% e os alilbenzenos (E-cinamaldeído (7,8% e acetato de (E-cinamila (9,7%.The essential oils of the leaves and branches "of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, collected at Manaus, state of Amazonas, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, of which eugenol, was the major (60%. Thirty-six components were identified in the branch oil, among them the monoterpenes alpha-pinene (9.9 %, beta-pinene (3.5 %, alpha phellandrene (9.2 %, p-cymene (6.2%, limonene (7.9%, linalool (10.6% were the most abundant, followed by the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (3.3%, (beta-caryophyllene (6.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.1% and the allybenzenes (E-cinnamaldehyde (7.8%, (E-cinnamyl acetate (9.7%.

  19. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Paz Lima; Maria das Graças B. Zoghbi; Eloisa Helena A. Andrade; Tatiana Maria D. Silva; Carlos Sousa Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%). Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%), alfa-felandreno (9,2%), p-cimeno (6,2%), limoneno (7,9%), ...

  20. Range extension of two poorly known endemic species of the genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankararao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orophea malabarica Sasidh. & Sivar. and Orophea sivarajanii Sasidh., of the family Annonaceae were found growing in close proximity as undergrowth with restricted distribution in the evergreen forest of Makutta Ghat, Kodagu District, Karnataka State, India.  Earlier reports suggest that these are endemic to Kerala state of the Western Ghats and found distributed only in their type localities viz., Thrissur and Wayanad districts respectively. However, the present article reports extension of their range to new locations in Karnataka state and therefore become addition to the floral wealth of the state, as they were neither previously collected nor recorded from this region. The updated nomenclature, detailed description, flowering-fruiting seasons, distribution map, scanned herbarium specimens, field photographs, proposed conservation status and other relevant notes are provided in this communication. 

  1. Thonningiiflavanonol A and thonningiiflavanonol B, two novel flavonoids, and other constituents of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ango, Patrick Y; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Fotso, Ghislain W; Fozing, Christian D; Yeboah, Elizabeth M O; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Yeboah, Samuel O

    2016-03-01

    A phytochemical study of Ficus thonningii has led to the isolation of two previously unreported compounds, thonningiiflavanonol A and thonningiiflavanonol B together with 16 known compounds: shuterin, naringenin, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, genistein, 5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone, luteolin, methylparaben, aromadendrin, garbanzol, dihydroquercetin, 5,7,3'-trihydroxyflavanone, β-sitosterol, sitosterolglucoside, lupeol acetate, and taraxerol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The new compounds and extracts displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:26959540

  2. Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Piper caninum Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnah Mohd Sirat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9% and stems (87.0% oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil showed the highest inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation (114.9 ± 0.9%, compared to BHT (95.5 ± 0.5%, while leaves oil showed significant total phenolic content (27.4 ± 0.5 mg GA/g equivalent to gallic acid. However, the essential oils showed weak activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity revealed that both oils exhibited strong activity against all bacteria strains with MIC values in the range 62.5 to 250 µg/mL, but weak activity against fungal strains. These findings suggest that the essential oils can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for therapeutic, nutraceutical industries and food manufactures.

  3. Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Piper caninum Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnah Mohd Sirat; Khong Heng Yen; Farediah Ahmad; Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh

    2011-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9%) and stems (87.0%) oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil sh...

  4. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (P0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process. PMID:26868551

  5. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  6. Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vimala Thankappan Anitha; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Methods:The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods. Results:The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (24 mm), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (16 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (13 mm). The chlorofrom extracts of E. scaber showed the highest zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) (12 mm), The leaves ethanolic extracts of E. scaber demonstrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) (18 mm), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) (17 mm), Salmonella Typhi (S. typhi) (14 mm) and Enterobacter sp. (11 mm) While the benzene extracts of H. colorata demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Acinetobacter sp. (14 mm) and S. aureus (12 mm). Conclusions:It is hoped that this study would direct to the establishment of some compounds that could be used to invent new and more potent antimicrobial drugs of natural origin.

  7. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Mun Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131 from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE, its hexane (HF, ethyl acetate (EAF, and aqueous (AF fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.

  8. Thonningiiflavanonol A and thonningiiflavanonol B, two novel flavonoids, and other constituents of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ango, Patrick Y; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Fotso, Ghislain W; Fozing, Christian D; Yeboah, Elizabeth M O; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Yeboah, Samuel O

    2016-03-01

    A phytochemical study of Ficus thonningii has led to the isolation of two previously unreported compounds, thonningiiflavanonol A and thonningiiflavanonol B together with 16 known compounds: shuterin, naringenin, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, genistein, 5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone, luteolin, methylparaben, aromadendrin, garbanzol, dihydroquercetin, 5,7,3'-trihydroxyflavanone, β-sitosterol, sitosterolglucoside, lupeol acetate, and taraxerol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The new compounds and extracts displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  9. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pcooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  10. Anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon. For this, tests were conducted to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and the action of C. zeylanicum EO on fungal cell wall of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei strains. The composition of the was analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Significant antifungal activity of the EO was observed on the strains tested, with 87.5% and 62.5% of them sensitive, respectively at a MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL. In the presence of sorbitol, the MIC was 625 µg/mL against all the strains, showing a possible action of the EO on fungal cell wall. Eugenol (73.27% and trans-β-caryophyllene (5.38% were found in higher concentrations. The results indicated anti-Candida activity of the EO analyzed and suggested that it occurred due to the action on fungal cell wall.

  11. Macro-microscopic examination of leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burm. f.) Blume sold as Tamalapatra

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar, K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) commonly known as ‘Tamalapatra’ is a highly reputed commodity in drug and spice trade. Its adulteration with other leaf species belonging to genus Cinnamomum is found to be a common practice in India and other parts of the world. Thorough macroscopic and microscopic investigations are essential to differentiate them. Survey of South Indian crude drug markets revealed that in place of C. tamala some other leaves of Cinnamomum species are so...

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES AND STEM EXTRACTS OF AVICENNIA ALBA BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagababu, P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was attempted to study the Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Mangrove plant Avicennia alba. Leaf and stem extracts of A. alba were prepared in Hexane, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Acetone and Methanol solvents. The resulted extracts of the plant were screened for antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus MTCC 106, Arthrobacter protophormiae MTCC 2682, Rhodococcus rhodochrous MTCC 265, Alcaligens faecalis MTCC 126, Proteus- mirabilis MTCC 425, Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 10208, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Bacillus megaterium MTCC 428, Enterococcus faecalis MTCC 439, Streptococcus mutans- MTCC 497, Salmonella enterica MTCC 3858, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 737, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1688 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441. The extracts were also screened for phytochemicals like Carbohydrates, Tannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Flavanoids, Alkaloids and Soluble starch. Of the six solvent extracts of A. alba, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of leaf and stem, with few exceptions, showed relatively high antibacterial activity. Benzene and chloroform extracts of A. alba showed a larger zone of inhibition against Salmonella enterica than other bacteria. A. alba leaf and stem extracts of different solvents showed good antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria than the Gram positive bacteria tested. Most of the solvent extracts of leaf and stem are effective on many bacteria tested than the positive control. The acetone and methanol extracts of leaf and stem showed maximum positive results towards the phytochemical constituents.

  13. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Protective effect ofAmorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume. tuber against thioacetamide induced oxidative stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puthuparampil Nazarudeen Ansil; Anand Nitha; Pallara Janardhanan Wills; Vahab Jazaira; Mukalel Sankunni Latha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To identify the phytochemical constituents ofAmorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus) tuber and to evaluate its antioxidant potential throughin vitro andin vivo models. Methods: Phytochemical screening andin vitro antioxidant activities ofA. campanulatus tuber n-hexane extract (ACHE) and methanolic extract (ACME) were evaluated using DPPH, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also investigated. The protective potential of two different doses ofACME (125 and250 mg/kg) was also evaluated against thioacetamide (TAA) induced oxidative stress in rats. Silymarin used as a standard drug control. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The antioxidant potential ofACME were also evaluated by the estimation of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in hepatic and renal tissues. Histopathologic changes of liver were also evaluated.Results:In vitro studies revealed thatACME has higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activity thanACHE, which may be attributed to its higher phenolic and flavonoid content.ACME significantly prevented the elevation of serumAST, ALT, ALP, LDH, and tissue malondialdehyde levels(P < 0.05). Hepatic and renalGSH, GST, GR, GPx, and catalase levels were remarkably increased by the treatment with the extract. Quantification of histopathological changes also supported the dose dependent protective effects ofACME.Conclusions: The results do suggest thatA. campanulatus tuber could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  15. The subantartic Nothofagus forests of Tierra del Fuego: distribution, structure and production

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Merino, Emilia; Vallejo, V. Ramón; Romanyà i Socoró, Joan; Fons, J

    1991-01-01

    Evergreen Nothofagus betuloides and decidoues N. pumilo form the main forest types in Tierra del Fuego. These forest were sampled along two altitudinal gradients to study their structure and dynamics and assess the causes of their distribution.

  16. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation; Estudo dos compostos bioativos em especiarias (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e Myristica fragans Houtt) processadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-07-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation {sup 60}Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds were identified and most of the tests the irradiation did not interfere significantly with the compounds amount. (author)

  17. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation 60Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds were identified and most of the tests the irradiation did not interfere significantly with the compounds amount. (author)

  18. Evidence of the gastroprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of β-mangostin isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens (vahl blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidahmed HMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heyam Mohamed Ali Sidahmed,1 Najihah Mohd Hashim,1 Syam Mohan,2 Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab,2 Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha,2 Firouzeh Dehghan,3 Maizatulakmal Yahayu,4 Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee,5 Mun Fai Loke,6 Jamuna Vadivelu6 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Exercise Science, Sports Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 4Department of Bioproduct Research and Innovation, Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, Johor Bahru, 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM, Serdang, 6Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: β-Mangostin (BM from Cratoxylum arborescens demonstrated various pharmacological activities such as anticancer and anti-inflammatory. In this study, we aimed to investigate its antiulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats. Materials and methods: BM was isolated from C. arborescens. Gastric acid output, ulcer index, gross evaluation, mucus production, histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid–Schiff staining and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and Bax proteins were investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2, antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, radical scavenging, nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds, and anti-Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Results: BM showed antisecretory activity against the pylorus ligature model. The pretreatment with BM protect gastric mucosa from ethanol damaging effect as seen by the improved gross and histological appearance. BM significantly reduced the ulcer area formation, the submucosal edema, and the leukocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control. The compound showed intense periodic acid–Schiff staining to the gastric mucus layer and marked amount of alcian blue binding to free gastric mucus. BM significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of prostaglandin E2 glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds. The compound inhibited the lipid peroxidation revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde. Moreover, BM upregulate HSP70 expression and downregulate Bax expression. Furthermore, the compound showed interesting anti-H. pylori activity. Conclusion: Thus, it could be concluded that BM possesses gastroprotective activity, which could be attributed to the antisecretory, mucus production, antioxidant, HSP70, antiapoptotic, and anti-H. pylori mechanisms. Keywords: gastric ulcer, reactive oxygen species, heat shock protein 70

  19. Blume-Winkler, Doris; Engelmann, Antje; Prüter, Johannes (Bearb.): Naturschutzgebiet Lüneburger Heide

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Das Naturschutzgebiet "Lüneburger Heide" ist eines der ältesten und größten Naturschutzgebiete Deutschlands. Ziel und Zweck der Unterschutzsteilung ist die Sicherung und Erhaltung einer historischen Kulturlandschaft. Wegen seiner überregionalen Bedeutung wurde dem Schutzgebiet bereits 1968 vom Europarat in Straßburg das Europa-Diplom verliehen.

  20. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC) Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Safinah Surya Hakim; Sri Wilarso Budi; Maman Turjaman

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experim...

  1. A Monte Carlo study of the Blume-Capel thin film in the presence of a random crystal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughrara, M.; Kerouad, M.; Zaim, A.

    2016-07-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation with heat bath algorithm is used to study the effect of random crystal field and surface exchange interactions on the critical behavior and the magnetic properties of a spin-1 Ising ferromagnetic thin film having the simple cubic symmetry. The phase diagram exhibits a rich variety of behaviors such as the double reentrant phenomena and the existence of tricritical points. Thermal magnetization behavior and phase diagrams have been discussed in detail.

  2. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experimental Forest, Bogor. Furthermore, we also tried to find out the fungal potential ability to solubilize phosphate and suppres fungal pathogen by in vitro assay. Surface sterilization method was used to isolated fungal endophytes from root tissues. Trichoderma spirale, Velsalceae sp., Melanconiela ellisii, Chaetosphaeria callimorpha, and Trichoderma asperellum were isolated during this study. These fungi appear to have specific association between fungal species and host plant, but no evidence of fungal order-level specificiation in S. leprosula and S. selanica. In vitro test also suggested that root fungal endophyte Trichoderma spirale and Melanconiella elisii have potential ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. In addition, this result also present that root fungal endophyte T. spirale and T. asperellum have the potential to inhibit pathogen fungi Fusarium sp.

  3. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  4. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, Didik; Burgman, Mark A.; Guhardja, Edi; Mogea, Johanis P.; Walujo, Eko B.; Setiadi, Dede

    2005-09-01

    Population status and demography of a population of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda in a peat swamp ecosystem of Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra (one of the largest remaining populations) was documented at 16 different sites, covering a wide range of forest and habitat types, vegetation associations, and population sizes. Population sizes were dominated by suckers comprising 89% of the total population. Individuals with stem heights between 0 and 4 m (47.5%), stem diameters between 4 and 10 cm (82.0%), and leaf scar numbers between 0 and 60 (69.2%) dominated. Ages of individuals were estimated and used to fit a curvilinear relationship between age and stem height. Wild plants reach reproductive maturity within 25-30 years, or when they have stem heights in excess of 2.0 m, or when they have 15-25 leaf scars. They can survive more than 80 years. Cultivated plants appear to reproduce earlier and produce more seeds than wild plants. Individual growth was plant size-dependent with the adult stage being the most productive. Higher mortality was experienced by suckers, especially in continuously waterlogged conditions and locations with dense canopies. Sucker growth was faster than seedling growth, an adaptation that may allow the species to cope with periodically waterlogged conditions. Population abundances varied with habitat types; well-drained areas were the most suitable habitat. To conserve the most important remaining populations of the lipstick palm, it is crucial to protect well-drained sites in Kerumutan Reserve.

  5. AcEST: DK963016 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TK_CERBE Maturase K OS=Cercocarpus betuloides GN=mat... 30 8.7 >sp|Q06215|PPO_VICFA Polyphenol oxidase A1, c...FPNLELQIHNCWLFFPWHRFYLYFHERILGKLIGDDT 200 >tr|A7J0K6|A7J0K6_CERBE Putative polyphenol oxidase (Fragment) OS=Cercoca

  6. The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, [Blume] Merrill & L.M. Perry var. jambu madu) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza

    2012-04-01

    The present study represents the first report of the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the growth, development and quality of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 mM H(2)O(2) under field conditions. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll and dry matter content of the leaves and total soluble solids and total sugar content of the fruits of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, var. jambu madu) were significantly increased after treatment with 5 mM H(2)O(2). The application of 20 mM H(2)O(2) significantly reduced bud drop and enhanced fruit growth, resulting in larger fruit size, increased fruit set, fruit number, fruit biomass and yield compared to the control. In addition, the endogenous level of H(2)O(2) in wax apple leaves increased significantly with H(2)O(2) treatments. With regard to fruit quality, 20 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased the K(+), anthocyanin and carotene contents of the fruits by 65%, 67%, and 41%, respectively. In addition, higher flavonoid, phenol and soluble protein content, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between peel colour (hue) and TSS, between net photosynthesis and SPS activity and between phenol and flavonoid content with antioxidant activity in H(2)O(2)-treated fruits. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 20 mM H(2)O(2) once a week produced better fruit growth, maximising the yield and quality of wax apple fruits under field conditions.

  7. A new species of]Anoectochilus Blume (Orchidaceae) from China%国产开唇兰属(兰科)一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎楷永; 萧丽萍

    2002-01-01

    @@ 南岭齿唇兰新种图1 Anoectochilus nanlingensis L. P. Siu et K. Y. Lang, sp. nov. Fig. 1 A congeneribus differt plantis minimis tantum 7.5~8.5 cm altis, sepalis albis dorso striis 2 longitudinalibus grossis purpureis ornatis, petalis albis oblique angusteque lineari-lanceolatis secus costam stria 1 grossa purpurea instructis et margine breviter et dense ciliatis, labello albo, inter 2 lobos apicales basi sinus macula 1 purpurea ornato, ungue in utroque latere costae maculis (3~) 4 purpureis instructo.

  8. Physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu) as affected by growth regulator application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Mohammad; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru; Osman, Normaniza; Sharif Hossain, Abm

    2012-01-01

    This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs), and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs) treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA(3)), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA₃, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA₃ or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA₃, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.

  9. Physiochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu as Affected by Growth Regulator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs, and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA3, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA3 or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.

  10. Informe de nuevas variedades LORITA: NUEVO GENOTIPO DE Spathoglottis plicata BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) OBTENIDO POR MODIFICACIONES OCURRIDAS DURANTE EL CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suárez; María M. Hernández; Regla M. Lara

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran las principales características de un nuevo genotipo de orquídea terrestre producido en Cuba por modificaciones ocurridas durante el cultivo in vitro de semillas de Spathoglottis plicata var. Rosa. Lorita presenta sépalos y pétalos de color blanco, principal característica que lo distingue del genotipo donante. Esta nueva especie contribuirá al embellecimiento del entorno y constituye un valioso aporte a la agricultura ornamental cubana.

  11. Uji Efek Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Kayu Manis ((Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T.Nees) Blume)) dan Madu Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Hartika, Yolin

    2014-01-01

    Everyone can ail from diabetes mellitus. Therefore, many patient try to control their blood glucose level with natural products such as cinnamon and honey because they are cheaper and can be obtained easily. The objective of this research is to understand the characterization of symplicia, second metabo-lites content, and the effect combination of ethanol extract of cinnamon-honey in decreasing blood glucose level using glucose tolerance test method. This research includes the characteriza...

  12. 小叶苦丁茶啫喱洗手液的研制%Research and preparation of Ligustrum robustum(Roxb.) Blume gel hand sanitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王代芬; 申元春; 丁菲菲; 吴刚; 邓艳玲

    2015-01-01

    Experiment is the use of natural herbal extracts,Update process for preparing new hand sanitizer.The methods are mainly ultrasonic assisted extraction,single factor.It was found optimum extraction conditions is integrated ultrasonic time 40min,solid-liquid ratio was 1:25,concentration of 70% had better color.viscosity 328 mpa• s,hand soap 1/5000 the surface tension is less than water,the optimum pH of 6.3,a solids content of 11.7% of normal,Moderate foam height 3.2cm.It was showed that hand sanitizer experimental study prepared in line with the daily situation,with good function.Simple preparation process,low production cost.Can production and sale.%实验目的采用天然草本提取物,更新工艺制备新型洗手液。实验方法主要是超声辅助提取,单因素法。结果发现最优提取条件是超声时间为40min、料液比为1:25,乙醇体积分数为70%且颜色较好。产品粘度为328mpa•s去污能力较高,洗手液1/5000时表面张力小于纯水,pH值6.3皮肤状态最佳,固含量11.7%为正常值。实验研究表明:制备的洗手液符合日常洗手情况[1,2],功能良好,提取液具天然美肌、无刺激及清香的优点,避免化工洗手液清洗损害皮肤。制备工艺简单,生产成本较低,适于生产、销售。

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae and Lophira alata Banks (Ochnaceae, Identified from the Ethnomedicine of the Nigerian Middle Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Falade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum requires that new drugs must be developed. Plants are a potential source for drug discovery and development. Two plants that used to treat febrile illnesses in Nigeria were tested for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. Methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Ficus thonningii and Lophira alata were active in in vitro assays against P. falciparum NF54 (sensitive and K1 (multiresistant strains. Hexane extracts of F. thonningii and L. alata were the most effective extracts in in vitro assays with IC50 of 2.7±1.6 μg/mL and 2.5±0.3 μg/mL for NF54 and 10.4±1.6 μg/mL and 2.5±2.1 μg/mL for K1 strain. All extracts were nontoxic in cytotoxicity assays against KB human cell line with IC50 of over 20 μg/mL, demonstrating selectivity against P. falciparum. In vivo analysis shows that hexane extracts of both plants reduced parasitaemia. At the maximum dose tested, L. alata had a 74.4% reduction of parasitaemia while F. thonningii had a reduction of 84.5%, both extracts prolonged animal survival in mice infected with P. berghei NK65 when compared with vehicle treated controls. The antiplasmodial activity observed justifies the use of both plants in treating febrile conditions.

  14. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity of Enicostema axillare(Lam. Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume Raynal: An important medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousalya Loganathan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations using ex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major contributor of antioxidant activity of both plants grown from nature and nodal culture.

  15. Effect of cinnamon bark oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) on the preventation of streptococcosis in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Supamattaya, K.; Subhadhirasakul, S.; Khongpradit, R.; Suanyuk, N.; Kanghear, H.

    2005-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentration of cinnamon bark oil extract against pathogenic Streptococcus sp. was 250 ppm. An analysis of the extract by gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometer showed three active substances, cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O) at 83.1 %, coumarin (C9H6O2) at 12.6 % and cinnamic acid (C9H8O2) at 2.2 %.An effect of cinnamon bark oil extract on growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. in sex-reversed red tilapia after feeding the extract-supplemented diets for 8 week was in...

  16. 异叶南星的化学成分研究%Studies on the chemical constituents of Arisaema heterophyllum blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中林; 韦英杰; 叶文才

    2003-01-01

    目的:对异叶南星的化学成分进行研究.方法:采用硅胶柱色谱、薄层色谱对异叶南星的化学成分进行分离,并用理化常数和光谱鉴定其结构.结果:从异叶南星中分离出4个化合物,分别为十八酸单甘酯(glycerol monostearic acid,Ⅰ),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,Ⅱ)、葫萝卜甙(daucosterol,Ⅲ)、琥珀酸(succinic acid,Ⅳ),结论:化合物Ⅰ、Ⅳ为首次从异叶南星块茎中得到

  17. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Castanea mollissima Blume%板栗种仁化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬松; 黄顺旺; 高慧媛; 孙博航; 黄健; 吴立军

    2008-01-01

    目的 对板栗种仁的药用保健部位进行化学成分的分离与鉴定,为开发利用板栗种仁提供依据.方法 板栗药用保健部位的正丁醇提取部位,经多次硅胶柱色谱和薄层色谱分离、理化常数测定、波谱分析、标准品比较等方法鉴定化合物的结构.结果 分离得到6个化合物,分别为软脂酸-1-甘油单酯(hexadecanoic acid 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 1)、麦芽糖(maltose, 2)、D-葡萄糖(Dglucose, 3)、D-果糖(D-fructose, 4)、5-羟甲基糠醛(5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 5)、山柰酚(kaempferol, 6).结论 化合物1、5为属内首次分离得到,化合物2、3、4、6为该种内首次分离得到.

  18. 板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究%Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  19. Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell%板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  20. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi; Eliane Moretto

    1995-01-01

    Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores

  1. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  2. Evaluation of the horticultural traits of genus Alstroemeria and genus Bomarea (Alstroemeriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kashihara, Yukiko; Shinoda, Koichi; MURATA, Naho; Araki, Hajime; Hoshino, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the flower characteristics of 7 Alstroemeriaceae plants - 5 Alstroemeria L. species and 2 Bomarea Mirb. species. The flower and tepal sizes, and tepal colours were compared. The flower shape in Alstroemeria psittacina Lehm. was found to be similar to that in Bomarea coccinea (Ruiz & Pav.) Baker. The length/width ratio of B. salsilla (L.) Mirb. was intermediate compared with that of the other species. These preliminary data will be useful in selecting wild species in order ...

  3. Austin Jennifer, Blume María, & Sánchez Liliana (2015. Bilingualism in the Spanish-speaking world: linguistic and cognitive perspectives. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Fionda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The book reviewed here may serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate students of linguistics, as well as graduates and scholars in the field and related disciplines. It comprises five chapters that explore, through three Spanish bilingual communities, the following topics: basic concepts in bilingualism, such as code-switching and language transfer; a brief historical review of Spanish bilingualism; proposed definitions of bilingualism and the different ways in which bilinguals may be classified according to factors such as language competence and age of acquisition; the effect of bilingualism on the brains and minds of bilingual speakers, such as increased cortical activation and enhanced literacy; and, finally, the development and outcomes of bilingualism on the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. The authors cover a breadth of research, rendering it accessible by succinctly reviewing findings, and further identify areas for future research.

