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Sample records for betuloides mirb blume

  1. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

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    VÍCTOR GERDING

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.. Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos por la actividad volcánica, topografía y clima. Se observó la presencia de los órdenes Spodosol e Iceptisol, principalmente. En general los suelos eran delgados a muy delgados (mayoritariamente entre 10 y 40 cm, con un alto volumen de esqueleto, textura franca, estructura masiva a granular, capacidad de agua aprovechable baja y drenaje externo e interno moderado a lento. Además, presentan una alta acidez (pH 4-5,5, una baja oferta nutricional y muy altos niveles de saturación de aluminio (promedio > 60 %. El mantillo (Oe/Oa presentó condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo radicular. Existe comúnmente un horizonte blanco (frecuentemente 10 YR 5/1-2 inmediatamente debajo del mantillo, con textura franco limosa y estructura masiva, con arraigamiento muy bajo. Se plantea como hipótesis que este horizonte se originó por depósitos de cenizas volcánicas y procesos de podzolización. Se concluye que la fertilidad de estos suelos es baja debido a limitantes físicas (dificultades de arraigamiento y químicas (acidez, toxicidad de aluminio, baja oferta de basesSoils under coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, located in the oriental part of Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' W, were characterized morphologically, physically and chemically. Associated tree species were lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser and canelo (Drimys winterii Forst.. A total of 85 soil profiles and approximately 250 soil

  2. Revision der Gattung Orophea Blume (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keßler, P.J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae: Saccopetaleae) has been revised with the following main results: — The genus in the circumscription of most authors is not monophyletic, but biphyletic. The genus Mezzettiopsis Ridley has to be reinstated. — Pseuduvaria, Mitrephora, Petalolophus, Oreomitra, Schef

  3. PHARMACOGNOSTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ENICOSTEMMA LITTORALE BLUME

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    Mayuri C. Rathod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale Blume, Syn.Enicostemma axillare (Lam.Raynal. is a well-known plant used as drug in Ayurved, Unani-Tibbi, Siddha, Allopathy, Homeopathy, Naturopathyand Home Remedies. The present communication deals with the pharmacognostic evaluation on the different parts of Enicostemma littorale Blume (Enicostemma littorale Family-Gentianaceae. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the different organ, observations and differential microchemical test have been carried out for the authentication of the samples. Physiochemical values such as the moisture contents, percentage of total ash, acid insoluble ash, acid soluble ash, water soluble ash, extractive values as petroleum ether-soluble extractives, ethanol-soluble extractives, methanol-soluble extractives and water-soluble extractives were calculated as well as color reactions of powder and extract with different chemicals were performed to observe fluorescence analysis. The extracts were subjected to qualitative screening test for various constituents. This revealed the presence protein, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compound, steroid reducing sugars and saponin glycosides. These observations will help in the Pharmacognostical identification and standardization of the drug in the crude form and also to differentiate the drug from its adulteration.

  4. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco from Serbia

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    VELE TEŠEVIĆ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of fresh young needles with twigs of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Ten compounds, accounting for 94.26 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were bornyl acetate (34.65 %, camphene (29.82 %, a-pinene (11.65 % and santene (5.45 %. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was tested against various fungal species. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Douglas fir essential oil ranged from 1.5 to 4 µg mL-1. The fungi most sensitive to the tested oil were Phomopsis helianthi, while Penicillium species, along with Microsporum canis, were the most resistant. Compared to the commercial fungicidal agent bifonazole, the studied essential oil demonstrated higher antifungal activity.

  5. Lepidopetalum Blume (Sapindaceae): taxonomy, phylogeny, and historical biogeography

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    Welzen, van P.C.; Piskaut, P.; Windadri, F.I.

    1922-01-01

    The genus Lepidopetalum Blume (Sapindaceae) contains 6 species, of which one, L. fructoglabrum, is newly described. Four species are found on New Guinea of which one also occurs in Australia, one on the Nicobar Islands and Sumatra and one on the Philippines. Specimens from Java, Sulawesi, the Molucc

  6. A new cycloartane nortriterpenoid from Quercus variabilis Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xin; Ling Yun Jia; Jiu Zhi Yuan; Qi Shi Sun

    2009-01-01

    The leaves and stems of Quercus variabilis Blume afforded a new cycloartane nortriterpenoid, 3α-acetyloxy-4α, 14α-dimethyl9β, 19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (1), along with five known compounds (2-6). The structure of I was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  7. A synopsis of taxonomic changes in Aporosa Blume (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Anne M.

    1995-01-01

    Some major nomenclatural and taxonomic changes in Aporosa Blume are treated, i.e., the spelling of the genus name, some new combinations, and descriptions of four new species of from West Malesia, six from New Guinea, and two new varieties from West Malesia. Notes on a number of often misunderstood

  8. A New Diterpene from Suregada glomerulate(Blume) Baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Li HE; Ruo Yun CHEN

    2005-01-01

    A new diterpene with an abietane skeleton, 3β-hydroxy-8α, 14α-epoxyabieta-11,13(15)-dien-16,12-olide, was isolated from the root of Suregada glomerulate(Blume) Baill. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  9. Therapeutic potential of Gastrodia elata Blume for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Biao Huang; Soo-Hyun Park; Eun-Ock Park; Eun-Kyung Choi; Young-Chul Chung; Tong Zhao; Sushma Shrestha Muna; Hong-Mei Jin; Jong-Il Park; Kyu-Sik Jo; Bo-Hee Lee; Soo-Wan Chae; Sun-Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata Blume can protect against amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ)-induced cell death. To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of Gastrodia elata Blume on Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting Aβ25 35 into bilateral hippocampi. These rats were intragastrically administered 500 or 1 000 mg/kg Gastrodia elata Blume per day for 52 consecutive days. Morris water maze tests showed that Gastrodia elata Blume treatment significantly improved the spatial memory of Alzheimer's disease rats. Congo red staining revealed that Gastrodia elata Blume significantly reduced the number of amyloid deposits in the hippocampus of these rats. Western blot analysis showed that choline acetyltransferase expression in the medial septum and hippocampus was significantly increased by the treatment of Gastrodia elata Blume, while Ellman method showed significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in all three regions (prefrontal cortex, medial septum and hippocampus). These findings suggest that long-term administration of Gastrodia elata Blume has therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.

  10. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SAUROPUS BACCIFORMIS BLUME (EUPHORBIACEAE

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    Arockia Jenecius Alphonse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of different parts of Sauropus bacciformis Blume. Among the investigated plant parts, highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were reported in the stem. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity with reference standard ascorbic acid and trolox. The methanol extract showed highest in vitro antioxidant activities. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extracts is a significant source of natural antioxidant, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  11. Random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

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    Maritan, Amos; Cieplak, Marek; Swift, Michael R.; Toigo, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    The results are described of studies of a random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 Ising model using mean-field theory, transfer-matrix calculations, and position-space renormalization-group calculations. The interplay between the quenched randomness of the anisotropy and the annealed disorder introduced by the spin-1 model leads to a rich phase diagram with a variety of phase transitions and reentrant behavior. The results may be relevant to the study of the phase separation of He-3 - He-4 mixtures in porous media in the vicinity of the superfluid transition.

  12. Taksonomic study on Micromelum Blume (Rutaceae in Indonesia

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    TAHAN UJI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic study on Micromelum Blume was conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense (BO and Kew Herbarium (K and using 84 collections number of herbarium specimen. This research used descriptive method based on morphological characters. Terminology by Stearn (1983 was used, whereas the revision method as described by Rifai (1976 and Vogel (1987 were used. Based on this study were produced two species only of Micromelum respectively which occurred in Indonesia. They were Micromelum diversifolium Miq. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. M. diversifolium had two varieties, i.e. M. diversifolium Miq. var. diversifolium and M. diversifolium Miq. var. cuneata Miq. Whereas M. minutum had three varieties, i.e. M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. var. minutum, M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. tomentosum Tan. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. villosum Tan. New record specimen collections of M. diversifolium from Biak Island (Papua was reported also.

  13. Magnetocaloric properties of a frustrated Blume-Capel antiferromagnet

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    Žukovič Milan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature magnetization processes and magnetocaloric properties of a geometrically frustrated spin-1 Blume-Capel model on a triangular lattice are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The model is found to display qualitatively different behavior depending on the sign of the single-ion anisotropy D. For positive values of D we observe two magnetization plateaus, similar to the spin-1/2 Ising antiferromagnet, and negative isothermal entropy changes for any field intensity. For a range of small negative values of D there are four magnetization plateaus and the entropy changes can be either negative or positive, depending on the field. If D is negative but large in absolute value then the entropy changes are solely positive.

  14. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile

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    González, Jorge; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  15. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Typhonium Flagelliforme (Lodd. Blume Tuber

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    Syam Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Multiple drug resistance in human pathogenic micro organisms has developed due to indiscriminate use of modern antimicrobial drugs generally used in the management of infectious diseases. This increases the importance of exploiting the natural sources instead modern drugs. Approach: The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of different extracts from of Typhonium flagelliforme (L. Blume tuber (family: Araceae commonly called ‘Rodent Tuber’ was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. The antibacterial screening was carried out by disc diffusion method. Two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and total phenolic compounds, were used for the antioxidant analysis. Results: Except hexane extract none of the other exacts shown anti bacterial activity against the selected strains. The hexane extract from Typhonium flagelliforme tuber had interesting activity against both the gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11±1.0 mm diameter and Salmonella choleraesuis (12±1.1 mm diameter. The positive control, Streptomycin had shown zone of inhibition of 20±1.5 mm, 20±1.3 mm, 23±1.5 mm and 23±1.0 mm in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Bacillus subtilis respectively. All the extracts were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity. The DPPH assay showed that the inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate (77.6±0.9 % and dichloromethane (70.5±1.7 % extracts were having comparatively admirable inhibition capacity when compared to the positive control BHT (95.3±1.3 %. Total phenolic content of all extracts was also evaluated, and dichloromethane extracts (5.21±0.82 GAE mg/g extract was superior to all other extracts, followed by hexane and ethyl acetate. Conclusion: Considering all the results collectively T. flagelliforme appears to

  16. Study of the Antiferromagnetic Blume-Capel Model on kagomé Lattice

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    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Park, Sojeong; Kwak, Wooseop

    2016-09-01

    We study the anti-ferromagnetic (AF) Ising model and the AF Blume-Capel (BC) model on the kagomé lattice. Using the Wang-Landau sampling method, we estimate the joint density functions for both models on the lattice, and we obtain the exact critical magnetic fields at zero temperature by using the micro-canonical analysis. We also show the patterns of critical lines for the models from micro-canonical analysis.

  17. Solution of Macroscopic State Equations of Blume-Capel Model Using Nonlinear Dynamics Concepts

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    Asaf Tolga Ülgen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic state equations of Blume-Capel Model were solved by using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics. Negative and positive exchange constant values yield bifurcations of pitchfork and subcritical flip types, respectively. Hence, we obtained bifurcations corresponding to second order phase transitions. The critical values of parameters were calculated from the neutral stability condition and the 3-dimensional phase diagram was plotted.

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Whole Plant of Enicostemma littorale Blume

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vinotha; I Thabrew; S Sri Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale Blume (Gentianaceae family), which is commonly known as Mamajaka (Sanskrit), Vellarugu (Tamil) and Indian gentian (English). E. littorale is a perennial herb which grows in coastal areas of Northern and Eastern province of Sri Lanka. The whole plant is dried and powdered and used to treat rheumatism, swelling, back pain, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and skin diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents in different extracts of E. litt...

  19. Isolasi Senyawa Flavonoida Dari Daun Tumbuhan Ingul (Toona Sureni (Blume) Merr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Iwan Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of flavonoid from the leaves of ingul (Toona sureni (Blume) Merr.) has been done by using extraction methods. Extract Ingul leaves separated by using Column Cromatography methods. Identification process was analyzed by Spectroscopy Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Spectroscopy Infra Red (FT-IR) and Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonancy (1H-NMR). The result analysis of spectrum showed that isolation compound a flavonoida group isoflavone, is yellow crystal with a mass = 47mg a...

  20. Revisão taxonômica de Sabiaceae Blume para o neotrópico

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    Ramos,Eliana

    2012-01-01

    Apresentamos a revisão de Sabiaceae Blume para a região Neotropical. Foram utilizados como base material proveniente de herbários nacionais e internacionais. Foram reconhecidas 89 espécies e duas variedades para a família, 81 espécies e 2 variedades pertencentes ao gênero Meliosma Blume e sete espécies a Ophiocaryon Rob. Schomb. ex Endl., sendo três espécies e uma variedade de Meliosma novas para a ciência (M. cornejoi sp. nov., M. robusta sp. nov., M. starkii sp. nov. e M. boliviensis var. s...

  1. Parallel dynamics of the fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural network

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    Bollé, D.; Blanco, J. Busquets; Shim, G. M.

    2003-02-01

    The parallel dynamics of the fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural network model is studied at zero temperature using a probabilistic approach. A recursive scheme is found determining the complete time evolution of the order parameters, taking into account all feedback correlations. It is based upon the evolution of the distribution of the local field, the structure of which is determined in detail. As an illustrative example explicit analytic formula are given for the first few time steps of the dynamics. Furthermore, equilibrium fixed-point equations are derived and compared with the thermodynamic approach. The analytic results find excellent confirmation in extensive numerical simulations.

  2. Exactly solvable antiferromagnetic Blume-Capel model on a sawtooth chain

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    Guo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Xu, Yu-Liang; Kong, Xiang-Mu

    2016-05-01

    The geometrically frustrated spin-1 Blume-Capel model on an infinite sawtooth chain is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The magnetization, ground-state phase diagram, magnetocaloric properties, and specific heat of the system are investigated. The results indicate that: (i) Magnetization plateaus appear at zero temperature. Their number depends on the sign of the crystal field D . For D ≥0 there are two magnetization plateaus; however, for D magnetocaloric properties and entropy change sharply near phase coexistence points. (iv) The crossovers of the specific heat from a single-peak structure to double-peak ones can signal the phase coexistence points in ground-state phase diagram.

  3. Aplicación de relaciones de densidad-diámetro y de área potencial aprovechable en bosques de Nothofagus Dombeyi (mirb.) Oerst, como herramientas de planificación silvícola .

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Johnson, Pablo Christian

    2013-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de esta tesis de doctorado fue analizar la aplicación de relaciones de densidad ¿ diámetro en bosques de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) oerst, para la localidad del Río Mirta en la XI Región de Chile, como herramientas de planificación silvícola. El método de análisis consistió en la generación de una muestra de densidad¿diámetro a partir de la que se determinó el índice de densidad máximo (IDmax) a partir del cual se estimaron las máximas densidades que la especie podría alc...

  4. Metastability of the Two-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model with Zero Chemical Potential and Small Magnetic Field

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    Landim, C.; Lemire, P.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model with zero chemical potential and small magnetic field evolving on a large but finite torus. We obtain sharp estimates for the transition time, we characterize the set of critical configurations, and we prove the metastable behavior of the dynamics as the temperature vanishes.

  5. Antioxidant, antibrowning, and cytoprotective activities of Ligustrum robustum (Rxob.) Blume extract.

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    Yu, Zhi-Long; Zeng, Wei-Cai

    2013-09-01

    The antioxidant, antibrowning, and cytoprotective activities of Ligustrum robustum (Rxob.) Blume extract (LRE) were investigated and the main antioxidant component was isolated and identified. With its high content of phenols and flavonoids, the LRE showed remarkable antioxidant capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro and to inhibit oil oxidation in a peanut oil system. Moreover, LRE was observed to inhibit tyrosinase action and browning of fresh-cut apple slices effectively. Furthermore, the cytoprotective activity of LRE was evaluated in a human intestine model using Caco-2 cell lines. According to the activity-guided isolation and identification, by using column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, ursolic acid was characterized as the main antioxidant component of LRE; it showed the strongest free radical-scavenging activity. The results suggested that L. robustum (Rxob.) Blume could be a new resource for preparing functional food and nutraceutical products for use in food and pharmacology industries.

  6. Wetting transition in the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model: A Monte Carlo study

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    Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt

    2012-06-01

    The wetting transition of the Blume-Capel model is studied by a finite-size scaling analysis of L×M lattices where competing boundary fields ±H1 act on the first or last row of the L rows in the strip, respectively. We show that using the appropriate anisotropic version of finite-size scaling, critical wetting in d=2 is equivalent to a “bulk” critical phenomenon with exponents α=-1, β=0, and γ=3. These concepts are also verified for the Ising model. For the Blume-Capel model, it is found that the field strength H1c(T) where critical wetting occurs goes to zero when the bulk second-order transition is approached, while H1c(T) stays nonzero in the region where in the bulk a first-order transition from the ordered phase, with nonzero spontaneous magnetization, to the disordered phase occurs. Interfaces between coexisting phases then show interfacial enrichment of a layer of the disordered phase which exhibits in the second-order case a finite thickness only. A tentative discussion of the scaling behavior of the wetting phase diagram near the tricritical point is also given.

  7. Far-from-equilibrium growth of magnetic thin films with Blume-Capel impurities

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    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the irreversible growth of (2 +1 ) -dimensional magnetic thin films. The spin variable can adopt three states (si=±1 ,0 ), and the system is in contact with a thermal bath of temperature T . The deposition process depends on the change of the configuration energy, which, by analogy to the Blume-Capel Hamiltonian in equilibrium systems, depends on Ising-like couplings between neighboring spins (J ) and has a crystal field (D ) term that controls the density of nonmagnetic impurities (si=0 ). Once deposited, particles are not allowed to flip, diffuse, or detach. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we obtain the phase diagram in the crystal field vs temperature parameter space. We show clear evidence of the existence of a tricritical point located at Dt/J =1.145 (10 ) and kBTt/J =0.425 (10 ) , which separates a first-order transition curve at lower temperatures from a critical second-order transition curve at higher temperatures, in analogy with the previously studied equilibrium Blume-Capel model. Furthermore, we show that, along the second-order transition curve, the critical behavior of the irreversible growth model can be described by means of the critical exponents of the two-dimensional Ising model under equilibrium conditions. Therefore, our findings provide a link between well-known theoretical equilibrium models and nonequilibrium growth processes that are of great interest for many experimental applications, as well as a paradigmatic topic of study in current statistical physics.

  8. The Preliminary Detection of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume by HPLC

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    Chatchai NGAMRIABSAKUL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume are normally fermented and eaten by local villagers in Southern Thailand, especially in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. It is well known that fresh seeds can make the person who eats them even in small amounts feel dizzy. The amounts and types of cyanogenic glycosides in the seeds and the effect of heat and fermentation on the amount of the substances have never been reported before. Amygdalin, a type of cyanogenic glycoside, was detected in this preliminary study. It was found that fresh leaves contained 30 ppm of amygdalin, while fresh seeds contained much more amygdalin; 660 ppm, equivalent to a small amount of HCN, 0.005 ppm. Cooked and later fermented seeds had considerably less amygdalin than the fresh ones, 100 ppm and 25 ppm, respectively. It is clearly shown that heat (boiling and fermentation can reduce the amount of amygdalin in the seeds.

  9. The Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural network: dynamics for arbitrary temperature

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    Bollé, D.; Blanco, J. Busquets; Shim, G. M.; Verbeiren, T.

    2004-01-01

    The parallel dynamics of the fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural network model is studied for arbitrary temperature. By employing a probabilistic signal-to-noise approach, a recursive scheme is found determining the time evolution of the distribution of the local fields and, hence, the evolution of the order parameters. A comparison of this approach is made with the generating functional method, allowing to calculate any physical relevant quantity as a function of time. Explicit analytic formula are given in both methods for the first few time steps of the dynamics. Up to the third time step the results are identical. Some arguments are presented why beyond the third time step the results differ for certain values of the model parameters. Furthermore, fixed-point equations are derived in the stationary limit. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical findings.

  10. Schelling segregation in an open city: a kinetically constrained Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 system

    CERN Document Server

    Gauvin, L; Vannimenus, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 70's Schelling introduced a multi-agent model to describe the segregation dynamics that may occur with individuals having only weak preferences for 'similar' neighbors. Recently variants of this model have been discussed, in particular with emphasis on the links with statistical physics models. Whereas these models consider a fixed number of agents moving on a lattice, here we present a version allowing for exchanges with an external reservoir of agents. The density of agents is controlled by a parameter which can be viewed as measuring the attractiveness of the city-lattice. This model is directly related to the Blume Emery Griffiths (BEG) spin-1 model at zero temperature, with kinetic constraints. These constraints lead to a new variety of "phases" whose main features are the characteristics of the interfaces between clusters of different agents. The domains of existence of each type of interface are obtained analytically as well as numerically. These interfaces may completely isolate the agents lead...

  11. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

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    SUMARWOTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  12. Geometrical mutual information at the tricritical point of the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Ipsita; Melko, Roger G

    2016-01-01

    The spin-1 classical Blume-Capel model on a square lattice is known to exhibit a finite-temperature phase transition described by the tricritical Ising CFT in 1+1 space-time dimensions. This phase transition can be accessed with classical Monte Carlo simulations, which, via a replica-trick calculation, can be used to study the shape-dependence of the classical R\\'enyi entropies for a torus divided into two cylinders. From the second R\\'enyi entropy, we calculate the Geometrical Mutual Information (GMI) introduced by St\\'ephan et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 127204 (2014)] and use it to extract a numerical estimate for the value of the central charge near the tricritical point. By comparing to the known CFT result, $c=7/10$, we demonstrate how this type of GMI calculation can be used to estimate the position of the tricritical point in the phase diagram.

  13. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

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    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  14. Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on three-dimensional lattices: Consequences for the antiferromagnetic Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinskas, Saulius; Rosengren, Anders

    1994-06-01

    Using the cluster-variation method we study the phase diagram of the Blume-Emergy-Griffiths (BEG) model on simple cubic and face-centered cubic lattices. For the simple cubic lattice the main attention is paid to reentrant phenomena and ferrimagnetic phases occurring in a certain range of coupling constants. The results are in close agreement with Monte-Carlo data, available for parts of the phase diagram. Several ferrimagnetic phases are obtained in the vicinity of the line in parameter space, at which the model reduces to the antiferromagnetic three-state Potts model. Our results imply the existence of three phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Potts model on the simple-cubic lattice. The phase diagrams for the BEG model on the face-centered cubic lattice are obtained in the region of antiquadrupolar ordering. Also the several ordered phases of the antiferromagnetic Potts model on this lattice are discussed.

  15. Critical surface of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwa, Leh-Hun; Wu, F. Y.

    1991-06-01

    We consider the Blume-Emergy-Griffiths (BEG) model on the honeycomb lattice and obtain a closed-form expression for the critical surface of second-order transitions. The BEG model is first formulated as a three-state vertex model. Using the fact that the BEG critical surface coincides with that of a general three-state vertex model, we construct critical surfaces by forming polynomial combinations of vertex weights that are invariant under an O(3) gauge transformation. We then carry out a finite-size analysis of the BEG model, and use data so obtained to determine coefficients appearing in the polynomial combination. This procedure leads to a closed-form expression of the critical surface which reproduces all numerical data accurately.