  4. 中国板栗生长状况对柱头形态的影响%Effect of Different Growth State on Stigmatic Morphology in the Chinese Chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卓功; 夏立

    2008-01-01

    通过扫描电子显微镜观察研究中国板栗柱头形态.板栗为典型的针状形柱头,在其顶端有一个很小的开孔,直径约为50μm.在云南4月底到5月初柱头的先端可见有分泌物溢出,一个星期后分泌物迅速增加,并可把整个开孔全部覆盖."生长健壮树"的柱头开孔要比"生长衰弱树"的大,后者柱头开也又比"空苞树"大.而且,"生长健壮树"的柱头分泌物最多,其次是"生长衰弱树","空苞树"的柱头分泌物最少.%The stigmatic morphology of Chinese chestnut was studied by using scanning electron microscopy.The stigma of Chinese chestnut is typically needle-shaped with,and there is a small aperture of around 50 μm in diameter on its top.At the end of April and early in May secretion was spilt over on top of the stigma in Yunnan Province.One week later secretion increased quickly and covered completely the aperture of the stigma.At the same time aperture of stigma of the tree"robust growth state"was bigger than that of the tree"weak growth state",the latter bigger than"the empty cupulae tree".Likwise,quantity of secretion of the specimen"robust growth state"was much more than that of the specimen"weak growth state"and"the empty eupulae tree".

  5. Primary Study on Stem Quality of Cork Oak (Quercus variabilis Blume)Plantations%北京栓皮栎林分的干形质量初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩彦; 陆元昌; 宁金魁; 刘刚; 刘宪钊

    2008-01-01

    探讨了划分林木干形质量的标准,将林木干形质量分为通直、轻度弯曲、二杈分枝、多杈分枝和重度弯曲5类干形.选择了胸径、树高、冠幅、冠长等6个因子,并研究了这6个调查因子随干形质量变化的关系.通过方差分析发现不同干形质量的林木胸径差异并不明显,而其它的调查因子却因干形不同而表现出显著差异.对表现显著的林分因子进行多重比较研究,发现通直干形生长得较高、有较小的冠径比;二杈分枝和多杈分枝林木的冠幅较大,且二杈分枝类型林木的高径比最小.可以得出结论:在近自然经营过程中,在选择以材质为目的的目标树时,首先考虑干形通直的林木.

  6. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from acid hydrolyzed extract of kernel of Castanea mollissima Blume%板栗种仁酸水解物化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江冰娅; 吴兆华; 黄健; 高慧媛; 王喆星; 吴立军

    2009-01-01

    目的 更好地开发利用板栗(Castanea mollissima Blum)种仁.方法 对板栗种仁的体积分数为95%的乙醇提取物进行酸水解,水解物采用硅胶柱色谱、氧化铝柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和重结晶等方法进行分离;根据理化性质和NMR谱数据并参考文献鉴定其结构.结果 分离鉴定了10个化合物,分别为对羟基苯甲酸(p-hydroxybenzoic acid,1)、原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,2)、没食子酸(gallic acid,3)、5 -羟甲基糠醛(5-hydroxymethylfurfural,4)、β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,5)、α-菠甾醇(α-spinasterol,6)、齐墩果酸(oleanane acid,7)、2α-羟基齐墩果酸(maslinic acid,8)、α-香树脂醇(α-amyrin,9)、单棕榈酸甘油酯(glycerolmonopalmitate,10).结论 化合物6、8为首次从栗属植物中分离得到;化合物9为首次从板栗中分离得到.

  7. Effects of the iron oxide nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B on the viability and regenerative function of neural stem cells: relevance to clinical translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umashankar, Abhishek; Corenblum, Mandi J; Ray, Sneha; Valdez, Michel; Yoshimaru, Eriko S; Trouard, Theodore P; Madhavan, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    An essential component of developing successful neural stem cell (NSC)-based therapies involves the establishment of methodologies to noninvasively monitor grafted NSCs within brain tissues in real time. In this context, ex vivo labeling with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles has been shown to enable efficient tracking of transplanted NSCs via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, whether and how USPIO labeling affects the intrinsic biology of NSCs is not thoroughly understood, and remains an active area of investigation. Here, we perform a comprehensive examination of rat NSC survival and regenerative function upon labeling with the USPIO, Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB), which allows for dual magnetic resonance and optical imaging. After optimization of labeling efficiency, two specific doses of MIRB (20 and 50 μg/mL) were chosen and were followed for the rest of the study. We observed that both MIRB doses supported the robust detection of NSCs, over an extended period of time in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into the striata of host rats, using MRI and post hoc fluorescence imaging. Both in culture and after neural transplantation, the higher 50 μg/mL MIRB dose significantly reduced the survival, proliferation, and differentiation rate of the NSCs. Interestingly, although the lower 20 μg/mL MIRB labeling did not produce overtly negative effects, it increased the proliferation and glial differentiation of the NSCs. Additionally, application of this dose also changed the morphological characteristics of neurons and glia produced after NSC differentiation. Importantly, the transplantation of NSCs labeled with either of the two MIRB doses upregulated the immune response in recipient animals. In particular, in animals receiving the 50 μg/mL MIRB-labeled NSCs, this immune response consisted of an increased number of CD68+-activated microglia, which appeared to have phagocytosed MIRB particles and cells contributing to an

  8. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin; Jamia Azdina Jamal; Noraini Talip; Nur Ain M. Hamsani; Mohd Ruzi A. Rahman; Carla W. Sabandar; Kartiniwati Muhammad; Khairana Husain; Juriyati Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume) Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill), Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff.) Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control....

  9. Analisis Perbandingan Kadar Kalium Pada Daun Kumis Kucing, Daun Pegagan Dan Daun Salam Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lusi Ayulita

    2015-01-01

    The Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq, Centella asiatica (L) Urb and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp Leaves empirically has been adopted by local community for treatment of hypertension in Tanah Jawa district Simalungun. These three herbals are recognized healing to hypertension patients mainly to stabilize mineral potassium in body. The plant has own group, since Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq into lamiaceae, Centella asiatica (L) Urb into Apiaceae and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp in...

  10. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  11. Effective height development of four co-occurring species in the gap-phase regeneration of Douglas fir monocultures under nature-oriented conversion. Forest Ecology and Management, Pages 189-198

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Breugel, van M.; Sterck, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Natural regeneration in gaps in Douglas fir forest stands in the Netherlands mainly consists of Betula pendula (Roth.), Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix kaempferi (Carr.), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco). Even though these species are well known, the autogenic development of these species in an

  12. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  13. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  14. Actividad Antifúngica de Aceites Esenciales de Canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) y Orégano (Origanum vulgare L.) y su Efecto sobre la Producción de Aflatoxinas en Nuez Pecanera [Carya illinoensis (F.A. Wangenh) K. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Arturo García-Camarillo; Martha Yolanda Quezada-Viay; Josefina Moreno-Lara; Gabriela Sánchez-Hernández; Ernesto Moreno-Martínez; María Cristina Julia Pérez-Reyes

    2006-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) y orégano (Origanum vulgare) fueron evaluados para determinar su actividad antifúngica contra Aspergillus flavus y la producción de aflatoxinas en nuez pecanera. Ambos aceites presentaron actividad fungicida in vitro contra A. flavus, el aceite esencial de orégano a partir de 1000 ppm y el de canela de 2000 ppm, en medio de cultivo de malta-salagar y un efecto fungistático en 100 ppm. Sin embargo, al evaluar el efecto inhibitorio en la ...

  15. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota La presencia de Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae sobre Pseudocyphellaria granulata (Ascomycota liquenizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Messuti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The springtail species Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previously recorded in austral America inhabiting the surfaces of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst. bark, has been collected growing on the epiphytic lichen species Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. This is the first record of an arthropod-lichen association in the cool temperate forest of Argentina.El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  16. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    1999-01-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies...... procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand...... that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned...

  17. Improvement of l-lactic acid productivity from sweet sorghum juice by repeated batch fermentation coupled with membrane separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ. PMID:27023384

  18. The role of bigleaf maple in soil chemistry and nutrient dynamics in coastal temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Tanya D.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) in a forest dominated by Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziessi (Mirb.) Franco] and western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (RAF.) Sarg.] was studied in a paired-plot design through an examination of the annual contribution of bigleaf maple litterfall to nutrient flux, its rate of decay, and its properties within the forest floor and mineral soil. Compared to conifer plots, bigleaf maple plots had litterfall significantly higher in all elements...

  19. Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of pine weevil feeding on two dominant native conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), the non-host deciduous broadleaf hybrid aspen (Populus x wettsteinii Hamet-Ahti) and four introduced conifers: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco),...

  20. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés MESSUTI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  1. Factors Affecting Anion Movement and Retention in Four Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    D. W. Johnson; Cole, D. W.; Van Miegroet, Helga; Horng, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Three hypotheses concerning the movement and retention of anions in forest soils were tested in a series of laboratory and field studies on two Tennessee Ultisols with mixed deciduous forest cover and two Washington Inceptisols, one with deciduous (red alder Alnus rubra Bong.) and one with coniferous [Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forest cover. The first hypothesis, that sulfate and phosphate retention was related to adsorption to free Fe and Al oxides, which were in turn...

  2. Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gure, Abdella

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

  3. Two new species and one new subspecies of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Southeast Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Girmansyah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dua jenis baru dan satu subspesies, Begonia mekonggensis Girmansyah & Wiriadinata, Begonia watuwilensis Girmansyah, dan Begonia aptera Blume subsp. hirtissima Girmansyah & D.C.Thomas, telah dideskripsikan dari Gunung Mekongga dan Watuwila, Sulawesi Tenggara. Begonia mekonggensis dan Begonia watuwilensis termasuk kedalam seksi Petermannia. Kedua jenis ini memiliki karakter yang tidak umum dimiliki oleh seksi ini: Begonia mekonggensis berumah dua dan Begonia watuwilensis memiliki perbungaan yang tidak biasa yaitu bunga jantan mekar duluan yang keluar di bagian basal sedangkan betina di bagian atas perbungaan dengan banyak bunga. Begonia aptera Blume subsp. hirtissima ter- masuk kedalam seksi Sphenanthera.  

  4. Cluster variational theory of spin ((3)/(2)) Ising models

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, J W

    2000-01-01

    A cluster variational method for spin ((3)/(2)) Ising models on regular lattices is presented that leads to results that are exact for Bethe lattices of the same coordination number. The method is applied to both the Blume-Capel (BC) and the isotropic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model (BEG). In particular, the first-order phase line separating the two low-temperature ferromagnetic phases in the BC model, and the ferrimagnetic phase boundary in the BEG model are studied. Results are compared with those of other theories whose qualitative predictions have been in conflict.

  5. Application of the functional integral method to the classical and quantum spin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional integral technique is applied to the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model (BEG) and to the Heisenberg model with crystalline field. For the BEG model, systematic approximations of the exact partition function lead to the results of the Molecular Field theory and the non-renormalized high-density expansion theory. Having recourse to the variational principle, the thermodynamical properties of the Blume-Capel model as well as those of the quadrupolar Ising model with single-ion anisotropy are studied in detail. Similarly, for the Heisenberg model with crystalline field, results of the high-density expansion theory are obtained. The application of the Feynman variational principle is also analysed. (Auth.)

  6. Cluster variational theory of spin ((3)/(2)) Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cluster variational method for spin ((3)/(2)) Ising models on regular lattices is presented that leads to results that are exact for Bethe lattices of the same coordination number. The method is applied to both the Blume-Capel (BC) and the isotropic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model (BEG). In particular, the first-order phase line separating the two low-temperature ferromagnetic phases in the BC model, and the ferrimagnetic phase boundary in the BEG model are studied. Results are compared with those of other theories whose qualitative predictions have been in conflict

  7. Noise Traders

    OpenAIRE

    James Dow; Gary Gorton

    2006-01-01

    Noise traders are agents whose theoretical existence has been hypothesized as a way of solving certain fundamental problems in Financial Economics. We briefly review the literature on noise traders. The is an entry for The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition (Palgrave Macmillan: New York), edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume, forthcoming in 2008.

  8. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  9. Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, R.; Rafidah, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Daphniphyllum occur in Peninsular Malaysia: D. glaucescens Blume var. lancifolium (Hook.f.) T.C.Huang, D. laurinum (Benth.) Baill. and D. scortechinii Hook.f. Daphniphyllum glaucescens var. glaucescens and var. blumeanum (Baill. ex Müll.Arg.) J.J.Sm. do not occur in Peninsular Malay

  10. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    BECCARI, Odoardo (1843-1920) For a reprint of his Wanderings, see Bibliography. BLANCO, Francisco Manuel (1778/1780-1845) Another specimen labeled ‘Blanco’ by Blume has turned up at the Rijksherbarium. It may be regarded at least as the lectotype of Mocanera guiso Blanco, now Shorea guiso (Blanco) B

  11. Mangroves in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Non-saline occurrences of Acanthus ilicifolius L. and Acrostichum aureum Sw. in Vanuatu, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (Forst. f.) Bakh. in New Zealand, Rhizophora apiculata Blume in the Solomon Islands, and R. stylosa Griff. in Malaysia are reported.

  12. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  13. Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bødker, Franz;

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Temperature series of Mossbauer spectra of non-interacting, superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticles were fitted by use of the Blume-Tjon relaxation model. It has been...

  14. Good Agricultural Practices of Enicostemma axillare

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) of Enicostema axillare ( Lam. ) A. Raynal(= Enicostemma littorale   auct. non Blume). Details of the GAP  which includes growing environment, soil type, propagation material, nursery technique, transplanting details, manure application, optimum spacing,  Intercultural operations, harvest and post harvest management are described along with a calendar of operation schedule.  

  15. 广西假糙苏属植物增补%A Supplement to the Paraphlomis (Lamiaceae) from Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 方鼎

    2009-01-01

    Two new taxa and two newly recorded species of the Paraphlomis from Guangxi,China are reported.The two new taxa are P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.pteropoda D.Fang & K J.Yan and P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.angustifolia(C.Y.Wu)C.Y.Wu & H. W.Li f.albinervia D.Fang & K. J.Yan.The two newly recorded species are P.hispida C.Y.Wu and P.subcoriacea C.Y.Wu ex H.W.Li.%报道假糙苏属(Paraphlomis)植物在中国广西2个新分类群和2个新记录种.2个新分类群是翅柄假糙苏(P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.pteropoda D.Fang & K. J.Yan)和白脉狭叶假糙苏(P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.angustifolia (C.Y. Wu)C.Y.Wu&H. W.Li f.albinervia D.Fang & K J.Yan).2个新记录种是刚毛假糙苏(P.hispida C.Y.Wu)和近革叶假糙苏(P.subcoriacea C.Y Wu ex H. W.Li).

  16. First report of Dolabra nepheliae associated with corky bark disease of Rambutan and Pulasan in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., Sapindaceae) was first introduced into Honduras in 1927 but commercial production was not started until after 1980 when cultivation of pulasan (N. mutabile Blume) was initiated. In the last decade these crops have become popular as exotic fruit for export to North A...

  17. The interrelation of a Z(3) gauge theory on flat lattices and a spin-1 BEG model

    CERN Document Server

    Ananikian, N S; Ananikian, N S; Shcherbakov, R R

    1994-01-01

    The Z(3) gauge model with double plaquette representation of the action on the flat triangular and square lattices is constructed. It is reduced to the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model. An Ising-type critical line of a second-order phase transition is found.

  18. The Interrelation of a Z(3) Gauge Theory on Flat Lattices and a Spin-1 BEG Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Z(3) gauge model with double plaquette representation of the action on the flat triangular and square lattices is constructed. It is reduced to the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model. An Ising-type critical line of a second-order phase transition is found. 15 refs., 1 fig

  19. Reduction of a Z(3) gauge theory on the flat lattices to the spin-1 BEG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Z(3) gauge model with double plaquette representation of the action on the flat triangular and square lattices is constructed. It is reduced to the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model. An Ising-type critical line of a second-order phase transition is found. ((orig.))

  20. Tricritical phenomena in a Z(3) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ananikian, N S; Ananikian, N S; Shcherbakov, R R

    1994-01-01

    The Z(3) gauge model with double plaquette representation of the action on a generalized Bethe lattice of plaquettes is constructed. It is reduced to the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model. An Ising-type critical line of a second-order phase transition ending in the tricritical point is found.

  1. Modeling premartensitic effects in Ni2MnGa: A mean-field and Monte Carlo simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan, T.; Vives, E.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    The degenerate Blume-Emery-Griffiths model for martensitic transformations is extended by including both structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in order to elucidate premartensitic effects. Special attention is paid to the effect of the magnetoelastic coupling in Ni2MnGa. The microscopic model...

  2. Fertilization at planting impairs root system development and drought avoidance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Douglass; Rose, Robin; Haase, Diane; Alzugaray, Patricio

    2004-01-01

    International audience Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings (1 + 1 bareroot) were divided into 8-13 cm3 and 23-35 cm3 initial root-volume categories and either not fertilized or fertilized with 60 g Apex® in the planting hole at a drought-prone clearcut site in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Regardless of initial root volume, fertilized seedlings consistently reached lower predawn xylem water potential ($\\Psi$xylem) values than non-fertilized seedlings during summer. ...

  3. Quantification of Nitrogen Reductase and Nitrite Reductase Genes in Soil of Thinned and Clear-Cut Douglas-Fir Stands by Using Real-Time PCR ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Levy-Booth, David J.; Winder, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of nifH, nirS, and nirK gene fragments involved in nitrogen (N) fixation and denitrification in thinned second-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii subsp. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) forest soil was investigated by using quantitative real-time PCR. Prokaryotic N cycling is an important aspect of N availability in forest soil. The abundance of universal nifH, Azotobacter sp.-specific nifH (nifH-g1), nirS, and nirK gene fragments in unthinned control and 30, 90, and 100% thinni...

  4. Gastrodia elata Ameliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Min Chul Kho; Yun Jung Lee; Jeong Dan Cha; Kyung Min Choi; Dae Gill Kang; Ho Sub Lee

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of fructose results in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance, which have documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. Gastrodia elata, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetes activities. Thus, this study examined whether ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (EGB) attenuate lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in a high-fructose (HF) diet animal model. Rats were fed the 65% HF diet with/...

  5. 木材加工教育用ビデオ教材の制作(2) : 手彫りによる中仕工かんな台の製作

    OpenAIRE

    番匠谷, 薫; 池田, 豊; 矢田部, 敏夫; 藤元, 嘉安; 真鍋, 正男

    1993-01-01

    Formerly in Japan, carpenter's making of plane stock made of shirakashi (Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume) of Japanese hand plane was done by hand making with chisel. This traditional concept of hand making of wooden plane stock can be regarded to be very important for teachers of industrial arts of junior high schools in Japan because its making skill can lead them to deep understandings of the Japanese hand plane. It also provides a totally skilled back ground concerning the Japanese hand plane ...

  6. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J.; Carroll, John F.; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Hamann, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil obtained fro...

  7. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Mairida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  8. Integrating technology into primary and secondary school teaching to enhance mathematics education in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lavicza, Zsolt; Juhos, Istvan; Koren, Balazs; Fenyvesi, Kristof; Csapodi, Csaba; Kis, Marta; Mantecón, Jose-Diego

    2015-01-01

    International audience During the past decades, technology has been becoming an integral part of everyday life and slowly shaping mathematics and science teaching and learning (e.g., Heid & Blume). Although there has been enormous investment on educational technologies in many countries, technology has yet to make a sizable impact on education (e.g., Drijvers et al., 2010). On the one hand, students are becoming increasingly proficient users of technology while, on the other hand, opportun...

  9. Antibacterial and antidermatophyte activities of some essential Oils from spices

    OpenAIRE

    El Kady, I. A. [اسماعيل عبد الرزاق القاضي; El-Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed; Eman Mostafa M.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of ten essential oil from different spices against the growth of various isolates of bacteria representing Gram-positive (seven isolates) and Gram-negative (four isolates) were studied. Eight antibacterial agents were included for comparative purposes. Results show that essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl (Syn. C. zylanicum Blume) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamum White and Maton) were highly active against both Gram-negative an...

  10. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  11. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  12. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contrib...

  13. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Various Medicinal and Commercial Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    ATEŞ, D. Ayfer; Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2003-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the alcohol, ethyl acetate, acetone and chloroform extracts of 5 plant species were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L.) (anise, aniseed) (seed), Coriandrum sativum (L.) (coriander, cilantro) (seed), Glycyrrhiza glabra (L.) (liquorice) (root), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (cassia bark, Chinese cinnamon) (bark), and Juniperus oxycedrus (L.) (juniper) (seed) were tested in vitro against 13 bacterial species and strains by the agar diffusion method. Bacillus...

  15. Radical Scavenging Activity, Total Phenol Content and Antifungal Activity of Cinnamomum Iners Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Zurida Anis; Othman Sulaiman,; Rokiah Hashim; Sayed Hasan Mehdi; Raza Murad Ghalib

    2012-01-01

    The study was done to investigate the antioxidant, total phenol content and antifungal characteristics of phenolics compounds of extracts from Cinnamomum iners (Reinw. ex Blume-Lauraceae) wood. Radical scavenging activity method of DPPH was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Four fungus, namely white fungi (Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes versicolor, Fomitopsis palustris) and brown fungi (Gleophyllum trabeum) were used to determine the antifungal activity of the Cinnamomu...

  16. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from barks of Cinnamomum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SWETHA, Valya Parambil; PARVATHY, Viswanath Alambath; SHEEJA, Thotten Elampillay; Bhaskaran SASIKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum Blume), the cinnamon of commerce, is an important aromatic tree spice having wide applications in perfumery, flavoring, beverages, and medicine. Adulteration of cinnamon with the cheaper and inferior barks of C. aromaticum and C. malabatrum is a problem. Morphological distinction of the barks is difficult; in the case of powdered barks, the situation is even worse. DNA-based molecular tools are preferred under these circumstances. Isolation of high q...

  17. Good Agricultural Practices of Enicostemma axillare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abirami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP of Enicostema axillare ( Lam. A. Raynal(= Enicostemma littorale   auct. non Blume. Details of the GAP  which includes growing environment, soil type, propagation material, nursery technique, transplanting details, manure application, optimum spacing,  Intercultural operations, harvest and post harvest management are described along with a calendar of operation schedule.  

  18. The Magnetic Susceptibility Of B-E-G Model For A Bilayer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper the isothermal susceptibility of Blume-Emery- Griffiths (B-E-G) model with spin 1 is studied for a bilayer system with coordination z = 5 in Cluster Variational Method in Pair Approximation (CVMPA). The theoretical formulae are derived and the temperature dependencies of the susceptibility for various bi quadratic strength parameters and for non-positive single-ion anisotropy are calculated and presented in the figures. (Authors)

  19. Maximum entropy estimation of transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Van der Straeten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a general theory for the estimation of the transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains using the maximum entropy principle. A broad range of physical models can be studied within this approach. We use one-dimensional classical spin systems to illustrate the theoretical ideas. The examples studied in this paper are: the Ising model, the Potts model and the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model.

  20. Maximum Entropy Estimation of Transition Probabilities of Reversible Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Van der Straeten

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a general theory for the estimation of the transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains using the maximum entropy principle. A broad range of physical models can be studied within this approach. We use one-dimensional classical spin systems to illustrate the theoretical ideas. The examples studied in this paper are: the Ising model, the Potts model and the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model.

  1. Android 智能手机树高测量 APP 开发与试验%Development and test of android smartphone tree height measurement APP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚东; 冯仲科; 曹明兰; 郑帆

    2016-01-01

    Android 手机系统凭借其开放性、灵活性等强大的优势成为手机系统应用开发的必要选择。文章探讨了基于 Android 手机传感器的林木单株树高测量程序的技术要点及实践过程,并通过实验将测定结果与传统布鲁莱斯(Blume-Leiss)测高器进行了对比分析,结果发现安卓手机测树 APP 测量林木单株树高方法的平均误差为3.19;布鲁莱斯(Blume-Leiss)测高器法测量林木单株树高的平均误差值为3.70。安卓手机测树高 APP 方法的平均误差值精度比后者提高了62%。%With its strong advantages of openness and flexibility, Android mobile phone system becomes the necessary choice of mobile phone system application development. The article discusses technical points and the practice process of developing individual tree height measurement program based on Android mobile phone system sensor and through experiment, compares and analyzes measurement results and traditional Blume-Leiss height finder. Results show that Android tree height measurement APP has the average error of 3.19; Blume-Leiss height finder has the average error of 3.70. Average error precision of Android phone tree height measurement APP method increases by 62% than that of the latter.

  2. Two new subspecies of Lasianthus inodorus (Rubiaceae) from Kinabalu, Borneo, and their biogeographical implication

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hua

    2001-01-01

    Two populations from Mount Kinabalu, Borneo, are recognised as two new subspecies of Lasianthus inodorus Blume (Rubiaceae), which occurs in montane habitats in mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra and Java. The species and its subspecies are considered to compose a particular taxonomic group in the genus. Ecology and biogeography of the species group are discussed with the historical explanation of the tectonic history of Cenozoic Southeast Asia. The example strongly supports the concept of flori...

  3. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants (Averrhoa Carambola, Ficus Hispida and Syzygium Samarangense) of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shahreen, Shejuty; Banik, Joyanta; Hafiz, Abdul; Rahman, Shahnaz; Zaman, Anahita Tanzia; Shoyeb, Md Abu; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of diabetes, while the leaves of S. samarangense are used for treatment of cold, itches, and waist pain. Since scientific studies are absent on the antihyperglycemic effects of the leav...

  4. The dynamic of histoanatomical modifications during the ontomorphogenesis of the fruits of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot)

    OpenAIRE

    Тatyana I. Calalb

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic of the modifications of histoanatomical parameters (thickness and type of cuticle, type of wax crystalloids; density, type, mode of distribution stomata and hairs; mode of distribution and presence of calcium oxalate druses, sclereids and vacuoles with anthocyanin content in mesocarp cells) during ontomorphogenesis (from 10 days after bluming up to full maturity) of the fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, grown in the Republic of Moldova has been studied.

  5. Phyto climatic characterization and cartography of sub antarctic native forests in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina); Caracterizacion y cartografia fitoclimaticas del bosque nativo subantartico en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allue, C.; Arranz, J. A.; Bava, J. O.; Beneitez, J. M.; Collado, L.; Garcia-Lopez, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is especially peculiar in phytoclimatic terms, situated as it is at an extreme southerly latitude, surrounded by large water masses and close to the great mass of Antarctic ice. Its main peculiarities in this sense are the coolness of its summers and a very narrow temperature range. As a result, the woodland landscapes in the parts with forest cover are dominated by microphyllous broadleaf physiognomies, both evergreen and deciduous, of the Nothofagus genus. This paper reports a more in-depth investigation of the hitherto little-known phytoclimatic conditions in that territory which included calibration and validation of a model of phytoclimatic suitability that addresses the principal plant physiognomic units and phytoclimatic mapping. It discusses the causes behind the presence of broadleaf formations in thermal conditions which in the northern hemisphere would allow only coniferous formations or no tree formations at all, and also the edaphic peculiarities that may explain the presence of a evergreen species like Nothofagus betuloides in subantarctic mixed forests. (Author) 111 refs.

  6. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.

  7. The taxonomical aspect of Argostemma Wall. (Rubiaceae-Rubioidae in Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak based on morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSIANI PURBANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative character and reproductive at Argostemma from Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak have been used for the identification of 101 herbarium specimens from Herbarium Bogoriense and new specimens from field. Identifying of herbarium specimens based morphology character on Argostemma hybrid group by previous author still identified as Argostemma montanum. Ovary at Argostemma consist of 2-3 celled, ovary 2 celled is found at A. montanum and A. borragineum, while the ovary of A. uniflorum account of 3 celled. Amount of flower do not range from 3-6, but between 1-8. Study on Argostemma morphology also can be concluded that in Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak there are 3 Argostemma species, that is A. montanum Blume ex DC, A. borragineum Blume ex DC, and A. uniflorum Blume ex DC. Spreading of Argostemma vertically in Mount Gede-Pangrango, Mount Halimun, and Mount Salak range from 560-2,600 m above sea level. with spreading center 1,000-2,000 m above sea level.

  8. Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: an updated computational implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.

    2015-04-01

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) is a set of routines written in the C programming language designed to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The routines read a text-file description of the model, set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the quantum mechanical system depends, and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix, from which theoretical spectra of experimental techniques can be calculated. The original version of SHIML constructs Blume matrices applicable for methods that measure hyperfine interactions with only a single nuclear spin state. In this paper, we report an extension of the library to provide support for methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, which are sensitive to interactions with two nuclear spin states. Examples will be presented that illustrate the use of this extension of SHIML to generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples under a number of fluctuating hyperfine field models.

  9. Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: an updated computational implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) is a set of routines written in the C programming language designed to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The routines read a text-file description of the model, set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the quantum mechanical system depends, and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix, from which theoretical spectra of experimental techniques can be calculated. The original version of SHIML constructs Blume matrices applicable for methods that measure hyperfine interactions with only a single nuclear spin state. In this paper, we report an extension of the library to provide support for methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, which are sensitive to interactions with two nuclear spin states. Examples will be presented that illustrate the use of this extension of SHIML to generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples under a number of fluctuating hyperfine field models.

  10. 仙草面条配方的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴圣静

    2014-01-01

    Using Mesona Blume extracting solution as ingredients, the processing formula of the Mesona Blume noodle is researched. The optimal production parameters is confirmed by orthogonal test: the ratio of material to liquid 1∶50, the Mesona Blume extracting solution 50%, wheat gluten 5%, salt 2%, sodium carbonate 0.5%, in order to provide theoretical basis for the industrial production of the future.%采用仙草浸提液为配料,对仙草面条的配方进行开发研究。结果表明,仙草面条的最佳配方为仙草浸提液料液比1∶50,仙草浸提液添加量50%,谷朊粉5%,食盐2%,碳酸钠0.5%,以期为将来仙草面条工业化生产提供理论依据。

  11. Stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library-Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacate, Matthew O.; Evenson, William E.

    2016-02-01

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) provides a set of routines to assist in the development and application of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The library provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental techniques that measure hyperfine interactions can be calculated. The optimized vector and matrix operations of the BLAS and LAPACK libraries are utilized. The original version of SHIML constructed and solved Blume matrices for methods that measure hyperfine interactions of nuclear probes in a single spin state. Version 2 provides additional support for methods that measure interactions on two different spin states such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. Example codes are provided to illustrate the use of SHIML to (1) generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A22 can be neglected and (2) generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples for pure dipole or pure quadrupole transitions.

  12. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION AND WATER MASERS TOWARD CB 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high angular resolution observations of water masers at 1.3 cm and radio continuum emission at 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm toward the Bok globule CB 54 using the Very Large Array. At 1.3 cm, with subarcsecond angular resolution, we detect a radio continuum compact source located to the southwest of the globule and spatially coincident with a mid-infrared (mid-IR) embedded object (MIR-b). The spectral index derived between 6 and 1.3 cm (α = 0.3 ± 0.4) is flat, consistent with optically thin free-free emission from ionized gas. We propose the shock-ionization scenario as a viable mechanism for producing the radio continuum emission observed at cm frequencies. Water masers are detected at two different positions separated by 2.''3, and coincide spatially with two mid-IR sources: MIR-b and MIR-c. The association of these mid-IR sources with water masers confirms that they are likely protostars undergoing mass loss, and they are the best candidate as driving sources of the molecular outflows in the region.

  13. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, Jonas; Vollbrecht, Gudmund [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre; Thomsen, I.M. [Danish Forest and Landscape Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned trees infected, respectively. Silver fir and Caucasian fir were almost free from infections. Maximum extension of H. annosum rot columns were in Japanese larch (18 dm). Heterobasidion annosum was found to be the most important decay causing fungus. Mating tests assigned all isolated strains of H. annosum to the P-intersterility group 35 refs, 2 tabs

  14. Organic matter characterization and decomposition dynamics in sub-Antarctic streams impacted by invasive beavers Caracterización de la materia orgánica y la dinámica de descomposición en arroyos subantárticos impactados por castores invasores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ulloa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a relatively remote and well conserved area, the sub-Antarctic ecoregion faces pressing global threats from climate change, the ozone hole and introduced species. Its freshwater ecosystems are one of the least studied components of this biome, but they are known to confront a host of invasive taxa including trout and beavers. We set out to understand the basic characterization and dynamics of organic matter processing and decomposition in sub-Antarctic streams under natural forest (NF conditions and in ponds constructed by North American beavers (Castor canadensis (BP. We found these streams have a naturally stable benthic organic matter regime throughout the year with a peak in leaf input from Nothofagus pumilio in autumn. Beaver ponds significantly increased the retention of organic matter and caused significantly higher decomposition rates, probably associated with increased density and biomass of Hyalella spp. As expected, leaf decay rates for N. pumilio, a deciduous species, were higher (NF: -0.0028 day- ± 0.0001 SE; BP: -0.0118 day-1 ± 0.0009 SE than N. betuloides (a broad-leaf evergreen (NF: -0.0018 day-1 ± 0.0005 SE; BP: -0.0040 day-1 ± 0.0003 SE. Overall these results indicate that the naturally low decomposition rates (slower than 89% of a global survey of decay rates for these cold, oligotrophic streams are being modified by introduced beavers to resemble more temperate latitudes.A pesar de ser una zona relativamente remota y bien conservado, la ecorregión subantártica se enfrenta a presiones por amenazas globales por el cambio climático, el agujero de ozono y las especies introducidas. Los ecosistemas de agua dulce son uno de los componentes menos estudiados de este bioma, pero se sabe que enfrentan una serie de taxones invasivos como la trucha y los castores. El propósito de este estudio es entender la caracterización básica y dinámica de descomposición de la materia orgánica en arroyos subantárticos de

  15. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  16. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  17. Physical and mechanical characteristics of poor-quality wood after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romagnoli M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poor-quality Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Poir. Maire and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco wood samples were heat treated with the aim of testing the improvement of wood quality that could increase their economic value. Wood properties were measured to assess quality in treated and non-treated materials, including density, hardness, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, and compression strength. The results showed higher dimensional stability in heat-treated wood, yet mechanical performance in compression and bending strength were only marginally affected by loss of density. Despite having a re­latively low density after heat treatment, Corsican pine sapwood has potential in manufacturing higher-value products. In contrast, heat treatment applied to Douglas fir wood did not appear economically viable; insufficient differences were detected between the naturally desirable characteristics of this species and heat-treated samples.

  18. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  19. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  20. Conservation and reintroduction of native orchids of Singapore – the next phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W. Yam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some 226 species of native orchids have been recorded in Singapore. However, of these 178 are considered to be extinct, and only five are common. The orchid conservation programme aims to monitor existing species, explore ways to conserve their germplasm, and increase their number for subsequent re-introduction into appropriate habitats, including roadside trees, parks and nature areas. From 1999 to 2008, we carried out experiments and have successfully propagated and re-introduced 5 species of native orchids, namely Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. and Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb. More than 80% of the plants are growing well and all that have survived have flowered. From 2009 to 2012, we expanded our reintroduction efforts by planting fifteen species: Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Bulbophyllum purpurascens (T. and B. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.f., Coelogyne rochussenii De Vr., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl., Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume Rchb.f., Dendrobium leonis (Lindl. Rchb.f., Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Phalaenopsis cornu cervi (Breda Bl. and Rchb.f., Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb, Thrixspermum amplexicaule Rchb.f., and Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f. is scheduled to be planted. One of our goals is that the reintroduced species would act as catalysts for the restoration of at least part of the original ecosystem. For example, pollinators may be attracted to sites where orchids have been re-introduced. Subsequently, orchid seeds that are produced from naturally pollinated flowers may be blown to the safe sites where appropriate mycorrhizal fungi are present; thus making germination and subsequent establishment of natural populations in

  1. Pharmacognosy of Enicostemma littorale:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajamani Saranya; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Munisami Hemalatha; Ranganathan Balaji; Ernest David

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times. Among them, Enicostemma littorale blume (E. littorale) a perennial herb of the family Gentianaceae is cosmopolitan in occurrence in India. The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative, helps in curing fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, abdominal disorders, snake bite, obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties. This review provides a bird’s eye view about geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E. littorale.

  2. Sinergismo entre óleos essenciais e drogas antimicrobianas sobre linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de casos clínicos humanos Synergism between essential oils and antimicrobial drugs against Staphylooccus aureus and Escherichia coli strains from human infections

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana A. A. Zago; Priscila I. Ushimaru; Lidiane N. Barbosa; Ary Fernandes Junior

    2009-01-01

    Estudos com plantas e utilização em terapias combinatórias têm sido estimulados. Verificou-se as possíveis interações entre óleos essenciais de plantas [canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae), capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae), hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae), gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae), cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. Myrtaceae) e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae)] combinados a oito drogas antimicr...

  3. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2) and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1) fo...

  4. Hoya isabelchanae Rodda & Simonsson, a new, showy species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) with pomegranate red flowers from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Michele; Juhonewe, Nadhanielle Simonsson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hoya R.Br. from Sulawesi (Indonesia), Hoya isabelchanae Rodda & Simonsson, is described and illustrated. It is one of the largest flowered species in Hoya section Acanthostemma (Blume) Kloppenb. Its flowers are of comparable size to those of Hoya benchaii Gavrus et al., Hoya kloppenburgii T.Green, Hoya rundumensis (T.Green) Rodda & Simonsson and Hoya sigillatis T.Green ssp. sigillatis, all from Borneo. Among Sulawesi species it is compared with the vegetatively similar Hoya brevialata Kleijn & van Donkelaar and Hoya pallilimba Kleijn & van Donkelaar. PMID:27698573

  5. 山东野生植物新记录%New records of wild plants in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛晓伟; 程丹丹; 高德民

    2014-01-01

    Four species and one variety are firstly reported as new wild plant records in Shandong Province, viz. Murdannia vaginata ( Linn.) Bruckn., Boehmeria macrophylla var. scabrella ( Roxb.) Long, Polygonum viscosum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, Elatine triandra Schkuhr and Limnophila sessiliflora ( Vahl ) Blume. In which, there is a new record family Elatinaceae and a new record genus Limnophila R. Br. Moreover, some exotic plants are found in Shandong Province. Their voucher specimens are deposited in Herbaria of School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine ( SDCM) .

  6. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida Antifungal activity from essential oils on Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Igara de Oliveira Lima; Rinalda de Araújo Guerra Oliveira; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Nilma Maria Porto de Farias; Evandro Leite de Souza

    2006-01-01

    A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilli...

  7. 特殊钻石型等级晶格上BEG模型的临界行为%Critical Behavior for the BEG Model on Particular Diamond-type Hierarchical Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋学芳; 王艳

    2007-01-01

    利用重整化群方法,讨论了一种特殊钻石型等级晶格上BEG(Blume-Emery-Griffith)模型的相变和临界行为.结果表明,在哈密顿量中有无晶体场强度时的结果是有差别的,而且与一般钻石型等级晶格的结果不同,所计算临界指数的值也不一样,它们并不属于同一个普适类.

  8. Three new iridoid glucoside salts from Hedyotis tenelliflora Growing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Long, Luu H; Nga, Vo Thi; Dam, Nguyen Phuc; Hung, Mai Anh; Dung, Tu Duc; Quang, Ton That; Phung, Nguyen K Phi

    2013-11-01

    Three new sodium salts of iridoid acids, deacetylasperulosidic acid sodium salt (1), teneoside D (2), and teneoside E (3) were isolated from the leaves of Hedyotis tenelliflora Blume (Rubiaceae), together with seven known iridoids, 6alpha-hydroxygeniposide (4), 6beta-hydroxygeniposide (5), 6-O-methyldeacetylasperulosidic acid methyl ester (6), 6-O-methylscandoside methyl ester (7), 6alpha-methoxygeniposidic acid (8), daphylloside (9), and mollugoside methyl ester (10). Their chemical structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. PMID:24427927

  9. 秦岭植物分布3新记录属%Three Newly Recorded Genera of Plant from Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培亮; 杜诚; 卢元; 姜在民

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,3 genera of plant are recorded from Qinling Mountains,China for the first time. The newly recorded genera are Monotro pa strum Andres ( Pyrolaceae) , Gleadovia Gamble et Prain (Oroban-chaceae) and Asystasia Blume (Acanthaceae). The newly recorded species or variety are M. humile (D. Don) H. Hara var. glaberrimum H. Hara,G. ruborum Gamble et Prain and A. neesiana (Wallich) Nees.%报道了秦岭植物分布3新记录属:鹿蹄草科(Pyrolaceae)的沙晶兰属(Monotropastrum Andres)、列当科(Orobanchaceae)的藤寄生属(Gleadovia Gamble et Prain)和爵床科(Acanthaceae)的十万错属(Asystasia Blume).相应的新记录种或变种为无毛沙晶兰[M.humile (D.Don)H.Hara var.glaberrimum H.Hara]、藨寄生(G.ruborum Gamble et Prain)和白接骨[A.neesiana (Wallich) Nees].

  10. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  11. Numerical transfer-matrix study of a model with competing metastable states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Gorman, B.M.; Rikvold, P.A.;

    1994-01-01

    The Blume-Capel model, a three-state lattice-gas model capable of displaying competing metastable states, is investigated in the limit of weak, long-range interactions. The methods used are scalar field theory, a numerical transfer-matrix method, and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations. The equilib......The Blume-Capel model, a three-state lattice-gas model capable of displaying competing metastable states, is investigated in the limit of weak, long-range interactions. The methods used are scalar field theory, a numerical transfer-matrix method, and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations...... transition. A recently developed transfer-matrix formalism is applied to the model to obtain complex-valued ''constrained'' free-energy densities f(alpha). For particular eigenvectors of the transfer matrix, the f(alpha) exhibit finite-rangescaling behavior in agreement with the analytically continued...... 'metastable free-energy density This transfer-matrix approach gives a free-energy cost of nucleation that supports the proportionality relation for the decay rate of the metastable phase T proportional to\\Imf alpha\\, even in cases where two metastable states compete. The picture that emerges from this study...

  12. Recent Deglaciation of Darwin Mountains (Tierra de Fuego) after Little Ice Age: monitoring by photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, L.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Green, A.; Vivas, M.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    Glaciers from the Darwin mountain range have been retreating since the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the amount of retreat varies and is minimal for some glacial snouts and substantial for others. Possible explanations for this different behaviour include climatic and glacial dynamic causes. The aim of this work was to analyse the impact of climate change on these glaciers. The research site was the terminus of glacier Pia, which descends to the south of Mount Darwin (2488 m asl, 54°45'S, 69°29'W) and reaches the coastline at the Beagle Channel. The terminus is situated some hundreds of meters above the LIA moraine but, whereas one sector retreated rapidly and then stabilized, another sector has had several advances and retreats leaving a number of moraine arches. To better understand the origin of this dynamic behaviour, we undertook a study of the evolution of the terminus of glacier Pia over the last 60 years. We used aerial photographs and satellite images to determine the exact location of the glacial terminus in certain years (1943, 1963, 1987, 1990, 2001 and 2006). These results were completed in 2008 and 2009 through field work. We also carried out lichenometric studies of the two most abundant lichen species that rapidly colonize the moraine boulders abandoned by the glacier: Placopsis perrugosa and Rhizocarpon geographicum. By comparing results from field work carried out in 2008 and 2009, we were able to determine the growth rate of these two species (García-Sancho et al. 2011). In addition, we also carried out a dendrochronological study of Nothofagus antarctica and N. betuloides. The use of the four techniques involved in this study (photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and multiyear field work) allowed us to establish the ecesis period of each species as well as their growth curves, from which we can deduce the movements of the glacial terminus from the end of the LIA to the present. From this study we can infer that the different

  13. Phase diagram of a spin-1 magnetic bilayer by cluster variational theory: Exact results for a BEG model on a Bethe lattice with five-fold coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. W.; Balcerzak, T.; Gzik, M.; Sukiennicki, A.

    1998-09-01

    The complete global phase diagram for a magnetic spin-1 bilayer, whose interactions are described by the Blume Emery Griffiths model (BEG), is studied by cluster variational theory within the pair approximation. The results obtained, are also the exact results pertaining to the BEG model on a Bethe lattice having coordination number, z=5. Useful analytic expressions are derived for trajectories in phase space containing the second-order (continuous) phase boundaries. The physical existence of these second-order boundaries, together with the location of the first-order phase boundaries, are determined from a Gibbs free energy analysis. Detailed comparison of the results with those of other workers on this, and closely related systems, is made.

  14. Are pollination "syndromes" predictive? Asian dalechampia fit neotropical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W Scott; Gong, Yan-Bing; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2011-07-01

    Using pollination syndrome parameters and pollinator correlations with floral phenotype from the Neotropics, we predicted that Dalechampia bidentata Blume (Euphorbiaceae) in southern China would be pollinated by female resin-collecting bees between 12 and 20 mm in length. Observations in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, revealed pollination primarily by resin-collecting female Megachile (Callomegachile) faceta Bingham (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). These bees, at 14 mm in length, were in the predicted size range, confirming the utility of syndromes and models developed in distant regions. Phenotypic selection analyses and estimation of adaptive surfaces and adaptive accuracies together suggest that the blossoms of D. bidentata are well adapted to pollination by their most common floral visitors. PMID:21670584

  15. Systèmes désordonnés et frustrés: modèles champ moyen et problèmes d'optimisation combinatoire

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Georg R.

    1997-01-01

    Dans la présente thèse de doctorat je présente des résultats concernant des modèles désordonnés et frustrés venant de la physique statistique et de l'optimisation combinatoire. Comme application de la théorie des verres de spins, j'étudie le modèle de Blume, Emery et Griffiths désordonné et frustré. Ce modèle est traité dans l'approximation de champ moyen dans le cadre de la méthode des répliques A l'aide de l'Ansatz symétrique dans les répliques je présente une solution numérique complète pu...

  16. Structural analysis of color video camera installation on tank 241AW101 (2 Volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, J.P.

    1994-08-24

    A video camera is planned to be installed on the radioactive storage tank 241AW101 at the DOE` s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The camera will occupy the 20 inch port of the Multiport Flange riser which is to be installed on riser 5B of the 241AW101 (3,5,10). The objective of the project reported herein was to perform a seismic analysis and evaluation of the structural components of the camera for a postulated Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) per the reference Structural Design Specification (SDS) document (6). The detail of supporting engineering calculations is documented in URS/Blume Calculation No. 66481-01-CA-03 (1).

  17. Parah Forest Clusters at Khao Nan National Park, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anun CHAROENSUK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parah (Elateriospermum tapos Blume is a native species of southern Thailand. There are few studies of Parah clusters at Khao Nan National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat, but no investigation of the locations and boundaries of this species has been undertaken. This study is the first attempt to use open standard Geographic Information Systems (GIS to investigate Parah forest clusters. Park rangers used a Global Positioning System (GPS device, a Garmin 76CSx, to survey Parah cluster boundaries during May–June 2011. The coordinates of the Parah boundary were analysed in MapSource and overlaid on the Google Earth map. The area of Parah clusters was then estimated. There were five main Parah clusters found at Khao Nan National Park with a total area of 8.1 km2 or 5,064 Rai.

  18. Estimation of number and density, and random distribution testing of important plant species in Ban Pong Forest, Sansai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand using T-Square sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phahol Sakkatat

    Full Text Available A study by T-square sampling method was conducted to investigate importantplant species in Ban Pong Forest, Sansai district, Chiang Mai province by estimation of theirnumber and density, and testing of their random distribution. The result showed that, therewere 14 kinds of important plant species, viz. Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb., Shoreaobtuse Wall. exBlume, Bridelia retusa (L. A. Juss, Derris scandens Benth., Thysostachyssiamensis, Parinari anamense Hance, Vitex pinnata L.f., Canarium subulatum Guill.,Litsea glutinosa C.B.Roxb., Alphonsea glabrifolia Craib., Pueraria mirifica, Vaticastapfiana van Slooten, Walsura robusta Rox. and Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. By far,Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb was greatest in number and density, and all of the specieshad random distribution, except Walsura robusta Roxb and Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb

  19. Pharmacognosy of Enicostemma littorale:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajamani; Saranya; Thirunavukkarasu; Thirumalai; Munisami; Hemalatha; Ranganathan; Balaji; Ernest; David

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times.Among them,Enicostemma littorale blume(E.littorale)a perennial herb of the family Gentianaceae is cosmopolitan in occurrence in India.The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative,helps in curing fever,rheumatism,skin diseases,abdominal disorders,snake bite,obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels.The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial,antioxidant,antiulcer,antiinflammatory,hypolipidaemic,hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties.This review provides a bird’s eye view about geographical distribution,physicochemical parameters,phvtoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E.littorale.

  20. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  1. Hyperspherical explicitly correlated Gaussian approach for four-body systems with finite angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, D.; Blume, D.

    2012-06-01

    It has been predicted that four-body systems with angular momentum L=1 and parity π=+1 exhibit four-body resonances [1,2] and Efimov physics [3]. To treat these phenomena in the hyperspherical framework, we extend the work of von Stecher and Greene [4] to finite angular momenta. In particular, we employ explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with global vectors to solve the hyperangular Schr"odinger equation for four-body systems with L^π=1^+ and 1^- symmetry. We apply the approach to four-fermion systems with unequal masses.[4pt] [1] K. M. Daily and D. Blume, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 170403 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Gandolfi and J. Carlson, arXiv: 1006.5186v1.[0pt] [3] Y. Castin, C. Mora and L. Pricoupenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223201 (2010).[0pt] [4] J. von Stecher and C. H. Greene, Phys. Rev. A. 80, 022504 (2009).

  2. The Growth and Elongation of Protocorm of Gastodia elata%天麻地下块茎的生长及延长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong In Pyo; Chang Kwang Joon; Lee Tae Soo; Shim Jae Ouk; Lee Min Woong

    2004-01-01

    Gastrodia elata Blume is a medicinal plant and widely distributed in Korea, China and Japan. The dried tuber of G.elata have been used as traditional herbal medicines for curing human diseases. Here, we reported the observation of developing procedure of the tuber formation from protocorn in small glass and in field conditions.%天麻是广泛分布于韩国,中国和日本的药用与真菌共生的植物,它的块茎可以作为中草药医治多种人体病害.本文观察了天麻块茎原基在三角瓶中和室外土壤中生长和延长的过程.

  3. Critical regions with central charge c=1/2,7/10,4/5 in the spin-1 quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagramm of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1-quantum chain is calculated by finite-size scaling with respect to all four parameters. We locate the three-dimensional critical manifold and determine a two-dimensional tricritical surface where the spectra exhibit conformal invariance corresponding to the central charges c=7/10 and 4/5. Choosing one parameter to be zero, we can treat the model analytically and from this the spectrum on a large part of the Ising-like critical region can be understood: there the spectrum consists of conformal c=1/2-levels on which a massive spectrum is superimposed. Calculating three-point functions we study which perturbations by primary fields lead from c=4/5 or c=7/10-critical points to Ising-type regions. (orig.)