  16. Critical behavior of the square lattice Blume-Capel model with an alternating anisotropy and next nearest neighbour interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigenori; Ito, Nobuyasu; Hida, Kazuo

    2010-02-01

    Phase diagram and critical phenomena of a frustrated Blume-Capel model with alternating single-ion anisotropy ± D, nearest- and next-nearest-neighbour exchange interactions with equal magnitude J are studied by the Monte Carlo simulations using Wang-Landau sampling and nonequilibrium relaxation method. The collinear ordered phase due to next-nearest-neighbour interaction and partial ordered phase due to alternating anisotropy are confirmed together with a paramagnetic phase. We obtained the numerical results which strongly suggests that a single phase transition at D = 0 splits into two Ising lines as soon as D is switched on. With the increase of D, the critical point of the easy-axis sublattice stays on a usual Ising-like critical line while that of the easy-plane sublattice passes through the tricritical point and the transition becomes of the first order as in the usual Blume-Capel model.

  17. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  18. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

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    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  19. Schelling segregation in an open city: A kinetically constrained Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Nadal, Jean-Pierre; Vannimenus, Jean

    2010-06-01

    In the 70s Schelling introduced a multiagent model to describe the segregation dynamics that may occur with individuals having only weak preferences for “similar” neighbors. Recently variants of this model have been discussed, in particular, with emphasis on the links with statistical physics models. Whereas these models consider a fixed number of agents moving on a lattice, here, we present a version allowing for exchanges with an external reservoir of agents. The density of agents is controlled by a parameter which can be viewed as measuring the attractiveness of the city lattice. This model is directly related to the zero-temperature dynamics of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 model, with kinetic constraints. With a varying vacancy density, the dynamics with agents making deterministic decisions leads to a variety of “phases” whose main features are the characteristics of the interfaces between clusters of agents of different types. The domains of existence of each type of interface are obtained analytically as well as numerically. These interfaces may completely isolate the agents leading to another type of segregation as compared to what is observed in the original Schelling model, and we discuss its possible socioeconomic correlates.

  20. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  1. Ferrimagnetic Properties of Bond Dilution Mixed Blume-Capel Model with Random Single-Ion Anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; YAN Shi-Lei

    2005-01-01

    We study the ferrimagnetic properties of spin 1/2 and spin-1 systems by means of the effective field theory.The system is considered in the framework of bond dilution mixed Blume-Capel model (BCM) with random single-ion anisotropy. The investigation of phase diagrams and magnetization curves indicates the existence of induced magnetic ordering and single or multi-compensation points. Special emphasis is placed on the influence of bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy on normal or induced magnetic ordering states and single or multi-compensation points.Normal magnetic ordering states take on new phase diagrams with increasing randomness (bond and anisotropy), while anisotropy induced magnetic ordering states are always occurrence no matter whether concentration of anisotropy is large or small. Existence and disappearance of compensation points rely strongly on bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy.Some results have not been revealed in Previous papers and predicted by Néel theory of ferrimagnetism.

  2. Micropropagation of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume and regeneration induction via adventitious buds and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Codiaeum variegatum (L) Blume cv. "Corazon de oro" and cv. "Norma" are successfully micropropagated when culture are initiated with explants taken from newly sprouted shoots. The establishment and multiplication steps are possible when 1 mg/L BA or 1 mg/L IAA and 3 mg/L 2iP are added to MS medium, according to the cultivar respectively selected.Adventive organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are induced from leaf explants taken from in vitro buds of croton. On leaf-sectioned of "Corazon de oro" cultured in vitro, 1 mg/L BA stimulates continuous somatic embryos development and induces some shoots too. Replacing BA with 1 mg/L TDZ induces up to 100% bud regeneration in the same explants. On the other hand, leaf-sectioned of C. variegatum cv. Norma does not start somatic embryo differentiation if 1 mg/L TDZ is not added to the MS basal medium. Incipient callus is observed after 30 days of culture, and then, subculture to MS with 1 mg/L BA allows the same process to show on the "Corazon de oro" cultivar. Somatic embryos show growth arrest that is partially overcome by transfer to hormone-free basal medium with activated charcoal. Root induction is possible on basal medium plus 1 mg/L IBA. Plantlets in the greenhouse have variegated leaves true-to-type.

  3. Antioxidant potential of polyphenols and tannins from burs of Castanea mollissima Blume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Liu, Jie Yuan; Chen, Si Yu; Shi, Ling Ling; Liu, Yu Jun; Ma, Chao

    2011-10-12

    Spiny burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) are usually discarded as industrial waste during post-harvesting processing. The objective of this study was to establish an extraction and isolation procedure for tannins from chestnut burs, and to assess their potential antioxidant activity. Aqueous ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent, and HPD 100 macroporous resin column was applied for isolation. The influence of solvent concentration in the extraction and elution process on extraction yield, tannins and polyphenols content, as well as antioxidant potential, including DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power ability and cellular antioxidant ability were assessed. In both the extraction and isolation process, 50% aqueous ethanol led to superior total tannins and polyphenols content as well as significantly higher antioxidant activity. In addition, the antioxidant activity and the total tannins content in extracts and fractions had a positive linear correlation, and the predominant components responsible for antioxidant activities were characterized as hydrolysable tannins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the enrichment of tannins from burs of C. mollissim using macroporous resin chromatography, and to assess the cellular antioxidant activity of them.

  4. Tricriticality of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in thin films of stacked triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hog, Sahbi; Diep, H. T.

    2016-03-01

    We study in this paper the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in a thin film of stacked triangular lattices. The model is described by three parameters: bilinear exchange interaction between spins J, quadratic exchange interaction K and single-ion anisotropy D. The spin Si at the lattice site i takes three values (-1, 0, +1). This model can describe the mixing phase of He-4 (Si = +1,-1) and He-3 (Si = 0) at low temperatures. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there exists a critical value of D below (above) which the transition is of second-(first-)order. In general, the temperature dependence of the concentrations of He-3 is different from layer by layer. At a finite temperature in the superfluid phase, the film surface shows a deficit of He-4 with respect to interior layers. However, effects of surface interaction parameters can reverse this situation. Effects of the film thickness on physical properties will be also shown as functions of temperature.

  5. Tensor Renormalization Group Study of the General Spin-S Blume-Capel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    We focus on the special situation of D = 2J in the general spin-S Blume-Capel model on a square lattice. Under an infinitesimal external magnetic field, the phase transition behaviors due to the thermal fluctuations are investigated by the newly developed tensor renormalization group method. We clearly demonstrate the phase transition process: in the case of an integer spin-S, there are S first-order phase transitions with the stepwise magnetizations M = S,S - 1, ldots ,0; in the case of a half-odd integer spin-S, there are S - 1/2 first-order phase transitions with corresponding M = S,S - 1, ldots ,1/2 in addition to one continuous phase transition due to spin-flip Z2 symmetry breaking. At low temperatures, all first-order phase transitions are accompanied by the successive disappearance of the spin-component pairs (±s); furthermore, the transition temperature for the nth first-order phase transition is the same, independent of the value of the spin-S. In the absence of a magnetic field, a visualization parameter characterizing the intrinsic degeneracy of the different phases provides a different reference for the phase transition process.

  6. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Whole Plant of Enicostemma littorale Blume

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    S. Vinotha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale Blume (Gentianaceae family, which is commonly known as Mamajaka (Sanskrit, Vellarugu (Tamil and Indian gentian (English. E. littorale is a perennial herb which grows in coastal areas of Northern and Eastern province of Sri Lanka. The whole plant is dried and powdered and used to treat rheumatism, swelling, back pain, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and skin diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents in different extracts of E. littorale according to the standard procedures. Quantitative estimation of some of the active constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were also carried out. The preliminary phytochemical screening of hot and cold ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, proteins, reducing sugar coumarins and quinones and absence of anthraquinones. Cold and hot water extracts showed the presence of fat and fixed oil. The total alkaloid and flavonoid contents were found to be 2.25 ± 0.01 % and 25.34 ± 0.24 % respectively and total saponin content was (Foaming Index FI < 100. The phytochemicals identified in the present study may be used as tools for quality control of drugs prepared with E. littorale in the future, for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions.

  7. MANIPULASI AGRONOMI BUNGA ILES-ILES (AMORPHOPHALLUS MUELLERI BLUME UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI BIJI

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    Edi Santosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Corm of iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume is extracted for glucomannan production, a material that is widely used in medicinal, food, and beverage industries. Increasing demand on glucomannan promotes fast expansion of planting area in Indonesia, however, seed availability is limited. The objective of the experiment was to study corm age, planting distance, and planting depth in order to enhance seed production in A. muelleri. Two experiments were conducted under paranet of 65% in Leuwikopo Experimental Farm, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB from June-November 2015. First experiment used 0- (bulbils, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old corms. Second experiment used flowering 3-year-old corms, arranged by factorial of planting distance (0 × 0 cm and 50 × 50 cm and planting depth (0 and 5 cm in depth. Results showed that flowering of A. muelleri was dependent on corm age, 96% of 3-year-old corms produced flower but none of the 1- and 4-years-old corms produced flower, whereas 8% of 2-year-old corms produced flower. Planting distance did not affect flower growth, while planting at a depth of 5 cm enhanced seed production. Present experiments imply that application of large 3-year-old corms, planting in dense population and at depth of 5 cm could enhance seed production of A. muelleri. It needs further investigation on seed quality from flowering of present treatments.

  8. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols from the Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume

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    Jianwei Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol extracts from the burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (CMPE exhibited potential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of CMPE were assessed as a means of elucidating the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic activities. In vitro studies showed that CMPE significantly inhibited both yeast α-glucosidase, through a noncompetitive mode with an IC50 of 0.33 μg/mL, and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. In vivo studies revealed that oral administration of CMPE at doses of 600 mg/kg significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 27.2% in normal rats following sucrose challenges. Gel permeation chromatography revealed that CMPE exhibited typical characteristics of high-molecular-mass polymers with mean (Mn and weight (Mw average molecular weights of 35.4 and 50.7 kDa, respectively, and a polydispersity (Mw/Mn of 1.432. Acid hydrolysis analysis indicated the presence of ellagitannins. These data suggest that CMPE, enriched with ellagitannins, would be an efficacious dietary supplement for diabetes management through the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase.

  9. Peroxide values of Aglaia argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr., dan A. tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn.

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    PRAPTIWI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical components and the peroxide values of three Aglaia species (A. argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr and A. tomentosa Teijsm & Binn. Phytochemical screening was done by Cuiley method, while peroxide values were determined by iodometri-titration on methanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The result of phytochemical screening indicated that all of Aglaia species tested (three species contained sterol and triterpenoids, base alkaloid, reduction sugar, and anthrasenoid while other components present only in one or two species of Aglaia. Peroxide values of the tested extracts were higher than that of vitamin E (40.996 mili-equivalent/1000 g samples as a standard reductor, except the peroxide value of chloroform extract of A. tomentosa (41.078 milli-equivalent/ 1000 g sample. It can be concluded that A. tomentosa chloroform extract might had similar ability with vitamin E in preventing or delaying oxidation process. A. tomentosa chloroform extract acted as reductor.

  10. Organic Additives Improves the in Vitro Growth of Native Orchid Vanda helvola Blume

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    Devina DAVID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro seed germination has been proven to be the most efficient technique to propagate orchid. The application of this aseptic technique has contributed to conservation of many endangered orchid species. In this study, undehisced capsules of Vanda helvola Blume were collected from Orchid Conservation Centre in Lagud Sebrang Agriculture Park, after 120 days from hand pollination and aseptically cultured on three types of basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS, Knudson C (KC and Vacin and Went (VW. After 90 days of culture, 66.40 ± 4.14% of seeds successfully germinated on KC medium. The effect of organic additives such as tomato juice, coconut water, peptone and yeast extract at different level of concentrations in KC basal medium were also tested on seed germination and seedling development of this native orchid. After 90 days of culture, over 90% of seeds were tremendously germinated on KC medium supplemented with 10% or 15% (v/v of tomato juice. The incorporation of peptone at 0.1% (w/v in KC basal media promoted rapid development of protocorm to seedling. Seedlings on this treatment produced an average of three leaves and two roots after 90 days of culture and were successfully acclimatized.

  11. Ethyl ether fraction of Gastrodia elata Blume protects amyloid beta peptide-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Lee, Dong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Han

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Recently, it has been reported that Alzheimer's disease is associated with cell death in neuronal cells including the hippocampus. Amyloid beta-peptide stimulates neuronal cell death, but the underlying signaling pathways are poorly understood. In order to develop anti-dementia agents with potential therapeutic value, we examined the effect of the herbal compound Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on neuronal cell death induced by amyloid beta-peptide in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The fractionation of GEB was carried out in various solvents. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of the ethyl ether fraction was more potent than any other fractions. In cells treated with amyloid beta-peptide, the neuroprotective effect of the ethyl ether, chloroform, and butanol fractions was 92, 44, and 39%, respectively, compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that the ethyl ether fraction of GEB contains one or more compounds that dramatically reduce amyloid beta-peptide induced neuronal cell death in vitro.

  12. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

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    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  13. Spin-1 Blume-Capel model with longitudinal random crystal and transverse magnetic fields:A mean-field approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Albayrak

    2013-01-01

    The spin-1 Blume-Capel model with transverse Ω and longitudinal external magnetic fields h,in addition to a longitudinal random crystal field D,is studied in the mean-field approximation.It is assumed that the crystal field is either turned on with probability p or turned off with probability 1-p on the sites of a square lattice.Phase diagrams are then calculated on the reduced temperature crystal field planes for given values of γ =-Ω/J and p at zero h.Thus,the effect of changing γ and p are illustrated on the phase diagrams in great detail and interesting results are observed.

  14. Ferromagnetic Properties of Bond-Dilution and Random Positive or Negative Uniaxial Anisotropy Blume-Capel Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hai-Xia; YAN Shi-Lei

    2004-01-01

    We study the ferromagnetic properties of spin-1 system, which is considered in the frame of the bond dilution and random positive or negative anisotropy Blume-Capel model in the effective field theory and a cutting approximation. The investigation of phase diagrams displays some rich properties of the trajectory of tricritical point, reentrant henomena at low temperatures. Under certain both bond concentrations and random negative anisotropy, there are new transition lines of double tricritical points. So special emphasis is placed on the influence of the bond dilution and random anisotropy on phase diagrams. The magnetizations of the system are also discussed. Some results have not been evealed in previous reports.

  15. Absence of first order transition in the random crystal field Blume-Capel model on a fully connected graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumedha; Jana, Nabin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we solve the Blume-Capel model on a complete graph in the presence of random crystal field with a distribution, P≤ft({{ Δ }i}\\right)=pδ ≤ft({{ Δ }i}- Δ \\right)+(1-p)δ ≤ft({{ Δ }i}+ Δ \\right) , using large deviation techniques. We find that the first order transition of the pure system is destroyed for 0.046    0.954) even at zero temperature.

  16. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih; Sanro Tachibana; Rizna Triana Dewi; Kazutaka Itoh

    2015-01-01

    To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) µmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) µmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) µmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) µmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) µmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) µmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  17. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  18. Genetic variability of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in Java based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIYAH MARTANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Araceae is valued for its glucomanan content for use in food industry (healthy diet food, paper industry, pharmacy and cosmetics. The species is triploid (2n=3x=39 and the seed is developed apomictically. The present research is aimed to identify genetic variability of six population of A. muelleri from Java (consisted of 50 accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The six populations of the species are: East Java: (1 Silo-Jember, (2 Saradan-Madiun, (3 IPB (cultivated, from Saradan-Madiun, (4 Panti-Jember, (5 Probolinggo; and Central Java: (6 Cilacap. The results showed that five RAPD primers generated 42 scorable bands of which 29 (69.05% were polymorphic. Size of the bands varied from 300bp to 1.5kbp. The 50 accessions of A. muelleri were divided into two main clusters, some of them were grouped based on their populations, and some others were not. The range of individual genetic dissimilarity was from 0.02 to 0.36. The results showed that among six populations investigated, Saradan population showed the highest levels of genetic variation with mean values of na = 1.500+ 0.5061, ne = 1.3174 + 0.3841, PLP = 50% and He = 0, 0.1832+0.2054, whereas Silo-Jember population showed the lowest levels of genetic variation with mean values na = 1.2619+ 0.4450, ne = 1.1890 + 0.3507, PLP = 26.19% and He = 0.1048+0.1887. Efforts to conserve, domesticate, cultivate and improve genetically should be based on the genetic properties of each population and individual within population, especially Saradan population which has the highest levels of genetic variation, need more attention for its conservation.

  19. Cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of Strobilanthes crispa Blume extracts on nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Rhun Yian; Sim, Yi Chi; Toh, Hwee Jin; Liam, Liang Kuan; Ong, Rachael Sze Lynn; Yew, Mei Yeng; Tiong, Yee Lian; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Ng, Khuen Yen

    2015-10-01

    The chemotherapeutic agents used to treat nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) exhibit low efficacy. Strobilanthes crispa Blume is widely used for its anticancer, diuretic and anti‑diabetic properties. The present study aimed to determine the cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of S. crispa on CNE‑1 NPC cells. A 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of S. crispa against CNE‑1 cells. The rate of apoptosis was determined using propidium iodide staining and caspase assays. Ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform extracts of S. crispa leaves all exhibited cytotoxic effects on CNE‑1 cells, at a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 119, 123.5 and 161.7 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of S. crispa stems inhibited CNE‑1 cell proliferation, at a IC50 of 49.4, 148.3 and 163.5 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed an increased proportion of cells in the sub G1 phase and a decreased proportion of cells in the G2/M phase, following treatment with the extracts. However, the extracts did not alter the activities of caspase ‑3/7, ‑8 and ‑9. No cytotoxic effect was observed when the cells were treated with the methanol and water extracts of S. crispa stems and leaves. In conclusion, the S. crispa extracts were cytotoxic against CNE‑1 cells and these extracts were able to induce apoptosis, independent of caspase activation.

  20. Phytochemistry, anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of Anchomanes difformis(Blume) Engl. leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ovuakporie-Uvo Oghale; Mac Donald Idu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemistry, anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Anchomanes difformis(Blume) Engl.(A. difformis) and to verify claims of use in folk medicine.Methods: For anti-asthmatic activity, male and female guinea pigs with average body weight of(451.4 ± 118.1) g were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1served as control(distilled water); Group 2 was administered with salbutamol(reference drug) only; Group 3 served as ovalbumin sensitized group, Group 4, 5 and 6 were treated with A. difformis extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Described methods were used to test fluid viscosity, fluid volume and quantitative phytochemistry analysis. Absorbance was read using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer and results computed in percentage. Total antioxidant assays [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assay], were carried out using reported procedures.Results: The anti-asthmatic evaluation showed that protection from asthma of the animals in Group 6(400 mg/kg, 32.7%) were similar to that in Group 2(salbutamol, 33.0%).Excised trachea was free of mucus secretion in Group 5(200 mg/kg) as was observed in the control group. Fluid volume increase in Groups 3 and 6 indicated mucus secretion.DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract was effective as ascorbic acid which served as standard at 20 mg/m L. But, the extract elicited low lipid peroxidation activity compared with the reference(tocopherol) at concentrations tested.Conclusions: A. difformis aqueous leaf extract is safe and possesses positive antiasthmatic and antioxidant activities as claimed by traditional herbal practitioners in Delta State.

  1. Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract promotes neuronal growth in cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Tang; Yiren Chen; Xiaosong Gu; Fei Ding

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared an aqueous extract of Achyranthes bidentata Blume,a commonly prescribed Chinese medicinal herb,and reported,in previous studies,that A.bidentata extract benefits nerve growth and prevents neuron apoptosis.In this study,we investigated the actions of ,4.bidentata extract on survival and growth of primarily cultured rat hippocampal neurons.The morphological observation revealed that neurite growth from hippocampal neurons was significantly enhanced by A.bidentata extract with similar effects to those induced by nerve growth factor (NGF),and the greatest neurite growth appeared on treatment with A.bidentata extract at 1 ttg/ml for 24 h.DNA microarray analysis indicated that there were 25 upregulated genes and 47 downregulated genes exhibiting significantly differential expression in hippocampal neurons treated with A.bidentata extract at 1 μg/ml for 6 h when compared to those in untreated hippocampal neurons.Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of growth-associated protein-43 in hippocampal neurons was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels after treatment with A.bidentata extract,and the optimal dosage of the extract was also 1 μg/ml.These data confirm that A.bidentata extract could promote in vitro hippocampal neuronal growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner.(C) 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  2. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Mannose-binding Lectin from the Rhizomes of Aspidistra elatior Blume with Antiproliferative Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochao XU; Chuanfang WU; Chao LIU; Yongting LUO; Jian LI; Xinping ZHAO; Els Van DAMME; Jinku BAO

    2007-01-01

    A lectin with a novel N-terminal amino acid sequence was purified from the rhizomes of Aspidistra elatior Blume by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100. The A. elatior Blume lectin (AEL) is a heterotetramer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and composed of two homodimers consisting of two different polypeptides of 13.5 kDa and 14.5 kDa held together by noncovalent interactions. Hapten inhibition assay indicated that hemagglutinating activity of AEL towards rabbit erythrocytes could be inhibited by D-mannose, mannan, thyroglobulin and ovomucoid. The lectin was stable up to 70 ℃, and showed maximum activity in a narrow pH range of 7.0-8.0. Chemical modification and spectrum analysis indicated that tryptophan, arginine, cysteine and carboxyl group residues were essential for its hemagglutinating activity. However, they might not be present in the active center, except some carboxyl group residues. AEL also showed significant in vitro antiproliferative activity towards Bre-04 (66%),Lu-04 (60%) and HepG2 (56%) of human cancer cell lines.

  4. The spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model with competing short- and long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Octavio D. Rodriguez; de Sousa, José Ricardo; Neto, Minos A.; Padilha, Igor T.; Azevedo, J. Roberto Viana; Neto, Francisco Dinóla

    2016-12-01

    The phase diagrams of the spin- 3 / 2 Blume-Capel model with competing short and long-range interactions were studied through the free energy density obtained by analytical methods. The competition emerges when positive short-range interactions of strength K arranged in a linear chain tend to establish an anti-parallel spin order, whereas negative long-range interactions - J tend to align them in parallel. Thus, no ferromagnetic order exists for K / J > 0.25. So, the phase-diagrams were scanned by varying the values of K, for 0 value. Accordingly, there is a sub interval of K, for which two tricritical points appear restricting the length of the second-order frontier. Nevertheless, for greater values of K / J, the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic frontier becomes wholly of first order. Also, the typical line of coexistence of the spin- 3 / 2 Blume-Capel model, which divides two different ferromagnetic phases of magnetization m = 3 / 2 and m = 1 / 2, becomes more complex by giving rise to another first-order line with a reentrant behavior that encloses a third ordered phase. In this case, the competition is such that there is a region in the phase diagram, where for each spin i with Si = 3 / 2 (Si = - 3 / 2), there is another spin j, where j = i + 1 and Sj = 1 / 2 (Sj = - 1 / 2), such that the absolute value of the magnetization per spin is one.

  5. In vitro clonal propagation of Achyranthes aspera L. and Achyranthes bidentata Blume using nodal explants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wesely Edward Gnanaraj; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Mohanamathi RB

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop the reproducible in vitro propagation protocols for the medicinally important plants viz., Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. and Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata) Blume using nodal segments as explants. Methods: Young shoots of A. aspera and A. bidentata were harvested and washed with running tap water and treated with 0.1% bavistin and rinsed twice with distilled water. Then the explants were surface sterilized with 0.1% (w/v) HgCl2 solutions for 1 min. After rinsing with sterile distilled water for 3-4 times, nodal segments were cut into smaller segments (1 cm) and used as the explants. The explants were placed horizontally as well as vertically on solid basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) agar (Hi-Media, Mumbai) and different concentration and combination of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) for direct regeneration.Results:Adventitious proliferation was obtained from A. aspera and A. bidentata nodal segments inoculated on MS basal medium with 3% sucrose and augmented with BAP and Kin with varied frequency. MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of BAP showed the highest percentage (93.60±0.71) of shootlets formation for A. aspera and (94.70±0.53) percentages for A. bidentata. Maximum number of shoots/explants (10.60±0.36) for A. aspera and (9.50±0.56) for A. bidentata was observed in MS medium fortified with 5.0 mg/L of BAP. For A. aspera, maximum mean length (5.50±0.34) of shootlets was obtained in MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of Kin and for A. bidentata (5.40±0.61) was observed in the very same concentration. The highest percentage, maximum number of rootlets/shootlet and mean length of rootlets were observed in 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of IBA. Seventy percentages of plants were successfully established in polycups. Sixty eight percentages of plants were well established in the green house condition

  6. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  7. Multilayer transition in a spin-1 Blume-Capel model with RKKY interaction and quantum transverse anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Tahiri; H. Ez-Zahraouy; A. Benyoussef

    2011-01-01

    Using mean-field theory, we have studied the effect of quantum transverse anieotropies with RKKY interaction on the multi-layer transition and magnetic properties of the spin-1 Blume-Capel model of a system formed by two magnetic multi-layer materials, of different thicknesses, separated by a non-magnetic spacer of thickness M. It is found that the multilayer magnetic order-disorder transition temperature depends strongly on the value of the transverse anisotropy.The multilayer transition temperature decreases when increasing the transverse anisotropy. Furthermore, there exists a critical quantum transverse anisotropy △xL beyond which the separate transitions occur in the two magnetic layers.The critical transverse anisotropy △xL decreases (increases) on increasing the non-magnetic spacer of thickness M (on increasing the crystal field), and △xL undergoes oscillations as a function of the Fermi level.

  8. IN VITRO AND IN SILICO APPROACH TO EVALUATE THE ANTI-DERMATOPHYTIC ACTIVITY OF ENICOSTEMMA LITTORALE BLUME

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    Muthusami Jeyam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are the causative agents of superficial skin infections, dermatophytoses, which are capable of invading and digesting keratin. The current usage of synthetic drugs leads to either side effects in human or resistant fungal varieties due to prolonged use. Hence the present study aims at finding leads from phytocompounds to target the enzymes involved in maintaining fungal cell wall integrity, namely, 1, 3 β-D glucan synthase and chitinase, important enzyme having a role in morphogenesis. Docking analysis was carried out for the above targets with already reported phytocompounds of Enicostemma axillare (syn. littorale Blume and compared with the specific synthetic drugs to evaluate their efficacy as fungal inhibitors using Glide software. The in vitro study was carried out for E. littorale extract against Microsporum gypseum. The significant results were observed with the petroleum ether extract of the aerial parts of E. littorale at a concentration of 3000 µg/ml.

  9. The inhibition of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume leaf extract on COX-2 expression of Wi Dr colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agustina Setiawati; Handika Immanuel; Mery Tri Utami

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the inhibition activity of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume(T. flagelliforme) leaf extract on cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2) expression of colon cancer cells.Methods: T. flagelliforme leaf extract was prepared to macerate in ethyl acetate. In vitro anticancer activity was assayed by MTT method on Wi Dr colon cancer cells. This study applied apoptosis induction assay to investigate the mechanism of cell death using double staining method. COX-2 expression was stained by immunocytochemistry.Results: T. flagelliforme showed anticancer activity and induced apoptosis on Wi Dr cells through inhibition of COX-2 expression with IC5070 mg/m L.Conclusions: This study showed that T. flagelliforme is a promising chemopreventive agent for colon cancer through COX-2 inhibition.

  10. Bioactivities and chemical constituents of a vietnamese medicinal plant Che Vang, Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai Hue, Ngan; Thi Cam, Hoai; Le Mai, Huong

    2008-01-01

    Five crude extracts were made from leaves and stems of Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae) and investigated for antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The extractions were done with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol or water. All extracts exhibited anti.......2 and 20 μg/mL, respectively. From the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts, two triterpenes namely 3-acetyl-oleanolic acid and lup-20-en-3-ol and a sterol, stigmast-5-en-3-ol were isolated. The structure of those compounds were elucidated by spectrometric methods IR, MS, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and 25......-bacterial activity except the water fraction. On the other hand, all extracts exhibit antioxidant activity except the petroleum ether fraction using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Only the petroleum ether fraction showed a cytotoxicity activity against tested cell-lines, Hep-G2 and RD with IC50 values of 19...

  11. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  13. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

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    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  14. RASIO SEKS JERNANG (Daemonorops draco (Willd.Blume PADA POPULASI ALAMI DAN BUDIDAYA: IMPLIKASI UNTUK PRODUKSI BIJI

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    Revis Asra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jernang (Daemonorops draco (Willd. Blume is a dioecious rattan species that produces resin on female individuals. The sex of jernang can only be identified from its inflorescences morphology. Sex survey was conducted in 5 populations of  jernang, 3 populations of which in the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (BTNP, 1 population in the secondary forest in Jambi province and 1 population in the area of rubber plantation in Jambi province. Chi-Squared test on the sex ratio of  jernang showed that the ratio of the male to female in their natural habitat (Bengayoan and Tebo, 2 parts of the BTNP ecosystem and the Sepintun secondary forest was distorted from the normal ratio of 1:1, while the cultivated jernang in Nunusan population (BTNPT and Mandiangin were not significantly different from the normal sex ratio of 1:1. Female individuals from the cultivated population in the Mandiangin (planted in 1997 has an average number of stems per clump more on individual males (27.12 than females (26.92. The result of this study indicated that the D. draco has a good reproductive strategy and thus suitable for cultivation.

  15. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ismail, Nur Amalina; Isha, Azizul; Mei Ling, Angelina Lee

    2016-01-01

    Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume) were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays), antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and carotenoid content [21.86 ± 0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17 ± 0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96 ± 0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE)/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23-26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity.

  16. Toxic effects of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil on red blood cells of Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Izatus Shima TAIB; Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Maseran SITI NOR AIN; Jamaludin MOHAMED; Santhana Raj LOUIS; Srijit DAS; Sulaiman SALLEHUDIN; Nor Fadilah RAJAB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2009-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume leaves have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs because of its antimutagenicity, che-mopreventative and insecticidal properties. In this study, the toxic effects of L. elliptica essential oil against Sprague-Dawley rat's red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. L. elliptica essential oil was given by oral gavage 5 times per week for 3 treated groups in the doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/(kg body weight), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. Full blood count, RBC osmotic fragility, RBC morphological changes, and RBC membrane lipid were analyzed 28 d after the treatment. Although L. elliptica essential oil administration had significantly different effects on hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P0.05). It is concluded that structural changes in the RBC membrane due to L. elliptica essential oil administration did not cause severe membrane damage.

  17. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Cesur; Keskin, Mustafa

    2002-08-01

    We investigate the thermal variations of the spin-1 Blume-Emergy-Griffiths model with the repulsive biquadratic interaction by using the lowest approximation of the cluster-variation method. Besides the stable branches of the order parameters, we obtain the metastable and unstable parts of these curves and also find phase transitions of the metastable branches of the order parameters. The classification of the stable, metastable, and unstable states is made by comparing the free-energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. This is done by studying the relaxation of the order parameters and as well as expressing the solution of the dynamic equations by means of the flow diagrams. Finally, we present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in (kT/J,D/J) and (kT/J,K/J) planes.

  18. Critical behaviours and magnetic properties of three-dimensional bond and anisotropy dilution Blume-Capel model in the presence of an applied field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Lei; Zhu Hai-Xia

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the critical behaviours and magnetic properties of three-dimensional bond and anisotropy dilution Blume-Capel model (BCM) in the presence of an applied field within the effective field theory. The trajectory of tricritical point, reentrant transitions and degenerate patterns of anisotropy are obtained both for the bond and the anisotropy dilutions. The global phase diagrams demonstrate unusually reentrant phenomena. The temperature dependences of magnetization curves undergo remarkable spin glass behaviour at low temperatures, and transform from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism at high temperature in applied fields. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility curve is in qualitative agreement with experimental result.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with S=3/2 and S=5/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, T.; Arai, H.; Ito, Y. [General Education Center, Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Muraoka, Y., E-mail: muraoka@ariake-nct.ac.jp [Department of General Education, Ariake National Collage of Technology, Omuta, Fukuoka, 836-8585 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The magnetic properties of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths(BEG) model [1] with fractional large spin(S=3/2 and S=5/2) on two-dimensional square lattice are discussed by making use of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the magnetization Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , sublattice magnetizations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(A) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(B) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , the magnetic specific heat C{sub M} and spin structures. The ground state phase diagram of these models has been obtained for exchange parameter J{sub 2}/J{sub 1} and anisotropy parameter D/J{sub 1}. The temperature dependence of sublattice magnetizations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(A) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket S{sub z}(B) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket is investigated for various values of the anisotropy D. The relations between the Curie temperature T{sub c} and the critical temperature T{sub s} at which sublattice magnetizations begin taking different values are also studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MC simulation for the S=3/2 and 5/2 BEG model on the square lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ground state phase diagrams are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the spin structure and the temperature dependences of magnetization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The abnormal behaviors of magnetization are explained by sublattice magnetization.

  20. 天麻药材HPLC指纹图谱研究%HPLC Fingerprint of Gastrodia Elata Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永来; 刘志承; 吕萍; 刘纪青

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study HPLC fingerprint of gastrodia elata BI for its reliable quality control.Methods:The analysis was performed on ultimate XB-C18 column (250mm×4.6mm,5μm);mobile phase methanal-1% acetic acid in water in a gradient elution columm temperrature 30℃,flow rate 1.0ml/min.The UV detector was set at 270nm.Results:The fingerprint of gastrodia elata BI was established and 16 common peaks were displayed in the fingerprint.The average recovery of gastrodine were 102.66%,(RSD<2.5%).Conclusion:The method can be provide a new model of the quality control for gastrodia elata Blume as well as an accurate and rapid tool for the identification of the unknown samples.%目的:研究天麻药材的HPLC 指纹图谱,为天麻药材的质量控制提供可靠方法.方法:采用HPLC 法.色谱柱为Ultimate XB-C18 柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-1% 冰醋酸水溶液,梯度洗脱,柱温为30℃,流速1ml·min-1,检测波长270nm.结果:初步建立了天麻药材的HPLC 指纹图谱,标定出16 个共有峰,天麻素的加样加收率为102.66%,RSD<2.5%.结论:HPLC 指纹图谱可为天麻药材质量控制提供一种新模式,并可为未知天麻样品鉴别提供一个准确、快捷的工具.

  1. A model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume corm

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    SERAFINAH INDRIYANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indriyani S, Arisoesilaningsih E, Wardiyati T, Purnobasuki H (2011 A model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume corm. Biodiversitas 12: 45-51. The abiotic environment as well as the biotic environment, involved climate and soil affect directly or indirectly to plant growth as well as plant substance. The objective of the research was to obtain a model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang corm. Porang corms were collected from five locations of porang agroforestry in East Java. The locations were (i Klangon Village, Saradan Subdistrict, Madiun District; (ii Klino Villlage, Sekar Subdistrict, Bojonegoro District; (iii Bendoasri Village, Rejoso Subdistrict, Nganjuk District; (iv Sugihwaras Village, Nggluyu Subdistrict, Nganjuk District and (v Kalirejo Village, Kalipare Subdistrict, Malang District. Geography variable consist of altitude. Climate variables consist of percentage of radiation, temperature and rainfall. Soil variables consist of electrical conductivity, pH, soil specific gravity, soil organic matter, available of calcium, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Vegetation variables consist of species of plant tree and percentage of coverage. Porang vegetative growth variables consist of plant height, number of bulbil, canopy diameter, and petiole diameter. Corm variables consist of corm diameter, corm weight, and corm specific gravity. Oxalate variables consist of total oxalate, soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate, and density of calcium oxalate crystal. Oxalate contents were measured based on AOAC method. All of variables were collected from first to fourth growth period of porang. Data were analyzed by smartPLS (Partial Least Square software. The results showed that there were significantly direct effect between altitude and temperature, altitude and CEC of soil, temperature and CEC of soil, altitude and

  2. Down-regulation of Slit-Robo pathway mediating neuronal cytoskeletal remodeling processes facilitates the antidepressive-like activity of Gastrodia elata Blume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Pei-Ju; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Shui-Tein; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-10-29

    Nowadays, depression is a serious psychological disorder that causes extreme economic loss and social problems. Previously, we discovered that the water extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (WGE) improved depressive-like behavior by influencing neurotransmitters in rats subjected to the forced swimming test. To elucidate possible mechanisms, in the present study, we performed a proteomics and bioinformatics analysis to identify the related pathways. Western blot-validated results indicated that the core protein network modulated by WGE administration was closely associated with down-regulation of the Slit-Robo pathway, which modulates neuronal cytoskeletal remodeling processes. Although Slit-Robo signaling has been well investigated in neuronal development, its relationship with depression is not fully understood. We provide a potential hint on the mechanism responsible for the antidepressive-like activity of WGE. In conclusion, we suggest that the Slit-Robo pathway and neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling are possibly one of the pathways associated with the antidepressive-like effects of WGE.

  3. Screening of Active Compounds from Gastrodia elata Blume for Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation%云南昭通天麻松弛血管平滑肌活性成分的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维明; 杨莲; 李秀芳; 林青; 李国花; 魏文彬

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effect and explicit the material base of Gastrodia elata Blume. Method:Tension recording for rat isolated aortic artery was used to study the effect of vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Column chromatography and mass spectrography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry were used to isolate and identify the active compounds of G. elata Blume. Result: G. elata Blume.could significantly inhibit the smooth muscle constriction of isolated aortic artery induced by KCI. Five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ-Ⅴ ) were isolated from G. elata Blume, such as p-hydroxybenz aldehyde ( Ⅰ ); phydroxybenzyl methylether ( Ⅱ ); p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol ( Ⅲ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane ( Ⅳ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydibenzyl ether( Ⅴ ). The results showed that the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effects were the result of the role of five compounds. Conclusion: The five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ ) from G. elata Blume.play a combined role for vascular smooth muscle relaxation.%目的:观察天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用,明确其作用物质基础.方法:采用大鼠离体胸主动脉环灌流实验方法,对天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用进行考察,采用柱色谱法、光谱法(MS,NMR)对其活性成分进行了分离鉴定.结果:天麻能够显著抑制KCl引起的大鼠胸主动脉环收缩,从天麻乙酸乙酯提取物中分离并鉴定了5个酯溶性酚性成分(Ⅰ~Ⅴ):对羟基苯甲醛(Ⅰ)、对羟苄基甲醚(Ⅱ)、对羟基苯甲醇(Ⅲ)、4,4'-二羟基二苯基甲烷(Ⅳ),4,4-二羟基二苄醚(Ⅴ),明确了天麻的血管平滑肌松弛作用是这5个成分共同作用的结果.结论:天麻具有显著的血管平滑肌松弛作用,其作用主要由5个酯溶性酚性成分共同发挥.

  4. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  5. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects of vescalagin from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] in high-fructose diet-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2013-01-15

    Vescalagin, an active component from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] fruit, with glucose uptake enhancing ability in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes, as shown in our previous study, was further evaluated for its hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with vescalagin from Pink wax apple daily during the last 4 weeks. The results of biochemical parameters showed that fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, fructosamine, triglyceride and free fatty acid contents decreased by 44.7%, 46.2%, 4.0%, 42.5%, and 10.8%, respectively, in the HFD-induced diabetic rats administered with vescalagin at 30 mg/kg body weight in comparison with those of control HFD-induced diabetic rats. However, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol content increased by 14.4% in the HFD rats treated with vescalagin. The present study reveals that vescalagin could have therapeutic value against diabetic progression via its anti-hypertriglyceridemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects.

  6. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

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    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI, C. zeylanicum (GII, and nystatin (GIII for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α=5%. For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P<0.0001, with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  7. Effects of the random single-ion anisotropy and random magnetic field in the spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, W. P.; de Arruda, P. H. Z.; Tunes, T. M.; Godoy, M.; de Arruda, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the random single-ion anisotropy and random magnetic field in the phase diagram and in the thermodynamic properties of the spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model via Curie-Weiss mean-field approximation. The phase diagrams were built in the planes temperature versus single-ion anisotropy, temperature versus magnetic field, temperature versus random parameters and the dependencies of magnetization were plotted versus temperature and single-ion anisotropy. These diagrams show that, in the space (D / J - T / J) , the type (first- or second-order) of the phase transition between the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases is dependent on the random parameters. Therefore, within these conditions the model presents tricritical behavior. For large values, and a certain critical value of the random parameters, the phase transition is only of second-order, but it is of first-order within the ordered phase, between the phase with m = 1 / 2 and m = 3 / 2 , which ends in a terminal critical point.

  8. Photosynthetic responses to ozone of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Fukamachi, Yoshinobu; Okabe, Shigeaki; Hiroshima, Hiroka; Watanabe, Makoto; Izuta, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the effects of ozone (O3) on photosynthetic ability of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions. To accomplish this objective, we analyzed the response of photosynthetic parameters such as maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) to cumulative stomatal O3 uptake (ΣFst) and reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst as an index of detoxification capacity for O3. The seedlings of Fagus crenata were grown for two growing seasons (2014-2015) in nine treatments comprised of a combination of three levels of gas treatments (charcoal-filtered air or 1.0- or 1.5-times ambient O3 concentration) and three levels of soil nutrient treatments (non-fertilized or a supply of relatively low or high concentrations of compound fertilizer). The nutrient supply significantly increased the degree of O3-induced reduction in Vcmax in September. However, nutrient supply did not significantly increase ΣFst and reduce the detoxification capacity for O3. On the other hand, the degree of O3-induced reduction in Vcmax of upper canopy leaves was higher as compared with that of lower canopy leaves in August due to the higher ΣFst. However, the reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst in lower canopy leaves was higher than that in upper canopy leaves, indicating lower detoxification capacity for O3 in lower canopy leaves. Reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst over the threshold, which is assumed to be proportional to gross photosynthetic rate, was similar between upper and lower canopy leaves. Therefore, capacity of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is likely to be associated with detoxification capacity for O3 in upper and lower canopy leaves of F. crenata seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions.

  9. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity ofEnicostema axillare (Lam.)Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume)Raynal:An important medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kousalya Loganathan; VNarmatha Bai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for high frequency plantlets regeneration protocol forEnicostema axillare(Lam.)Raynal ssp.littoralis(Blume)Raynal(E. axillare) without intermediate callus phase and to determine the content and correlation of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity of both the plants derived from nature and nodal culture byDPPH assay.Methods:The nodal explants were cultured onMS basal medium fortified with different concentration of various growth regulators such asBAP,KIN,TDZ and2iP(0.5-2 mg/L) individually and in combinations with or withoutGA3 for shoot bud induction and multiplication.Total phenol and flavonoid content was determined in both plants from nature and nodal culture and antioxidant activity was determined byDPPH assay.Results:The highest number of multiple shoot(108.00±3.55 shoots/explants) was obtained onMS medium supplemented withBAP(2 mg/L) in combination withKIN (0.5 mg/L) andGA3(2 mg/L).Rooting was optimized on half-strengthMS medium supplemented withIAA(0.5 mg/L).The rooted plantlets were transferred to paper cups containing vermiculite and hardening was successfully attained with75% survival.Among the four extract of methanol and water extract from both the plantlet from nature and nodal culture, the concentration of flavonoid was found to be higher in methanol extract of the plants from nature(146.57±1.68 mg rutin/g extract) and phenol content was higher in the water extract of plant from nature(52.53±1.67 mgGAE /g extract).The radical scavenging activity of four extracts.Methanol extract of plant grown in nature showed the highest radical scavenging activity(IC50 =87.10 μg/mL) was investigated byDPPH test.Conculsion:The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations usingex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets.A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major

  10. Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: caracterização química e antimicrobiana

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    J.M Freire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Illicium verum Hook. f. (star-anise and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil. The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans-anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01 µL mL-1 for star-anise and cinnamon oils, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for A. parasiticus was 0.25, 2 and 2 µL mL-1 for cinnamon, star-anise and marjoram oils, respectively.Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L. (manjerona, Illicium verum Hook. f. (anis estrelado e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (canela foram obtidos pela técnica de arraste a vapor d'água com aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Foram avaliadas as atividades antimicrobianas de cada um sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e para os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus, observando o crescimento e/ou inibição micelial, comparando-se estes com a placa-padrão (sem óleo. Os óleos essenciais foram analisados em cromat

  11. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves on some food-related bacteria Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre bactérias de interesse em alimentos

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    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, has long been known for having many biological properties. This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves using GC-MS and to assess its inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on MIC and MBC determination and kill-time study. Eugenol (73.27% was the most prevalent compound in the essential oil followed by trans-β-cariophyllene (5.38%, linalool (3.31%, and alcohol cinamic acetate (2.53%. The results showed an interesting antibacterial activity of the oil with MIC ranging from 1.25 to 10 µL.mL-1. MBC values were in the range of 20 - 80 µL.mL-1. A concentration of 10 and 40 µL.mL-1 of the essential oil caused a fast and steady decrease in viable cell count (2 to 5 log cycles of all assayed strains along 24 hours. A concentration of 40 µL.mL-1 of the oil provided a total elimination of the initial inocula of S. aureus after 2 hours. These results show the possibility of regarding the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves as alternative sources of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation systems.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, é uma espécie vegetal reconhecida, a longo tempo, como possuidora de muitas propriedades biológicas. Este estudo objetivou identificar os constituintes do óleo essencial das folhas de C. zeylanicum, utilizando CG-EM, e avaliar seu efeito inibitório sobre Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa através da determinação da CIM e CBM, bem como através da análise do tempo de morte bacteriana. Eugenol (73,27% foi o composto mais prevalente no óleo essencial, seguido por trans-β-cariofileno (5,38%, linalol (3,31% e álcool acetato cinâmico (2,53%. Os resultados mostraram uma interessante atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial com CIM, variando de 1,25 a 10 µL.mL-1. Os valores de

  12. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae essential oil and beta-pinene on the growth of dematiaceous moulds Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae e beta-pineno sobre o crescimento de fungos dematiáceos

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    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous moulds are pathogen microorganisms able to act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil and beta-pinene in inhibiting the growth of various strains of dematiaceous moulds (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia sp., Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Antimicrobial assays were led by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC using the solid medium diffusion procedure and observing the interference of the MIC values on the mould radial mycelial growth along 14 days. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil oscillated between 63 and 125 µL/mL. beta-pinene showed MIC value of 125 µL/mL for the most mould strains, however C. resinae and C. globosum were resistant to it in all assayed concentrations. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene presented intense fungicidal effect noted by a total inhibition of the mycelial growth of C. cladosporioides and F. compacta along 14 days of exposure. These results showed the intense antimould potential of C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene which could be regarded in a rational use in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat some mycoses, particularly, those caused by dematiaceous moulds.Os fungos dematiáceos são microrganismos patogênicos capazes de agir como agentes etiológicos de micoses com diferentes graus de severidade. Este estudo avaliou a efetividade do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e beta-pineno em inibir o crescimento de várias cepas de fungos dematiáceos (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia, Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Os ensaios antimicrobianos foram conduzidos através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM utilizando-se da t

  13. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the rowth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species Efeito do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas

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    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 µL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 µL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume é uma planta conhecida por apresentar ampla variedade de propriedades medicinais. Portanto, este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a interferência do óleo essencial C. zeylanicum sobre o crescimento e morfogênese de algumas espécies de Aspergillus potencialmente patogênicas. O óleo essencial testado apresentou potente efeito antifúngico demonstrado pela visualização de grandes zonas de inibição de crescimento de todas as linhagens testadas. Os valores de CIM50 e de CIM90 foram 40 e 80 µL/mL, respectivamente. Nas concentrações de 80, 40 e 20 µL/mL o óleo demonstrou um potente efeito fumigante, inibindo o crescimento micelial radial de A. niger, A. flavus e A. fumigatus ao longo de 14 dias de exposição. A 80 e 40 µL/mL o óleo essencial promoveu inibição de 100% da germinação de esporos, das três espécies de Aspergillus citadas

  14. Inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura%板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍雄; 王明月; 王金华; 张敬宜; 思斯; 熊智

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用,为害虫防治及新型植物源生物农药开发提供理论依据.[方法]以10株思茅松毛虫3龄和5龄幼虫肠道细菌为供试菌种,采用牛津杯法测定不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物的抑菌效果.[结果]不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌均有一定的抑菌作用,且随着质量浓度的增大抑菌作用逐渐增强,各提取物的抑菌作用大小顺序为乙酸乙酯>乙醇>氯仿>正丁醇>石油醚,其中以乙酸乙酯提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用最强,最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)为6.250 mg/mL,石油醚提取物的抑菌作用不明显或无抑菌作用.[结论]板栗苞壳提取物可作为新型植物源生物农药在思茅松毛虫防治中加以开发利用.%[Objective]This research studied the inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura in order to create new biological pesticides developed from plant sources and to provide theoretical basis for pesticide development. [Method]Using 10 strains of intestinal bacteria extracted from age 3 and age 5 Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura instar larvae as test strains, the inhibition effect of different organic Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract solvents was determined using the Oxford cup method. [Result]Different organic solvents of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract had some inhibition effects on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. As the quality concentration increased, the inhibition effect became more noticeable; different extractions were arranged in the following rank from the strongest inhibition rate to the weakest inhibition rate: acetic ether> ethanol>chloroform>butyl alcohoblight petroleum. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong inhibition activity on the intestinal bacteria of Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. The minimum

  15. Soil nutrient content analysis and assessment for cultivation base of gastrodia elata blume in Dejiang%德江天麻种植基地土壤养分含量分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 邓琴; 贾亚琪; 程志飞; 刘品祯; 曾宪强; 王坤; 曹永直; 邵先强

    2016-01-01

    对德江天麻种植基地土壤pH、养分含量调查和分析,结果表明:土壤属弱酸性环境,较适宜天麻种植要求;土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮含量较为丰富,属土壤肥力2级水平,为天麻高品质、高产量提供天然优势;缓效钾、速效钾含量稍缺乏,属土壤肥力4级水平,可能会影响到天麻的正常生长.建议合理施用天麻专用化肥,适量补充钾肥、合理施用微生物肥料、科学合理规划种植、注重栽培管理.%By investigating and analyzing the pH value,nutrient content in Dejiang cultivation base of Gastrodia elata Blume. The results showed that soil was in acidic environment and it met the require-ments of planting. The concentration was more abundant and soil fertility with the second level,such as soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and available nitrogen. It offered natural advantages for high-quality,high yield of Gastrodia elata Blume in Dejiang. It was lack of slowly available and fast-avail-able potassium. And the soil fertility was in the fourth level. Sometimes it maybe have an effect of nor-mal growth. It recommended many ways in planting,such as reasonable application-specific fertiliz-er,the amount of added fertilizer,rational application of microbial fertilizers,scientific and rational planning of planting,cultivation and management focus.

  16. Effects of Polysaccharide of Gastrodia Elata Blume and Electro-Acupuncture on Expressions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Stem Cell Factor Protein in Caudate Putamen of Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Bin; Wu, Feng; Miao, Hua-Chun; Xiong, Ke-Ren

    2016-12-23

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the neural protective effect of polysaccharide of Gastrodia elata Blume (PGB) and electro-acupuncture (EA) on focal cerebral ischemia rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal group, model group, PGB group, EA group and PGB+EA group). The model was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two week after modeling, rats were given PGB, EA, or a combination of the 2 in continuous treatment for 2 successive weeks. 14 days after modeling, expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Positive expression of BDNF and SCF protein was found in the right caudate putamen of each group of rats. Expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the model group were higher than normal group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the PGB group, the EA group, and the PGB plus EA group increased significantly (P<0.05). The expressions of BDNF and SCF obviously increased in the PGB plus EA group compared to those of the EA group and the PGB group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS PGB and EA up-regulated the expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the CPu of focal cerebral ischemia rats, and the combination of PGB+EA has a synergistic effect on the recovery from cerebral ischemia.

  17. Study on effect factors for multiplication and growth of aseptic buds of Vietnam Mesona blumes%越南凉粉草无菌芽增殖生长的影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦鹏霄; 谭木秀; 岑秀芬; 覃柳兰; 刘洁云; 周芳芳

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The effect factors on multiplication and growth of the aseptic buds were studied in order to provide technical references for rapid propagation system in vitro of Vietnam Mesona blumes.[Method]The experiments were carried out from two aspects of media directions (different basic media,sucrose concentration and cytokinins) and explant materials (different inoculation positions).[Result]Comparison of the basic media of MS,Miller and modified White displayed that MS medium showed the best effect on bud multiplication and growth of the aseptic buds,in which bud proliferation multiple was 8.53 times.While sucrose concentration was 20.0 g/L,bud proliferation multiple peaked at 8.34 times.When sucrose concentration reached 25.0 g/L,bud proliferation multiple showed 7.05 times and bud growth was the best.The bud multiplication effect of CPPU was better than that of 6-BA and KT,in which bud proliferation multiple reached 9.80 times.Comparing the inoculated materials from stem upper position,the middle part of the stem and the stem base position,the bud multiplication effect of stem upper position was the best,in which the bud proliferation multiple was 9.35 times and the bud growth exhibited the best status.[Conclusion]It was suitable to the bud multiplication and growth of Vietnam Mesona blumes that the basic medium was MS medium,20.0-25.0 g/L sucrose concentration and 0.5 mg/L CPPU.The proper inoculated material was the stem upper position.%[目的]探讨越南凉粉草无菌芽增殖生长的影响因子,为越南凉粉草离体快繁体系的建立提供技术参考.[方法]从培养基配方(不同基本培养基、不同蔗糖浓度及不同细胞分裂素CPPU)和外植体材料(不同接种部位)两方面研究其对越南凉粉草无菌芽增殖的影响.[结果]在MS、Miller与改良White 3种基本培养基中,以MS对凉粉草芽增殖效果最好,芽增殖倍数达8.53倍;当蔗糖浓度为20.0 g/L时芽增殖倍数最高,为8.34

  18. 板栗总苞化学成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅱ)%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀梅; 吴迪; 黄健; 孙博航; 吴立军; 高慧媛

    2010-01-01

    目的 对板栗总苞(Castanea mollissima Blume)的化学成分进行深入研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和制备性HPLC等多种分离方法对板栗总苞体积分数为95%乙醇溶液回流提取物进行成分分离,结合化合物的理化常数、谱学分析等方法鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为8-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propyloctyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-undecylbenzoate(1)、苹果酸二丁酯(dibutylmalate,2)、槲皮素(quercetin,3)、山柰酚(kaempferol,4)、tiliroside(5)、山柰酚3-O-(2",6"-双-反式-对-香豆酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-[2",6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、3',3"-dimethoxylarreatricin(7)、大黄素(emodin,8)、乌索酸(ursolic acid,9)、原儿茶酸(3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid,10).结论 化合物1、2为从栗属植物中首次分离得到,化合物8为该种植物中首次分离得到,以上化合物均为板栗总苞中首次分离得到.

  19. Determination of Gastrodin in Gastrodia elata Blume by HPLC with ELSD and DAD%高效液相色谱法分离/蒸发光散射和紫外检测法测定天麻中天麻甙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泱; 丁明玉; 李红霞

    2001-01-01

    A normal-phase high performance chromatographic method with evaporative light-scattering detector(ELSD) and diode array detector(DAD), using n-hexane/methanol/ethyl acetate(volume ratio 6∶3∶2) as the mobile phase, was established for the direct determination of active constituents-gastrodin(GA) in the ethanol extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume. An silica gel column Zorbax RX-SIL[46 mm (i.d.)×25 cm, 5 μm] was employed. Regression equations revealed the linear relationships(r=0.998 and 0.999) between the peak areas of GA measured by ELSD and DAD and its concentration. The recoveries of GA measured by ELSD and DAD are 104.22% and 97.65%, respectively. The contents of GA measured by ELSD and DAD are 13.9 mg/g(2.79% RSD) and 12.1 mg/g(2.99% RSD) respectively in Gastrodia elata Blume. The detection limits of ELSD and DAD(S/N=3) are 3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. This method is simple, selective and sensitive.

  20. Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    An optimalized method of micropropagation of Douglas fir is described. Seasonal changes were found in optima for nitrate and sucrose in the medium and in the optimum for the light intensity during the culture of shoot initials. Differences in morphogenesis were obtained from shoot initials that had

  1. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  2. 湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类调查%Investigation on the species of insect pests infesting on the chestnut plant (Castanea mollissima Blume)in Luotian County,Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云丽; 汪玉平; 孙康; 徐向阳; 晏绍良; 钟玉林

    2015-01-01

    The species of insect pests infesting on chestnut plant Castanea mollissima Blume were systematically in-vestigated from 2013 to 2014 in Luotian County,Hubei Province.One hundred and ninety-two chestnut pest spe-cies in 61 families under 5 orders were recorded from Luotian County,among them,62 branch and trunk pests species in 23 families,1 53 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 49 families,1 5 fruit pests species in 8 families. Eighty-one named species in 37 families under 4 orders were firstly reported feeding on chestnut plants,including 24 branch and trunk pests species in 13 families,60 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 28 families,and 7 fruit pests species in 4 families.Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss),Curculio davidi Fairmaire,Niphades castanes Chao,Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée),Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang,Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang,Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot),Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey),and Dryocosmus kuriphi-lus Yasumatsu caused serious damage in the chestnut production.%2013-2014年度系统调查了湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类,经分类整理与鉴定,罗田县板栗害虫共计5目61科192种,其中枝干害虫23科62种,叶芽花序害虫49科153种、果实害虫8科15种;板栗新纪录害虫4目37科81种(已命名种),其中枝干害虫13科24种,叶芽花序害虫28科60种,果实害虫4科7种。对板栗生产造成严重危害的主要有:果实害虫板栗剪枝象[Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss)]、栗实象(Curculio davidi Fairmaire)、栗雪片象(Niphades castanes Chao)和桃多斑野螟[Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée)];枝干害虫昆明兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang)、勐腊兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang)和板栗大蚜[Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot)];叶芽害虫栎掌舟蛾[Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey)]和板栗瘿蜂(Dryo-cosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)。

  3. Vasodilation effect of total saponins of achyranthes bidentata blume on rat aorta in vitro%牛膝总皂苷对大鼠离体胸主动脉环舒张作用的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰娥; 卞筱泓; 许激扬; 赵刚刚; 周恒源

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vasodilation effect of total saponins of achyranthes bidentata blume (ABS) on thoracic aortic of rat and to study its mechanism .Methods The effects of ABS on the NE and KCl-preconstricted aorta rings were determined by organ bath technique ,and some inhibitors was used to explore the mechanism .Results ABS caused relaxation in NE-preconstricted thoracic aortas with or without endothelium .NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester(Z,-NAME),methylene blue(MB),indomethacin(IN-DO) significantly inhibited the vasodilation of ABS action on thoracic aortas preconstricted by NE .Tetraethyl ammonium (TEA), BaCL and glibenclamide(Gli) attenuated the vasodilation effect of ABS ,and ABS also vasodilated thoracic aortas preconstricted by KC1 .Conclusion The results indicate that ABS relaxes vascular smooth muscle in a certain endothelium -dependent manner ,and the mechanisms seem to be related with the openness of K channels as well as the blockage of receptor-dependent and potential-dependent calcium channels in the cell membrane of smooth muscles .%目的 研究牛膝总皂苷(ABS)对大鼠离体胸主动脉血管环舒张作用及其作用机制.方法 采用累积加药法,通过观察ABS对去甲肾上腺素(NE)和KCl预收缩的血管环张力的影响,并观察几种抑制剂对其作用的影响.结果 ABS对NE预收缩的内皮完整和去内皮血管环均有舒张作用,L-硝基精氨酸甲酯(L-NAME)、亚甲蓝(MB)、吲哚美辛(INDO)能显著减弱ABS诱导的血管环舒张作用;钾离子通道阻滞剂对ABS的舒血管效应有明显抑制作用(P<0.05);ABS对KCl预收缩的血管环有良好的舒张作用.结论 ABS的舒血管作用与NO介导途径有关,同时与钾离子通道的开放及血管平滑肌细胞上受体依赖性钙通道和电压依赖性钙通道有关.

  4. MIKROPROPAGASI ANGGREK ALMA Grammatophyllum scriptum Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Handini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grammatophyllum scriptum is a beautiful wild orchid that has an interesting economic value. However, the existence of this ornamental plant species is at risk because of irresponsible exploitation of the natural population and insufficient cultivation efforts. Currently, the Bogor Botanic Garden is developing a program of orchid propagation for enhancing the conservation of all potential orchid collections. The propagation of G. scriptum was basically carried out by culturing the seeds in a modified Hyponex or Vacin & Went medium, transplanting the plantlets into a more suitable medium and finally acclimatizing the resulting seedlings. A study was done to observe the effect of fertilizer application on the growth of acclimatized G. scriptum seedlings, as a means to improve the propagation technique of the species. The result showed that the application of 1 and 2 m1/I organic fertilizer (Sugih as well as 1 and 2 g/I inorganic fertilizer (Hyponex increased the seedling mortality, in which the application of 2 g/ml Hyponex fertilizer was being the most damaging treatment, leaving 12,5 % seedlings to survive. However, in terms of seedling growth, the application of 1 m1/I Sugih fertilizer was slightly beneficial to the formation of root and the elongation of stem of the acclimatized seedlings. It may be suggested, therefore, that G. scriptum seedlings require no (or very little amount of supplementary fertilizer to boost their vegetative growth.

  5. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (BL) preparation on expression of insulin - degrading enzyme gene of liver in type 2 diabetic rats%怀牛膝对2型糖尿病大鼠肝脏IDE基因mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包海花; 郭新民; 聂影

    2005-01-01

    目的研究怀牛膝(Achyranthes bidentata Blume,BL)水煎剂对2型糖尿病大鼠肝脏胰岛素酶(insulin-degrading enzyme,IDE)基因mRNA表达的影响.方法随机选取以不同剂量怀牛膝水煎剂灌胃的2型糖尿病大鼠每组10只,以生理盐水灌胃的2型糖尿病大鼠及正常对照组大鼠各10只,用RT-PCR法测定大鼠肝脏胰岛素酶基因mRNA的表达.结果2型糖尿病大鼠模型组IDE基因mRNA的表达高于正常组(P<0.05).怀牛膝治疗组各组IDE基因mRNA的表达均低于2型糖尿病大鼠模型组(P<0.05),并且与正常对照组相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论怀牛膝水煎剂通过抑制肝胰岛素酶基因mRNA的表达.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mui-Hung; Lim, Li-Fang; Ahmad, Fasihuddin bin; Assim, Zaini bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods In vitro method-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11% and 66.85% respectively. Conclusions Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica. PMID:25182724

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mui-Hung Wong; Li-Fang Lim; Fasihuddin bin Ahmad; Zaini bin Assim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods: In vitro method -2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results:Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11%and 66.85%respectively. Conclusions:Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica.

  8. Pollen morphology and its taxonomic significance in the genus Bomarea Mirb. (Alstroemeriaceae - I. Subgenera Baccata, Sphaerine, and Wichuraea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Khayer Mohammad Golam Sarwar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPollen morphology of 24 of the 33 species of three Bomareasubgenera, Baccata, Sphaerine, andWichuraea, was examined by light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, or SEM alone. The studied species ofBomarea were stenopalynous, characterized by large, monosulcate monads with reticulate exine sculpture in most species. Opercula-like structures were present on the sulcus in B.huanucoand B.involucrosa. Differences in pollen size, exine thickness, and exine sculpture were observed. The studied taxa were divided into four major groups based on exine ornamentation observed under SEM: microreticulate, reticulate, coarsely rugulate, or finely rugulate-perforate. Pollen characters alone did not appear to correlate clearly with the current subgeneric classification of Bomarea, but they may have some taxonomic utility below the subgeneric level. The most reliable infrageneric classification of Bomarea can be achieved through combined analyses of morphological, palynological, and molecular data from larger samples of specimens of all the species.

  9. THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Podkovyrov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

  10. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Manosi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhita”. The herb is used for the treatment of dyspeptic conditions, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain with diarrhoea, inflammation of the eye, leukorrhoea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, wounds, and toothache. The oil isolated from the different parts of the plant containing cinnamaldehyde and eugenol as major constituents are considered as active principle of cinnamon. Over the past two decades many scientific journals are describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. This review has tried to include an up to date phytochemical and biological research on cinnamon. The ethnobotanical uses have also been discussed.

  11. ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BLUME.

    OpenAIRE

    Das Manosi; Mandal Suvra; Mallick Budhimanta; Hazra Jayram

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhi...

  12. Degenerate Blume-Emery-Griffiths model for the martensitic transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vives, E.; Castan, T.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1996-01-01

    between two ordered phases. This is relevant for the martensitic transition problem. Mean-field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. The model predicts a constant entropy change at the transition for various transition temperatures in agreement with the behavior found experimentally....

  13. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEESIA * Blume (Bombacaceae

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    SOEPADMO SOEPADMO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1     Eight species are described:  N. altissima, synandra, glabra, koster-mansiana, malayana, parpurascens, piluliflora and strigosa.2     N. kostermansiana is a species new to science.3     N. glabra and synandra, formerly included in N. altissima are reinstated  as distinct species.4     The area of distribution of the genus covers Lower Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, with Borneo as centre.

  14. Antioxidant activity of the medicinal plant Enicostemma littorale Blume

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    P Abirami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the source for wide variety of natural antioxidants. In the study reported here, we have conducted a comparative study between the different parts of the plant Enicostemma littorale. The amount of total phenols and antioxidant enzymes Glutathione-S-Transferase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase activities were evaluated and also the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, α- tocopherol and Glutathione activities were evaluated. The results showed that the antioxidant activities varied greatly among the different plant parts used in this study and some parts are rich in natural antioxidants especially the flowers of E. littorale. These results suggest that Enicostemma littorale have strong antioxidant potential. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of antioxidant agents, which can be used to treat various oxidative stress-related diseases.

  15. Constituintes voláteis das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae Volatile constituents from leaves and branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae

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    Maria da Paz Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos de Cinnamomum zeylanicum coletada no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados através de CG-EM. Vinte e três constituintes foram identificados nas folhas, dos quais o eugenol foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (60%. Nos galhos foram identificados trinta e seis componentes, com predominância dos monoterpenos alfa- e beta-pineno (9,9%; 3,5%, alfa-felandreno (9,2%, p-cimeno (6,2%, limoneno (7,9%, linalol (10,6%; os sesquiterpenos alfa-copaeno (3,3%, (beta -cariofileno (6,7%, óxido de cariofileno (3,1% e os alilbenzenos (E-cinamaldeído (7,8% e acetato de (E-cinamila (9,7%.The essential oils of the leaves and branches "of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, collected at Manaus, state of Amazonas, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, of which eugenol, was the major (60%. Thirty-six components were identified in the branch oil, among them the monoterpenes alpha-pinene (9.9 %, beta-pinene (3.5 %, alpha phellandrene (9.2 %, p-cymene (6.2%, limonene (7.9%, linalool (10.6% were the most abundant, followed by the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (3.3%, (beta-caryophyllene (6.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.1% and the allybenzenes (E-cinnamaldehyde (7.8%, (E-cinnamyl acetate (9.7%.

  16. TYPES OF DICHOGAMY, BREEDING SYSTEMS AND POLLEN LIMITATION ON Aeschynanthus pulcher (Blume G.Don. (GESNERIACEAE

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    Wiguna Rahman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Observasi tentang tipe dikogami, sistem penyerbukan, dan keterbatasan serbuk sari telah dilakukan pada populasi Aeschynanthus pulcher di Kebun Raya Cibodas. Pengamatan fenologi bunga dilakukan untuk menentukan tipe dikogami. Dalam rangka menentukan sistem perkawinan dan keterbatasan serbuk sari, lima perlakuan penyerbukan telah dilakukan yaitu penyerbukan bebas sebagai kontrol, penyerbukan silang, penyerbukan sendiri, autogami, dan agamospermi. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa dikogami pada A. pulcher adalah protandri, tidak sempurna dan durasi tampilan serbuk sari dan stigma reseptif masing-masing yaitu 3-9 hari dan 6-12 hari. A. pulcher merupakan tumbuhan yang dapat membuahi sendiri, sedangkan proses autogami dan agamospermi tidak terjadi. Sindrom keterbatasan serbuk sari pada populasi A. pulcher yang diamati diindikasikan terjadi. Derajat keterbatasan serbuk sari pada A. pulcher mencapai 0.79-0.80. Tiga faktor yang dapat menyebabkan keterbatasan serbuk sari adalah (1 kompetisi antar jenis tumbuhan yang berbunga bersamaan, (2 perilaku berbunga dalam satu periode yang sama, dan (3 kompetisi antara polinator dan pencuri nektar.

  17. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

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    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  18. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling.

  19. La madera deTrema micrantha (L.) Blume de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se estudió la anatomía microscópica, los índices hidráulicos y mecánicos de la madera de 28 árboles de Trema micrantha de cuatro localidades ubicadas en los municipios de Xico y Coatepec en el estado de Veracruz. Adicionalmente, se determinaron las características macroscópicas, la densidad relativa, el contenido de humedad y algunas pruebas de carpintería en probetas de diferentes tamaños de la madera de tres árboles, con el fin de proponer usos alternativos en zonas rurales. Los resultados ...

  20. Antioxidant activities of bark extract from mangroves, Bruguiera cylindrica (L. Blume and Ceriops decandra Perr

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    M Krishnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The antioxidant activities of two Indian mangrove plants, Bruguiera cylindrica and Ceriops decandra, were investigated. Materials and Methods : Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents of the mangroves were determined using folin-ciocalteu reagent method and aluminium chloride method, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by the following methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH. quenching assay; 2,2′- azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. + cation decolorization test; scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl ion radicals (.OH; reductive capacity; and antihemolytic activity. Results : The mangroves yielded 233.3 ± 0.062 and 283.31 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent/g phenolic contents and 11.6 ± 0.12 and 15.1 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g flavonoid contents. The methanol extracts of both mangroves exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH., ABTS. + , and .OH radicals. The reductive capacity of the extracts increased with increasing concentration of samples. The extracts also inhibited H 2 O 2 induced hemolysis in cow blood erythrocytes. The antioxidant activities were found stronger than that of the reference standard, butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT. The antioxidant activity of mangrove plants was correlated with total phenolics and flavonoid contents. Conclusion : Both plants can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal uses. Further studies are necessary to isolate active principles responsible for the overall antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  1. Exact ground-state phase diagrams for the spin-3/2 Blume Emery Griffiths model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2008-05-01

    We have calculated the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model using the method that was proposed and applied to the spin-1 Ising model by Dublenych (2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 012411). The calculated, exact ground-state phase diagrams on the diatomic and triangular lattices with the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction have been presented in this paper. We have obtained seven and 15 topologically different ground-state phase diagrams for J>0 and Jnon-uniform phases. We have also constructed the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the model on the triangular lattice and found 20 and 59 fundamental phase diagrams for J>0 and J<0, respectively, the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate phases have also been found.