  4. Real space pairing of eletrons and the transition to k vector-space pairing with application to the Ba Pbsub(1-x)Bisub(x)O3 alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of the condensation of half-filled band of electrons, coupled strongly to optic phonons, into a lattice of real space electron pairs is presented. In the limit of small bandwidth the problem reduces to a Blume-Emery-Griffith (BEG) model. Even if the effective on-site interaction between electrons is repulsive, a real space pairing of the Anderson form may occur due to nearest-neighbor interactions. In this case a transition occurs with dilution from the real space paired state to a metallic state with single occupancy which undergoes k vector-space (BCS) pairing at low temperature. The results are applied to BaPbsub(1-x)Bisub(x)O3 alloys where there is a transition between a high temperature superconductor (X approx. = 0.35), in which charge ordering into Bi3+ and Bi5+ states has been observed. (orig.)

  5. Microcanonical Phase Diagram of the BEG and Ising Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粮生; 郑宁; 史庆藩

    2012-01-01

    The density of states of long-range Blume-Emery-Criffiths (BEG) and short-range lsing models are obtained by using Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows in energy and magnetization space. With accurate density of states, we are able to calculate the mierocanonical specific heat of fixed magnetization introduced by Kastner et al. in the regions of positive and negative temperature. The microcanonical phase diagram of the Ising model shows a continuous phase transition at a negative temperature in energy and magnetization plane. However the phase diagram of the long-range model constructed by peaks of the microeanonieal specific heat looks obviously different from the Ising chart.

  6. Modified Barrett formula near the neutral-ionic quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum version of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model is investigated by mean-field theory in order to characterize the newly-found neutral-ionic (NI) quantum phase transition in pressured-DMTTF-QBr4 (4,4'-dimethyltetrathiafulvalene-p-bromanil). In the quantum BEG model, a finite tunneling between neutral and ionic states changes the quantum NI transition of first order in the BEG model into that of second order. In the vicinity of this continuous NI quantum critical point, the dielectric permittivity in the neutral phase is shown to follow the Barrett formula characteristic of quantum paraelectricity. These features in the quantum BEG model are in good agreement with the experimental results, which suggests the importance of quantum NI fluctuations in DMTTF-QBr4.

  7. Critical behavior for the BEG model on diamond-type hierarchical lattices%钻石型分形晶格上BEG模型的临界行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌业; 张蜒; 张晓茹

    2002-01-01

    应用实空间重整化群方法研究了分形结构-钻石型分级晶格上BEG(Blume-Emery-Griffith)模型的相变和临界现象,得到了重整化变换的递推关系,确定了重整化变换的不动点,并且计算了临界点附近关联长度的临界指数.发现钻石型分级晶格上 BEG 模型的相变温度为无穷大,这表明系统永远处于有序态.

  8. Diversity of tree communities in Mount Patuha region, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAENAL MUTAQIEN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Junaedi DI, Mutaqien Z (2010 Diversity of tree communities in Mount Patuha region, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 75-81. Tree vegetation analysis was conducted in three locations of Mount Patuha region, i.e. Cimanggu Recreational Park, Mount Masigit Protected Forest, and Patengan Natural Reserve. Similarity of tree communities in those three areas was analyzed. Quadrant method was used to collect vegetation data. Morisita Similarity index was applied to measure the similarity of tree communities within three areas. The three areas were dominated by Castanopsis javanica A. DC., Lithocarpus pallidus (Blume Rehder and Schima wallichii Choisy. The similarity tree communities were concluded from relatively high value of Similarity Index between three areas. Cimanggu RP, Mount Masigit and Patengan NR had high diversity of tree species. The existence of the forest in those three areas was needed to be sustained. The tree communities data was useful for further considerations of conservation area management around Mount Patuha.

  9. HFI of highly stripped oxygen ions recoiling into hydrogen and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PAC technique has been applied to the HFI study of highly stripped oxygen ions under the influence of gas collisions. The 16Osub(3-)(6.13 MeV, tau = 25 ps) and the 18Osub(2+)(1.98 MeV, tau = 3.4 ps) states were populated in the reactions 1H(19F,α)16Osub(3-) and 4He(18O,α)18Osub(2+) using beams of 33 MeV 18O and 46 MeV 19F, respectively. The 16O data have been analysed in the framework of the Scherer-Blume theory. The 18O data, however, can only be understood if the ion-atom collisions are governed by charge-exchange processes. (Auth.)

  10. Independent seismic evaluation of the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 containment annulus structure and selected piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent review and development of the vertical floor spectra for the Unit 1 containment annulus structure of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant was carried out using a detailed three-dimensional model. The developed floor spectra were then utilized for confirmatory evaluations of two selected piping systems. The latter were evaluated by the envelope response spectrum method, and by the independent support motion response spectrum method. ASME class 2 evaluations of the two systems were also performed. Finally, a confirmatory evaluation was carried out for the model utilized by URS/Blume for the development of the vertical floor response spectra. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of the report summarize the work scope and the results of the study. Details pertaining to the specific areas of the work are given in sections 2 to 8

  11. Phase diagrams of the spin-2 Ising model in the presence of a quenched diluted crystal field distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Yigit; Erhan Albayrak

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the random crystal field effects on the phase diagrams of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model for a honeycomb lattice using the effective-field theory with correlations.To do so,the thermal variations of magnetization are studied via calculating the phase diagrams of the model.We have found that the model displays both second-order and first-order phase transitions in addition to the tricritical and isolated points.Reentrant behavior is also observed for some appropriate values of certain system parameters.Besides the usual ground state phases of the spin-2 model including ±2,±1,and 0,we have also observed the phases ±3/2 and ±1/2,which are unusual for the spin-2 case.

  12. Registro de Acromyrmex disciger Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae no Município de Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pikart

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae is cultivated for production of leaves, bark and roots, due to its aromatic and spice proprieties. But despite being a resistant plant, C. zeylanicum is subject to attack by various insects and mites during their development, and these pests are responsible for considerable reduction in crop yields. The aim of this study was to record and characterize the attack by leaf-cutting ants in plants of C. zeylanicum in Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between January and March 2010. Damage were characterized by cutting young leaves and shoots of plants of C. zeylanicum with height between 1.0 to 1.5 m and total defoliation of plants less than 1.0 m. The attack in adult plants was not observed. This is the first record of leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex disciger Mayr damaging plants of C. zeylanicum in Brazil.

  13. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  14. Seasonal and yearly variations in light use and nitrogen use by seedlings of four deciduous broad-leaved tree species invading larch plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Satoshi; Koike, Takayoshi

    2005-04-01

    Several deciduous broad-leaved tree species, differing in leaf phenology, invade larch (Larix kaempferii (Lamb.) Carrière) plantations in Japan. The understory light environment of larch forests changes drastically between the leafy and leafless periods. To determine how the invading seedlings exploit the changing light environment, and if phenological differences reflect the light- and nitrogen-use traits of the seedlings, we measured leaf phenology, seasonal changes in light-saturated photosynthetic rate (P(sat)), leaf nitrogen (N) content (N(area)), chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio (Chl/N), specific leaf area (SLA) and N remobilization rate (NRMR) over 3 years. The mid-successional or gap-phase species, Magnolia hypoleuca Siebold & Zucc., had a short leafy period and high P(sat) and NRMR. In contrast, two late-successional tree species, Prunus ssiori Friedr. Schmidt, which undergoes leaf flush before larch, and Carpinus cordata Blume, which maintains green leaves until frost, both had low P(sat) and NRMR but exploited the opportunity for growth during the period when the larch canopy trees were leafless. Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. var. crispula (Blume) Ohashi, a mid-late-successional species that underwent leaf flush at the same time as the overstory larch, had values of photosynthetic parameters between those of the gap-phase and late-successional species. Among species, M. hypoleuca and Q. mongolica had higher photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic N-use efficiencies. In all species, the relationship between N(area) and P(sat) showed species-specific yearly fluctuations; however, there was no yearly fluctuation in the relationship between N(area) and P(sat) at CO2 saturation. Yearly fluctuations in the N(area)-P(sat) relationship appeared to be induced by changes in SLA and N-use characteristics, which in turn are affected by climatic variations.

  15. Quantification and classification of hydro-meteorological flood controls in northeast Switzerland as a basis for robust impact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Luise; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Flood events are generated and shaped by different hydro-meteorological processes. Taking these drivers into account is essential for understanding flood generation and for developing robust hydrological models. We call a hydrological model robust if it is able to reproduce different flood types with different drivers at the same quality. Such models are a prerequisite for assessing climate change impact as they minimize bias associated with a potential change in frequency of projected flood types. For the same reason, identification of the key hydro-meteorological processes is crucial to enable a suitable downscaling of meteorological parameters. To gain understanding of the main hydro-meteorological processes associated with floods in a mesoscale alpine catchment (Thur River, 1700 km2), we analyse all events exceeding a 2-year flood over the past 50 years. Resulting 47 events are temporally delineated based on an adapted constant-k approach (Blume et al., 2007) using hourly runoff data. Each flood event is then characterized based on a variety of hydro-meteorological parameters and indices descriptive of catchment distributed (pre-) event conditions based on daily meteorological data. This comprehensive data set is used to classify the events based on hydro-meteorological parameters only and to derive typical flood-generating "storylines". Changes in these storylines over the past 50 years are discussed. Furthermore, the importance of each hydro-meteorological parameter is quantified which in turn might help to assess uncertainties associated with climate change impact studies. References Blume, T., Zehe, E., and Bronstert, A.: Rainfall - runoff response, event-based runoff coefficients and hydrograph separation, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 52, 843-862, doi:10.1623/hysj.52.5.843, 2007.

  16. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida Antifungal activity from essential oils on Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara de Oliveira Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis. Os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em meio sólido. Os óleos essenciais de C. zeylanicum e P. boldus mostraram os mais destacáveis resultados, visto que inibiram o crescimento de 58% das cepas ensaiadas e apresentaram CIM de 4%.Candidiasis occurs as a superficial or profound fungal infection caused by yeasts belonging to the Candida genus. This infectious has been considered the main mycotic infection in the nosocomial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth and Rosmarinus officinialis L. essential oils against Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis strains. The antifungal activity assays were carried out by solid medium diffusion technique. C. zeylanicum and P. boldus essential oils showed the most prominent results which inhibited the growth of 58% of the assayed yeasts strains and presented MIC of 4%.

  17. Comparison of Vertical Handover Mechanisms Using Generic QOS Trigger for Next Generation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajender Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Next Generation Network (NGN is envisage to integrate heterogeneous wireless systems. NGN is expectedto have Quality as the major challenging issue. More specifically, NGN aims at providing guaranteedQuality of Service (QoS and Quality of Experience (QoE i.e. what quality a network provider can offer(or claims & what quality user experiences. NGN user may be interested in changing its network operatoror is forced to change the serving access point (AP or base station (BS in order to achieve a given levelof QoE. Seamless transfer of user’s service from existing operator to a new operator bearing dissimilarradio access technology is called Vertical Handover (VHO. VHO decision may depend on the popularsignal to noise ratio (SNR criteria or other performance metrics like bit error rate, delay, jitter etc orcombination of these metrics. Performance of candidate target network depends on the type of traffic i.e.whether conversational, streaming, interactive or background is implemented. Therefore to optimise VHOmechanism, all these metrics & traffic types should be evaluated. Paper elucidates contemporary VHOapproaches i.e. hybrid ANP/ RTOPSIS & Oliver blume method. Different Interworking scenarios & NGNtestbeds are prepared considering Wi-Fi, WiMAX, UMTS etc. as the candidate networks. Neuro-fuzzybased MCDM weight assignment technique is applied & overall network cost function is computed basedon Qualnet simulation. At the end of the paper investigation suggests that Blume algorithm is better thanthe hybrid ANP mechanism because it is simple to implement, more efficient (40% more accurate, quicklycomputed (20 times less and more dynamic (application oriented.

  18. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM{sub 10} capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwary, Abhishek [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Technology Division, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Peachey, Christopher [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leonardi, Giovanni [Centre for Radiation, Chemical, and Environmental Health Hazards, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Grundy, Chris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Technology Division, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM{sub 10} pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM{sub 10} concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM{sub 10} capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr{sup -1}, equating to 0.009 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  19. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  20. Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Upton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35 because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns, ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

  1. Role of relative humidity in colony founding and queen survivorship in two carpenter ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2011-06-01

    Conditions necessary for optimal colony foundation in two carpenter ant species, Camponotus modoc Wheeler and Camponotus vicinus Mayr, were studied. Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco) and Styrofoam blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70, 80, or 100% RH. Nanitic workers produced after 12 wk were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content; however, the number of colonies initiated by C. modoc differed significantly with moisture content. The results indicate that colony founding in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content than C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam. In another test, groups of queens of each species were exposed to 20, 50, 70, and 100% RH and the time until 50% mortality occurred was recorded for each species. C. vicinus lived significantly longer at each of the test humidities than C. modoc, suggesting that the former species is adapted to better survive under xeric conditions. PMID:21735888

  2. Warm season tree growth and precipitation over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Matthew D.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Villanueva-Diaz, Jose

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a network of 18 new tree ring chronologies to examine the history of warm season tree growth over Mexico from 1780 to 1992. The chronologies include Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Montezuma pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb.) latewood width, and Montezuma bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) total ring width. They are located in southwestern Texas, the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and southern Mexico as far south as Oaxaca. Seven of these chronologies are among the first precipitation sensitive tree ring records from the American tropics. Principal component analysis of the chronologies indicates that the primary modes of tree growth variability are divided north and south by the Tropic of Cancer. The tree ring data in northern Mexico (PC1) are most sensitive to June-August rainfall, while the data from southern Mexico (PC2) are sensitive to rainfall in April-June. We find that the mode of tree growth variability over southern Mexico is significantly correlated with the onset of the North American Monsoon. Anomalies in monsoon onset, spring precipitation, and tree growth in southern Mexico all tend to be followed by precipitation anomalies of opposite sign later in the summer over most of central Mexico.

  3. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  4. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  5. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  6. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  7. Role of relative humidity in colony founding and queen survivorship in two carpenter ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2011-06-01

    Conditions necessary for optimal colony foundation in two carpenter ant species, Camponotus modoc Wheeler and Camponotus vicinus Mayr, were studied. Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco) and Styrofoam blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70, 80, or 100% RH. Nanitic workers produced after 12 wk were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content; however, the number of colonies initiated by C. modoc differed significantly with moisture content. The results indicate that colony founding in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content than C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam. In another test, groups of queens of each species were exposed to 20, 50, 70, and 100% RH and the time until 50% mortality occurred was recorded for each species. C. vicinus lived significantly longer at each of the test humidities than C. modoc, suggesting that the former species is adapted to better survive under xeric conditions.

  8. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, T.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Cromack, K., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-term impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics within the forest floor (FF, Oe and Oa horizons) and the mineral soil (0-10 cm). Twelve of our stands burned approximately 150 years ago ('young'), and the other 12 burned approximately 550 years ago ('old'). Forest floor mean C and N pools were significantly greater in old stands than young stands (N pools: 1823 ?? 132 kg??ha-1 vs. 1450 ?? 98 kg??ha -1; C pools: 62 980 ?? 5403 kg??ha-1 vs. 49 032 ?? 2965 kg??ha-1, mean ?? SE) as a result of significant differences in FF mass. Forest floor C and N concentrations and C/N ratios did not differ by time since fire, yet potential N mineralization rates were significantly higher in FF of old sites. Old and young mineral soils did not differ significantly in pools, concentrations, C/N ratios, or cycling rates. Our results suggest that C and N are sequestered in FF of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests over long (???400 year) intervals, but that shorter fire return intervals may prevent that accumulation. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Pommerening; Anders Muszta

    2015-01-01

    Background:Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods:We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK) and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) yield table data. Results:The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions:Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1) an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2) the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  10. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought.

  11. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  12. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    because there is anecdotal evidence of plant damage on the saguaros that has been linked to increased UV radiation, and (3) the forests of Nothofagus spp. and the steppe of Patagonia where the risk of plant damage at 35S is 5% and increases to as much as 15% at 55S due to increased UV-B radiation. Measurements of UV-B radiation impinging on the surface at 55S largely exceed the predicted UV-B radiation values at 50 latitude and 0% ozone depletion. Preliminary HPLC analyses of UV-B absorbing compounds in Nothofagus antartica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides and Rumex sp. in natural conditions show species-specific patterns. The spectrum of N. antartica grown at 38S differs significantly from that of N. antartica in natural conditions in Ushuaia (55S). These results suggest that the selected main area (Patagonia) is appropriate for assessing the problem and its magnitude and that Nothofagus is appropriate for our study.

  13. Forests under climate change: potential risks and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lasch-Born

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will affect forests in Germany through the end of this century. The impacts of climate change on forest productivity, water budget and the associated biotic and abiotic risks are relevant for the forestry sector and its decision makers. We analysed the possible impacts of climate change on Germany’s forests using a variety of climate scenarios generated with the regional statistical climate model STARS and the process-based forest growth model 4C. The focus of our analyses was on mono-specific stands of the main tree species Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst., Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., oak (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl., and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. The impacts on net primary production of forest stands are mainly positive for needle tree species and more negative at low elevation, water-limited sites for broadleaved tree species like beech, which is in contrast to the overall tendency of deterioration of the annual percolation rates independent of tree species. The application of a fire danger index and a nun moth risk species index according to Zwölfer indicates that Germany’s forests will experience, under the warmer and dryer climate described by RCP8.5, higher potential risks from fire and some specific pest species. An integrated evaluation reflecting the potentials and risks of forests under RCP8.5 for the German natural regions illustrates that the dryer (water-limited low elevated regions reaching from southwestern to northeastern Germany will benefit less from the assumed climate change than regions in the Northwest and forest sites at higher altitudes, which are mainly temperature limited.

  14. Soil-plant hydrology of indigenous and exotic trees in an Ethiopian montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Florian; Abate, Asferachew; Fetene, Masresha; Beck, Erwin; Weise, Stephan; Guggenberger, Georg

    2006-08-01

    Fast-growing exotic trees are widely planted in the tropics to counteract deforestation; however, their patterns of water use could be detrimental to overall ecosystem productivity through their impact on ecosystem water budget. In a comparative field study on seasonal soil-plant water dynamics of two exotic species (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) and the indigenous Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. in south Ethiopia, we combined a 2.5-year record for climate and soil water availability, natural-abundance oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of soil and xylem water, destructive root sampling and transpiration measurements. Soil was generally driest under C. lusitanica with its dense canopy and shallow root system, particularly following a relatively low-rainfall wet season, with the wettest soil under E. globulus. Wet season transpiration of C. lusitanica was twice that of the other species. In the dry season, P. falcatus and C. lusitanica reduced transpiration by a factor of six and two, respectively, whereas E. globulus showed a fivefold increase. In all species, there was a shift in water uptake to deeper soil layers as the dry season progressed, accompanied by relocation of live fine root biomass (LFR) of C. lusitanica and P. falcatus to deeper layers. Under P. falcatus, variability in soil matric potential, narrow delta(18)O depth gradients and high LFR indicated fast water redistribution. Subsoil water uptake was important only for E. globulus, which had low topsoil LFR and tap roots exploiting deep water. Although P. falcatus appeared better adapted to varying soil water availability than the exotic species, both conifers decreased growth substantially during dry weather. Growth of E. globulus was largely independent of topsoil water content, giving it the potential to cause substantial dry-season groundwater depletion. PMID:16651254

  15. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  16. Carbon storage and soil property changes following afforestation in mountain ecosystems of the Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-use changes and afforestation activities are widely recognized as possible measures for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of afforestation on (i soil physical and chemical properties and soil carbon stocks in four mountain ecosystems and (ii whole ecosystem carbon storage. The four experimental sites, situated in the Western Rhodope Mountains (Bulgaria were characterized by typical forest-related land-use conversions. The four sites were a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco plantation (Rd1 established on former cropland, a mixed black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantation (Rd2 established on former cropland, a cropland (RdA1 and an abandoned land with uncontrolled extensive grazing (RdA2 historically used as cropland. Soil parameters, i.e., sand content, pH, organic C and N contents, C/N ratio and soil organic carbon (SOC stocks, were significantly affected by land use and land-use history. Conversion from cropland into forestland significantly reduced soil bulk density and coarse fragments at 0-10 cm depth. Compared with adjacent cropland and abandoned land, soils in coniferous plantations were acidified in their upper layers. Sites Rd2 and RdA2 contained the least SOC owing to the previous long-term arable cultivation (>100 years. Analysis of the ecosystem C stock distribution revealed that most of C in forests was stored in the aboveground tree biomass. Our study confirmed that afforestation of cropland turned the soil into a C sink for the selected mountain region, but showed conflicting results when afforestation occurred on abandoned cropland.

  17. High-resolution fingerprints of past landsliding and spatially explicit, probabilistic assessment of future reactivations: Aiguettes landslide, Southeastern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Berger, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to reconstruct spatio-temporal patterns of past landslide reactivation and the possible occurrence of future events in a forested area of the Barcelonnette basin (Southeastern French Alps). Analysis of past events on the Aiguettes landslide was based on growth-ring series from 223 heavily affected Mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) trees growing on the landslide body. A total of 355 growth disturbances were identified in the samples indicating 14 reactivation phases of the landslide body since AD 1898. Accuracy of the spatio-temporal reconstruction is confirmed by historical records and aerial photographs. Logistic regressions using monthly rainfall data from the HISTALP database indicated that landslide reactivations occurred due to above-average precipitation anomalies in winter. They point to the important role of snow in the triggering of reactivations at the Aiguettes landslide body. In a subsequent step, spatially explicit probabilities of landslide reactivation were computed based on the extensive dendrogeomorphic dataset using a Poisson distribution model for an event to occur in 5, 20, 50, and 100 yr. High-resolution maps indicate highest probabilities of reactivation in the lower part of the landslide body and increase from 0.28 for a 5-yr period to 0.99 for a 100-yr period. In the upper part of the landslide body, probabilities do not exceed 0.57 for a 100-yr period and somehow confirm the more stable character of this segment of the Aiguettes landslide. The approach presented in this paper is considered a valuable tool for land-use planners and emergency cells in charge of forecasting future events and in protecting people and their assets from the negative effects of landslides.

  18. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter J; Harrington, Constance A; St Clair, J Bradley

    2012-12-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources that were planted in four diverse environments as part of the Douglas-fir Seed-Source Movement Trial. Stem diameters and heights were measured periodically during the 2010 growing season on 16 open-pollinated families at each study installation. Stem diameters were measured on a subset of trees with electronic dendrometers during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Trees from the four seed sources differed in phenology metrics that described the timing of basal-area and height-growth initiation, growth cessation and growth rates. Differences in the height-growth metrics were generally larger than differences in the basal-area growth metrics and differences among installations were larger than differences among seed sources, highlighting the importance of environmental signals on growth phenology. Variations in the height- and basal-area growth metrics were correlated with different aspects of the seed-source environments: precipitation in the case of height growth and minimum temperature in the case of basal-area growth. The detailed dendrometer measurements revealed differences in growth patterns between seed sources during distinct periods in the growing season. Our results indicate that multiple aspects of growth phenology should be considered along with other traits when evaluating adaptation of populations to future climates. PMID:23135739

  19. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Sonia; Schroeder, Matt; Bible, Ken; Falk, Matthias; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2009-08-01

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (approximately 450-500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F(NEE)), latent energy (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E(T)), Bowen ratio (beta), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G(c)), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (alpha) and a canopy decoupling factor (Omega). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to find out how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in relative soil water content ((r)) and vapour pressure deficit (deltae), differ among the two forest successional stages. Despite different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed site-specific diurnal patterns of E(T), alpha, G(c), deltae and (r) during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) at the OG forest high morning G(c) (> 10 mm s(-1)) coincided with high net CO(2) uptake (F(NEE) = -9 to -6 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), but a strong negative response in OG G(c) to moderate deltae was observed later in the afternoons and subsequently reduced daily E(T) and (2) at the ES stands total E(T) was higher (+72 mm) because midday G(c) did not decrease until very low water availability levels ((r) < 30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that ES stands are more likely than mature forests to experience constraints on gas exchange if the dry season becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were observed in the youngest stands only at the very end of the seasonal drought.