  2. Protective effect ofAmorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume. tuber against thioacetamide induced oxidative stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puthuparampil Nazarudeen Ansil; Anand Nitha; Pallara Janardhanan Wills; Vahab Jazaira; Mukalel Sankunni Latha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To identify the phytochemical constituents ofAmorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus) tuber and to evaluate its antioxidant potential throughin vitro andin vivo models. Methods: Phytochemical screening andin vitro antioxidant activities ofA. campanulatus tuber n-hexane extract (ACHE) and methanolic extract (ACME) were evaluated using DPPH, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also investigated. The protective potential of two different doses ofACME (125 and250 mg/kg) was also evaluated against thioacetamide (TAA) induced oxidative stress in rats. Silymarin used as a standard drug control. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The antioxidant potential ofACME were also evaluated by the estimation of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in hepatic and renal tissues. Histopathologic changes of liver were also evaluated.Results:In vitro studies revealed thatACME has higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activity thanACHE, which may be attributed to its higher phenolic and flavonoid content.ACME significantly prevented the elevation of serumAST, ALT, ALP, LDH, and tissue malondialdehyde levels(P < 0.05). Hepatic and renalGSH, GST, GR, GPx, and catalase levels were remarkably increased by the treatment with the extract. Quantification of histopathological changes also supported the dose dependent protective effects ofACME.Conclusions: The results do suggest thatA. campanulatus tuber could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  3. Chemical compositions and biological activities of the essential oils of Beilschmiedia madang Blume (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the chemical compositions of the essential oils of Beilschmiedia madang and their antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities. The major constituents of the essential oils of leaf and bark of B. madang were δ-cadinene (17.0 and 20.5 %), β-caryophyllene (10.3 and 6.7 %), α-cubebene (11.3 and 15.6 %), and α-cadinol (5.8 and 10.6 %). The essential oils were screened for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, and total phenolic content. The bark oil showed the highest β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching (90.3 % ± 0.2) and DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 212.0 µg/mL), while the highest phenolic content was exhibited by the leaf oil (94.5 % ± 0.3 mg GA/g). The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated by the disc diffusion and micro dilution method. The leaf and bark oils showed moderate activity towards Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 125 µg/mL. For antifungal assay, the bark oil showed strong activity towards Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC value 62.5 µg/mL. Anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were evaluated against Ellman method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. The results showed that leaf oil gave significant percentage inhibition (I%: acetylcholinesterase 55.2 %, butyrylcholinesterase 60.4 %, tyrosinase 53.1 %).

  4. TWO OILS FROM THE ETHYL-ACETATE FRACTION OF CYATHULA PROSTRATA (L. BLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Oshi* and A.M. Abdelkareem

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyathula prostrata is an herbal recipe used in traditional medicine for the treatment of chest troubles, dysentery, diarrhea, craw-craw, scabies, rheumatism, inflammations and tumours amongst many others. Silica gel column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction gave two oils, designated as compounds 1 [upper oil, Rf (0.72, [α]20D (inactive, [d] 20D (0.851, [n]20D (1.4394] and 2 [lower oil, Rf (0.63, [α]20D (inactive, [d]20D (0.564 , [n]20D (1.4390]. The structures of 1 and 2 have been established to be ethyl hexadecanoate (alkyl ester and 7,9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro (4,5 deca-6, 9-diene- 2, 8- dione (diketone respectively using the 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectral techniques. Both the extract and ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus, but were largely inactive against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Ps. aeriginosa and S. typhi. Also, the extract and ethyl acetate fraction were active against A. niger but gave no anticandidal activity. However, both 1 and 2 showed moderate activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, while the activity recorded against Ps. aeriginosa, S. dysentriae, A. niger and C. albicans was marginal. Compound 2 was however, slightly more active than 1.

  5. Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Piper caninum Blume

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    Hasnah Mohd Sirat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9% and stems (87.0% oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil showed the highest inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation (114.9 ± 0.9%, compared to BHT (95.5 ± 0.5%, while leaves oil showed significant total phenolic content (27.4 ± 0.5 mg GA/g equivalent to gallic acid. However, the essential oils showed weak activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity revealed that both oils exhibited strong activity against all bacteria strains with MIC values in the range 62.5 to 250 µg/mL, but weak activity against fungal strains. These findings suggest that the essential oils can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for therapeutic, nutraceutical industries and food manufactures.

  6. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  7. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pchestnuts after cooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  8. Range extension of two poorly known endemic species of the genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankararao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orophea malabarica Sasidh. & Sivar. and Orophea sivarajanii Sasidh., of the family Annonaceae were found growing in close proximity as undergrowth with restricted distribution in the evergreen forest of Makutta Ghat, Kodagu District, Karnataka State, India.  Earlier reports suggest that these are endemic to Kerala state of the Western Ghats and found distributed only in their type localities viz., Thrissur and Wayanad districts respectively. However, the present article reports extension of their range to new locations in Karnataka state and therefore become addition to the floral wealth of the state, as they were neither previously collected nor recorded from this region. The updated nomenclature, detailed description, flowering-fruiting seasons, distribution map, scanned herbarium specimens, field photographs, proposed conservation status and other relevant notes are provided in this communication. 

  9. Antileukemic activity of the leaf extract of Bischofia javanica blume on human leukemic cell lines

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    Sutharson Lingadurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Leaves of Bichofia javanica (BJ have been traditionally used for many ailments including cancer. In the present study, antileukemic activity of the leaf extract was evaluated on human leukemic cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human leukemic cell lines U937, K562, and HL60 were purchased from National Facility for Animal Tissue and Cell Culture, Pune, India. The cells were routinely maintained in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal calf serum. Cultures were maintained at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO 2 in air. The methanol extract of BJ (MEBJ was dissolved in PBS and used at the concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 μg/ml for cell viability and cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay. Cell counts were made in quadruplicate samples at the interval of 24, 48, and 72 h and cytarabine (20 μg/ml served as standard drug. The apoptotic pathway of cytotoxicity was assessed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis technique and confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopic methods at the concentration of 10 μg/ml. Results : MEBJ showed significant cytotoxicity (P<0.001 in leukemic cell lines in the in-vitro cell proliferation assay. IC 50 of MEBJ was very low (3.5 μg/ml at 72 h in the HL60 cell line. The apoptotic pathway of cytotoxicity was observed at 10 μg/ml of MEBJ by the fragmented DNA pattern in the apoptosis assay, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation as revealed in the fluorescence and confocal microscopic studies. Conclusion : The present findings support the ethno-medicinal use of BJ for cancer by mediating through the apoptosis pathway.

  10. Monte Carlo study of the mixed Blume-Capel model with four-spin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, A.; Tahiri, N.; Jetto, K.; Bahmad, L.

    2017-04-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the magnetic properties of a ferri-magnetic mixed spins (3/2,2) in a three-dimensional lattice with four-spin interactions. In one hand, we elaborated analytically the ground state phase diagrams in different planes. We found that the all 4 × 5 = 20 configurations are found to be stable. On the other hand, for non null temperature values, the magnetic properties and phase diagrams are deduced. The total and partial magnetizations/susceptibilities are also presented and discussed for different values of the reduced exchange interactions. The critical temperature is displaced towardslower temperatures. To complete this study, we examined the corresponding hysteresis loop behaviors, of the studied system, for different values of the physical parameters.

  11. Analisis Kadar Protein Total dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Pakkat (Calamus caesius Blume.) dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Irma Yusnita

    2016-01-01

    Pakkat is a traditional food in Mandailing Natal is taken from the inside of the young rattan and the most commonly consumed by people is grilled pakkat. Pakkat can be used as vegetables and believed to cure many diseases that need to be researched content of nutrients in it and is expected to take it become one of the functional food. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of total protein and non protein nitrogen (NPN) in pakkat and their changes in fresh, grilled and ...

  12. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees) Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pui-Mun; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2013-01-01

    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.

  13. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Mun Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131 from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE, its hexane (HF, ethyl acetate (EAF, and aqueous (AF fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.

  14. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L.) BLUME

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Reddy K; Rajeev Reddy E; Ganapaty S

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract sho...

  16. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation; Estudo dos compostos bioativos em especiarias (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e Myristica fragans Houtt) processadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-07-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation {sup 60}Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds were identified and most of the tests the irradiation did not interfere significantly with the compounds amount. (author)

  17. 板栗花的化学成分%Chemical Constituents from the flowers of Castanea mollissima Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽梅; 吴立军; 黄健; 孙博航; 高慧媛

    2010-01-01

    目的 对板栗花的化学成分进行分离和结构鉴定.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和重结晶等分离方法对板栗花体积分数为90%的乙醇溶液提取物进行化学分离;通过谱学分析方法结合化合物理化性质对化合物结构进行鉴定.结果 分离得到11个化合物,分别鉴定为2α,3β,23-三羟基齐墩果烷-12-烯-28-酸(2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-acid,1)、4-喹啉酮-2-羧酸-正丁基酯(4-quinolinone-carboxylic-2-acid,n-butyl ester,2)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,3)、山柰酚(kaempferol,4)、槲皮素(quercetin,5)、山柰酚-3-O[6"-O-反式-对-香豆酰基]-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-[6"-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、山柰酚-3-O-[2",6"-O-双-反式-对-香豆酰基]-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-[2",6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-3-D-glucopyranoside,7)、没食子酸(gallic acid,8)、原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,9)、5-羟甲基糠醛(5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde,10)、槲皮素3-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸甲酯(quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide 6"-methyl ester,11).结论 化合物1,2,11为从栗属植物中首次分离得到,化合物3为从该植物中首次分离得到.

  18. Blume-Winkler, Doris; Engelmann, Antje; Prüter, Johannes (Bearb.): Naturschutzgebiet Lüneburger Heide

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Das Naturschutzgebiet "Lüneburger Heide" ist eines der ältesten und größten Naturschutzgebiete Deutschlands. Ziel und Zweck der Unterschutzsteilung ist die Sicherung und Erhaltung einer historischen Kulturlandschaft. Wegen seiner überregionalen Bedeutung wurde dem Schutzgebiet bereits 1968 vom Europarat in Straßburg das Europa-Diplom verliehen.

  19. Development and characterisation of microsatellite markers for Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi, the pollinator fig wasp of Ficus montana Blume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavodna, M.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Microsatellite markers for the pollinator fig wasp Liporrhopalum tentacularis were developed using genomic libraries enriched for di-, tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. A subset of 31 positive clones was sequenced and primers were designed. Eleven primer pairs produced polymorphic amplification prod

  20. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experimental Forest, Bogor. Furthermore, we also tried to find out the fungal potential ability to solubilize phosphate and suppres fungal pathogen by in vitro assay. Surface sterilization method was used to isolated fungal endophytes from root tissues. Trichoderma spirale, Velsalceae sp., Melanconiela ellisii, Chaetosphaeria callimorpha, and Trichoderma asperellum were isolated during this study. These fungi appear to have specific association between fungal species and host plant, but no evidence of fungal order-level specificiation in S. leprosula and S. selanica. In vitro test also suggested that root fungal endophyte Trichoderma spirale and Melanconiella elisii have potential ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. In addition, this result also present that root fungal endophyte T. spirale and T. asperellum have the potential to inhibit pathogen fungi Fusarium sp.

  1. AcEST: DK963016 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TK_CERBE Maturase K OS=Cercocarpus betuloides GN=mat... 30 8.7 >sp|Q06215|PPO_VICFA Polyphenol oxidase A1, c...FPNLELQIHNCWLFFPWHRFYLYFHERILGKLIGDDT 200 >tr|A7J0K6|A7J0K6_CERBE Putative polyphenol oxidase (Fragment) OS=Cercoca

  2. Biological Characteristics of Fluorescent Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Labeled Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-wei; Bai, Yu; Guo, Hui-hui

    2017-01-01

    Tracking transplanted stem cells is necessary to clarify cellular properties and improve transplantation success. In this study, we investigate the effects of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) (Molday ION Rhodamine-B™, MIRB) on biological properties of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and monitor hDPSCs in vitro and in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Morphological analysis showed that intracellular MIRB particles were distributed in the cytoplasm surrounding the nuclei of hDPSCs. 12.5–100 μg/mL MIRB all resulted in 100% labeling efficiency. MTT showed that 12.5–50 μg/mL MIRB could promote cell proliferation and MIRB over 100 μg/mL exhibited toxic effect on hDPSCs. In vitro MRI showed that 1 × 106 cells labeled with various concentrations of MIRB (12.5–100 μg/mL) could be visualized. In vivo MRI showed that transplanted cells could be clearly visualized up to 60 days after transplantation. These results suggest that 12.5–50 μg/mL MIRB is a safe range for labeling hDPSCs. MIRB labeled hDPSCs cell can be visualized by MRI in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that MIRB is a promising candidate for hDPSCs tracking in hDPSCs based dental pulp regeneration therapy. PMID:28298928

  3. Informe de nuevas variedades LORITA: NUEVO GENOTIPO DE Spathoglottis plicata BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) OBTENIDO POR MODIFICACIONES OCURRIDAS DURANTE EL CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suárez; María M. Hernández; Regla M. Lara

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran las principales características de un nuevo genotipo de orquídea terrestre producido en Cuba por modificaciones ocurridas durante el cultivo in vitro de semillas de Spathoglottis plicata var. Rosa. Lorita presenta sépalos y pétalos de color blanco, principal característica que lo distingue del genotipo donante. Esta nueva especie contribuirá al embellecimiento del entorno y constituye un valioso aporte a la agricultura ornamental cubana.

  4. Die Suche nach dem Glück in der deutschen Literatur. Zur Bedeutung der blauen Blume in Novalis’ Heinrich von Ofterdingen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Malaguti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Assim como Os sofrimentos do jovem Werther e Os anos de aprendizado de Wilhelm Meister de Goethe, o romance Heinrich von Ofterdingen de Novalis é representativo para a literatura alemã. Este romance é também significativo e conhecido pela sua flor azul, um motivo usado por Novalis nesse romance. O artigo analisa a flor azul como um símbolo da busca pela felicidade na literatura alemã. Para tal, os seguintes assuntos são levados em consideração: a conexão entre o homem e a natureza, a cor azul conforme os estudos de Goethe, a flor azul como um motivo da natureza e os sonhos de Heinrich.

  5. Protective effects of vescalagin from pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] fruit against methylglyoxal-induced inflammation and carbohydrate metabolic disorder in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2013-07-24

    The unbalance of glucose metabolism in humans may cause the excessive formation of methylglyoxal (MG), which can react with various biomolecules to form the precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Vescalagin (VES) is an ellagitannin that alleviates insulin resistance in cell study. Results showed that VES reduced the value of oral glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular risk index, AGEs, and tumor necrosis factor-α contents while increasing C-peptide and d-lactate contents significantly in rats orally administered MG and VES together. The preventive effect of VES on MG-induced inflammation and carbohydrate metabolic disorder in rats was thus proved. On the basis of the experiment data, a mechanism, which involves the increase in d-lactate to retard AGE formation and the decrease in cytokine release to prevent β-cell damage, is proposed to explain the bioactivities of VES in antiglycation and in the alleviation of MG-induced carbohydrate metabolic disorder in rats.

  6. The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, [Blume] Merrill & L.M. Perry var. jambu madu) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza

    2012-04-01

    The present study represents the first report of the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the growth, development and quality of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 mM H(2)O(2) under field conditions. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll and dry matter content of the leaves and total soluble solids and total sugar content of the fruits of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, var. jambu madu) were significantly increased after treatment with 5 mM H(2)O(2). The application of 20 mM H(2)O(2) significantly reduced bud drop and enhanced fruit growth, resulting in larger fruit size, increased fruit set, fruit number, fruit biomass and yield compared to the control. In addition, the endogenous level of H(2)O(2) in wax apple leaves increased significantly with H(2)O(2) treatments. With regard to fruit quality, 20 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased the K(+), anthocyanin and carotene contents of the fruits by 65%, 67%, and 41%, respectively. In addition, higher flavonoid, phenol and soluble protein content, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between peel colour (hue) and TSS, between net photosynthesis and SPS activity and between phenol and flavonoid content with antioxidant activity in H(2)O(2)-treated fruits. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 20 mM H(2)O(2) once a week produced better fruit growth, maximising the yield and quality of wax apple fruits under field conditions.

  7. Physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu) as affected by growth regulator application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Mohammad; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru; Osman, Normaniza; Sharif Hossain, Abm

    2012-01-01

    This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs), and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs) treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA(3)), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA₃, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA₃ or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA₃, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.

  8. GALLIC ACID: A PHENOLIC ACID AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FROM STEM BARK OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF SYZYGIUM LITORALE (BLUME AMSHOFF (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic acid had been isolated from chloroform soluble fractions of a methanol extract of stem bark of Syzygium litorale, Fam. Myrtaceae. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated and established as gallic acid through extensive spectroscopic studies (UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR and by comparison with literature data and authentic sample. This is the first report of the isolation of compound from this plant, although it has previously been found in Myrtaceae family such as S. aromaticum, S. cumini, S. polyanthum, S. cordatum, etc. The chloroform fraction, isolated compound, and vitamin C showed very strong antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH with IC50 value of 23.2, 7.5, and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively.

  9. 板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究%Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  10. Physiochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu as Affected by Growth Regulator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs, and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA3, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA3 or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.

  11. POTENSI ANTI-HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA EKASTRAK CASSIA VERA [Anti-hypercholesterolemic Potency of Cassia Vera (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Azima1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited report on the phytochemical content of cassia vera bark extract, and its potency as anti-hypercholesterolemic in rabbit is not known yet. The objectives of this research was to determine the phytochemical content and potency of anti-hypercholesterolemic of cassia vera bark extract using rabbit as the animal model.The research was devided into three stages, namely: (1 preparing cassia vera extraction with ethanol 96%; (2 analyzing phytochemical contents of cassia vera bark extract; (3 in vivo experiment, where twenty New Zealand White rabbits aged 5 months were used. Experimental rabbits were divided into 5 groups. The rabbits were fed with atherogenic cholesterol (0.1% as positive control, RB11 standard feed as negative control, or cassia vera extracts (100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day or fenofibrat (15 mg/day together with the atherogenic feed for 12 weeks. Levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined at 0, 4, 8, and 12 week. At the end of the experiment formation of fatty liver were observed. The results showed that the ethanol extract of cassia vera bark contains total phenol (62.25%, flavonoids, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. On the other hand, cassia vera bark extract was able to decrease total serum cholesterol from 443.3 mg/dl to 139.1 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol from 286.5 mg/dl to 95.8 mg/dl and triglyceride from 122.2 mg/dl to 61.2 mg/dl. Meanwhile, it increased HDL serum cholesterol from 29.1 mg/dl to 50.0 mg/dl in rabbit. It was also shown that the extract was able to decrease the everage fat globule on liver significantly from 27.47 globule to 3.59 globule per field view. Cassia vera bark extract with phytochemical content was found to be potential as anti-hypercholesterolemic and also in preventing fatty liver formatonr in rabbit

  12. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity of Enicostema axillare(Lam. Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume Raynal: An important medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousalya Loganathan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations using ex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major contributor of antioxidant activity of both plants grown from nature and nodal culture.

  13. 异叶南星的化学成分研究%Studies on the chemical constituents of Arisaema heterophyllum blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中林; 韦英杰; 叶文才

    2003-01-01

    目的:对异叶南星的化学成分进行研究.方法:采用硅胶柱色谱、薄层色谱对异叶南星的化学成分进行分离,并用理化常数和光谱鉴定其结构.结果:从异叶南星中分离出4个化合物,分别为十八酸单甘酯(glycerol monostearic acid,Ⅰ),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,Ⅱ)、葫萝卜甙(daucosterol,Ⅲ)、琥珀酸(succinic acid,Ⅳ),结论:化合物Ⅰ、Ⅳ为首次从异叶南星块茎中得到

  14. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  15. Fraction from Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume Merrill and Perry] Fruit Extract Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Modulating Insulin Signaling and Inflammation Pathway in Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Treated FL83B Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chuan Shen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, mouse FL83B cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α to induce insulin resistance, and then co-incubated with a fraction from wax apple fruit extract (FWFE. This fraction significantly increased the uptake of the nonradioactive fluorescent indicator 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG in insulin resistant cells. Western blot analysis revealed that, compared with the TNF-α-treated control group, FWFE increased the expression of the insulin receptor (IR, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1, protein kinase B (Akt/PKB, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K, and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2, and increased IR tyrosyl phosporylation, in insulin resistant FL83B cells. However, FWFE decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, but not the expression of the intercellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK, in the same cells. These results suggest that FWFE might alleviate insulin resistance in TNF-α-treated FL83B cells by activating PI3K-Akt/PKB signaling and inhibiting inflammatory response via suppression of JNK, rather than ERK, activation.

  16. 山胡椒抑制体内外α-糖苷酶活性研究%α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity in vitro and vivo of Lindera Glauca(Sieblet Zucc) Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹乃锋; 武小红; 康文艺

    2010-01-01

    对山胡椒抑制酵母α-葡萄糖苷酶和大鼠小肠α-葡萄糖苷酶活性进行了研究.利用96微孔板法检测其α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性.结果表明,抑制酵母α-葡萄糖苷酶实验中,山胡椒石油醚部位(IC50=229.70 μg/mL)、乙酸乙酯部位(IC50=259.10 μg/mL)和正丁醇部位(IC50=165.80 μg/mL)活性低于阳性对照Acarbose(IC50=1081.27 μg/mL);抑制大鼠小肠α-葡萄糖苷酶实验中,仅有乙酸乙酯部位(IC50=418.17 μg/mL)具有活性,阳性对照Acarbose 未检测出其IC50.实验证明,山胡椒各提取部位具有较好抑制酵母α-葡萄糖苷酶活性,但只有乙酸乙酯部位具有良好的大鼠小肠α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性.

  17. 中国板栗生长状况对柱头形态的影响%Effect of Different Growth State on Stigmatic Morphology in the Chinese Chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卓功; 夏立

    2008-01-01

    通过扫描电子显微镜观察研究中国板栗柱头形态.板栗为典型的针状形柱头,在其顶端有一个很小的开孔,直径约为50μm.在云南4月底到5月初柱头的先端可见有分泌物溢出,一个星期后分泌物迅速增加,并可把整个开孔全部覆盖."生长健壮树"的柱头开孔要比"生长衰弱树"的大,后者柱头开也又比"空苞树"大.而且,"生长健壮树"的柱头分泌物最多,其次是"生长衰弱树","空苞树"的柱头分泌物最少.%The stigmatic morphology of Chinese chestnut was studied by using scanning electron microscopy.The stigma of Chinese chestnut is typically needle-shaped with,and there is a small aperture of around 50 μm in diameter on its top.At the end of April and early in May secretion was spilt over on top of the stigma in Yunnan Province.One week later secretion increased quickly and covered completely the aperture of the stigma.At the same time aperture of stigma of the tree"robust growth state"was bigger than that of the tree"weak growth state",the latter bigger than"the empty cupulae tree".Likwise,quantity of secretion of the specimen"robust growth state"was much more than that of the specimen"weak growth state"and"the empty eupulae tree".