  20. Water availability as dominant control of heat stress responses in two contrasting tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehr, Nadine K; Gast, Andreas; Weber, Christina; Daub, Baerbel; Arneth, Almut

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves that trigger severe droughts are predicted to increase globally; however, we lack an understanding of how trees respond to the combined change of extreme temperatures and water availability. Here, we studied the impacts of two consecutive heat waves as well as post-stress recovery in young Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) growing under controlled conditions. Responses were compared under water supply close to the long-term average and under reduced irrigation to represent drought. Exposure to high temperatures (+10 °C above ambient) and vapour pressure deficit strongly affected the trees in terms of water relations, photosynthesis and growth. Douglas-fir used water resources conservatively, and transpiration decreased in response to mild soil water limitation. In black locust, heat stress led to pronounced tree water deficits (stem diameter shrinkage), accompanied by leaf shedding to alleviate stress on the hydraulic system. The importance of water availability during the heat waves became further apparent by a concurrent decline in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance with increasing leaf temperatures in both species, reaching the lowest rates in the heat-drought treatments. Stress severity determined both the speed and the amount of recovery. Upon release of stress, photosynthesis recovered rapidly in drought-treated black locust, while it remained below control rates in heat (t = -2.4, P water-use efficiency increased in heat-drought trees because stomatal conductance remained reduced (t = -2.92, P water availability. They further suggest that we should look beyond the actual stress event to identify lagged effects and acclimation processes that may determine tree resilience in the long term. PMID:26491055

  1. Gas in stems: abundance and potential consequences for tree biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Barbara L; Moore, John R; Gardiner, Barry A

    2004-11-01

    Secondary xylem of woody plants has a large volumetric proportion of gas occupying spaces that would otherwise be filled with water. We examined whether these gas-filled voids have a mechanical role by either decreasing the fresh mass the tree must support (by replacing some of the water with gas) or by providing inexpensive filler to increase stem diameter (thereby increasing the second moment of area at the expense of the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture). Calculations from published data show that temperate softwood species (n = 26) average 18 and 50% gas by volume for sapwood and heartwood, respectively; temperate hardwood species (n = 31) average 26% gas by volume in both the sapwood and heartwood; and tropical species (n = 52) with mixed sapwood and heartwood have 18% gas by volume. In this paper, we develop equations to show how gas affects the mechanical behavior of tree stems, and describe model results to show how gas affects mechanical stability, based on mass and stem diameters for six 34-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. For the same applied load, modeled stems in which the gas space was filled with water differed in their surface stresses by Trees with gas removed had higher modulus of rupture, but could withstand up to 14% lower maximum wind forces than trees in their native state, suggesting a biomechanical role for the gas if the model assumptions are valid. The gas content may, however, have evolved in response to pressures unrelated to biomechanics. We discuss some of its potential effects on sapwood physiology.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs.

  3. Knockdown of liver-intestine cadherin decreases BGC823 cell invasiveness and metastasis in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu; Jin Zhang; Qi-Sheng Liu; Wei-Guo Dong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess BGC823 gastric cancer (GC) cell metastasis after knockdown of liver-intestine cadherin (CDH17) and the therapeutic value of CDH17-RNAilentivirus in vivo.METHODS:We evaluated primary tumor growth and assessed local infiltration and systemic tumor dissemination using an orthotopic implantation technique.The therapeutic value of CDH17 knockdown was examined by intratumoral administration of CDH17-RNA interference (RNAi)-lentivirus in an established GC tumor xenograft mouse model.Furthermore,a comparative proteomic approach was utilized to identify differentially expressed proteins in BGC823 and lenti-CDH17-miRneg cells following CDH17 knockdown.RESULTS:Metastases in the liver and lung appeared earlier and more frequently in animals with tumors derived from BGC823 or lenti-CDH17-miR-neg cells than in tumors derived from lenti-CDH17-miR-B cells.Average tumor weight and volume in the CDH17-RNAi-lentivirus-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group (tumor volume:0.89 ± 0.04 cm3 vs 1.16 ± 0.06 cm3,P < 0.05; tumor weight:1.15 ±0.58 g vs 2.09 ± 0.08 g,P < 0.05).Fifteen differentially expressed proteins were identified after CDH17 silencing in BGC823 cells,including a variety of cytoskeletal and chaperone proteins as well as proteins involved in metabolism,immunity/defense,cell proliferation and differentiation,cell cycle,and signal transduction.CONCLUSION:Our data establish a foundation for future studies of the comprehensive protein expression patterns and effects of CDH17 in GC.

  4. Propriedade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de especiarias sobre bactérias contaminantes de alimentos Antibacterial property of spice essential oils on food contaminating bacteria

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    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As especiarias são conhecidas por exercerem uma estabilidade frente à ação de microrganismos, estando inseridas no grupo dos alimentos estáveis. Esta propriedade conservante das especiarias está relacionada com a presença de compostos antibacterianos na sua composição. Tais compostos podem ser usados no combate a bactérias deteriorantes de alimentos, por esse motivo, este trabalho visa à investigação da propriedade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Coriandrum sativum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Mentha. piperita L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum majorana L., Pimpinella anisum L., Piper nigrum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. e Zingiber officinalis Rosc. frente a bactérias contaminantes de alimentos. Para esse estudo, foram selecionadas 10 cepas bacterianas deteriorantes de alimentos. Para a realização dos ensaios antibacterianos, foi utilizado o método de difusão em meio sólido. Os resultados mostram que os óleos essenciais das folhas do E. caryophyllata e da C. zeylanicum mostraram uma eficiência na inibição de todas as cepas bacterianas ensaiadas. Os outros óleos produziram atividade antibacteriana, porém com menor espectro de ação. A pesquisa de tais produtos mostra-se bastante promissora, sendo essa uma boa alternativa para a substituição de aditivos químicos em alimentos.Spices are known for their stability against microbial action; that being so, they are included in the group of stable foods. This preservative property of spices is related to the presence of antibacterial compounds in their composition. Such compounds could be used to control the food contaminating bacteria. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial property of the essential oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Coriandrum sativum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Mentha. piperita L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum majorana L., Pimpinella anisum L., Piper nigrum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Zingiber officinalis Rosc

  5. Sinergismo entre óleos essenciais e drogas antimicrobianas sobre linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de casos clínicos humanos Synergism between essential oils and antimicrobial drugs against Staphylooccus aureus and Escherichia coli strains from human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. A. Zago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com plantas e utilização em terapias combinatórias têm sido estimulados. Verificou-se as possíveis interações entre óleos essenciais de plantas [canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae, capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae, hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae, gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. Myrtaceae e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae] combinados a oito drogas antimicrobianas frente a doze linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus e doze de Escherichia coli isoladas de humanos. Após determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM para os óleos pelo método da diluição foram realizados ensaios para verificação de sinergismo entre os óleos essenciais e os antimicrobianos pela metodologia de Kirby & Bauer. S. aureus foi mais suscetível às interações óleos e drogas, tendo o óleo de capim cidreira apresentado sinergismo com as oito drogas testadas, seguido pelo óleo de hortelã com sete drogas. Nos ensaios com E. coli, houve sinergismo apenas para os óleos de alecrim (três drogas e capim-cidreira (duas drogas. Não ocorreram casos de antagonismo e os resultados de sinergismo foram influenciados pelos microrganismos estudados.The studies with plants and combinatory therapy have been stimulated. The interactions between cinnamon (Cinnamomun zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. Myrtaceae and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae and eight antimicrobial drug was carried. It was made against twelve S. aureus and twelve E.coli strains isolated from human specimens. After minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values determination of essential oils by dilution agar method, the synergism assays were performed by Kirby and Bauer method. The S

  6. 基于CCA排序的霍山森林植物功能型划分%Classification of Plant Functional Types Based on CCA Ordination in Forest at Huoshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁献华; 毕润成; 闫明

    2011-01-01

    采用群落生态学的调查方法,在霍山七里峪设置80个样方并采集土壤样品.通过计算重要值和测定土壤理化性质(pH值、含水量、有机质含量、N、P、K含量),建立样方×物种矩阵和样方×环境矩阵,用CCA排序划分植物功能型.结果表明,随着海拔等环境因子的变化,可以将七里峪天然次生林划分为:F1山核桃Carya cathayensis Sarg.、虎榛子Ostryopsis davidiana Decaisne、披针叶苔草Carex lanceolata Boott.;F2油松Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.、三裂绣线菊Spiraea trilobata Linn.、荩草Arthraxon hispidus(Thunb.)Makio.;F3辽东栎Quercus wutaishanica Blume、连翘Forsythia suspensa(Thunb.)Vahl.Enum.、披针叶苔草;F4华北落叶松Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.、美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa(Vog.)Koehne、林荫千里光Senecio nemorensis Linn;F5 白桦Betula platyphylla Suk、毛榛子Corylus heterophylla Fisch.Ex Trautv.、披针叶苔草5个功能型.%This thesis adopted the investigation method of community ecology, 80 quadrates were set up and 80 soil samples were collected from QiLiYu. of Huoshan Mountain. By calculating the importance value and measurement the soil physical and chemical properfies ( soil pH, contents of soil water, contents of organic, N, P, K, etc. ), matrix of quadrates × species and matrix of quadrates × environmental factors were established. PlFls were defined according to CCA ordination. The results showed that: With changes of elevation and other environmental factors, HuoMountainQiliyu secondary forest can be divided into:Fl Carya cathayensis Sarg., Ostryopsis davidiana Decaisne, Carex lanceolata Boott. ; F2 Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. , Quercus wutaishanica Blume, Spiraea trilobata Linn, Arthraxon hispidus ( Thunb. ) Makio.; F3 Quercus wutaishanica Blume, Forsythia suspensa ( Thunb. ) Vahl. Eunm,, Carex lunceolata Boott. ;F4 Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. , Lespedeza formosa ( Vng. ) Koehne、Senecio nemorensis Linn;F5 Betula platyphylla

  7. New records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. New Records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 131-136. During the recent field survey of district Shopian four species of Pteridophytes are reported for the first time that constitutes new records for Kashmir valley. These species are Hypolepis polypodioides (Blume Hook, Pteris stenophylla Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal and Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng. Hylander. The diagnostic features of H. polypodioides are presence of long-creeping slender rhizome and eglandular, colorless or brown tinged hairs throughout the frond. P. stenophylla is characterized by having dimorphic fronds and 3 to 5 pinnae clustered at stipe apex. D. subimpressa is marked by pale-green lamina and the largest basiscopic basal pinnule in the lowest pair of pinnae. Similarly, the characteristic features of D. wallichiana are presence of huge frond size, glossier and dark-green lamina and dense browner scales in stipe and rachis. In present communication taxonomic description, synonyms, ecology and photographs are provided for each of these newly recorded species.

  8. Genetic variation of Dacrycarpus imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java Based on trnL (UAA Intron Region

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    Apriyono Rahadiantoro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Jamuju Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub. in Java Island has been considered important. One of the the limitation of such program is related to the viability data on the genetic diversity of species target. The aim of study was to determine genetic variation of D. imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru Park, East Java based on trnL (UAA intron region. DNA sample was collected from several D. imbricatus seedling population in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (BTSNP in East Java. DNA was isolated and amplified using PCR. Genetic variation was estimated using trnL (UAA intron sequences. This study confirm that D. imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru has low genetic diversity. Based on the phylogenetic tree, D. imbricatus population from Bromo Tengger Semeru Park is closely related to D. imbricatus from Sabah-Malaysia and Hainan-China with 100 % similarity value. These data implies that population and habitat management of D. imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru should be designed to enhance the population survival in the future.

  9. Gastrodia elata Ameliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction

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    Min Chul Kho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of fructose results in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance, which have documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. Gastrodia elata, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetes activities. Thus, this study examined whether ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (EGB attenuate lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in a high-fructose (HF diet animal model. Rats were fed the 65% HF diet with/without EGB 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with EGB significantly suppressed the increments of epididymal fat weight, blood pressure, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol levels, and oral glucose tolerance, respectively. In addition, EGB markedly prevented increase of adipocyte size and hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. EGB ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Moreover, EGB significantly recovered the impairment of vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression and induced markedly upregulation of phosphorylation AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα in the liver, muscle, and fat. These results indicate that EGB ameliorates dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance as well as impaired vascular endothelial function in HF diet rats. Taken together, EGB may be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  10. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  11. Accumulation and Dynamic Trends of Triterpenoid Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Achyranthus bidentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting Li; Zhenghai Hu

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between structural features of various vegetative organs and triterpenoid saponin accumulation in Achyranthus bidentata Blume was investigated using anatomy, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The results showed that the primary and secondary structures of roots, and the structures of stems and leaves of A. bidentata, were similar to those of ordinary dicotyledonous plants. The enlargement of its roots, however, was primarily associated with growth and differentiation of tertiary structures. There were collateral medullary vascular bundles in addition to the normal vascular bundles in the stem. The tertiary structure was not only main parts in the roots of A. bidentata, but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponin in its growth and development. The stem may be the essential transport organ of triterpenoid saponin, while palisade parenchyma may be the primary synthesis location. In November, the total quantity of triterpenoid saponin and overall biomass in the roots reach a maximum level. This was the best time, therefore, to harvest the roots and corresponded to the traditional harvest period. Despite the withered appearance of leaves, stems also contained substantial amounts of triterpenoid saponin, and it was recommended that the stems of A. bidentata should be used.

  12. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J.; Carroll, John F.; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC–MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. PMID:22704653

  13. Socioeconomic interaction and swings in business confidence indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnisch, Martin; Pittnauer, Sabine; Solomon, Sorin; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model of interactive formation of individual expectations regarding the business climate in an industry. Our model is motivated by a business climate survey conducted since 1960 in Germany by the Ifo-institute ( www.ifo.de). In accordance with the data structure of this survey, in our model there is associated to each economic agent (business manager) a random variable with a three-element state space representing her possible types of expectations. The evolution of individual expectations in a finite population is then modeled as a spatio-temporal stochastic process with local interaction between agents. An appropriate structure of the interaction between agents in our setting turns out to be provided by a Festinger function (in physics called energy function or Hamiltonian) of the Blume-Capel type. Time series of the fractions of agents holding each type of expectations are obtained for the model by Monte Carlo simulations. We find that our model reproduces some generic features of the empirical time series obtained from the German business-climate data, in particular the occurrence of abrupt large but rare swings. In our model, such swings occur as spontaneous phase changes between macroscopic states.

  14. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  15. Induction of autophagy by dimethyl cardamonin is associated with proliferative arrest in human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Amor, Evangeline C; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Han-Cheon; Kim, Hee Ju; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone; DMC) is a naturally occurring chalcone, and it is the major compound isolated from the leaves of Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMC on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, and programmed cell death in cultures of human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cells. Results showed that DMC inhibited HCT116 and LOVO cell proliferation and induced G(2) /M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the conversion of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I-LC3-II, an autophagosome marker, and the incorporation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), a marker for the acidic compartment of autolysosomes or acidic vesicular organelles. The treatment of HCT116 and LOVO cells using a combination of DMC with an autophagy inhibitor, such as 3-methyladenine (3-MA), beclin 1 siRNA, or atg5 siRNA, suppressed the effect of DMC-mediated anti-proliferation. These results imply that DMC can suppress colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cell proliferation through a G(2) /M phase cell-cycle delay, and can induce autophagy, the hallmark of Type II programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together, our results suggest that DMC may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for HCT116 and LOVO colorectal carcinoma cells.

  16. Clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of some forms of epileptic encephalopathies in infants: The data of the authors' follow-up observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Lemeshko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study clinical symptoms and brain activity in new forms of infantile epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI and Markand-Blume-Ohtahara syndrome (MBOS and to elaborate their differential diagnostic criteria for the timely choice of treatment policy and for the prediction of the disease.Patients and methods. Thirty-eight children aged 1.5 months to 3 years with MMPSI and MBOS were examined. Their medical history and neurological examination data, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics, and the efficiency of chosen anticonvulsant therapy were investigated.Results and discussion. The investigators revealed the following characteristics of these forms: the causes of these syndromes were highly diverse and unspecific; the neurological status was characterized by a variety of symptoms with an obvious delay in psycho-prespeech development concurrent with a high rate of partial focal (in MMPSI and generalized (in MBOS status epilepticus; The EEC characteristic sign was MISF and«lafa» patterns in the children with MBOS and continuous migrating partial ictal status epilepticus patterns in those with MMPSI. These forms of epileptic encephalopathies are extremely drug-resistant and characterized by a high risk for a fatal outcome.

  17. Castanha tipo portuguesa no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Catarina Sales Bueno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Frutífera originária do Hemisfério Norte, a castanheira pertence à família das Fagaceae. O gênero Castanea apresenta sete espécies, das quais se destacam C. sativa Miller, C. crenata Siebold & Zucc., C. molissima Blume e C. dentata (Marsh. Borkh. Tais espécies receberam denominações de acordo com o local de origem e säo conhecidas, respectivamente, por castanha-portuguesa (Portugal, castanhajaponesa (Japäo e Coreia do Sul, castanha-chinesa (China e castanha-americana (América do Norte. Dada sua relevância como uma das mais importantes espécies frutícolas da antiguidade, as castanhas mantêm a tradição de consumo nas festas natalinas e, por conta de suas qualidades nutritivas e por ser um produto versátil, servem o ano todo, em alguns países, como alimento para pessoas e animais. O Núcleo de Produção de Mudas de Säo Bento do Sapucaí mantém uma coleção com algumas cultivares e seleção e, em parceria com a Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, vem estudando essa fruteira, que possui grande potencial para a fruticultura brasileira.

  18. 5种杜鹃幼苗对高温胁迫的生理生化响应及耐热性综合评价%Physiological-biochemical response of five species in Rhododendron L.to high temperature stress and comprehensive evaluation of their heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯红; 刘向平; 张乐华; 凌家慧; 李立

    2011-01-01

    Using four-year-old seedlings of five species belonging to five subgenera in Rhododendron L. as experimental materials, contents of malondialdeyde (MDA) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline (Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined and analyzed under condition of artificial simulated high temperature ( 30 t and 38 T ) , and correlation and principal component analyses of above indexes were also conducted. On this basis, comprehensive evaluation of heat tolerance of the five species was performed by subordinate function method, and comprehensive evaluation results were tested by means of the established optimum regression equation. The determination results show that compared to the control (22 t ) , contents of MDA, H2O2, Pro and activities of CAT, APX of the five species seedlings all increase with rising of stress temperature, and SOD activity appears the trend of less increasing under 30 CC condition while decreasing under 38 t condition. CAT activity has extremely significant positive correlation with contents of H2O2 and Pro and APX activity (P<0. 01 ) , and APX activity has significant positive or negative correlations respectively with Pro content and SOD activity (P<0.05 ). Six single indexes tested of allspecies are converted into three independent comprehensive indexes with an accumulative contribution rate of 87.52% by principal component analysis. According to the comprehensive evaluation value (D), heat tolerance of the five species can be divided into four classes; heat tolerance of R. mucronatum (Blume) G. Don is the strongest, that of R. moulmainense Hook. f. and R. molle (Blume) G. Don is stronger, that of R. chihsinianum Chun et Fang is weaker, and that of R. rubiginosum Franch. is the weakest. The heat tolerance of the five species can be predicted using the optimum regression equation established and the prediction value order is completely in accordance with D value

  19. Implication of PKS type I gene and chromatographic strategy for the biodiscovery of antimicrobial polyketide metabolites from endosymbiotic Nocardiopsis prasina CLA68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H. C. Yashavantha; Rakshith, Devaraju; Gurudatt, D. M.; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-06-01

    Advanced approach in probing for polyketide antimicrobials requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endophytic strain CLA68 was isolated from the root of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) collected from the Western Ghats of Southern India. Strain CLA68 was then identified as Nocardiopsis prasina by its characteristic culture morphology and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Biosynthetic polyketide synthase genes were investigated using two pairs of degenerate primers. Ethyl acetate extract of CLA68 exhibited broad spectrum activity against a panel of test human pathogens. PKS type-I gene detection and chromatographic strategy yielded a robust polyketide antimicrobial compound which identified as nocapyrone E. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the purified compound against MRSA and other human pathogens ranged between 25 and 100 μg/ml. The present work highlights the utility of N. prasina CLA68 as potential source for antimicrobial polyketide nocapyrone E which could help to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study demonstrates feasibility of PKS type-I gene-based molecular approach and chemical investigation by chromatographic approach is the best method for prediction and rapid discovery of novel polyketides from endosymbiotic actinomycetes. The sequence data of this endosymbiotic actinomycete is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KP269077.

  20. 七叶皂苷的药理作用与临床应用%Pharmacological effects of aescin and its clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 周宏灏

    2010-01-01

    娑罗子为七叶树科植物欧洲七叶树(Aesculus hippocastannum)、日本七叶树(Aesculus turbinata Blume)和中国天师栗(Aesculus Wilsonii Rehd)的果实或种子.欧洲七叶树,又名欧马栗(horse chestnut),其种子和幼枝的外皮可入药,在欧洲应用广泛,早在18世纪即用于解热,19世纪后期可用于治疗痔疮.七叶皂苷是从娑罗子(七叶树种子)中提取的主要活性成分,属于三萜皂苷类药物.它具有抗渗、消肿、改善血液循环、增加静脉张力、抑制胃排空、清除活性氧和抗肿瘤作用.临床上可广泛应用于慢性静脉功能不全,痔疮、水肿、哮喘等.本文对七叶皂苷的药理作用及其临床应用进行综述.

  1. Efficiency of vegetable extracts for the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto de Mello Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulgarly known as “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 spread itself to the majority of Brazilian states, and it became distinguished as one of the most serious pests affecting beans and maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the crude watery extracts of nine vegetable species on “vaquinha” adults. The laboratory experiment was carried out in completely randomized delineation, with ten treatments and four repetitions. For such, a bottle was used, containing five insect specimens and a common bean leaf (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previously immersed in the extract, covered with a clipping of porous cloth and fixed by a rubber band. The evaluated variable was the number of surviving D. speciosa specimens. The treatments consisted of salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, moscada nut (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbo (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and control (distilled water alone. The evaluations of survival were carried out every 24 hours over a period of 10 days. For the live specimen number, two-way analysis of variance (10 extracts x 11 times after application was used. The averages were grouped by the Duncan test on the level of 5% of probability. The most efficient extracts were timbo, moscada nut and cinamomo, with efficiency percentages varying between 80.4% and 100%.

  2. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  3. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd-Arrabe' , A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  4. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Measure and collapse of participatory democracy in a two-party system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, Jozef

    2015-10-01

    Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so (Galileo Galilei). According to the above sentence we do not ask why we need to measure democracy but if it is possible to measure something which is not unequivocally defined. Although, it is unlikely a final agreement on the definition of democracy, the idea that it is a form of governance based on collective decision making seems to be uncontested. On the premise that in the high-quality democracy citizens (agents) not only must have equal participation rights but must want to participate in shaping decision, as an effective measure of democracy in a two party political system we propose the percentage of the total population that actually voted in a given elections only for two major parties. Thus, we disregard not only nonvoters but also smaller parties voters whom votes will not have a substantial impact on the election and consequently they will not be in the loop, even theoretically. To describe such a system a sociophysics model based on the $S=1$ Ising model (Blume-Capel) is proposed. The measure of democracy, V_D index, as a function of inter-party conflict is analyzed.

  6. Speaking two languages at once: unconscious native word form access in second language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Katharina; Hoshino, Noriko; Wu, Yan Jing; Damian, Markus; Thierry, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Bilingualism research has established language non-selective lexical access in comprehension. However, the evidence for such an effect in production remains sparse and its neural time-course has not yet been investigated. We demonstrate that German-English bilinguals performing a simple picture-naming task exclusively in English spontaneously access the phonological form of -unproduced- German words. Participants were asked to produce English adjective-noun sequences describing the colour and identity of familiar objects presented as line drawings. We associated adjective and picture names such that their onsets phonologically overlapped in English (e.g., green goat), in German through translation (e.g., blue flower - 'blaue Blume'), or in neither language. As expected, phonological priming in English modulated event-related brain potentials over the frontocentral scalp region from around 440ms after picture onset. Phonological priming in German was detectable even earlier, from 300ms, even though German was never produced and in the absence of an interaction between language and phonological repetition priming at any point in time. Overall, these results establish the existence of non-selective access to phonological representations of the two languages in the domain of speech production.

  7. Enhancement of leaf gas exchange and primary metabolites under carbon dioxide enrichment up-regulates the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol⁻¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO₂ increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21544039

  8. Removal of competitive native species combined with tree planting can accelerate the initial afforestation process:an experiment in an old field in Japan invaded by dwarf bamboo and kudzu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshinori Tokuoka; Kentaro Ohigashi; Koji Watanabe; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Takahiro Ara; Nobukazu Nakagoshi

    2015-01-01

    Restoring natural forests after field abandon-ment is a land management objective that fosters the re-covery of forest biodiversity. We performed seeding and transplanting of native tree species 40 years after the abandonment of an arable field that became dominated by a dwarf bamboo (Pleioblastus chino (Franch. et Sav.) Makino) and by kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi). By permutation tests, the removal of competing vegetation (gap creation) significantly increased the survival of three seeded species of Fagaceae and of eight transplanted spe-cies. In contrast, intact vegetation prevented most indi-viduals of all species from surviving for 1 year after planting. The lack of natural recruitment of Fagaceae in the nonseeded subplots indicated that seed limitation was a cause of the slow afforestation. Although litter accumula-tion in gaps at the time of seeding slightly increased sur-vival for late-germinating Quercus myrsinifolia Blume and Castanopsis sieboldii (Makino) Hatus. ex T. Yamaz. et Mashiba, the effect was not consistent among plots and was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that for successful afforestation using native trees in abandoned fields, it will be necessary to remove competitive native species to avoid severe limitations on microsite availability and that simultaneous tree establishment by seeding or transplanting should be implemented to accelerate the establishment of native tree species.