  18. Study on Cultivation of Gastrodia elata Blume with Poplar and Traditional Materials%杨树菌材与传统菌材栽培天麻的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志兵; 陈代雄; 陈京元; 林正保; 林亲雄

    2011-01-01

    采用随机区组实验设计,以杨树菌材、传统的栎树菌材和栗树菌材为材料在湖北省宜昌县、五峰县、鹤峰县3个栽培点进行了天麻的田间栽培实验.结果表明:蜜环菌在杨树菌材上生长较传统菌材菌丝萌发早,生长粗壮,生长点多;杨树菌材易被蜜环菌分解利用,腐朽程度高;不同菌材对天麻的产量与生物转化率无显著差异,而不同实验点之间差异显著;在适宜的条件下杨树菌材栽培天麻易获得高产,其产量与生物转化率分别高达4.977 kg/m2和30%.杨树是栽培天麻适合的菌材.%To evaluate the feasibility of cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl.with poplar materials as alternatives to traditional materials,the field cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl was carried out at three sites in Yichang,Wufeng,Hefeng counties in Hubei Province,with poplar and traditional cultivated materials.The results showed that the mycelium of Armillariella mellea in poplar materials developed faster,stronger and more abundantly than in traditional materials.Poplar materials were easily decomposed with high degree of decay and easily utilized by A.mellea.The yield and biological conversion were not much different between the cultivated materials but significantly varied in different cultivated sites.The poplar cultivated materials produced G.elata Bl with high yeild at suitable conditions,its yield and biological conversion could reach to 4.977 kg/m2 and 30 % respectively.The poplar material was suitable for the cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl.

  19. Fraction from wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] fruit extract ameliorates insulin resistance via modulating insulin signaling and inflammation pathway in tumor necrosis factor α-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chang, Chiao-Li

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, mouse FL83B cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance, and then co-incubated with a fraction from wax apple fruit extract (FWFE). This fraction significantly increased the uptake of the nonradioactive fluorescent indicator 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) in insulin resistant cells. Western blot analysis revealed that, compared with the TNF-α-treated control group, FWFE increased the expression of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), and increased IR tyrosyl phosporylation, in insulin resistant FL83B cells. However, FWFE decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not the expression of the intercellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), in the same cells. These results suggest that FWFE might alleviate insulin resistance in TNF-α-treated FL83B cells by activating PI3K-Akt/PKB signaling and inhibiting inflammatory response via suppression of JNK, rather than ERK, activation.

  20. 暴马丁香不同部位乙醇提取物抑菌及清除DPPH自由基作用%Anti-bateria and DPPH radical scavenging activity of different parts from Syringa Reticulata (Blume) Hara var.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恩博; 陈秋连; 郭世杰; 王红; 刘享享; 石少瑜; 张晶

    2015-01-01

    目的 以暴马丁香树皮、叶、枝和花蕾的75%乙醇提取物为材料,研究其抑菌及抗氧化的活性.方法 采用滤纸片法测定暴马丁香不同部位乙醇提取物对2种常见细菌的生长抑制活性、最低抑菌浓度.采用DPPH自由基法,利用分光光度法测定不同部位乙醇提取物在不同质量浓度下清除DPPH自由基的能力.结果 暴马丁香乙醇提取液对沙门氏菌的抑制效果大小顺序为枝>花蕾>叶>树皮,对枯草芽孢杆菌的抑制效果大小为叶>枝>树皮>花蕾.暴马丁香树皮乙醇提取物抗氧化能力最强,其余各部位的抗氧化能力大小依次是花蕾>枝>叶.结论 暴马丁香枝和叶的抑菌能力较好,其树皮、花蕾的抗氧化能力较强,确定枝和花蕾具有较好的应用价值.

  1. Austin Jennifer, Blume María, & Sánchez Liliana (2015. Bilingualism in the Spanish-speaking world: linguistic and cognitive perspectives. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Fionda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The book reviewed here may serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate students of linguistics, as well as graduates and scholars in the field and related disciplines. It comprises five chapters that explore, through three Spanish bilingual communities, the following topics: basic concepts in bilingualism, such as code-switching and language transfer; a brief historical review of Spanish bilingualism; proposed definitions of bilingualism and the different ways in which bilinguals may be classified according to factors such as language competence and age of acquisition; the effect of bilingualism on the brains and minds of bilingual speakers, such as increased cortical activation and enhanced literacy; and, finally, the development and outcomes of bilingualism on the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. The authors cover a breadth of research, rendering it accessible by succinctly reviewing findings, and further identify areas for future research.

  2. Primary Study on Stem Quality of Cork Oak (Quercus variabilis Blume)Plantations%北京栓皮栎林分的干形质量初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩彦; 陆元昌; 宁金魁; 刘刚; 刘宪钊

    2008-01-01

    探讨了划分林木干形质量的标准,将林木干形质量分为通直、轻度弯曲、二杈分枝、多杈分枝和重度弯曲5类干形.选择了胸径、树高、冠幅、冠长等6个因子,并研究了这6个调查因子随干形质量变化的关系.通过方差分析发现不同干形质量的林木胸径差异并不明显,而其它的调查因子却因干形不同而表现出显著差异.对表现显著的林分因子进行多重比较研究,发现通直干形生长得较高、有较小的冠径比;二杈分枝和多杈分枝林木的冠幅较大,且二杈分枝类型林木的高径比最小.可以得出结论:在近自然经营过程中,在选择以材质为目的的目标树时,首先考虑干形通直的林木.

  3. Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) Kernels%板栗种仁脂肪含量及其脂肪酸组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽松; 李如华; 王贵禧; 张柏林

    2013-01-01

    以中国3个主要品种群中不同产区的24个板栗品种为试材,研究板栗种仁中的脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成特性,探讨不同品种以及品种群板栗种仁中脂肪含量及脂肪酸构成的差异.结果表明:1)板栗种仁中的脂肪含量在1.15~4.48g/100g(以干质量计)之间;2)板栗种仁中主要包含了从C14~C20碳链长度的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)和不饱和脂肪酸(UFA),其中C16和C18是最主要的两类脂肪酸,它们在脂肪酸组成中所占比例分别在7.35%~25.81%和64.51%~91.83%范围内;3)C16/C18在0.08~0.37之间,且C16脂肪酸中以饱和态的C16:0为主,C18脂肪酸中以不饱和态的C18∶1、C18∶2为主;4)板栗种仁中的SFA所占比例(9.64%~29.22%)远远低于UFA所占比例(70.78%~90.36%),SFA/UFA构成比例在0.11~0.41之间.结果表明,板栗种仁脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成在不同品种之间存在显著差异,但在品种群之间没有表现出明显差异.

  4. Dates of publication of Malaysian phyto-taxonomical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumée, J.G.B.

    1948-01-01

    Blume, C.L. Museum Botanicum. 2 volumes. The dates given by BLUME for each separate part of volume 1 (1849-1851) seem always to have been considered to be correct. However, those of the 2nd volume are partly wrong: the preface is dated 1852, and may have been printed at that time, but the book was t

  5. Human neural progenitor cells retain viability, phenotype, proliferation, and lineage differentiation when labeled with a novel iron oxide nanoparticle, Molday ION Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen WB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Bin Shen,1,2 Celine Plachez,2,3 Amanda Chan,4 Deborah Yarnell,1 Adam C Puche,3 Paul S Fishman,1,5 Paul Yarowsky1,21Research Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Notre Dame of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (USPIOs loaded into stem cells have been suggested as a way to track stem cell transplantation with magnetic resonance imaging, but the labeling, and post-labeling proliferation, viability, differentiation, and retention of USPIOs within the stem cells have yet to be determined for each type of stem cell and for each type of USPIO. Molday ION Rhodamine B™ (BioPAL, Worcester, MA, USA (MIRB has been shown to be a USPIO labeling agent for mesenchymal stem cells, glial progenitor cells, and stem cell lines. In this study, we have evaluated MIRB labeling in human neuroprogenitor cells and found that human neuroprogenitor cells are effectively labeled with MIRB without use of transfection reagents. Viability, proliferation, and differentiation properties are unchanged between MIRB-labeled neuroprogenitors cells and unlabeled cells. Moreover, MIRB-labeled human neuroprogenitor cells can be frozen, thawed, and replated without loss of MIRB or even without loss of their intrinsic biology. Overall, those results show that MIRB has advantageous properties that can be used for cell-based therapy.Keywords: ferumoxides, USPIO, MION, neural stem cells, SC121 antibody, human, toxicology

  6. Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Neeme Järvi / Joachim Salau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salau, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Auszüge aus Das Märchen von der steinernen Blume. Gennadij Roshdestwenskij (Sprecher), Philharmonia Chorus, Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9095

  7. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1980-01-01

    Arckenhausen, J.C.P. (1784-1855) The draftsman from Goslar, Germany, who was in the service of C.L. Blume, from 1829 till 1832 or probably later. He worked up many of the drawings Blume had brought from Bogor, for the Flora Javae, mostly vol. 1 and 2, fewer vol. 3 and 4. In a book by H.G. Griep e.a.

  8. Analisis Perbandingan Kadar Kalium Pada Daun Kumis Kucing, Daun Pegagan Dan Daun Salam Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lusi Ayulita

    2015-01-01

    The Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq, Centella asiatica (L) Urb and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp Leaves empirically has been adopted by local community for treatment of hypertension in Tanah Jawa district Simalungun. These three herbals are recognized healing to hypertension patients mainly to stabilize mineral potassium in body. The plant has own group, since Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq into lamiaceae, Centella asiatica (L) Urb into Apiaceae and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp in...

  9. Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and nutrition were compared with similar foreign experi

  10. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, Andreas; Korhonen, J. F. J.;

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands...

  11. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  12. Actividad Antifúngica de Aceites Esenciales de Canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) y Orégano (Origanum vulgare L.) y su Efecto sobre la Producción de Aflatoxinas en Nuez Pecanera [Carya illinoensis (F.A. Wangenh) K. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Arturo García-Camarillo; Martha Yolanda Quezada-Viay; Josefina Moreno-Lara; Gabriela Sánchez-Hernández; Ernesto Moreno-Martínez; María Cristina Julia Pérez-Reyes

    2006-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) y orégano (Origanum vulgare) fueron evaluados para determinar su actividad antifúngica contra Aspergillus flavus y la producción de aflatoxinas en nuez pecanera. Ambos aceites presentaron actividad fungicida in vitro contra A. flavus, el aceite esencial de orégano a partir de 1000 ppm y el de canela de 2000 ppm, en medio de cultivo de malta-salagar y un efecto fungistático en 100 ppm. Sin embargo, al evaluar el efecto inhibitorio en la ...

  13. Effects of electroacupuncture combined with polysaccharide of Gastrodia elata Blume on the expressions of Nestin and brain derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal CA3 region of cerebral ischemia rats%电针联合天麻多糖对脑缺血大鼠海马CA3区Nesin、BDNF表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪化春; 吴锋; 丁见; 熊克仁

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察电针联合天麻多糖对脑缺血大鼠海马CA3区巢蛋白(Nestin)和脑源性神经营养因子(brain derivedneurotrophic factor,BDNF)表达的影响.方法 将40只SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组、电针组、天麻多糖组和针药结合组,每组8只.以单侧大脑中动脉栓塞法制备脑缺血模型.造模后2w,天麻多糖组和针药结合组大鼠给予天麻多糖100mg/kg灌胃,每天1次,连续2w;电针组和针药结合组大鼠给予“百会”“足三里”穴电针刺激,持续30 min,每天1次,连续2w.采用免疫组织化学染色法结合图像分析检测海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF的表达.结果 与正常对照组比较,模型组缺血侧海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF阳性表达增加(P<0.05);与模型组比较,电针组、天麻多糖组和针药结合组缺血侧海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF阳性表达显著增加(P<0.05);针药结合组阳性表达显著多于电针组或天麻多糖组(P<0.05).结论 电针与天麻多糖结合可显著增加脑缺血大鼠缺血侧海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF的表达,促进内源性神经干细胞激活,且作用优于单用电针或天麻多糖.

  14. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    1999-01-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies...... procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand...... that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned...

  15. Improvement of l-lactic acid productivity from sweet sorghum juice by repeated batch fermentation coupled with membrane separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ.

  16. Acidification Sources in Red Alder and Douglas-Fir Soils -- Importance of Nitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Miegroet, Helga Van; Cole, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation, throughfall, forest floor, and soil leachate samples were monitored continuously in 1981 and 1982 in a N-poor Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forest and a red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) forest growing adjacently on a glacial soil in western Washington. The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative importance of atmospheric vs. natural sources of H+ input to forest soil acidification, and to determine the role of N transformation processes in the overa...

  17. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés MESSUTI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  18. Two new species and one new subspecies of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Southeast Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Girmansyah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dua jenis baru dan satu subspesies, Begonia mekonggensis Girmansyah & Wiriadinata, Begonia watuwilensis Girmansyah, dan Begonia aptera Blume subsp. hirtissima Girmansyah & D.C.Thomas, telah dideskripsikan dari Gunung Mekongga dan Watuwila, Sulawesi Tenggara. Begonia mekonggensis dan Begonia watuwilensis termasuk kedalam seksi Petermannia. Kedua jenis ini memiliki karakter yang tidak umum dimiliki oleh seksi ini: Begonia mekonggensis berumah dua dan Begonia watuwilensis memiliki perbungaan yang tidak biasa yaitu bunga jantan mekar duluan yang keluar di bagian basal sedangkan betina di bagian atas perbungaan dengan banyak bunga. Begonia aptera Blume subsp. hirtissima ter- masuk kedalam seksi Sphenanthera.  

  19. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  20. 广西假糙苏属植物增补%A Supplement to the Paraphlomis (Lamiaceae) from Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 方鼎

    2009-01-01

    Two new taxa and two newly recorded species of the Paraphlomis from Guangxi,China are reported.The two new taxa are P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.pteropoda D.Fang & K J.Yan and P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.angustifolia(C.Y.Wu)C.Y.Wu & H. W.Li f.albinervia D.Fang & K. J.Yan.The two newly recorded species are P.hispida C.Y.Wu and P.subcoriacea C.Y.Wu ex H.W.Li.%报道假糙苏属(Paraphlomis)植物在中国广西2个新分类群和2个新记录种.2个新分类群是翅柄假糙苏(P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.pteropoda D.Fang & K. J.Yan)和白脉狭叶假糙苏(P.javanica(Blume)Prain var.angustifolia (C.Y. Wu)C.Y.Wu&H. W.Li f.albinervia D.Fang & K J.Yan).2个新记录种是刚毛假糙苏(P.hispida C.Y.Wu)和近革叶假糙苏(P.subcoriacea C.Y Wu ex H. W.Li).

  1. A Study of Selected Adolescent Problems as Presented in Contemporary Realistic Fiction for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mary F.; Skelton, Juanita

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed 15 popular fiction books in terms of problem-concerns of young adolescents. Five were by author Judy Blume. The books reflected personal, family, and interpersonal problems and a trend toward realism. Fiction can be helpful in counseling and in developmental programs. (JAC)

  2. Mangroves in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Non-saline occurrences of Acanthus ilicifolius L. and Acrostichum aureum Sw. in Vanuatu, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (Forst. f.) Bakh. in New Zealand, Rhizophora apiculata Blume in the Solomon Islands, and R. stylosa Griff. in Malaysia are reported.

  3. Disorder solutions of lattice spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, M. T.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that disorder solutions, which have been obtained by different methods, follow from a simple decimation method. The method is put in general form and new disorder solutions are constructed for the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on a triangular lattice and for Potts and Ising models on square and fcc lattices.

  4. First report of Dolabra nepheliae associated with corky bark disease of Rambutan and Pulasan in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., Sapindaceae) was first introduced into Honduras in 1927 but commercial production was not started until after 1980 when cultivation of pulasan (N. mutabile Blume) was initiated. In the last decade these crops have become popular as exotic fruit for export to North A...

  5. Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, R.; Rafidah, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Daphniphyllum occur in Peninsular Malaysia: D. glaucescens Blume var. lancifolium (Hook.f.) T.C.Huang, D. laurinum (Benth.) Baill. and D. scortechinii Hook.f. Daphniphyllum glaucescens var. glaucescens and var. blumeanum (Baill. ex Müll.Arg.) J.J.Sm. do not occur in Peninsular Malay

  6. 77 FR 51097 - Notice of Action Subject to Intergovernmental Review Under Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., MO 65211, (573) 882-1348. Drive, Suite 202, Ames, IA 50011, (515) 294-2037. Ms. Lenae Quillen-Blume... services under a negotiated Cooperative Agreement with SBA, the general management and oversight of SBA... small business owners in management, marketing, finance, operations, planning, taxes, and any...

  7. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa (Sc

  8. Phytochemistry as a means for checking erroneously localized specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    In Flores, Timor, and some other of the Lesser Sunda Islands at least two distinct species of Eucalyptus occur, E. alba (vern. hoë) in the lowland and low hills and a second species (vern. anpupu) in the hills and mountains. A century ago Blume described some eucalypts from the Leyden Herbarium base

  9. A revision of Mischocarpus (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Mischocarpus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 238, nom. cons.; Rumphia 3 (1849) 166; Radlk., Pfl. R. Heft 98 (1933) 1288—1310. — Cupania § Mischocarpus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. I, 2 (1859) 566. — Type: M. sundaicus Bl. Pedicellia Lour., Fl. Coch. (1790) 655, nom. rejic. (see under dubious names). — Type: P. oppositi

  10. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  11. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.

  12. Phyto climatic characterization and cartography of sub antarctic native forests in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina); Caracterizacion y cartografia fitoclimaticas del bosque nativo subantartico en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allue, C.; Arranz, J. A.; Bava, J. O.; Beneitez, J. M.; Collado, L.; Garcia-Lopez, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is especially peculiar in phytoclimatic terms, situated as it is at an extreme southerly latitude, surrounded by large water masses and close to the great mass of Antarctic ice. Its main peculiarities in this sense are the coolness of its summers and a very narrow temperature range. As a result, the woodland landscapes in the parts with forest cover are dominated by microphyllous broadleaf physiognomies, both evergreen and deciduous, of the Nothofagus genus. This paper reports a more in-depth investigation of the hitherto little-known phytoclimatic conditions in that territory which included calibration and validation of a model of phytoclimatic suitability that addresses the principal plant physiognomic units and phytoclimatic mapping. It discusses the causes behind the presence of broadleaf formations in thermal conditions which in the northern hemisphere would allow only coniferous formations or no tree formations at all, and also the edaphic peculiarities that may explain the presence of a evergreen species like Nothofagus betuloides in subantarctic mixed forests. (Author) 111 refs.

  13. 环锯——提高黄杉种子产量的好方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wheeler N.C.; 朱可仁

    1986-01-01

    @@ 在黄杉[Pseudotsuga menziesii(Mirb.)Franco]种子园进行了为期12年的试验和观察,结果显示环锯树干对雄花和雌花都有促进作用,种子增产效果优于环剥,且操作简易,伤口愈合快,种子败育率低.环剥初期虽然促使产生更多的雌花芽,但随后出现较高的败育率,产量相形见拙.

  14. Nuevas citas de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina New records of adventitious monocots for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye cinco nuevos registros de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae y Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, pertenecientes al orden Asparagales. También incluye una evaluación del estado actual de estas especies, en relación al proceso de naturalización: escapadas de cultivo ocasionales, naturalizadas.This paper includes five new records of adventitious monocots for Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae and Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, belonging to order Asparagales. Also includes an evaluation of its status in the naturalization process: casual alien, naturalized.

  15. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  16. Quantum Entanglement in Optical Lattice Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    model in quantum optics, which describes the interactions between an ensemble of atoms and an optical field. A central prediction of the Dicke model ...25, 2012) 13.) D. Blume, Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Gases: Effective Interactions, Energetics and Correlations, Atomic Physics Seminar...effective one-dimensional description, Physical Review A (02 2014) Y. Qian, M. Gong, C. Zhang. Quantum Transport of Bosonic Cold Atoms in Double

  17. Maximum Entropy Estimation of Transition Probabilities of Reversible Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Van der Straeten

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a general theory for the estimation of the transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains using the maximum entropy principle. A broad range of physical models can be studied within this approach. We use one-dimensional classical spin systems to illustrate the theoretical ideas. The examples studied in this paper are: the Ising model, the Potts model and the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model.

  18. Nonlinear Sensing With Collective States of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    decimation algorithm , a method that takes into account quantum correlations. B.1. In collaboration with D. Blume and X.Y. Yin at Washington State...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Nonlinear quantum sensing, quantum metrology, ultracold atoms, optical lattices REPORT...with applications to interaction-based quantum metrology, Physical Review A, (10 2014): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.041602 Khan W Mahmud, Lei Jiang

  19. Genus Schistochila Dumort. (Schistochilaceae, Marchantiophyta in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Juengprayoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genus Schistochila Dumort. in Thailand is presented, based on the study of fresh and herbarium specimens. Five species are recognized, namely S. aligera (Nees & Blume J.B. Jack & Steph., S. blumei (Nees Trevis., S. nuda Horik., S. sciurea (Nees Schiffn., and S. yakushimensis Ohnishi & Deguchi. In addition, a key to species, descriptions and line drawings are provided, and notes on the ecology and geographical distribution of the species.

  20. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Mairida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  1. Measurement errors in the use of smartphones as lowcost forestry hypsometers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández López, Cristina; Villasante Plágaro, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    Various applications currently available for Android allow the estimation of tree heights by using the 3D accelerometer on smartphones. Some make the estimation using the image on the screen, while in others, by pointing with the edges of the terminal. The present study establishes the measurement errors obtained with HTC Desire and Samsung Galaxy Note compared to those from Blume Leiss and Vertex IV. Six series of 12 measurements each were made with each hypsometer (for heights of 6 m, 8 ...

  2. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  3. Angular Momentum Theory Applied to Interactions in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    the classical method was the omission of the Sternheimer shielding factors ( Sternheimer , 1951, 1966; Sternheimer et al, 1968). In 1952 Sternheimer ...HDL-TR-1367. Sternheimer , R. M. (1966), Shielding and Antishielding for Various Ions and Atomic Systems, Phys. Rev. 146, 140. Sternheimer , R. M. (1951...Nuclear Quadrupole Moments, Phys. Rev. 84, 244. Sternheimer , R. M., M. Blume, and R. F. Peierls (1968), Shielding of Crystal Fields at Rare-Earth

  4. Lectures on Crystal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    func- tions is immediately obtained, particularly k k k <r > = <r > /T (184)HP A second error of the classical method was the omission of the Sternheimer ...shielding factors ( Sternheimer , 1951, 1966; Sternheimer et al, 1968). In 1951 Sternheimer showed that, in a multipo~ar expan- sion of the energy of a...2986. Sternheimer , R. M., 1951, Phys. Rev. 84, 244. Sternheimer , R. M., 1966, Phys. Rev. 146, 140. Sternheimer , R. M., M. Blume, and R. F. Peierls, 1968

  5. Stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library-Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacate, Matthew O.; Evenson, William E.

    2016-02-01

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) provides a set of routines to assist in the development and application of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The library provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental techniques that measure hyperfine interactions can be calculated. The optimized vector and matrix operations of the BLAS and LAPACK libraries are utilized. The original version of SHIML constructed and solved Blume matrices for methods that measure hyperfine interactions of nuclear probes in a single spin state. Version 2 provides additional support for methods that measure interactions on two different spin states such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. Example codes are provided to illustrate the use of SHIML to (1) generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A22 can be neglected and (2) generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples for pure dipole or pure quadrupole transitions.

  6. Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: an updated computational implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.