  9. Transfer-matrix study of a hard-square lattice gas with two kinds of particles and density anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago J; Stilck, Jürgen F

    2015-09-01

    Using transfer matrix and finite-size scaling methods, we study the thermodynamic behavior of a lattice gas with two kinds of particles on the square lattice. Only excluded volume interactions are considered, so that the model is athermal. Large particles exclude the site they occupy and its four first neighbors, while small particles exclude only their site. Two thermodynamic phases are found: a disordered phase where large particles occupy both sublattices with the same probability and an ordered phase where one of the two sublattices is preferentially occupied by them. The transition between these phases is continuous at small concentrations of the small particles and discontinuous at larger concentrations, both transitions are separated by a tricritical point. Estimates of the central charge suggest that the critical line is in the Ising universality class, while the tricritical point has tricritical Ising (Blume-Emery-Griffiths) exponents. The isobaric curves of the total density as functions of the fugacity of small or large particles display a minimum in the disordered phase.

  10. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  11. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule. PMID:26749846

  12. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  13. Magnetic properties of a spin-1 triangular Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied some magnetic behaviors of the Blume-Capel (BC) model in a site diluted triangular lattice by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the exchange interaction (J), crystal field (D), concentration (p) and temperature (T) on the magnetic properties of the spin-1 BC model in a triangular lattice, such as magnetization, susceptibility, phase diagram and hysteresis behaviors, are investigated in detail. The phase diagrams of the system are presented in two different planes. The tricritical point as well as the tetracritical and critical end special points are found to depend on the physical parameters of the system. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the physical parameters. We show that the hysteresis loops have different coercive field points in which the susceptibility makes a peak at these points. - Highlights: • The triangular Ising system is investigated within EFT with correlations. • The effects of the interaction parameters on spin-1 BC model are studied. • The phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined. • The system shows the tricritical, tetracritical and critical end special points

  14. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. PMID:8771452

  15. Pondberry (Lindera   melissifolia, Lauraceae seed and seedling dispersers and predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza M. Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia(Walter Blume is an endangered dioecious, clonal shrub that grows in periodically flooded forests of the southeastern United States. The probability of survival of dispersed pondberry seeds and new germinants is unknown, but few seedlings are noted in the forest. This study was undertaken to: (1 identify herbivores and predators of pondberry seeds and seedlings, (2 record the fate of pondberry seeds and seedlings after simulated dispersal in areas with lower and higher understory cover, and (3 calculate the probability of seed survival in the two cover types. The study was conducted in or near the Delta National Forest and the Delta Experimental Forest, MS. Pondberry seed and seedling plots were established at sites with high or low cover. Video cameras with infrared illumination were set up to monitor animal visitors to the plots. Image analysis indicated that swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman and wood rats (Neotoma floridana Ord cut or ate seedlings, while other animals visited the plots without damaging seedlings. Numerous bird species and mammals visited the seed plots and some were filmed eating seeds. Pondberry seeds exposed in open habitats had a significantly higher survival rate than those exposed in habitats with more herbaceous and woody understory cover. The novelty and quality of the temporal data collected via video monitoring indicate the importance of this method in collecting data that are not otherwise available on endangered and rare species.

  16. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections.

  17. Effect of water extracts from edible Myrtaceae plants on uptake of 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose in TNF-α-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the glucose uptake activity of the water extracts from the leaves and fruit of edible Myrtaceae plants, including guava (Psidium guajava Linn.), wax apples [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and L.M. Perry], Pu-Tau [Syzygium jambo (L.) Alston], and Kan-Shi Pu-Tau (Syzygium cumini Linn.) in FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The fluorescent dye 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose was used to estimate the uptake ability of the cells. Glucose uptake test showed that pink wax apple fruit extract (PWFE) exhibits the highest glucose uptake activity, at an increment of 21% in the insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes as compared with the TNF-α-treated control group. Vescalagin was isolated using column chromatography of PWFE. This compound, at the concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, exhibits the same glucose uptake improvement in insulin-resistant cells as PWFE at a 100-µg/mL dose. We postulate that vescalagin is an active component in PWFE that may alleviate the insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes. PMID:22532499

  18. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  19. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  20. Masjid Besar Kauman Semarang : Sebuah Kajian Gaya Arsitektur dan Ornamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sidiq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Masjid Besar Kauman Semarang which is simply called as Masjid Besar Kauman is an ancient mosque in Central Java which has various characteristics: Javanese,Persian  and Arabian.Considering the model of the roof, the  mosque exposesits Javanese characteristics; even its triple overlapping roof  with the mustaka on the top reminds us to the Masjid Agung Demak. On the  other hand, looking at its gate the mosque belongs to Persian and Arabian  characteristics.  The mosque which was founded by Kyai Adipati Surodimenggolo II is a series of historical development of the mosque in Semarang.  In a short time, unfortunately, the mosque was on fire. In  23 April 1889 the mosque was rebuilt by G.I. Blume and Raden Tumenggung Cokrodipuro and by 23 November 1890 the rebuilding of the mosque completely finished. Suchinformation can be seen in the inscription on the sculpture at the mosque gate.

  1. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  2. Adapting the South Oaks Gambling Screen for use in the Slovenian cultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Cvenkelj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur in Blume, 1987 is the most frequently used for screening of pathological gambling. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the SOGS for application in the Slovenian cultural environment and to assess its metric characteristics.The study involved 121 subjects, 21 of which were diagnosed as pathological gamblers. Comparison group was composed of 100 subjects. Factor analysis resulted in a one-dimensional solution accounting for 66% of the total variance. Statistically significant differences in the scores show that the SOGS is able to discriminate between the comparison group and pathological gamblers. Item analysis shows that all of them appropriately discriminate between pathological gamblers and comparison group. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale was .971. The criterion validity of the Slovenian version of the SOGS was investigated by cross-comparing the patients' actual diagnoses of pathological gambling with the same diagnoses based on the SOGS scores. The score of 5 points was used as a cut-off point, since it discriminates the most. There was a perfect agreement between diagnoses of pathological gambling and diagnoses based on the SOGS scores.

  3. The Yang-Lee edge singularity in spin models on connected and non-connected rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renormalization group arguments based on a iψ3 field theory lead us to expect a certain universal behavior for the density of partition function zeros in spin models with short-range interaction. Such universality has been tested analytically and numerically in different d = 1 and higher dimensional spin models. In d = 1, one finds usually the critical exponent σ = -1/2. Recently, we have shown in the d = 1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model on a periodic static lattice (one ring) that a new critical behavior with σ = -2/3 can arise if we have a triple degeneracy of the transfer matrix eigenvalues. Here we define the d = 1 BEG model on a dynamic lattice consisting of connected and non-connected rings (non-periodic lattice) and check numerically that also in this case we have mostly σ = -1/2 while the new value σ = -2/3 can arise under the same conditions of the static lattice (triple degeneracy) which is a strong check of universality of the new value of σ. We also show that although such conditions are necessary, they are not sufficient to guarantee the new critical behavior

  4. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures. PMID:27153217

  5. Apparatus to image ultra-cold impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, Andrew; Anderson, David; Sapiro, Rachel; Miller, Stephanie; Raithel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    We present an experimental apparatus with enhanced ion imaging capabilities relative to our previously used set-ups. The apparatus will be employed to study interactions between ultra-cold impurities and Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). Atoms will first be loaded into a primary Magneto-optical trap (MOT), which loads a secondary MOT, and then into a quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration (QUIC) trap, where a BEC is formed. Free ultra-cold ions will be made by photoionizing a few atoms. Stray electric fields are canceled by an electrode package surrounding the BEC-ion interaction region. The electric field of a sharp needle (tip diameter 125 microns) is used to generate highly magnified ion images. In our poster, we will discuss expected phenomena, which include quantum charge diffusion [R. Cote, E. Bodo, P. Zhang, and A. Dalgarno], mesoscopic molecular ion formation [R. Cote, V. Kharchenko, and M.D. Lukin, Massignan, C.J. Pethick, and H. Smith], ion self-trapping [R.M. Kalas and D. Blume], and ultra-cold plasma expansion (in the classical domain). We will show details of the experimental apparatus, which is in its final assembly stage.

  6. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term. PMID:22619927

  8. Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments: Opportunities and Challenges for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Olive

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New networking and social interaction technologies offer new media for learning and teaching both inside and outside the classroom. How and what kind of learning may take place in these new media is the main focus of this paper. An integrative theoretical framework for investigating these questions is posed based on the Didactic Tetrahedron (Olive and Makar, 2009. This didactic tetrahedron proposes that the student, supported by the teacher, task and technology form a space within which new mathematical knowledge may emerge. Examples of these new media are presented, including single player and multi-player web-based gaming environments; dynamic, web-based, interactive data visualization tools; dynamic computer-based tools for developing number and early algebra concepts; multi-touch apps for the iPad and iPhone; a web-based tutorial that raises a red flag for how mathematically flawed and cognitively dangerous some of this new media can be; and a research-based manipulative for developing children’s fractional knowledge that offers researchers the “possibility to make visible, the thinking of the user.” (Zbeik, Heid, Blume and Dick, 2007

  9. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  10. Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI AYU LESTARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lestari DA, Santoso W (2011 Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 12: 28-33. Orchid is one of the ornamental plants which have been high commercial value. Therefore, orchid often has been over exploitation. Finally, some of orchid species are becoming threatened or even endangered. Purwodadi Botanical Garden as an institute of ex-situ conservation play role with it. The aim of this research is to inventory orchid’s species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi by explorative method. Observation for habitat study was focused on some ecological factors supported to orchids growth like host tree, zone growth on host tree, abundance of sunlight, thickness of substrate (moss, orchid species and number of invidual species. The result showed that there were 27 orchids species, consist of, 25 species (16 genera epiphytic orchid and 2 species terrestrial orchid such as Eulophia keitii var. celebica and Goodyera rubicunda (Blume Lindl. The host preference for the epiphytic orchid are the group of Myrtaceae family like Syzygium sp., Metrosideros vera Niederen and Metrosideros sp. They mostly grow on the main stem of the tree zone 1 on thick substrate (moss and get a little abundance of sunlight (calm.

  11. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed. PMID:22416873

  12. Magnetic properties of a spin-1 triangular Ising system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin, E-mail: ersinkantar@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    We studied some magnetic behaviors of the Blume-Capel (BC) model in a site diluted triangular lattice by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the exchange interaction (J), crystal field (D), concentration (p) and temperature (T) on the magnetic properties of the spin-1 BC model in a triangular lattice, such as magnetization, susceptibility, phase diagram and hysteresis behaviors, are investigated in detail. The phase diagrams of the system are presented in two different planes. The tricritical point as well as the tetracritical and critical end special points are found to depend on the physical parameters of the system. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the physical parameters. We show that the hysteresis loops have different coercive field points in which the susceptibility makes a peak at these points. - Highlights: • The triangular Ising system is investigated within EFT with correlations. • The effects of the interaction parameters on spin-1 BC model are studied. • The phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined. • The system shows the tricritical, tetracritical and critical end special points.

  13. Antiulcerogenic activity of the extracts of Struthanthus marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. de F. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastroprotective action of the aqueous extract (AE and the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Struthanthus marginatus (Desr. Blume, Loranthaceae, were performed with in vivo models in rodents using: ethanol, indomethacin or stress-induced ulcers, determination of gastric secretion and the mucus production. The scavenger activity of AE in vitro was tested by the DPPH method. The treatment with the extracts (125-1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated and demonstrated greater effectiveness of the aqueous extract. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in the gastric pH. The treatment of rats raised the gastric mucus production. Significant DPPH scavenging activity was evident in the AE. No sign of toxicity was observed. These results show that S. marginatus possesses gastroprotective activity. There are indications that the mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in acid secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence for the involvement of antioxidant activity in the gastroprotective mechanism.

  14. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures.

  15. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  16. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb., Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland, respectively. This was done in order to obtain information about functional acclimation, tree internal N conservation and its relevance for both ecosystem internal N cycling and foliar N exchange with the atmosphere. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal variability in beech trees than in the coniferous canopies. The concentrations of N and chlorophyll in the beech leaves were synchronized with the seasonal course of solar radiation implying close physiological acclimation, which was not observed in the coniferous needles. During phases of intensive N metabolism in the beech leaves, the NH4+ concentration rose considerably. This was compensated for by a strong pH decrease resulting in relatively low Γ values (ratio between tissue NH4+ and H+). The Γ values in the coniferous were even smaller than in beech, indicating low probability of NH3 emissions from the foliage to the atmosphere as an N conserving mechanism. The reduction in foliage N content during senescence was interpreted as N re-translocation from the senescing leaves into the rest of the trees. The N re-translocation efficiency (ηr) ranged from 37 to 70% and decreased with the time necessary for full renewal of the canopy foliage. Comparison with literature data from in total 23 tree species showed a general tendency for ηr to on average be reduced by 8% per year the canopy stays longer, i.e. with each additional year it takes for canopy renewal. The boreal pine site returned the lowest amount of N via foliage litter to the soil, while the temperate Douglas fir stand which had the largest peak canopy N content and the lowestηr returned the highest amount of N to the soil. These results

  17. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-02-23

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  18. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  19. Biophysical controls of carbon flows in three successional Douglas-fir stands based on eddy-covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiquan; Falk, Matthias; Euskirchen, Eugénie; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Suchanek, Thomas H; Ustin, Susan L; Bond, Barbara J; Brosofske, Kimberley D; Phillips, Nathan; Bi, Runcheng

    2002-02-01

    We measured net carbon flux (F(CO2)) and net H2O flux (F(H2O)) by the eddy-covariance method at three Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) sites located in the Wind River Valley of southern Washington State, USA. Stands were approximately 20, 40 and 450 years old and measurements were made between June 15 and October 15 of 1998 in the 40- and 450-year-old stands, and of 1999 in the 20- and 450-year-old stands. Our objectives were to determine if there were differences among the stands in: (1) patterns of daytime F(CO2) during summer and early autumn; (2) empirically modeled relationships between local climatic factors (e.g., light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water content, temperature and net radiation) and daytime F(CO2); and (3) water-use efficiency (WUE). We used the Landsberg equation, a logarithmic power function and linear regression to model relationships between F(CO2) and physical variables. Overall, given the same irradiance, F(CO2) was 1.0-3.9 mol m-2 s-1 higher (P < 0.0001 for both seasons) at the two young stands than at the old-growth stand. During summer and early autumn, F(CO2) averaged 4.2 and 6.1 mol m-2 s-1 at the 20- and 40-year-old stand, respectively. In contrast, the 450-year-old forest averaged 2.2 and 3.2 mol m-2 s-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Increases in VPD were associated with reduced F(CO2) at all three stands, with the greatest apparent constraints occurring at the old-growth stand. Correlations between F(CO2) and all other environmental variables differed among ecosystems, with soil temperature showing a negative correlation and net radiation showing a positive correlation. In the old-growth stand, WUE was significantly greater (P < 0.0001) in the drier summer of 1998 (2.7 mg g-1) than in 1999 (1.0 mg g-1). Although we did not use replicates in our study, the results indicate that there are large differences in F(CO2) among Douglas-fir stands of different

  20. Banco de sementes como indicador de restauração de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG Seed bank as indicator of restoration of a kaolin mining - degraded area in Brás Pires, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o banco de sementes sob vegetação secundária em uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de solo de 0,5 x 0,5 m até a profundidade de 5,0 cm. As amostras foram mantidas em viveiro por quatro meses, sendo metade em sombreamento de 11,5% (luz e metade em sombreamento de 60% (sombra. A germinação das sementes foi comparada nas duas condições de sombra (11,5% e 60%, utilizando-se o teste t para amostras independentes. Foram amostradas 36 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias com maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae, com nove espécies, Rubiaceae com cinco e Poaceae com quatro. A maioria das espécies (66,7% e dos indivíduos (82,2% amostrados no banco foi de herbácea. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos germinados do banco foram as herbáceas Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D. Webster, Cenchrus sp. e Eragrostis sp. e a arbustiva Leandra niangaeformis Cogn. Entre as arbóreas, destacaram-se em número de indivíduos Luehea grandiflora Mart. e Trema micranta (L. Blume. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas oriundas de áreas antropizadas do entorno indicou baixa resiliência da vegetação presente na área degradada em caso de ocorrer alguma perturbação severa.This study aimed to characterize the soil seed bank under secondary vegetation in an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, Brazil. Forty soil samples of 0.5 x 0.5 m were collected to the depth of 5.0 cm. The soil samples were maintained in nursery for four months, half in shading of 11.5% (light, and half in shading of 60% (shade. Seed germination was compared under the two shade conditions (11.5% and 60%, utilizing the t test for independent samples. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 botanical families were sampled. The families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae with 9, Rubiaceae with 5, and Poaceae with 4. Most of the

  1. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  2. Ação antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil Antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes são compostos que atuam inibindo e/ou diminuindo os efeitos desencadeados pelos radicais livres e compostos oxidantes. Os chás são bebidas populares e fontes significativas de compostos fenólicos, sendo considerados importantes integrantes das dietas devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antioxidante de uma variedade de chás e condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil. Os chás analisados foram das plantas: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia sinensis (L O. Kuntze (fermentado, Camelia sinensis (não-fermentado, Lippia alba N.E. Brown,Mentha arvensis L., e Pyrus malus L. Os condimentos analisados foram: Eugenia aromatica Baill, Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume, Laurus nobilis L. e Origanum vulgare L. O método utilizado para avaliar a ação antioxidante foi o da atividade seqüestradora de radicais livres DPPH em solução metanólica. Todas as amostras analisadas demonstraram atividade em suas diferentes concentrações. Camelia sinensis (não-fermentada foi a mais ativa com CI50= 0,14 mg/mL, cujos principais compostos antioxidantes são epigalocatequinas. Os condimentos mais ativos foram Cinnamonum zeylanicum (CI50 = 0,37 mg/mL, Eugenia aromatica Baill (CI50 = 0,46 mg/mL e Laurus nobilis (CI50 = 0,76 mg/mL, cujo principal antioxidante relatado foi o eugenol.Antioxidants are compounds that remove free-radicals or minimize their availability to generate oxidative stress. Teas are popular beverages providing a significant source of phenolic compounds, important components of the human diet due to their antioxidant properties. The present work had the objective of evaluate the antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil. The analysed teas were from the plants: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia

  3. 暖温带-亚热带过渡区鸡公山落叶栎林和松栎混交林土壤有机碳空间分布特征%Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon in oak and pine-oak mixed forests in Jigong Mountain in temperate-subtropical ecotone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学顺; 王兵; 冯万富; 戴慧堂; 刘国顺; 单燕祥; 厉相卿; 董卉卉

    2013-01-01

    Jigong Mountain, Henan Province in central China, is located in temperate-subtropical ecotone, with deciduous oak (Quercus variabilis Blume. and Q. acutissima Carr.) mixed stands and pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb) and oak mixed stands as dominated forest vegetation. The spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) in two typical forests were investigated. The results showed that there was a significant increase in both SOC concentration and SOC density in the two types of forests with increasing altitude(p<0.05). At the altitudes of 200 and 400 m, SOC density in pine-oak mixed stands was higher than that in the oak mixed stands. At the altitude of 600 m, however, the oak mixed stands displayed higher SOC density than the pine-oak mixed stand did. The SOC concentration and SOC density decreased with the increase of the soil depth in the two types of stands, with a SOC density of 77% to 93% in 0-20 cm soil to the total profile. These results suggested there was a distinct variation in SOC concentration and density with soil depths, forest types and altitudes, implying that tree species and forest types should be taken into account when carbon-sink forests were managed in this area.%河南省鸡公山位于暖温带-亚热带过渡区,落叶栎类栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis Blume.)和麻栎(Q.acutissima Carr.)混交林和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb)栎类混交林是该区域的2种典型林分类型.分别在海拔200、400和600 m的落叶栎林和松栎混交林中设置样地,比较土壤有机碳(SOC)含量和碳密度的变化.结果表明,随着海拔升高,2种类型林分的土壤有机碳含量和密度显著增加(P<0.05);在200和400m海拔高度上,松栎混交林分土壤有机碳密度高于落叶栎林.在600 m海拔高度上,落叶栎林土壤有机碳密度高于松栎混交林.对于各个海拔高度林分来说,土壤有机碳含量和密度随着土壤深度增加而降低,0~ 20 cm土层有机碳密度对剖

  4. Classification of Ecological Twin Species and Plant Functional Type for Natural Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Middle Part of Qinling Mountains%秦岭中段天然油松林生态种对和功能群划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺雨阳; 王得祥; 雷瑞德; 雍小华

    2009-01-01

    利用20个野外调查的样地资料,分析了油松天然林主要种群种间联结及其生态位重叠特征,结果表明,秦岭中段油松天然林生态种对有8个:山杨-栓皮栎、秦岭木姜子-黄连木、光皮桦-青杄、色木槭-刺叶栎、色木槭-铁杉、盐肤木-槲栎、梾木-少脉椴、桦叶四蕊槭-青榨槭.在此基础上,利用聚类分析结果结合种群的生态位特征,将该区油松天然林划分为4个生态种组,其中油松独立成为了生态关键种的种组.结合生态种对,把第4个生态种组近一步划分为4个功能群:"广泛伴生种"、"嗜热物种"、"嗜湿物种"和"潜在建群种",各功能群都具有明显的生态过程(主要是物理过程和生物过程),能帮助解释物种对生态系统过程影响的机理.生态种对和生态种组两者结合分析植物功能群得出的结果合理,功能群之间的界定也比较清晰,符合各种群的生物学等的特征.%The interspecific association of main populations of natural Pinus tabulaeformis forests in the middle part of Qinling Mountains and the characteristics of niche overlap were analysed base on field investigation. Results show that there are eight preliminary ecological twin species, namely Populus davidiana Dode-Quercus variabilis Blume, Litsea tsinlingensis Yang et P. H. Huang-Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Betula luminifera-Picea wilsonii Mast, Acer mono Maxim-Quercus spinosa David, Acer mono Meaim-Tsuga chinensis ( Franch. ) Pritz, Rhus chinensis WXL-Quercus aliena Blume, Swida macrophylla ( Wall. ) Sojak-Tilia amurensis, and Acer tetramerum Pax var. betulifolium ( Maxim. ) Rehd-Acer davidii Franch. Natural P. tabulaeformis forests in this area are classified into four ecological species groups according to the cluster analysis re-sults , in which Chinese pine become an independent species group of the ecological keystone species. The fourth ecological species group is divided into four plant functional types, all that

  5. Intravenous administration of achyranthes bidentata polypeptides supports recovery from experimental ischemic stroke in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achyranthes bidentata Blume (A. bidentata is a commonly prescribed Chinese medicinal herb. A. bidentata polypeptides (ABPP is an active composite constituent, separated from the aqueous extract of A. bidentata. Our previous studies have found that ABPP have the neuroprotective function in vitro and in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model in attenuating the brain infract area induced by focal ischemia-reperfusion. However, the ultimate goal of the stroke treatment is the restoration of behavioral function. Identifying behavioral deficits and therapeutic treatments in animal models of ischemic stroke is essential for potential translational applications. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of ABPP on motor, sensory, and cognitive function in an ischemic stroke model with MCAO was investigated up to day 30. The function recovery monitored by the neurological deficit score, grip test, body asymmetry, beam-balancing task, and the Morris Water Maze. In this study, systemic administration of ABPP by i.v after MCAO decreased the neurological deficit score, ameliorated the forepaw muscle strength, and diminished the motor and sensory asymmetry on 7(th and 30(th day after MCAO. MCAO has been observed to cause prolonged disturbance of spatial learning and memory in rats using the MWM, and ABPP treatment could improve the spatial learning and memory function, which is impaired by MCAO in rats, on 30(th day after MCAO. Then, the viable cells in CA1 region of hippocampus were counted by Nissl staining, and the neuronal cell death were significantly suppressed in the ABPP treated group. CONCLUSION: ABPP could improve the recovery of sensory, motor and coordination, and cognitive function in MCAO-induced ischemic rats. And this recovery had a good correlation to the less of neuronal injury in brain.