    2015-04-01

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) is a set of routines written in the C programming language designed to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The routines read a text-file description of the model, set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the quantum mechanical system depends, and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix, from which theoretical spectra of experimental techniques can be calculated. The original version of SHIML constructs Blume matrices applicable for methods that measure hyperfine interactions with only a single nuclear spin state. In this paper, we report an extension of the library to provide support for methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, which are sensitive to interactions with two nuclear spin states. Examples will be presented that illustrate the use of this extension of SHIML to generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples under a number of fluctuating hyperfine field models.

  7. Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: an updated computational implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) is a set of routines written in the C programming language designed to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The routines read a text-file description of the model, set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the quantum mechanical system depends, and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix, from which theoretical spectra of experimental techniques can be calculated. The original version of SHIML constructs Blume matrices applicable for methods that measure hyperfine interactions with only a single nuclear spin state. In this paper, we report an extension of the library to provide support for methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, which are sensitive to interactions with two nuclear spin states. Examples will be presented that illustrate the use of this extension of SHIML to generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples under a number of fluctuating hyperfine field models.

  8. 仙草面条配方的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴圣静

    2014-01-01

    Using Mesona Blume extracting solution as ingredients, the processing formula of the Mesona Blume noodle is researched. The optimal production parameters is confirmed by orthogonal test: the ratio of material to liquid 1∶50, the Mesona Blume extracting solution 50%, wheat gluten 5%, salt 2%, sodium carbonate 0.5%, in order to provide theoretical basis for the industrial production of the future.%采用仙草浸提液为配料,对仙草面条的配方进行开发研究。结果表明,仙草面条的最佳配方为仙草浸提液料液比1∶50,仙草浸提液添加量50%,谷朊粉5%,食盐2%,碳酸钠0.5%,以期为将来仙草面条工业化生产提供理论依据。

  9. Organic matter characterization and decomposition dynamics in sub-Antarctic streams impacted by invasive beavers Caracterización de la materia orgánica y la dinámica de descomposición en arroyos subantárticos impactados por castores invasores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ulloa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a relatively remote and well conserved area, the sub-Antarctic ecoregion faces pressing global threats from climate change, the ozone hole and introduced species. Its freshwater ecosystems are one of the least studied components of this biome, but they are known to confront a host of invasive taxa including trout and beavers. We set out to understand the basic characterization and dynamics of organic matter processing and decomposition in sub-Antarctic streams under natural forest (NF conditions and in ponds constructed by North American beavers (Castor canadensis (BP. We found these streams have a naturally stable benthic organic matter regime throughout the year with a peak in leaf input from Nothofagus pumilio in autumn. Beaver ponds significantly increased the retention of organic matter and caused significantly higher decomposition rates, probably associated with increased density and biomass of Hyalella spp. As expected, leaf decay rates for N. pumilio, a deciduous species, were higher (NF: -0.0028 day- ± 0.0001 SE; BP: -0.0118 day-1 ± 0.0009 SE than N. betuloides (a broad-leaf evergreen (NF: -0.0018 day-1 ± 0.0005 SE; BP: -0.0040 day-1 ± 0.0003 SE. Overall these results indicate that the naturally low decomposition rates (slower than 89% of a global survey of decay rates for these cold, oligotrophic streams are being modified by introduced beavers to resemble more temperate latitudes.A pesar de ser una zona relativamente remota y bien conservado, la ecorregión subantártica se enfrenta a presiones por amenazas globales por el cambio climático, el agujero de ozono y las especies introducidas. Los ecosistemas de agua dulce son uno de los componentes menos estudiados de este bioma, pero se sabe que enfrentan una serie de taxones invasivos como la trucha y los castores. El propósito de este estudio es entender la caracterización básica y dinámica de descomposición de la materia orgánica en arroyos subantárticos de

  10. Physical and mechanical characteristics of poor-quality wood after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romagnoli M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poor-quality Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Poir. Maire and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco wood samples were heat treated with the aim of testing the improvement of wood quality that could increase their economic value. Wood properties were measured to assess quality in treated and non-treated materials, including density, hardness, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, and compression strength. The results showed higher dimensional stability in heat-treated wood, yet mechanical performance in compression and bending strength were only marginally affected by loss of density. Despite having a re­latively low density after heat treatment, Corsican pine sapwood has potential in manufacturing higher-value products. In contrast, heat treatment applied to Douglas fir wood did not appear economically viable; insufficient differences were detected between the naturally desirable characteristics of this species and heat-treated samples.

  11. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  12. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  13. Conservation and reintroduction of native orchids of Singapore – the next phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W. Yam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some 226 species of native orchids have been recorded in Singapore. However, of these 178 are considered to be extinct, and only five are common. The orchid conservation programme aims to monitor existing species, explore ways to conserve their germplasm, and increase their number for subsequent re-introduction into appropriate habitats, including roadside trees, parks and nature areas. From 1999 to 2008, we carried out experiments and have successfully propagated and re-introduced 5 species of native orchids, namely Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. and Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb. More than 80% of the plants are growing well and all that have survived have flowered. From 2009 to 2012, we expanded our reintroduction efforts by planting fifteen species: Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Bulbophyllum purpurascens (T. and B. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.f., Coelogyne rochussenii De Vr., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl., Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume Rchb.f., Dendrobium leonis (Lindl. Rchb.f., Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Phalaenopsis cornu cervi (Breda Bl. and Rchb.f., Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb, Thrixspermum amplexicaule Rchb.f., and Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f. is scheduled to be planted. One of our goals is that the reintroduced species would act as catalysts for the restoration of at least part of the original ecosystem. For example, pollinators may be attracted to sites where orchids have been re-introduced. Subsequently, orchid seeds that are produced from naturally pollinated flowers may be blown to the safe sites where appropriate mycorrhizal fungi are present; thus making germination and subsequent establishment of natural populations in

  14. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  15. Stress Potentiates Early and Attenuates Late Stages of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    A.J.S.). We thank K. Berling, S. Blume, D. Cole, I. Dolski, L. Friedman, J. Koger, J. Nichols, and A. Teche for assistance; and A. Fox, A. Heller , J...monkey. J Neurosci 9:81–93. Qin S, Hermans EJ, van Marle HJ, Luo J, Fernández G (2009) Acute psycho- logical stress reduces working memory-related...Neurosci 11:843– 850. van Marle HJ, Hermans EJ, Qin S, Fernández G (2009) From specificity to sensitivity: how acute stress affects amygdala processing of

  16. Pharmacognosy of Enicostemma littorale:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajamani Saranya; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Munisami Hemalatha; Ranganathan Balaji; Ernest David

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times. Among them, Enicostemma littorale blume (E. littorale) a perennial herb of the family Gentianaceae is cosmopolitan in occurrence in India. The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative, helps in curing fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, abdominal disorders, snake bite, obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties. This review provides a bird’s eye view about geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E. littorale.

  17. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Miloš; Smiljković, Marija; Marković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marković, Dejan; Soković, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), l...

  18. 秦岭植物分布3新记录属%Three Newly Recorded Genera of Plant from Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培亮; 杜诚; 卢元; 姜在民

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,3 genera of plant are recorded from Qinling Mountains,China for the first time. The newly recorded genera are Monotro pa strum Andres ( Pyrolaceae) , Gleadovia Gamble et Prain (Oroban-chaceae) and Asystasia Blume (Acanthaceae). The newly recorded species or variety are M. humile (D. Don) H. Hara var. glaberrimum H. Hara,G. ruborum Gamble et Prain and A. neesiana (Wallich) Nees.%报道了秦岭植物分布3新记录属:鹿蹄草科(Pyrolaceae)的沙晶兰属(Monotropastrum Andres)、列当科(Orobanchaceae)的藤寄生属(Gleadovia Gamble et Prain)和爵床科(Acanthaceae)的十万错属(Asystasia Blume).相应的新记录种或变种为无毛沙晶兰[M.humile (D.Don)H.Hara var.glaberrimum H.Hara]、藨寄生(G.ruborum Gamble et Prain)和白接骨[A.neesiana (Wallich) Nees].

  19. Processed seismic motion records from earthquakes, 1982-1993: Recorded at Scotty's Castle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, P. K.; Honda, K. K.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the contract with the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), URS/John A. Blume & Associates, Engineers (URS/Blume) maintained a network of seismographs to monitor the ground motion generated by the underground nuclear explosions (UNE's) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The seismographs were located in the communities surrounding the NTS and the Las Vegas valley. When these seismographs were not used for monitoring the UNE generated motions, a limited number of seismographs were maintained for monitoring motion generated by other than UNE's (e.g. motion generated by earthquakes, wind, blast). Scotty's Castle was one of the selected earthquake monitoring stations. During the period from 1982 through 1993, numerous earthquakes which varied in magnitudes and distances were recorded at Scotty's Castle. The records from 24 earthquakes were processed and included in this report. The processed earthquakes are listed in chronological order and in the order of epicentral distances, respectively. These epicenters and magnitudes are shown. Due to the potential benefit of these data for the scientific community, DOE/NV and the National Park Service authorize the release of these records.

  20. Line shape of 57Co sources exhibiting self absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, H.; Ksenofontov, V.; Leupold, O.; Kusz, J.; Deák, L.; Németh, Z.; Bogdán, C.; Bottyán, L.; Nagy, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of selfabsorption in Mössbauer sources is studied in detail. Spectra were measured using an old 57 C o/ R h source of 74 M B q activity with an original activity of ca. 3.7 G B q and a 0.15 G B q 57 C o/ α - F e source magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field of 0.2 T. The 57 C o/ α - F e source of a thickness of 25 μ was used both from the active and the inactive side giving cause to very different selfabsorption effects. The absorber was a single crystal of ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate (FAS). Its absorption properties were taken over from a detailed study (Bull et al., Hyperfine Interact. 94(1-3), 1; Spiering et al. 2). FAS (space group P21/c) crystallizes as flat plates containing the (overline {2}01) plane. The γ-direction was orthogonal to the crystal plate. The 57 C o atoms of the 57 C o/ R h source were assumed to be homogeneously distributed over a 6 μ thick Rh foil and to follow a one dimensional diffusion profile in the 25 μ Fe-foil. The diffusion length was fitted to 10 μ. The theory follows the Blume-Kistner equations for forward scattering (Blume and Kistner, Phys. Rev. 171, 417, 3) by integrating over the source sampled up to 128 layers.

  1. Numerical transfer-matrix study of a model with competing metastable states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Gorman, B.M.; Rikvold, P.A.;

    1994-01-01

    The Blume-Capel model, a three-state lattice-gas model capable of displaying competing metastable states, is investigated in the limit of weak, long-range interactions. The methods used are scalar field theory, a numerical transfer-matrix method, and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations. The equilib......The Blume-Capel model, a three-state lattice-gas model capable of displaying competing metastable states, is investigated in the limit of weak, long-range interactions. The methods used are scalar field theory, a numerical transfer-matrix method, and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations...... transition. A recently developed transfer-matrix formalism is applied to the model to obtain complex-valued ''constrained'' free-energy densities f(alpha). For particular eigenvectors of the transfer matrix, the f(alpha) exhibit finite-rangescaling behavior in agreement with the analytically continued...... 'metastable free-energy density This transfer-matrix approach gives a free-energy cost of nucleation that supports the proportionality relation for the decay rate of the metastable phase T proportional to\\Imf alpha\\, even in cases where two metastable states compete. The picture that emerges from this study...

  2. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  3. Phylogenetic analyses place the Australian monotypic Revwattsia in Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Sundue, Michael; Barrington, David S

    2012-01-01

    Revwattsia fragilis (Watts) D.L. Jones (Dryopteridaceae), originally described as a Polystichum Roth by the pioneer Australian botanist Reverend W.W. Watts in 1914, is a rare epiphytic fern endemic to northeastern Queensland, Australia. Known from only a few populations, it is restricted to tropical rainforests in the Atherton Tablelands. We used the cpDNA markers psbA-trnH, rbcL, rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF, and trnP-petG to infer the relationships of Revwattsia fragilis within Dryopteridaceae. Based on our molecular analysis, we were able to reject Watts's 1914 hypothesis of a close relationship to Polystichum. Its closest allies are a suite of Asian Dryopteris Adans. species including Dryopteris labordei, Dryopteris gymnosora, Dryopteris erythrosora and Dryopteris cystolepidota; maintaining Revwattsia renders Dryopteris paraphyletic. The epiphytic habit and distinctive long-creeping rhizome of Revwattsia appear to be autapomorphies and do not warrant its generic status. In the course of our investigation we confirmed that polyphyly of Dryopteris is also sustained by the inclusion of Acrorumohra (H.Itô) H.Itô, Acrophorus C.Presl, Arachniodes Blume, Diacalpe Blume, Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards, and Peranema D.Don. The epithet fragilis is occupied in Dryopteris, therefore we provide the name Dryopteris wattsiinom. nov. to accommodate Revwattsia fragilis in Dryopteris.

  4. Phylogenetic analyses place the Australian monotypic Revwattsia in Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan McKeown

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Revwattsia fragilis (Watts D.L. Jones (Dryopteridaceae, originally described as a Polystichum Roth by the pioneer Australian botanist Reverend W.W. Watts in 1914, is a rare epiphytic fern endemic to northeastern Queensland, Australia. Known from only a few populations, it is restricted to tropical rainforests in the Atherton Tablelands. We used the cpDNA markers psbA-trnH, rbcL, rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF, and trnP-petG to infer the relationships of Revwattsia fragilis within Dryopteridaceae. Based on our molecular analysis, we were able to reject Watts’s 1914 hypothesis of a close relationship to Polystichum. Its closest allies are a suite of Asian Dryopteris Adans. species including D. labordei, D. gymnosora, D. erythrosora and D. cystolepidota; maintaining Revwattsia renders Dryopteris paraphyletic. The epiphytic habit and distinctive long-creeping rhizome of Revwattsia appear to be autapomorphies and do not warrant its generic status. In the course of our investigation we confirmed that polyphyly of Dryopteris is also sustained by the inclusion of Acrorumohra (H.ItôH.Itô, Acrophorus C.Presl, Arachniodes Blume, Diacalpe Blume, Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards, and Peranema D.Don. The epithet fragilis is occupied in Dryopteris, therefore we provide the name Dryopteris wattsii nom. nov. to accommodate R. fragilis in Dryopteris.

  5. Red-bond exponents of the critical and the tricritical Ising model in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W. J.

    2004-11-01

    Using the Wolff and geometric cluster algorithms and finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models with nearest-neighbor interactions on the simple-cubic lattice. The sampling procedure involves the decomposition of the Ising configuration into geometric clusters, each of which consists of a set of nearest-neighboring spins of the same sign connected with bond probability p . These clusters include the well-known Kasteleyn-Fortuin clusters as a special case for p=1-exp(-2K) , where K is the Ising spin-spin coupling. Along the critical line K=Kc , the size distribution of geometric clusters is investigated as a function of p . We observe that, unlike in the case of two-dimensional tricriticality, the percolation threshold in both models lies at pc=1-exp(-2Kc) . Further, we determine the corresponding red-bond exponents as yr=0.757(2) and 0.501(5) for the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models, respectively. On this basis, we conjecture yr=1/2 for the latter model.

  6. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  7. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  8. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  9. Registro de Acromyrmex disciger Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae no Município de Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pikart

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae is cultivated for production of leaves, bark and roots, due to its aromatic and spice proprieties. But despite being a resistant plant, C. zeylanicum is subject to attack by various insects and mites during their development, and these pests are responsible for considerable reduction in crop yields. The aim of this study was to record and characterize the attack by leaf-cutting ants in plants of C. zeylanicum in Braço do Trombudo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between January and March 2010. Damage were characterized by cutting young leaves and shoots of plants of C. zeylanicum with height between 1.0 to 1.5 m and total defoliation of plants less than 1.0 m. The attack in adult plants was not observed. This is the first record of leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex disciger Mayr damaging plants of C. zeylanicum in Brazil.

  10. Magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic properties of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) particles with sizes of about 16 nm have been studied by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, and neutron diffraction. The nanoparticles are weakly ferromagnetic at temperatures at least down to 5 K with a spontaneous...... magnetization that is only slightly higher than that of weakly ferromagnetic bulk hematite. At T greater than or similar to 100 K the Mossbauer spectra contain a doublet, which is asymmetric due to magnetic relaxation in the presence of an electric field gradient in accordance with the Blume-Tjon model......, Simultaneous fitting of series of Mossbauer spectra obtained at temperatures from 5 K to well above the superparamagnetic blocking temperature allowed the estimation of the pre-exponential factor in Neel's expression for the superparamagnetic relaxation time, tau(0) = (6 +/- 4) X 10(-11) s and the magnetic...

  11. Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bødker, Franz

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Temperature series of Mossbauer spectra of non-interacting, superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticles were fitted by use of the Blume-Tjon relaxation model. It has been...... found that the magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases significantly with decreasing particle size. Neutron scattering experiments on similar samples give new information on both superparamagnetic relaxation and collective magnetic excitations. There is good agreement between the values...... of the parameters obtained from Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. In samples of interacting hematite nanoparticles, the relaxation was significantly suppressed. The Mossbauer data for these samples are in accordance with a mean field model for an ordered state of strongly interacting particles. Mixing...

  12. A Sustainable Approach to Fabricating Ag Nanoparticles/PVA Hybrid Nanofiber and Its Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde Meng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using Ficus altissima Blume leaf extract as a reducing agent at room temperature. The resulting Ag nanoparticles/PVA mixture was employed to create Ag nanoparticles/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofibers via an electrospinning technique. The obtained nanofibers were confirmed by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, The X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and then tested to catalyze KBH4 reduction of methylene blue (MB. The catalytic results demonstrate that the MB can be reduced completely within 15 min. In addition, the Ag nanoparticles/PVA hybrid nanofibers show reusability for three cycles with no obvious losses in degradation ratio of the MB.

  13. Structural analysis of color video camera installation on tank 241AW101 (2 Volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, J.P.

    1994-08-24

    A video camera is planned to be installed on the radioactive storage tank 241AW101 at the DOE` s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The camera will occupy the 20 inch port of the Multiport Flange riser which is to be installed on riser 5B of the 241AW101 (3,5,10). The objective of the project reported herein was to perform a seismic analysis and evaluation of the structural components of the camera for a postulated Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) per the reference Structural Design Specification (SDS) document (6). The detail of supporting engineering calculations is documented in URS/Blume Calculation No. 66481-01-CA-03 (1).

  14. Safety and efficacy of Becaplermin gel in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blume P

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peter Blume,1 Melinda Bowlby,2 Brian M Schmidt,2 Ryan Donegan2 1Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, and Anesthesia, Yale School of Medicine, 2Section of Podiatric Surgery, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Becaplermin gel remains the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved growth factor for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Becaplermin gel has shown to be efficacious in a number of clinical trials. The FDA has added a black box warning label about the risk of cancer associated with the use of three or more Becaplermin tubes. Other adverse drug reactions associated with Becaplermin gel use are minimal. There is a need for further research regarding the true correlation between cancer and Becaplermin gel use. Keywords: diabetic, ulcer, wound care, advanced biologic therapy

  15. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  16. Phase diagram of a spin-1 magnetic bilayer by cluster variational theory: Exact results for a BEG model on a Bethe lattice with five-fold coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. W.; Balcerzak, T.; Gzik, M.; Sukiennicki, A.

    1998-09-01

    The complete global phase diagram for a magnetic spin-1 bilayer, whose interactions are described by the Blume Emery Griffiths model (BEG), is studied by cluster variational theory within the pair approximation. The results obtained, are also the exact results pertaining to the BEG model on a Bethe lattice having coordination number, z=5. Useful analytic expressions are derived for trajectories in phase space containing the second-order (continuous) phase boundaries. The physical existence of these second-order boundaries, together with the location of the first-order phase boundaries, are determined from a Gibbs free energy analysis. Detailed comparison of the results with those of other workers on this, and closely related systems, is made.

  17. Estimation of number and density, and random distribution testing of important plant species in Ban Pong Forest, Sansai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand using T-Square sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phahol Sakkatat

    Full Text Available A study by T-square sampling method was conducted to investigate importantplant species in Ban Pong Forest, Sansai district, Chiang Mai province by estimation of theirnumber and density, and testing of their random distribution. The result showed that, therewere 14 kinds of important plant species, viz. Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb., Shoreaobtuse Wall. exBlume, Bridelia retusa (L. A. Juss, Derris scandens Benth., Thysostachyssiamensis, Parinari anamense Hance, Vitex pinnata L.f., Canarium subulatum Guill.,Litsea glutinosa C.B.Roxb., Alphonsea glabrifolia Craib., Pueraria mirifica, Vaticastapfiana van Slooten, Walsura robusta Rox. and Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. By far,Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb was greatest in number and density, and all of the specieshad random distribution, except Walsura robusta Roxb and Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Novel Classical Spin Model with a Tricritical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Tyler; Scalettar, Richard; Singh, Rajiv

    Recent experimental findings along with motivation from the well known Blume-Capel model has led to the development of a novel two-dimensional classical spin model defined on a square lattice. This model consists of two Ising spin species per site with each species interacting with its own kind as perpendicular one dimensional Ising chains along with complex and frustrating interactions between species. Probing this model with Mean Field Theory, Metropolis Monte Carlo, and Wang Landau sampling has revealed a rich phase diagram which includes a tricritical point separating a first order magnetic phase transition from a continuous one, along with three ordered phases. Away from the tricritical point, the expected 2D Ising critical exponents have been recovered. Ongoing work focuses on finding the tricritical exponents and their connection to a supersymmetric critical point.

  19. Pharmacognosy of Enicostemma littorale:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajamani; Saranya; Thirunavukkarasu; Thirumalai; Munisami; Hemalatha; Ranganathan; Balaji; Ernest; David

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times.Among them,Enicostemma littorale blume(E.littorale)a perennial herb of the family Gentianaceae is cosmopolitan in occurrence in India.The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative,helps in curing fever,rheumatism,skin diseases,abdominal disorders,snake bite,obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels.The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial,antioxidant,antiulcer,antiinflammatory,hypolipidaemic,hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties.This review provides a bird’s eye view about geographical distribution,physicochemical parameters,phvtoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E.littorale.

  20. Phase diagrams of the spin-2 Ising model in the presence of a quenched diluted crystal field distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Yigit; Erhan Albayrak

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the random crystal field effects on the phase diagrams of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model for a honeycomb lattice using the effective-field theory with correlations.To do so,the thermal variations of magnetization are studied via calculating the phase diagrams of the model.We have found that the model displays both second-order and first-order phase transitions in addition to the tricritical and isolated points.Reentrant behavior is also observed for some appropriate values of certain system parameters.Besides the usual ground state phases of the spin-2 model including ±2,±1,and 0,we have also observed the phases ±3/2 and ±1/2,which are unusual for the spin-2 case.

  1. Microcanonical Phase Diagram of the BEG and Ising Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粮生; 郑宁; 史庆藩

    2012-01-01

    The density of states of long-range Blume-Emery-Criffiths (BEG) and short-range lsing models are obtained by using Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows in energy and magnetization space. With accurate density of states, we are able to calculate the mierocanonical specific heat of fixed magnetization introduced by Kastner et al. in the regions of positive and negative temperature. The microcanonical phase diagram of the Ising model shows a continuous phase transition at a negative temperature in energy and magnetization plane. However the phase diagram of the long-range model constructed by peaks of the microeanonieal specific heat looks obviously different from the Ising chart.