  6. Utilization of biodegradable polymeric materials as delivery agents in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rancan F

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiorenza Rancan, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Annika VogtClinical Research Center for Hair and Skin Science, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, GermanyAbstract: Biodegradable polymeric materials are ideal carrier systems for biomedical applications. Features like controlled and sustained delivery, improved drug pharmacokinetics, reduced side effects and safe degradation make the use of these materials very attractive in a lot of medical fields, with dermatology included. A number of studies have shown that particle-based formulations can improve the skin penetration of topically applied drugs. However, for a successful translation of these promising results into a clinical application, a more rational approach is needed to take into account the different properties of diseased skin and the fate of these polymeric materials after topical application. In fact, each pathological skin condition poses different challenges and the way diseased skin interacts with polymeric carriers might be markedly different to that of healthy skin. In most inflammatory skin conditions, the skin's barrier is impaired and the local immune system is activated. A better understanding of such mechanisms has the potential to improve the efficacy of carrier-based dermatotherapy. Such knowledge would allow the informed choice of the type of polymeric carrier depending on the skin condition to be treated, the type of drug to be loaded, and the desired release kinetics. Furthermore, a better control of polymer degradation and release properties in accordance with the skin environment would improve the safety and the selectivity of drug release. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on how polymeric delivery systems interact with healthy and diseased skin, giving an overview of the challenges that different pathological skin conditions pose to the development of safer and more specific dermatotherapies

  7. The effects of the Rulison event on buildings and other surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project RULISON is a joint experiment sponsored, by Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, Texas, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of the Interior, with the Program Management provided by CER Geonuclear Corporation of Las Vegas, Nevada under contract to Austral. Its purpose is to study the economic and technical feasibility of using underground nuclear explosions to stimulate production of natural gas from the low productivity, gas bearing Mesaverde formation in the RULISON Field. The nuclear explosive for Project RULISON was detonated successfully at 3:00 p.m. plus 0.1 seconds Mountain Daylight Time, September 10, 1969, at a depth of 8425.5 feet below ground level and was completely contained. Preliminary results indicate that the RULISON device behaved about as expected; i.e., with a yield of about 40 kt. The wellhead of the emplacement well, Hayward 25-95A, is at an elevation of 8154 feet above mean sea level (MSL) and is located 1976.31 feet east of west line and 1813.19 feet north of south line of Section 25, Township 7 South, Range 95 west of 6th P.M., Garfield County, Colorado which corresponds to geodetic coordinates of longitude 107 deg. 56'53'' west and latitude 39 deg. 24'21'' north. John A. Blume and Associates Research Division, under contract with the Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, has been assigned responsibility for structural inventories in the range of probable damage, structural response and damage predictions, surface earth structure hazard evaluations, and recommendations for safety measures in these particular aspects. The predictions were based on field data, office studies, ground motion predictions from the Environmental Research Corporation (ERC), and pertinent published information. This paper is essentially an interim report of currently available data. Studies are continuing to further develop the relationship of ground motion, structural properties, and damage. (author)

  8. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells

  9. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  10. 植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、性别分化和结蓬的影响%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth,Sex Differentiation and Fructification of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕守芳; 闫爱玲; 王贵禧

    2003-01-01

    @@ 板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)原产我国,是重要的经济林树种.板栗普遍雄花多、雌花少,雌雄花比例常为1∶2 000~4 000,这是造成产量低的主要原因[1],因此,促进雌花分化,减少雄花数量对提高板栗产量具有重要意义.板栗花芽分化的特点与苹果(Malus spp.)、梨(Pyrus spp.)不同,板栗在芽内只进行雄花序原基的分化,而雌花簇和所有花器官分化形成都是在芽外完成的.李中涛等[2]认为在母枝大芽内形成雏梢(即是来年新梢),并分化形成全部雄花序原基,而其上的两性花序要在来年春季发芽后形成.板栗混合花芽的分化具有可塑性,易受外源激素和外界条件等的影响[3].板栗花芽分化的这种特异性和可塑性吸引着研究者不断地探索,本文探讨了5种植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、花芽性别分化和结实的影响,目的在于增加雌花、减少雄花和提高板栗的产量.

  11. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  12. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol−1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha−1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

  13. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of Aspidistra elatior Bulme Lectin%蜘蛛抱蛋凝集素(Aspidistra elatior Bulme Lectin)的基因克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小超; 刘超; 鲍锦库

    2011-01-01

    The cDNA sequence of a mannose-binding lectin (AEL) of Aspidistra elatior Blume was cloned by the degenerate primers through RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends) technology.The full-length cDNA was 1149 bp, and has a 930 bp open reading frame encoding a protein precursor with 309 amino acids.The protein precursor was processed to two subunits (AEL-DOM1, AEL- DOM2)with molecular weight 12.31 and 12.26 kD, respectively.There are two typical mannose-binding sites (QDNY) located in AEL-DOM1, and only one mannose-binding site located in AEL- DOM2.%运用同源克隆的方法设计简并引物,通过3'和5'RACE技术,从蜘蛛抱蛋(Aspidistra elatior Bulme)中克隆了编码甘露糖结合集素(Aspidistra elatior Bulme Lectin,AEL)的全长cDNA序列.其cDNA全长为1149 bp,包含930 bp的开放阅读框,编码309个氨基酸的前体蛋白.前体蛋白经翻译后剪切成分子量分别为12.31 kD和12.26 kD两个成熟蛋白亚基(AEL-DOM1,AEL-DOM2).AEL-DOM1和AEL-DOM2分别具有两个和一个典型的甘露糖专一结合位点(QDNY).

  14. Phenoseasonal variability of subcanopy PAR and the effects of photointensity and photoperiod on the physiological ecology of Lindera benzoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. E.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Hudson, S.; Bais, H.; Legates, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    This work represents a novel approach to measuring photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and spatiotemporal light dynamics, by utilizing an instrument capable of providing a 15-second spatially-integrated one meter linear average of the PPFD, obtaining measurements at multiple locations and elevations in the subcanopy over a full year for all cloud conditions. Nearly 4,600 individual observations of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) were made over the seven phenoseasons of a deciduous forest in the Piedmont Region, Maryland. Additionally, to quantify of the effect of various photointensities on the physiological ecology of Lindera benzoin L. Blume (northern spicebush) grown in the lab, health was determined by monitoring physical growth and biomass, and by UV-vis spectrophotometry analysis of leaf extract. Results show understory PAR is typically less than 40% of open PAR. Leafless subcanopy PAR values were almost 10 times higher than leafed season PAR, and sunflecks often three orders of magnitude higher than mean subcanopy PAR during the leafed season. Phenoseason is responsible for nearly three-quarters of the variation between plant canopy levels. Spicebush growth occurred at study locations receiving higher incidence of PAR (> 64th percentile). UV-vis spectrophotometry analysis showed significant differences in root to shoot ratios, biomass, initial stomatal conductance, chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids. Spicebush under lab conditions significantly alter their biomass and individual pigments and pigment ratios in response to high intensity light conditions. Results suggest temporal light sequences in the field may be a very important factor in the functional ecology of northern spicebush.

  15. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry. PMID:25835570

  16. The Technology of Afforestation by Conservation-base in the Rocky Mountain Area of Beijing%北京土石山区保育基盘法植苗造林技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解建强; 魏天兴; 朱金兆

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the low survival rate and slow growth in the rocky mountain areas of Beijing, an afforestation technology by conservation-base was used to improve the local environment of plant growth in the Experimental Forest Farm of Beijing Forestry University. The conservation-base that was made by mixing soil, peat, perlite and fertilizer in the volume ratio of 5 : 3 : 1 : 1 to investigate the impact on the survival rate and growth. Results showed that, the survival rate, seedling height and growth rate in basal diameter increased significantly with the base. Platycladus orientalis and Pinns tabulaeformis had the highest survival rate, Acer truncation followed, and Quercus variabilis blume the lowest.%试验采用局部改善植物生长环境的保育基盘法植苗造林技术,对试验地土壤养分特征进行统计分析,确定客土、草炭、珍珠岩和肥料的混合比例(体积比)为5∶3∶1∶1,并探讨保育基盘法植苗造林对苗木成活率、生长的影响.结果表明:有基盘苗木的成活率、苗高和基径生长量较无基盘苗木有显著提高;树种选择的试验结果表明,侧柏、油松的成活率最高,元宝枫次之,栓皮栎成活率最低.

  17. RAPD Analysis of Germplasm Resources of Kudingcha Species in Oleaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dao-jun; LIANG Yuan-fa; LIU Gou-min; YAN Dong-hai; LINGHU Chang-di; TIAN Yong-hui

    2009-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) was applied to detect the genetic relationships and diversity among 21 germplasm materials of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae, which involved 8 species, i.e., Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume, L. henryi Hemsl., L. japonicum Thunb, L. japonicum Thunb. vat. pubscens Koidz, L. luciduM Ait., L. pedunculare Rehd, Osmanthus masumuranus Hayata, and L. delavayanm Hariot. 20 RAPD primers selected were applied for the amplification on the 21 germplasm materials mentioned above. 427 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 97.7%. The genetic similarity coefficients (GS) ranged from 0.1522 to 0.8322 with an average of 0.5466. There was a significant genetic difference among germplasm materials of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae, and UPGMA cluster based on the GS of RAPD could distinguish all test germplasm materials clearly and indicated the relationship of the 8 species mentioned above, all of which indicated that RAPD markers could be used for the studies of genetic diversity and relationship and classification of germplasm resources of Kudingcha species in Oleaceae. Analysis results of RAPD showed that L. japonicum Thunb. var. pubscens Koidz has closer genetic relationship with L. pedunculare Rehd and further genetic relationship with L. japonicum Thunb. among all tested species. The authors suggest that further research is needed to study whether L. japonicum Thunb. var. pubscens Koidz should be classified into a variata of L. japonicum Thunb, or should be considered as an independent species. The analysis results supported that L. pururascens Y. C. Yang should be combined into L. robustum (Roxb.) Biume.

  18. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activities of some Iranian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Kazemi, Abdolhasan

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains. In addition, the in vivo therapeutic effects of Myrtus communis L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume extracts (the most active extracts) on dermatophytosis induced by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes in guinea pigs were evaluated. Results of in vitro antifungal assay revealed that all the tested extracts demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with the geometric mean (GM) MIC ranging from 0.058 to 3.73 mg/ml and GM (MFC) ranging from 0.058 to 7.46 mg/ml, respectively. Two extracts (M. communis and C. zeylanicum) significantly inhibited the growth of all the tested dermatophytes, while other extracts demonstrated weak (MICs of >0.625 mg/ml) to moderate (MICs ranging from 100 to 0.625 mg/ml) activities. In vivo antidermatophytic assay demonstrated that clotrimazole cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 21 and 17, respectively, whereas M. communis and C. zeylanicum extracts significantly (p < 0.05) cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 9 and 13 as well as 9, 11, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in M. communis and alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. zeylanicum. Findings of the present study also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the

  20. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  1. 甘肃省康县药用资源及评价体系初探%Medicinal Resources from Kangxian County of Gansu Province and Its Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富贵; 孙丽娟; 杜申喜; 梁金磊

    2012-01-01

    通过野外调查,民间走访和查阅相关资源等调查方式,全面系统地整理康县药用资源(包括药用植物、动物以及矿物),发现康县境内有各类药用资源600 余种.野生天麻、猪苓、紫草等35种野生药用植物为急需保护的物种,钩藤、祖师麻、菟丝子等124种野生药用资源为需要保护的物种.并且初步建立了蕴藏系数、保护缓急程度等5 项指标为定量评价珍稀药材的指标体系.%Medicinal resources from Kangxian County (including medicinal plants, animals and minerals) are fully collected through field investigation, folk interview and consulting related literature. It is found that there are more than 600 kinds of medicinal resources in Kangxian County. 35 kinds of wild medicinal plants such as wild TianMa (Gastrodia elata Blume), ZhuLing (polyporus), ZtCao(Lithospermum erythrorhizon) are the species in the need of urgent protection, 124 kinds including GouTeng (Uncaria rhynchophylla), ZuShiMa (Daphne giraldii Nitsche), 7uStZt(Semen Cuscutae.) are the species required protection. An evaluation system for endangered and precious medicinal materials, which contain 5 indices such as storage index and protection urgency degree, is set up primarily.

  2. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations.

  3. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  5. Gastrodin suppresses BACE1 expression under oxidative stress condition via inhibition of the PKR/eIF2α pathway in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-S; Zhou, S-F; Wang, Q; Guo, J-N; Liang, H-M; Deng, J-B; He, W-Y

    2016-06-14

    The expression of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is increased in the brain of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oxidative stress may be the potential cause of this event. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin (Gas), a main component of a Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been demonstrated to display antioxidant activity and suppresses BACE1 expression. However, the mechanisms by which Gas suppresses BACE1 expression are not clear. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the effect of Gas treatment on memory impairments in Tg2576 mice. The level of oxidative stress in the brain of Tg2576 mice was determined by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS. In vivo and in vitro, we detected the expression levels of BACE1, pPKRThr446, PKR, pPERKThr981, PERK, peIF2αSer51, and eIF2α using western blot analysis. We found that Gas improved learning and memory abilities of Tg2576 transgenic mice and attenuated intracellular oxidative stress in hippocampi of Tg2576 mice. We discovered that the expression levels of BACE1, activated PKR (pPKRThr446) and activated eIF2α (peIF2αSer51) were elevated in the brains of Tg2576 mice and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, peptide PKR inhibitor (PRI) and Gas down-regulated BACE1 expression in Tg2576 mice and H2O2-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting activation of PKR and eIF2α. Gas alleviates memory deficits in mice and suppresses BACE1 expression by inhibiting the protein kinase/Eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (PKR/eIF2α) pathway. The research suggested that Gas may develop as an drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26987953

  6. Study of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Indicator Species of District Bannu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ullah khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess record and report the chemical constituents and ethnobotanical knowledge of indicator species of District Bannu. Medicinal outlines of about 57 plants were recorded through interview local people i.e. farmers, herbalists, hakims and Medicinal plants user dealers. The present investigation comprises the indigenous uses of 57 species belonging to 36 families of Angiosperms based upon their utility. Out of this rich Medicinal germplasm, 66.15% plants are wild while 44.18%, species were found to be cultivated, 26.74% species are both wild and cultivated of the total flora of this area. The most important medicinal families are Solanaceae (7 spp, 12.28%, Asteraceae (5 spp, 8.77%, Mimosaceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Moraceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rhamnaceae (2 spp, 3.51% While the remaining 25 families having 1 species each which is 1.75% of all families. The most common medicinal plants in the area are Abroma augusta (L. F., Acacia modesta wall., Achyranthes bidentata Blume , Albizia lebbeek L., Calotropis procera L., Capparis decidua Forsk Carthamus oxycantha M. B, Chenopodium album L., Citrus medica L., Citrullus colocynthis Schrad, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb, Cynodon dactylon L. Cyperus rotundrus L., Dodonia viscosa L., Eucalyptus globule L., Nerium oleander L., Papaver somniferum L., Trachy spermum ammi L. Typha orientallis J. Preslw., Vitex negundo L., Withania somnifera L., Xanthium strumarium L., Zizphus mauratiana Lam., Some plants have wild fruits i.e.., Solanum nigrum L., while Nerium oleander L. and Dodonaea viscosa (L. Jaeq are ornamental.

  7. Plants of the Araceae family for malaria and related diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FRAUSIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the current work we performed a review of the Araceae family species traditionally used to treat malaria and its symptoms. The aim is to reveal the large number of antimalarial Araceae species used worldwide and their great unexplored potential as sources of antimalarial natural products. The SciFinder Scholar, Scielo, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google books search engines were consulted. Forty-three records of 36 species and 23 genera of Araceae used for malaria and symptoms treatment were found. The neotropical genera Philodendron Schott and Anthurium Schott were the best represented for the use in the treatment of malaria, fevers, liver problems and headaches. Leaves and tubers were the most used parts and decoction was the most common preparation method. The extracts of Araceae species inhibit the in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite, the Plasmodium falciparum Welch, and significant median inhibitory concentrations (IC50 for extracts of guaimbê-sulcado (Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb. Schott, aninga (Montrichardia linifera (Arruda Schott, Culcasia lancifolia N.E. Br. and forest anchomanes (Anchomanes difformis (Blume Engl. have been reported demonstrating the antimalarial and cytotoxicity potential of the extracts and sub-fractions. In the only report about the antimalarial components of this family, the neolignan polysyphorin and the benzoperoxide rhaphidecurperoxin presented strong in vitro inhibition of the D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodiumfalciparum (IC50 = 368-540 ng/mL. No live study about antimalarial activity in animal models has been conducted on a species of Araceae. More bioguided chemical composition studies about the in vitro and also thein vivo antimalarial activity of the Araceae are needed in order to enhance the knowledge about the antimalarial potential of this family.

  8. Gambling-Related Problems as a Mediator Between Treatment and Mental Health with At-Risk College Student Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling—an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65% men; 60% Caucasian, 28% Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ≥3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed. PMID:24706331

  9. Investigation on the Medicinal Fern Resources of Dryopteridaceae in Dashiwei Tiankeng Group%大石围天坑群鳞毛蕨科药用蕨类植物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏仕林; 张婷婷; 马博

    2011-01-01

    [目的]掌握大石围天坑群区鳞毛蕨科药用蕨类植物资源现状.[方法]通过野外实地考察、标本采集、资料查阅及标本鉴定,对大石围天坑群区鳞毛蕨科药用蕨类植物进行了调查研究;并对鳞毛蕨科药用蕨类植物地理分布及其药用价值进行了介绍.[结果]大石围天坑群区具有药用价值的鳞毛蕨科蕨类植物共有4属,分别为复叶耳蕨属(Arachniodes Blume)、贯众属(Cyrtomium Presl)、鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris Adanson)和耳蕨属(Polystichum Roth);共15种,其中,复叶耳蕨属有1种,为西南复叶耳蕨[Arachiodes assamica (Kuhn)Ohwi];贯众属共有5种,分别为贯众(C.fortunei J.Sm)、尖羽贯众[C.hookerianum(Presl)C.Chr]、尖耳贯众[C.caryotideum(Wall.ex Hook.et Grey.) Presl]、镰羽贯众[C.balansae (Chrit)C.Chr.]和山地贯众(C.foruneiJ.Sm);鳞毛蕨属共有5种,分别为黑色鳞毛蕨(Dryopteris fuscipes C.Chr)、奇数鳞毛蕨[D.sieboldii(van Houtte)O.Ktze.]、变异鳞毛蕨[D.ryopteris varia(L.)O.Ktze]、狭鳞鳞毛蕨[D.dickinsii( Baker)C.Chr.]和齿头鳞毛蕨[D.labordei(Christ) Ching];耳蕨属共有4种,分别为黑鳞大耳蕨[Polystichum makinoi(Tagawa)Tagawa]、革叶耳蕨(P.neolobatum Nakai)、乌鳞耳蕨(P.piceo-paleaceum Tagawa)和对马耳蕨[P.m tsus-simense( Hook.)J.Sm].大石围天坑群区蕨类植物根据药物功效可以归为清热止痛类、平喘化痰类、解毒利尿类、止血收敛类、驱寄生虫类、治骨伤类、抗病毒和抗肿瘤类及镇惊、平肝、降压、安神类.[结论]大石围天坑群区独特的地理和气候条件十分适宜蕨类植物的生长繁衍,蕨类植物资源分布数量与繁殖程度上较为丰富,是桂西重要的植物资源,且该地蕨类植物中的植物活性成分相对较高,保护这一重要资源的生物多样性及实现其可持续利用具有重要意义.该研究可为进一步研究和分析鳞毛蕨科植物的药用及开发

  10. Detection of flood events in hydrological discharge time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, S. P.; Ehret, U.

    2012-04-01

    series and thereupon propose a definition for flood events of discharge time series typically found in humid central european catchments. Based on this definition (our perceptual model), we developed a fuzzy based model for the detection of event starts. The two-step approach first derives time series properties and characteristics. The second step evaluates the distributions of these characteristics and applies sampled percentile values to fuzzy membership functions which decide whether any point of the time series of interest is an event start or not. We combined the procedure of our event start detection with a slightly modified version of the constant-k approach (Blume et al. 2007). This way they allow hydrological meaningful and reproducible flood event detection in hydrological discharge time series.

  11. Polaron hopping in olivine phosphates studied by nuclear resonant scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Sally June

    Valence fluctuations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ were studied in a solid solution of LixFePO4 by nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron x rays while the sample was heated in a diamond-anvil pressure cell. The spectra acquired at different temperatures and pressures were analyzed for the frequencies of valence changes using the Blume-Tjon model of a system with a fluctuating Hamiltonian. These frequencies were analyzed to obtain activation energies and an activation volume for polaron hopping. There was a large suppression of hopping frequency with pressure, giving an anomalously large activation volume. This large, positive value is typical of ion diffusion, which indicates correlated motions of polarons, and Li+ ions that alter the dynamics of both. In a parallel study of NaxFePO4, the interplay between sodium ordering and electron mobility was investigated using a combination of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and nuclear resonant scattering. Conventional Mossbauer spectra were collected while the sample was heated in a resistive furnace. An analysis of the temperature evolution of the spectral shapes was used to identify the onset of fast electron hopping and determine the polaron hopping rate. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out in the same temperature range. Reitveld analysis of the diffraction patterns was used to determine the temperature of sodium redistribution on the lattice. The diffraction analysis also provides new information about the phase stability of the system. The temperature evolution of the iron site occupancies from the Mossbauer measurements, combined with the synchrotron diffraction results give strong evidence for a relationship between the onset of fast electron dynamics and the redistribution of sodium in the lattice. Measurements of activation barriers for polaron hopping gave fundamental insights about the correlation between electronic carriers and mobile ions. This work established that polaron-ion interactions

  12. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  13. Ordering phenomena and non-equilibrium properties of lattice gas models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report falls within the general field of ordering processes and non-equilibrium properties of lattice gas models. The theory of diffuse scattering of lattice gas models originating from a random distribution of clusters is considered. We obtain relations between the diffuse part of the structure factor Sdif(q), the correlation function C(r), and the size distribution of clusters D(n). For a number of distributions we calculate Sdif(q) exactly in one dimension, and discuss the possibility for a Lorentzian and a Lorentzian square lineshape to arise. We discuss the two- and three-dimensional oxygen ordering processes in the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x based on a simple anisotropic lattice gas model. We calculate the structural phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulation and compared the results with experimental data. The structure factor of the oxygen ordering properties has been calculated in both two and three dimensions by Monte Carlo simulation. We report on results obtained from large scale computations on the Connection Machine, which are in excellent agreement with recent neutron diffraction data. In addition we consider the effect of the diffusive motion of metal-ion dopants on the oxygen ordering properties on YBa2Cu3O6+x. The stationary properties of metastability in long-range interaction models are studied by application of a constrained transfer matrix (CTM) formalism. The model considered, which exhibits several metastable states, is an extension of the Blume Capel model to include weak long-range interactions. We show, that the decay rate of the metastable states is closely related to the imaginary part of the equilibrium free-energy density obtained from the CTM formalism. We discuss a class of lattice gas model for dissipative transport in the framework of a Langevin description, which is capable of producing power law spectra for the density fluctuations. We compare with numerical results obtained from simulations of a lattice gas model

  14. Photosynthesis acclimation, leaf nitrogen concentration, and growth of four tree species over 3 years in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen treatment in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Duan, Honglang; Li, Yuelin; Zhang, Deqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Xu, Zhihong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane (Australia). Centre for Forestry and Horticultural Research

    2011-10-15

    Up to date, most studies about the plant photosynthetic acclimation responses to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration have been performed in temperate areas, which are often N limited under natural conditions and with low ambient N deposition. It is unclear whether photosynthetic downregulation is alleviated with increased N availability, for example, from increased N deposition due to fossil fuel combustion in the tropics and subtropics. Awareness of plant photosynthetic responses to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration will contribute to the better understanding and prediction of future forest productivity under global change. Four tree species, Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Ormosia pinnata (Lour.) Merr, Castanopsis hystrix AC. DC., and Acmena acuminatissima (Blume) Merr. et Perry were exposed to a factorial combination of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentration at ca. 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}) and N deposition (ambient and ambient + 100 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) in open-top chambers in southern China for 3 years since March 2005. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rate, leaf N concentration, and tree growth of all species were measured. The CO{sub 2} treatments did not affect light-saturated net photosynthetic rate of all species grown with the high N treatment. However, S. superba grown with the low N treatment (ambient) had 23% and 47% greater net photosynthesis in the ambient CO{sub 2} concentration than those in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration for December 2006 and November 2007 (20 and 31 months after the treatments were applied), respectively, and A. acuminatissima grown with the low N treatment had 173%, 26%, and 121% greater net photosynthesis in trees grown in the ambient CO{sub 2} concentration than those in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration for July 2006 (16 months after the treatments), December 2006 (20 months), and November 2007 (31 months), respectively, whereas

  15. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Orchard Soils in South China as Affected by Fertilization Depths and Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizers are heavily applied in orchards of the hilly and mountainous topography of South China and may increase nutrient loadings to receiving waters.A simple runoff collecting system was used to measure the effects of different fertilization treatments on total N and P concentrations of surface runoff in a Chinese chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)orchard in Dongyuan County,Guangdong Province,China.In such orchards,fertilizer was typically applied in two short furrows or pits on either side of each tree.Treatments included three application depths(surface,10 era and 20 cm),and three application rates(low,median and high).Results showed that 90.5% of the runoff water samples had a total N concentration higher than 0.35 mg L-1 and 54.2% had a total P concentration higher than 0.1 mg L-1.Fertilizer application at all depths and at all but the lowest rate significantly increased total N and P concentrations in runoff water.Fertilization with chemical compound fertilizer at a soil depth of 20 cm prodiuced significantly lower(P<0.05)total N concentration in runoff than both surface and 10-cm depth fertilization,and significantly lower(P<0.05)total P concentration in runoff than surface fertilization.Total N and P concentrations in runoff significantly increased with the application rate of organic fertilizers.With the exception of total P concentrations,which were not significantly different between the control and fertilization at a rate of 119 kg P ha-1 in organic form,all the other fertilization treatments produced significantly higher total N and total P concentrations in runoff than the control.A fertilization depth ≥ 20 cm and an application rate ≤ 72 kg N ha-1 or 119 kg P ha-1 for compound organic fertilizer was suggested to substantially reduce N and P runoff losses from hillslope orchards and to protect receiving waters in South China.

  16. 国医大师颜正华诊疗水肿辨证思路与典型医案探析%Experience of TCM master YAN Zheng-hua in treating edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉瑞; 张冰

    2012-01-01

    国医大师颜正华教授治验甚众,尤擅长消化系统、呼吸系统等内科杂病的诊疗.水肿是因体内水液潴留,泛滥肌肤,而表现为以头面、眼睑、四肢、腹背,甚至全身浮肿为特征的一类病证.颜教授论治水肿一病,辨证严谨,认为其乃全身气化功能障碍之表现,发病与肺、脾、肾三脏关系尤为密切,其中以肾为本,以肺为标.多从风水相搏、湿热蕴结、水湿浸淫型、脾阳虚衰和肾阳虚衰等方面论治,常用药物包括白术、茯苓、赤小豆、怀牛膝、益母草、大腹皮、冬瓜皮、生薏苡仁等,收效甚佳.%Professor YAN Zheng-hua is a TCM Master. He is good at and skilled in digestive and respiratory system diseases. Edema is a syndrome characterized by edema of the performance on the head, limbs, eyelid, front and back which is due to water retention. Professor YAN Zheng-hua thinks edema is the manifestation of dysfunction of qi transformation, and the incidence of edema is particularly close related with lung, spleen and kidney. He believes that righting of wind with water, Heat-Damp accumulation, spreading water-dampness, deficiency of spleen-yang and deficiency of kidney-yang are the basic syndromes of edema. Commonly used drugs include Atractylodes, Tuckahoe, Red bean, Achyranthes bidentata Blume, Motherwort, Pericarpium Arecae, Wax gourdpeel, Coix seed,et al.

  17. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  18. Analyses on composition and diversity of endophytic fungi in different parts of Lindera glauca from Tianmu Mountain%天目山山胡椒不同部位内生真菌组成及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓菡; 李文超; 秦路平

    2012-01-01

    采用表面消毒法,从浙江天目山野生山胡椒[ Lindera glauca( Sieb.et Zucc.) Blume]的茎、叶和树皮中分离出内生真菌,基于ITS序列分析进行分类鉴定;并以内生真菌的分离率、定殖率、分离频率、多样性指数(H')及相似性系数为指标,分析了山胡椒内生真菌的菌群组成及多样性.结果显示:在26株山胡椒样株的728块组织块中共分离得到328株内生真菌(茎、叶和树皮中分别有161、40和127株);共鉴定出44个分类单元(茎、叶和树皮中各有19、18和28个),其中25个分类单元鉴定到种、17个鉴定到属、2个鉴定到科,ITS序列的GenBank登录号从JF502420至JF502462.在44个分类单元中,有40个分类单元属于子囊菌(310株),存在于山胡椒的各个部位;仅有4个分类单元属于担子菌(18株),且仅存在于茎和树皮中.山胡椒茎、树皮和叶中内生真菌的定殖率分别为65%、60%和15%,分离率分别为0.77、0.61和0.19;叶和树皮中内生真菌的多样性指数均为2.63,远大于茎(H’=1.83).山胡椒内生真菌的优势属为Phomopsis、Paraconiothyrium、Phoma和Colletotrichum,大量存在于叶、茎和树皮中.山胡椒茎与树皮、茎与叶及叶与树皮间内生真菌的相似性系数分别为0.27、0.19和0.18,显示树皮和叶之间以及树皮和茎之间内生真菌的组成极不相似.研究结果表明:山胡椒体内存在大量的内生真菌,其茎、叶和树皮的内生真菌菌群组成具有一定程度的多样性和差异性,且内生真菌的分布具有组织特异性.%By the surface sterilization method, endophytic fungi were isolated from stern, leaf and bark of wild Lindera glauca ( Sieb. et Zucc.) Blume from Tiammu Mountain of Zhejiang Province, and were identified and classified according to ITS sequence analysis result. Taking isolation rate ( IR), colonization rate( CR) , relative frequency ( RF) , Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H') and similarity coefficient

  19. Characteristics of seedlings regeneration in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forests in Qinling Mountains%秦岭山地锐齿栎次生林幼苗更新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康冰; 王得祥; 李刚; 高妍夏; 张莹; 杜焰玲

    2012-01-01

    Quercus aliena Blume var. acuteserrata Maxim, ex Wenz. is an important dominant species in temperate mid-elevation mountainous areas of China with significant functions in water resource conservation and ecological stabilization in forested ecosystems. Forty-two plots, including 210 subplots, were used to document the occurrence of trees, saplings, woody seedlings and habitat characteristics for this tree and associated woody species in a second growth forest in the Qinling Mountains in 2010. We analyzed the important values of trees, saplings and woody seedlings, regeneration niche breath, and tree regeneration dynamics under different conditions, including stand density, aspect, and altitude in Q. aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forests. The results show Q. aliena var. acuteserrata had an important value of 149. 18% with none of the other 24 woody tree species in the tree layer approaching that level of importance. The subdominant species in the tree layer were Pinus armandii Franch. and Carpinus cordata Blume. 25 tree species of the 41 woody species in the regeneration layer. The woody plants in the regeneration layer were abundant with trees seedlings dominating. This appears to be beneficial to the optimization of the community structure and function. The dominant seedling species were Acer grosseri Pax, litsea pungens Hemsl. , and others. Seedlings of these two species were abundant in the regeneration layer with their height and age class lower than the dominant species. The height class of seedlings and saplings in the understory of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forest shows that woody plants regenerated vigorously. The biological chain of seedling to sapling was complete. Most regeneration was from seedlings rather than stump sprouts. We analyzed ten kinds of dominant regeneration tree populations. The regeneration niche breath of the sapling population was higher than that of seedling population for the same tree species which indicated the

  20. Liriodendrin porotects SH-SY5Y cells from dopamine-induced cytotoxicity%Liriodendrin对多巴胺所致SH-SY5Y细胞损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大龙; 申大伟; 迟玉涛; 刘方; 邹莉波; 朱海波

    2007-01-01

    目的 用多巴胺诱导的SH-SY5Y细胞凋亡模型,研究从小蜡树皮提取的单体化合物liriodendrin的神经保护作用.方法 应用MTT法检测liriodendrin对细胞存活率的影响.应用Annexin V-FITC与PI双染流式法检测liriodendrin对多巴胺诱导的细胞凋亡的影响.应用荧光染料DCFH-DA及Rhodamine 123对细胞内活性氧簇(ROS)及线粒体膜电位(⊿ψm)进行了检测.此外,应用RT-PCR方法,对细胞内P53基因的转录水平进行了检测.结果 在经过10-8,10-7,10-6,10-5及10-4 mol·L-1 浓度liriodendrin处理后,细胞存活率与多巴胺处理组相比有显著性提高.流式细胞术结果显示liriodendrin具有显著的抗细胞凋亡作用.同时liriodendrin可明显改善多巴胺引起的⊿ψm下降,并可以逆转多巴胺诱导的ROS水平升高.此外,liriodendrin还可以降低多巴胺引起的P53基因转录水平的升高.结论 Liriodendrin对多巴胺诱导的细胞损伤有明显保护作用.推测主要机制可能与其调节细胞氧化应激反应及细胞凋亡的信号转导通路有关,提示该化合物可以作为治疗退行性神经疾病如帕金森氏病等的候选化合物.%Aim To investigate the effect of liriodendrin,an extract from Fraxinus sielboldiana blume belonging to the Oleaceae familv,on dopamine-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.Methods Cell viability was processed when treated with 50 μmol·L-1 of dopamine for 24 h by MTT assay.Early apoptosis,late apoptosis/necrosis were analyzed by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide(PI)double-staining,respectively. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed by DCFH-DA,an oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe.To evaluate mitochondrion membrane potential (⊿ψm) using flow cytometry with the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123.The transcriptional level of P53 Was studied using RTPCR.Results The dopamine-induced loss of cell viability was significantly attenuated by liriodendrin

  1. Antiepileptic Drug-Related Adverse Reactions and Factors Influencing These Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Bakrani V. Antiepileptic Drug-Related Adverse Reactions And Factors Influencing These Reactions. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3:23-27. ObjectiveAccording to the basic role of drug side effects in selection ofan appropriate drug, patient compliance and the quality of life inepileptic patients, and forasmuch as new dugs with unknown side effect have been produced and introduced, necessity of this research and similar studies is explained. This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of anti epileptic drug (AED related adverse reactions in children treated with AEDs.Material & MethodsIn this descriptive study, children less than 14 years old with AEDside effects referred to the Children’s Medical Center and MofidChilderen’s Hospital (Tehran, Iran were evaluated during 2010-2012.The informations were: sex, age, incriminating drug, type of drug side effect, incubation period, history of drug usage, and patient and family allergy history. Exclusive criterions were age more than 14 years old and reactions due to reasons other than AEDs (Food, bite, non-AEDs, etc..ResultsA total of 70 patients with AED reaction were enrolled in thisstudy. They included 26 (37% females and 44 (63 % males. The maximum rate of incidence was seen at age less than 5 years old. All the patients had cutaneous eruptions that the most common cutaneous drug eruption was maculopapular rash. The incidence of systemic and laboratory adverse events was less than similar studies. The most common culprit was phenobarbital (70% and the least common was lamotrigine (1.4%.ConclusionIn this study, we found higher rates of drug rash in patients treated with aromatic AEDs and lower rates with non-aromatic AEDs. Various endogenous and environmental factors may influence the propensity to develop these reactions. Refrences1. Blume WT, Lu¨ders HO, Mizrahi E, et al. Glossary of descriptive terminology for

  2. Is Interictal EEG Correlated with the Seizure Type in Idiopathic (Genetic Generalized Epilepsies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA

    2012-06-01

    , Sharbrough FW. Long-term electroencephalographic monitoring for diagnosis and management of seizures. Mayo Clin Proc 1996 Oct;71(10:1000-6. Betting LE, Mory SB, Lopes-Cendes I, Li LM, Guerreiro MM, Guerreiro CA et al. EEG features in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: clues to diagnosis. Epilepsia 2006 Mar;47(3:523-8. Yenjun S, Harvey AS, Marini C, Newton MR, King MA, Berkovic SF. EEG in adult-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia 2003 Feb;44(2:252-6. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 2001;42(9:1212-8. Engel J Jr. A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and epilepsy: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 2001 Jun;42(6:796-803. Engel J. Jr. Report of the ILAE Classification Core Group. Epilepsia 2006 Sep;47(9:1558-68. Asadi-Pooya AA, Emami M. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on electroencephalographic findings in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Iran J Child Neurol 2011;5(4:33-6. Asadi-Pooya AA, Emami M, Nikseresht A. Early-onset versus typical childhood absence epilepsy; clinical and electrographic characteristics. Seizure 2012;21:273-5. Nordi DR. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 2005;46(Suppl. 9:48-56. Panayiotopoulos CP. Syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsies not recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 2005;46(Suppl. 9:57-66. Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR. Choices of antiepileptic drugs based on specific epilepsy syndromes and seizure types. In: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR. Antiepileptic Drugs: A Clinician’s Manual. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2009. p. 95-102.   

  3. Viewpoints on impacts of climate change on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    soil quality in ecosystems based on modern respiratory approaches. In: Cenci R., Sena F. (eds.) Biodiversity-bioindication to evaluate soil health. European Commission EUR 22245EN, p. 59-64 Dilly O., Blume H.-P., Munch J.C., 2003. Soil microbial activities in Luvisols and Anthrosols during 9 years of region-typical tillage and fertilisation practices in northern Germany. Biogeochemistry 65, 319-339 IPPC 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon, S. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27, 753-760 Knorr W., Prentice I.C., House J.I., Holland E.A. 2005. Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon to warming. Nature 433, 298-301 Mamilov, A. Sh., Dilly, O., 2002. Soil microbial eco-physiology as affected by short-term variations in environmental conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 1283-1290

  4. Comparison of drought strategies of three co-existing woody plants by their hydraulic structures%从水力结构比较3种共存木本植物的抗旱策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳欣; 徐洁; 白坤栋; 冯锦霞; 张劲松; 万贤崇

    2011-01-01

    通过盆栽控水方法测定了华北石质山区刺槐、栓皮栎和侧柏3个主要造林树种在干旱胁迫以及随后的复水条件下气体交换和水分关系的变化,分析了这3个树种抗旱特性的差异。结果表明:1)在供水充足时,刺槐光合作用强、气孔导度大、耗水速度快。2)刺槐对土壤水分变化最为敏感,当土壤水分含量降低时,其光合速率和气孔导度迅速下降。3)复水后,刺槐和栓皮栎恢复速度比侧柏快。4)当小枝导水损失率发生变化时,刺槐的气孔导度变化迅速,相比之下,栓皮栎和侧柏对土壤水分变化以及其气孔导度随水力变化的反应都较为平缓。5)刺槐在水分充足时迅速进行光合积累,而干旱时,通过气孔关闭甚至落叶来避免过度失水。另外2种植物在中度干旱时,尤可保持光合作用,其中侧柏更为突出。在华北半干旱的石质山区,刺槐的发展受到较大限制。%This paper investigates the physiological characteristics for drought resistance among three main afforestation woody species(ie Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Quercus variabilis Blume,Platycladus orientalis(L.) Franco) in lithoid mountainous areas in north China.Variations in their gas exchanges and water relations were comparatively measured during withholding water and subsequent rewatering of potted seedlings.The results showed that:1) under well-watered conditions,black locust(R.pseudoacacia) had the strongest photosynthesis,the greatest stomatal conductance and water consumption among the three species.2) However,black locust was most sensitive to soil drying among the three species,its photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rapidly declined.3) On being rewatered,both gas exchanges and water relations were able to be rapidly recovered in all three species,among which black locust and cork oak(Q.variabilis) had faster recovery than arborvitae(P.orientalis).4) Stomatal

  5. New perspectives on the evolution of narrow, modest extension continental rifts: Embryonic core complexes and localized, rapid Quaternary extension in the Rio Grande rift, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S.

    2013-12-01

    cut by multiple tensile vein sets along the western margin of the Albuquerque basin in the Lucero uplift. At this location, U-series ages on travertine deposits are used to calculate strain rates at this location. These strain rates (15-105 nstr/yr) are higher than both the modern strain rates as well as the average long-term strain rates (3-14 nstr/yr) obtained from restored cross-sections across different basins in the rift. To explain these observations, we propose a model involving high fluid pressures, which promote the formation of tensile veins that are oriented with respect to the modern day stress field in the rift. These regions of anomalously-high strain need not be widespread, and are only active on timescales of the hydraulic system, but they are nevertheless an underappreciated mechanism of progressive extension in the rift. Berglund, H.T., Sheehan, A.F., Murray, M.H., Roy, M., Lowry, A.R., Nerem, R.S., and Blume, F., 2012, Distributed deformation across the Rio Grande Rift, Great Plains, and Colorado Plateau: Geology, v. 40, p. 23-26.

  6. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Organic Carbon in Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir in North China%密云水库上游流域土壤有机碳特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 王效科; 欧阳志云

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool constitutes an important portion of the global carbon pool and has significant impacts on land productivity and global climate change. The study on soil organic carbon has been one of the hot issues of the world. However, related research of the filed in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the largest reservoir in North China, is relatively rare. The distribution characteristics and influencing factors (such as climate, topography and soil characteristics) of soil organic carbon in seven kinds of typical land use types of the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir were analyzed in the study, and the results showed as follows. 1) In the target domain, soil organic carbon contents in natural secondary forests and grasslands were much higher than those in shrubs and artificial forests, while that in croplands was the lowest. In the whole soil profile (0 - 40 cm), the average soil organic carbon content was in order of natural secondary Populus davidiana Dode-Belula platyphylla Suk. Mixed forest > grassland > natural secondary Quercus wutaishanica Blume forest > shrub > artificial Larix principis-rupprechlii Mayr. Forest>artificial Pinus labulaeformis Carr. Forest>cropland. 2) Soil organic carbon contents in the top soil layer (0 - 10 cm) were the highest and decreased rapidly with the increase depth in the six kinds of land use types except grassland, which showed a slight increase from 0 to 20 cm and a small drop from 20 to 40 cm in depth. 3) Soil organic carbon content in each layer was significantly positively correlated with altitude, soil water content and nitrogen content (p0.05). Further partial correlation analysis indicated that the most principal factors influencing soil organic carbon content varied with soil depth, and they were soil nitrogen content, bulk density and pH in the 0 - 10 cm layer, soil nitrogen content, bulk density and slop in the 10-20 cm layer, soil nitrogen content and annual precipitation in the 20

  7. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI Akabar ASADI-POOYA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sharifzade M. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 40-44.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics of the patients with West syndrome (WS in south Iran.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of WS were recruited in the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between September 2008 and May 2012. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure type(s, epilepsy risk factors, EEG and imaging studies of all patients were registered routinely.ResultsDuring the study period, 2500 patients with epilepsy were registered at our epilepsy clinic. Thirty-two patients (1.3% were diagnosed to have WS. Age of onset (mean ± standard deviation was 4.99 ± 3.06 months. Sixteen patients were male and 16 were female. Nine (28.1% were reported to have two or more seizure types and 23 (71.8% had one seizure type (epileptic spasms. At referral, no developmental delay was detected in two patients and in the rest, a mild to severe delay was noted.Electroencephalography showed typical hypsarrhythmia in 59.4% of our patients and modified hypsarrhythmia or atypical presentations were seen in 40.6%. Two patients had pyridoxine (B6-dependent seizures, confirmed by oral B6 trial.ConclusionVariants of the classical triad of WS including other seizure types, atypical EEG findings, and normal psychomotor function at the beginning could be observed in some patients. Rarely, treatable genetic disorders (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent seizures should be considered in those in whom no other diagnosis is evident. References1. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Sep;42(9:1212-8.2. Carmant L

  8. Insects Carrying Damage to Plants of the Gentts Syringa%危害丁香属植物的昆虫种类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红; 严善春

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted on insects that cause damage to 13 species (variations) of plants of the genus Syringa in Heilongjiang Forest Botanical Garden and on the Campus of two universities (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine and Northeast Forestry. Universitv) in Harbin. At least 11 species of insects are harmful to the investigated Syringa plants. The trunk borer Phassus excrescens Butler can cause injury and damage to nine species or variations, namely S. oblata Lindl. ,S. villosa Vahl. , S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. vulgaris Linn. , S. velutina Kom. , S. vu!garis dahua' , S. reticu/ara (Blume) Ham var. mandshurica (Maxim.) Hara and S. dilatata, which indicates that P. excrescens attacks an extremely wide range of host plants. The defoliator Psilogranma increta ( Walker, [ 1865 ] ) can damage S. oblata. S. villosa, S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. velutina Diels Linn. and S. uudgaris ev. ‘zihong'. The phloem-sucking insect Coccurra ussuriensis (Borchs) was found only to cause damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Pseudococcus comstocki ( Kuwana, 1902) ) is harmful to S reticulata var. nandshurica and S. microphylla. Lepidosaphes salicina Borchsenius can cause great damage to S. oblata, S. villosa, S. emodi, Syringa oblata Lindl. var. a/ba Hort. ex Rehd. , Syringa dilatata Nakai, Syriaga vulgaris and its variations, and occasionally can be fonnd causing damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Moreover, Dendrothrips ornatus (Jablonowsky, 1894) was found to damage the leaves of Syringa spp. , two unidentified lepidopterous larvae feed on .S oblate, and two species of unidentified thrips and one species of aphid feed on .S retictdata var. mandshurica.%为了明确丁香属(Syringa spp.)植物虫害的防治对象.对黑龙江省森林植物园丁香园、黑龙江中医药大学校园、东北林业大学校园及部分家属区的绿化带内丁香属13种(变种)植物进行了整株虫害调查,系统地分析、总结了危害丁香属的

  9. Symbiotic seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl%大雪兰种子的共生培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仕坛; 伍建榕; 胡隽; 杨宏光; 陆露; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to screen mycorrhiza fungus that can promote the seed germination and form the symbiosis with Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl and scale produce high quality seedling, we first symbiosis cultivated seeds with different fungi in the medium of cortices symbiotic culture, then measured the biomass of seedlings, re - separation of fungus strain, studied the 3D hypha net by using the optical microscope and electron microscope, and determined the seed vitality with TFC method. The results showed that strain CLB111 and MLX102 that were separated from roots of Cymbidium goeringii Rchb. f. and C. Sinense Willd can promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The differences of germination rates between treatments with strain symbiosises and control were significant. Re - separations from the culture medium confirmed the strains in symbiosis roots were the same as the inoculated strains. The optical microscope and electron microscope observation found that many fungus hypha infected into embryo cell and formed the 3D hypha net, and the embryo started differentiation. TFC measurement showed that the Seed had high vitality. No strain was found by re - separation from culture medium, no hy- pha was observed and very low vitality under control treatment. Thus, It can be concluded that strain CLB111 and MLX102 can form the symbiosis and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The experiments found the fungus Cymbidium separated from adult orchids and the fungus that promote the seed germination were the same strains in mastersii. This phenomenon was different from the C, astrodia elata Blume. It was also confirmed that funguses that can form symbiosis with and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii were not abso- lutely specific. Under certain condition, different strains can significantly promote germination of one orchid species. It may need further investigation to verify the differences under different ecological conditions.%为

  10. The Application of Local Wisdom for Production of Condiment Isan' Food Ingredient into Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitchapanrawee Phengphol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of the research derives from a lack of study and understanding about the production of condiment Isan food and ingredients being introduced into commercial, even though Isan food is popular among consumers widespread both inside and outside the country. The government introduced a policy to expand trade to create an export value of Isan products. The purpose of the research is to study the local wisdom in the field of the application of the ingredients used in Isan food. In addition, the purpose is to study about the problems of applying local wisdom to produce Isan food for consumption into commercial. Approach: The fields of study are Kalasin, Khon kaen, Maha Sarakham and Roi-Et. These are the places of Isan food local culture and original application of Isan food that have been producing to the present and also popular among the consumers widespread. There are 5 types of food that are chosen to be the proposition; Kaeng Wai (Curry Wai, Kai Yang (Roasting chicken, Tom Kai Ban (Boiled chicken, Mok Lab Pla Thong (Grilled Lab Pla Thong and Om Pla (Fish soup from 9 restaurants. Using Qualitative Research for data gathering from the concerning document, the data will be collected from fieldwork, survey, observation, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 71 informants, presenting the result by using analytical descriptive. Results: The local wisdom of application of Isan food ingredients is a herb that is easy to find in the local area. It is used for the deodorizing of meat and as a garnish to give taste and flavor to the consumer. Isan food is highlighted as spicy and salty. A Spicy taste is from hot chili and dried chili. A Salty taste can be regarded as an important deliciousness that is an identity of Isan food from pickled fish and salt. A Sour test derives from tamarinds. Ya Nang (Tiliacora triandra is used in order to reduce uric acid of Wai (Calamus caesius Blume. Adding ginger, Kha

  11. Foliar concentration of heavy metals in the leaves of trees in mining area as a mechanism for phytoremediation%矿区常见乔木叶片重金属特征及其修复应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱媛; 何际泽; 杨汉彬; 张良军; 黄良美; 温远光; 杨梅; 张新英

    2013-01-01

    Sn, 0.13 g Sb, 0.79 g Pb;for C. mollissima can uptake 99.82 g Mn, 5.20 g Zn, 0.28 g Cu, 0.24 g As, 0.048 g Cd, 0.017 g Sn, 0.26 g Sb, 0.94 g Pb;but would be inappropriate to use due to the risk of people consuming the potentially toxic fruit. Therefore H. acerba and C. camphora may be good trees to plant when restoring mining areas.%  对广西河池大厂矿区内的植被和立地条件进行调查分析,旨在寻找一些可用于植物生态修复重金属污染的乔木,并估算其去除重金属的能力.在调查区内设立了3个村屯采样点,对常见树木,如沙梨(pyrus pyrifolia(burm.f.)nakai)、板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)、拐枣(Hovenia acerba)、柚子树(Citrus maxima)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、樟树(Cinnamomum camphora)、柿子树(Diospyros kaki)和枇杷(Eriobotrya japonica)等8种植物叶片及周围表层土壤进行采样,检测叶片和土壤中重金属总量(Mn、Zn、Cu、As、Cd、Sn、Sb、Pb).对植物叶片采用ICP-MS及ICP-AES进行测定,土壤的重金属用ICP-AES进行检测.结果发现表土重金属含量均超过广西土壤背景值的5~1200倍,其中Cd污染最严重,为背景值的1200多倍.3个采样点位之间及同一采样点内不同植物叶片对重金属的吸收无显著性差异(Mn 除外),8种植物叶片固定重金属的范围如 Cu为3.3319 mg·kg-1-10.8851 mg∙kg-1,As为1.7811 mg·kg-1-46.2178 mg·kg-1,Cd为0.04655 mg·kg-1-4.9897 mg·kg-1;其中拐枣树叶对Mn有较高吸收,分别达811.11 mg·kg-1,352.31 mg·kg-1,220.11 mg·kg-1.以生物量估测模式计算的屯一8种植物单株叶片总量对重金属的总吸收量,单株拐枣叶总量可吸收21.25 g Mn、3.003 g Zn、0.20 g Cu、0.28 g As、0.066 g Cd,、0.014 g Sn、0.17 g Sb和1.23 g Pb,而单株樟树叶可吸收1.55 g Mn、0.79 g Zn、0.17 g Cu、0.12 g As、0.011 g Cd、0.017 g Sn、0.14 g Sb和0.40 g Pb.但所调查果树中的梨树和板栗树单株叶总量吸收重金属也较高,梨可吸收2.90 g Mn、3.32 g