  2. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida Antifungal activity from essential oils on Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara de Oliveira Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis. Os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em meio sólido. Os óleos essenciais de C. zeylanicum e P. boldus mostraram os mais destacáveis resultados, visto que inibiram o crescimento de 58% das cepas ensaiadas e apresentaram CIM de 4%.Candidiasis occurs as a superficial or profound fungal infection caused by yeasts belonging to the Candida genus. This infectious has been considered the main mycotic infection in the nosocomial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth and Rosmarinus officinialis L. essential oils against Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis strains. The antifungal activity assays were carried out by solid medium diffusion technique. C. zeylanicum and P. boldus essential oils showed the most prominent results which inhibited the growth of 58% of the assayed yeasts strains and presented MIC of 4%.

  3. Proceedings of Conference XIII, evaluation of regional seismic hazards and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonnat, Barbara B.

    1981-01-01

    The participants in the conference concluded that a great deal of useful research has been performed in the national Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program by USGS and non-USGS scientists and engineers and that the state-of-knowledge concerning the evaluation of seismic hazards and risk has been advanced substantially. Many of the technical issues raised during the conference are less controversial now because of new information and insights gained during the first three years of the expanded research program conducted under the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act. Utilization of research results by many groups of users has also improved during this period and further improvement in utilization appears likely. Additional research is still required to resolve more completely the many complex technical issues summarized above and described in the papers contained in the proceedings. Improved certainty of research results on the evaluation of regional seismic hazards and risk is required before full utilization can be made by state and local governments who deal. with people frequently having a different perception of the hazard and its risk to them than that perceived by scientists or engineers. Each of the papers contained in the proceedings contain throughtful recommendations for improving the state-of-knowledge. Two papers, in particular, focussed on this particular theme. The first was presented by Lynn Sykes in the Geologic Keynote Address. He identified geographic areas throughout the world which may be considered as counterparts or analogues of seismic zones in the United States. He concluded that much can be learned about prediction, tectonic settings, earthquake hazards, and earthquake risk for sites in the United States by studying their tectonic analogues in other countries. The second paper was presented by John Blume in the Engineering Keynote Address. He suggested 20 specific research topics that, in his opinion, will significantly advance the state

  4. Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Upton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35 because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns, ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

  5. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  6. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Pommerening; Anders Muszta

    2015-01-01

    Background:Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods:We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK) and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) yield table data. Results:The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions:Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1) an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2) the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  7. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine.

  8. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM{sub 10} capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwary, Abhishek [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Technology Division, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Peachey, Christopher [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leonardi, Giovanni [Centre for Radiation, Chemical, and Environmental Health Hazards, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Grundy, Chris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Technology Division, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM{sub 10} pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM{sub 10} concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM{sub 10} capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr{sup -1}, equating to 0.009 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  9. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  10. Role of relative humidity in colony founding and queen survivorship in two carpenter ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2011-06-01

    Conditions necessary for optimal colony foundation in two carpenter ant species, Camponotus modoc Wheeler and Camponotus vicinus Mayr, were studied. Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco) and Styrofoam blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70, 80, or 100% RH. Nanitic workers produced after 12 wk were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content; however, the number of colonies initiated by C. modoc differed significantly with moisture content. The results indicate that colony founding in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content than C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam. In another test, groups of queens of each species were exposed to 20, 50, 70, and 100% RH and the time until 50% mortality occurred was recorded for each species. C. vicinus lived significantly longer at each of the test humidities than C. modoc, suggesting that the former species is adapted to better survive under xeric conditions.

  11. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.

  12. Estimation of leaf area with an integrating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Lydia; Gamon, J. A.; Berry, J.

    1997-01-01

    Relative absorptance of intact branches measured with an integrating sphere was compared to leaf area estimated by conventional methods (volume displacement and scanning area meter) for three conifer species: Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP, Pinus banksiana (Lamb.) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. A consistent relationship between relative absorptance and surface area emerged for the three species. The ability to predict leaf area from absorptance was further explored by measuring branches of Pseudotsuga menziesii grown in varying light and nutrient regimes. When a single equation was used to predict leaf area under all growth conditions, errors were as large as 40% primarily because of variation in leaf absorptivity, with the largest errors associated with extremely nutrient-deficient foliage. When separate empirical equations were developed for each growth treatment, predicted leaf surface area agreed to within 5% of the area determined by the volume displacement method. Leaf surface area estimated from theoretical principles was also in good agreement with total surface area estimated independently by conventional methods. With proper accounting for needle absorptivity, which varied with growth conditions, leaf area estimates obtained by the integrating sphere method were of similar accuracy to those obtained by conventional methods, with the added advantage that the method allowed intact foliage to be sampled nondestructively in the field. Because the integrating sphere method preserves branch structure during measurement, it could provide a useful measure of needle area for photosynthetic or developmental studies requiring repeated sampling of the same branch.

  13. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  14. Warm season tree growth and precipitation over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Matthew D.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Villanueva-Diaz, Jose

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a network of 18 new tree ring chronologies to examine the history of warm season tree growth over Mexico from 1780 to 1992. The chronologies include Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Montezuma pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb.) latewood width, and Montezuma bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) total ring width. They are located in southwestern Texas, the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and southern Mexico as far south as Oaxaca. Seven of these chronologies are among the first precipitation sensitive tree ring records from the American tropics. Principal component analysis of the chronologies indicates that the primary modes of tree growth variability are divided north and south by the Tropic of Cancer. The tree ring data in northern Mexico (PC1) are most sensitive to June-August rainfall, while the data from southern Mexico (PC2) are sensitive to rainfall in April-June. We find that the mode of tree growth variability over southern Mexico is significantly correlated with the onset of the North American Monsoon. Anomalies in monsoon onset, spring precipitation, and tree growth in southern Mexico all tend to be followed by precipitation anomalies of opposite sign later in the summer over most of central Mexico.

  15. Effects of growth medium, nutrients, water, and aeration on mycorrhization and biomass allocation of greenhouse-grown interior Douglas-fir seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, Olga; Bingham, Marcus; Simard, Suzanne W; Berch, Shannon M

    2009-11-01

    Commercial nursery practices usually fail to promote mycorrhization of interior Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco] seedlings in British Columbia, which may account for their poor performance following planting in the field. We tested the effects of four nursery cultivation factors (nitrogen fertilization, phosphorus fertilization, watering, and soil aeration) and field soil addition on mycorrhization, survival, growth, and biomass allocation of interior Douglas-fir seedlings in a series of greenhouse experiments. Where field soil was added to the growing medium, mycorrhization and root/shoot ratios were maximized at lower levels of mineral nutrient application and aeration. Where field soil was not added, mycorrhization was negligible across all fertilization and aeration treatments, but root/shoot ratio was maximized at lower levels of mineral nutrients and the highest level of aeration. Regardless of whether field soil was added, intermediate levels of soil water resulted in the best mycorrhizal colonization and root/shoot ratios. However, field soil addition reduced seedling mortality at the two lowest water levels. A cluster analysis placed ectomycorrhizal morphotypes into three groups (Mycelium radicis-atrovirens Melin, Wilcoxina, and mixed) based on their treatment response, with all but two morphotypes in the mixed group whose abundance was maximized under conditions common to advanced seedling establishment. For maximal mycorrhization and root development of interior Douglas-fir seedlings, nurseries should minimize addition of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, maximize aeration, provide water at moderate rates, and, where possible, add small amounts of field soil to the growing medium.

  16. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  17. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Pommerening

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco yield table data. Results The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1 an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2 the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  18. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Sonia; Schroeder, Matt; Bible, Ken; Falk, Matthias; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2009-08-01

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (approximately 450-500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F(NEE)), latent energy (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E(T)), Bowen ratio (beta), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G(c)), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (alpha) and a canopy decoupling factor (Omega). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to find out how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in relative soil water content ((r)) and vapour pressure deficit (deltae), differ among the two forest successional stages. Despite different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed site-specific diurnal patterns of E(T), alpha, G(c), deltae and (r) during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) at the OG forest high morning G(c) (> 10 mm s(-1)) coincided with high net CO(2) uptake (F(NEE) = -9 to -6 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), but a strong negative response in OG G(c) to moderate deltae was observed later in the afternoons and subsequently reduced daily E(T) and (2) at the ES stands total E(T) was higher (+72 mm) because midday G(c) did not decrease until very low water availability levels ((r) < 30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that ES stands are more likely than mature forests to experience constraints on gas exchange if the dry season becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were observed in the youngest stands only at the very end of the seasonal drought.

  19. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  20. Gas in stems: abundance and potential consequences for tree biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Barbara L; Moore, John R; Gardiner, Barry A

    2004-11-01

    Secondary xylem of woody plants has a large volumetric proportion of gas occupying spaces that would otherwise be filled with water. We examined whether these gas-filled voids have a mechanical role by either decreasing the fresh mass the tree must support (by replacing some of the water with gas) or by providing inexpensive filler to increase stem diameter (thereby increasing the second moment of area at the expense of the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture). Calculations from published data show that temperate softwood species (n = 26) average 18 and 50% gas by volume for sapwood and heartwood, respectively; temperate hardwood species (n = 31) average 26% gas by volume in both the sapwood and heartwood; and tropical species (n = 52) with mixed sapwood and heartwood have 18% gas by volume. In this paper, we develop equations to show how gas affects the mechanical behavior of tree stems, and describe model results to show how gas affects mechanical stability, based on mass and stem diameters for six 34-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. For the same applied load, modeled stems in which the gas space was filled with water differed in their surface stresses by Trees with gas removed had higher modulus of rupture, but could withstand up to 14% lower maximum wind forces than trees in their native state, suggesting a biomechanical role for the gas if the model assumptions are valid. The gas content may, however, have evolved in response to pressures unrelated to biomechanics. We discuss some of its potential effects on sapwood physiology.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs.

  2. Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of species which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable tree species because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Soil-plant hydrology of indigenous and exotic trees in an Ethiopian montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Florian; Abate, Asferachew; Fetene, Masresha; Beck, Erwin; Weise, Stephan; Guggenberger, Georg

    2006-08-01

    Fast-growing exotic trees are widely planted in the tropics to counteract deforestation; however, their patterns of water use could be detrimental to overall ecosystem productivity through their impact on ecosystem water budget. In a comparative field study on seasonal soil-plant water dynamics of two exotic species (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) and the indigenous Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. in south Ethiopia, we combined a 2.5-year record for climate and soil water availability, natural-abundance oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of soil and xylem water, destructive root sampling and transpiration measurements. Soil was generally driest under C. lusitanica with its dense canopy and shallow root system, particularly following a relatively low-rainfall wet season, with the wettest soil under E. globulus. Wet season transpiration of C. lusitanica was twice that of the other species. In the dry season, P. falcatus and C. lusitanica reduced transpiration by a factor of six and two, respectively, whereas E. globulus showed a fivefold increase. In all species, there was a shift in water uptake to deeper soil layers as the dry season progressed, accompanied by relocation of live fine root biomass (LFR) of C. lusitanica and P. falcatus to deeper layers. Under P. falcatus, variability in soil matric potential, narrow delta(18)O depth gradients and high LFR indicated fast water redistribution. Subsoil water uptake was important only for E. globulus, which had low topsoil LFR and tap roots exploiting deep water. Although P. falcatus appeared better adapted to varying soil water availability than the exotic species, both conifers decreased growth substantially during dry weather. Growth of E. globulus was largely independent of topsoil water content, giving it the potential to cause substantial dry-season groundwater depletion.

  4. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedling populations from contrasting climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marias, Danielle E; Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; McCulloh, Katherine A

    2016-12-21

    Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological responses to heat stress in first-year germinant seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (PSME) from climates with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes. Thermotolerance of detached needles was evaluated using chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM, FO) and electrolyte leakage. PSME was more heat tolerant than PIPO according to both independent assessments of thermotolerance. Following exposure of whole seedlings to a simulated heat wave at 45 °C for 1 h in a growth chamber, we monitored FV/FM, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) for 14 days. Heat treatment induced significant reductions in FV/FM in both species and a transient reduction in photosynthetic gas exchange only in PIPO 1 day after treatment. Heat treatment induced an increase in glucose + fructose concurrent with a decrease in starch in both species, whereas total NSC and sucrose were not affected by heat treatment. The negative relationship between glucose + fructose and starch observed in treated plants may be due to the conversion of starch to glucose + fructose to aid recovery from heat-induced damage. Populations from drier sites displayed greater δ(13)C values than those from wetter sites, consistent with higher intrinsic water-use efficiency and drought resistance of populations from drier climates. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses appeared to be phenotypically plastic and representative of the environment in which plants were grown, whereas intrinsic water

  5. Propriedade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de especiarias sobre bactérias contaminantes de alimentos Antibacterial property of spice essential oils on food contaminating bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As especiarias são conhecidas por exercerem uma estabilidade frente à ação de microrganismos, estando inseridas no grupo dos alimentos estáveis. Esta propriedade conservante das especiarias está relacionada com a presença de compostos antibacterianos na sua composição. Tais compostos podem ser usados no combate a bactérias deteriorantes de alimentos, por esse motivo, este trabalho visa à investigação da propriedade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Coriandrum sativum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Mentha. piperita L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum majorana L., Pimpinella anisum L., Piper nigrum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. e Zingiber officinalis Rosc. frente a bactérias contaminantes de alimentos. Para esse estudo, foram selecionadas 10 cepas bacterianas deteriorantes de alimentos. Para a realização dos ensaios antibacterianos, foi utilizado o método de difusão em meio sólido. Os resultados mostram que os óleos essenciais das folhas do E. caryophyllata e da C. zeylanicum mostraram uma eficiência na inibição de todas as cepas bacterianas ensaiadas. Os outros óleos produziram atividade antibacteriana, porém com menor espectro de ação. A pesquisa de tais produtos mostra-se bastante promissora, sendo essa uma boa alternativa para a substituição de aditivos químicos em alimentos.Spices are known for their stability against microbial action; that being so, they are included in the group of stable foods. This preservative property of spices is related to the presence of antibacterial compounds in their composition. Such compounds could be used to control the food contaminating bacteria. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial property of the essential oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Coriandrum sativum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Mentha. piperita L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum majorana L., Pimpinella anisum L., Piper nigrum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Zingiber officinalis Rosc

  6. Power estimation on functional level for programmable processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2004-01-01

    the input parameters of the Correspondence to: H. Blume (blume@eecs.rwth-aachen.de arithmetic functions like e.g. the achieved degree of parallelism or the kind and number of memory accesses can be computed. This approach is exemplarily demonstrated and evaluated applying two modern digital signal processors and a variety of basic algorithms of digital signal processing. The resulting estimation values for the inspected algorithms are compared to physically measured values. A resulting maximum estimation error of 3% is achieved.

  7. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  8. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd-Arrabe' , A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  9. Swertiamarin: An Active Lead from Enicostemma littorale Regulates Hepatic and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression by Targeting PPAR-γ and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Experimental NIDDM Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale (EL Blume is one of the herbs widely used for treating and alleviating the effects of both type I and type II diabetes. However, lack of understanding of mechanism precludes the use of the herb and its molecules. In this study, we attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism of action of swertiamarin, a compound isolated form EL, by comparing its molecular effects with those of aqueous EL extract in alleviating the insulin resistance in type II diabetes. We further investigated hypolipidemic and insulin sensitizing effect of swertiamarin in experimentally induced noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. Swertiamarin (50 mg/kg and aqueous extract (15 grams dried plant equivalent extract/kg were administered to rats orally for 40 days and tight regulation of serum glucose, insulin, and lipid profile was found in both groups. Their mode of action was by restoring G6Pase and HMG-CoA reductase activities to normal levels and restoring normal transcriptional levels of PEPCK, GK, Glut 2, PPAR-γ, leptin, adiponectin, LPL, SREBP-1c, and Glut 4 genes. This suggests that both treatments increased insulin sensitivity and regulated carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This is the first report on the role of SM in regulating the PPARγ-mediated regulation of candidate genes involved in metabolism in peripheral tissues in vivo.

  10. 5种杜鹃幼苗对高温胁迫的生理生化响应及耐热性综合评价%Physiological-biochemical response of five species in Rhododendron L.to high temperature stress and comprehensive evaluation of their heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯红; 刘向平; 张乐华; 凌家慧; 李立

    2011-01-01

    Using four-year-old seedlings of five species belonging to five subgenera in Rhododendron L. as experimental materials, contents of malondialdeyde (MDA) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline (Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined and analyzed under condition of artificial simulated high temperature ( 30 t and 38 T ) , and correlation and principal component analyses of above indexes were also conducted. On this basis, comprehensive evaluation of heat tolerance of the five species was performed by subordinate function method, and comprehensive evaluation results were tested by means of the established optimum regression equation. The determination results show that compared to the control (22 t ) , contents of MDA, H2O2, Pro and activities of CAT, APX of the five species seedlings all increase with rising of stress temperature, and SOD activity appears the trend of less increasing under 30 CC condition while decreasing under 38 t condition. CAT activity has extremely significant positive correlation with contents of H2O2 and Pro and APX activity (P<0. 01 ) , and APX activity has significant positive or negative correlations respectively with Pro content and SOD activity (P<0.05 ). Six single indexes tested of allspecies are converted into three independent comprehensive indexes with an accumulative contribution rate of 87.52% by principal component analysis. According to the comprehensive evaluation value (D), heat tolerance of the five species can be divided into four classes; heat tolerance of R. mucronatum (Blume) G. Don is the strongest, that of R. moulmainense Hook. f. and R. molle (Blume) G. Don is stronger, that of R. chihsinianum Chun et Fang is weaker, and that of R. rubiginosum Franch. is the weakest. The heat tolerance of the five species can be predicted using the optimum regression equation established and the prediction value order is completely in accordance with D value

  11. Speaking two languages at once: unconscious native word form access in second language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Katharina; Hoshino, Noriko; Wu, Yan Jing; Damian, Markus; Thierry, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Bilingualism research has established language non-selective lexical access in comprehension. However, the evidence for such an effect in production remains sparse and its neural time-course has not yet been investigated. We demonstrate that German-English bilinguals performing a simple picture-naming task exclusively in English spontaneously access the phonological form of -unproduced- German words. Participants were asked to produce English adjective-noun sequences describing the colour and identity of familiar objects presented as line drawings. We associated adjective and picture names such that their onsets phonologically overlapped in English (e.g., green goat), in German through translation (e.g., blue flower - 'blaue Blume'), or in neither language. As expected, phonological priming in English modulated event-related brain potentials over the frontocentral scalp region from around 440ms after picture onset. Phonological priming in German was detectable even earlier, from 300ms, even though German was never produced and in the absence of an interaction between language and phonological repetition priming at any point in time. Overall, these results establish the existence of non-selective access to phonological representations of the two languages in the domain of speech production.

  12. Implication of PKS type I gene and chromatographic strategy for the biodiscovery of antimicrobial polyketide metabolites from endosymbiotic Nocardiopsis prasina CLA68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H. C. Yashavantha; Rakshith, Devaraju; Gurudatt, D. M.; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-06-01

    Advanced approach in probing for polyketide antimicrobials requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endophytic strain CLA68 was isolated from the root of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) collected from the Western Ghats of Southern India. Strain CLA68 was then identified as Nocardiopsis prasina by its characteristic culture morphology and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Biosynthetic polyketide synthase genes were investigated using two pairs of degenerate primers. Ethyl acetate extract of CLA68 exhibited broad spectrum activity against a panel of test human pathogens. PKS type-I gene detection and chromatographic strategy yielded a robust polyketide antimicrobial compound which identified as nocapyrone E. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the purified compound against MRSA and other human pathogens ranged between 25 and 100 μg/ml. The present work highlights the utility of N. prasina CLA68 as potential source for antimicrobial polyketide nocapyrone E which could help to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study demonstrates feasibility of PKS type-I gene-based molecular approach and chemical investigation by chromatographic approach is the best method for prediction and rapid discovery of novel polyketides from endosymbiotic actinomycetes. The sequence data of this endosymbiotic actinomycete is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KP269077.

  13. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  14. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  15. Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments: Opportunities and Challenges for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Olive

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New networking and social interaction technologies offer new media for learning and teaching both inside and outside the classroom. How and what kind of learning may take place in these new media is the main focus of this paper. An integrative theoretical framework for investigating these questions is posed based on the Didactic Tetrahedron (Olive and Makar, 2009. This didactic tetrahedron proposes that the student, supported by the teacher, task and technology form a space within which new mathematical knowledge may emerge. Examples of these new media are presented, including single player and multi-player web-based gaming environments; dynamic, web-based, interactive data visualization tools; dynamic computer-based tools for developing number and early algebra concepts; multi-touch apps for the iPad and iPhone; a web-based tutorial that raises a red flag for how mathematically flawed and cognitively dangerous some of this new media can be; and a research-based manipulative for developing children’s fractional knowledge that offers researchers the “possibility to make visible, the thinking of the user.” (Zbeik, Heid, Blume and Dick, 2007

  16. Clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of some forms of epileptic encephalopathies in infants: The data of the authors' follow-up observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Lemeshko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study clinical symptoms and brain activity in new forms of infantile epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI and Markand-Blume-Ohtahara syndrome (MBOS and to elaborate their differential diagnostic criteria for the timely choice of treatment policy and for the prediction of the disease.Patients and methods. Thirty-eight children aged 1.5 months to 3 years with MMPSI and MBOS were examined. Their medical history and neurological examination data, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics, and the efficiency of chosen anticonvulsant therapy were investigated.Results and discussion. The investigators revealed the following characteristics of these forms: the causes of these syndromes were highly diverse and unspecific; the neurological status was characterized by a variety of symptoms with an obvious delay in psycho-prespeech development concurrent with a high rate of partial focal (in MMPSI and generalized (in MBOS status epilepticus; The EEC characteristic sign was MISF and«lafa» patterns in the children with MBOS and continuous migrating partial ictal status epilepticus patterns in those with MMPSI. These forms of epileptic encephalopathies are extremely drug-resistant and characterized by a high risk for a fatal outcome.

  17. Adapting the South Oaks Gambling Screen for use in the Slovenian cultural environment

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    Andreja Cvenkelj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur in Blume, 1987 is the most frequently used for screening of pathological gambling. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the SOGS for application in the Slovenian cultural environment and to assess its metric characteristics.The study involved 121 subjects, 21 of which were diagnosed as pathological gamblers. Comparison group was composed of 100 subjects. Factor analysis resulted in a one-dimensional solution accounting for 66% of the total variance. Statistically significant differences in the scores show that the SOGS is able to discriminate between the comparison group and pathological gamblers. Item analysis shows that all of them appropriately discriminate between pathological gamblers and comparison group. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale was .971. The criterion validity of the Slovenian version of the SOGS was investigated by cross-comparing the patients' actual diagnoses of pathological gambling with the same diagnoses based on the SOGS scores. The score of 5 points was used as a cut-off point, since it discriminates the most. There was a perfect agreement between diagnoses of pathological gambling and diagnoses based on the SOGS scores.

  18. STRUKTUR SEKRETORI TANAMAN BAHAN RAMUAN OBAT DIABETES

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    Dorly

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical structure of medicinal plants wich are used in diabetic therapy is not yet completely identified. This research was conducted to study the structure of their secretory tissues. Observation of anatomical structure of leaves was done by making paradermal and transversal sections, while observation of anatomical structure of stem, fruits, and rhizomes were performed by making transversal sections. Microscopic observation found several types os secretory structure in plant organs observed. Glandular hairs were found in kiurat (Plantago mayor L. leaves, sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f Wallich ex Nees leaves, and kumis kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume Miq. leaves; lithocysts cell were found in sambiloto leaves; oil cavity/cells were found in salam (Syzygium polyanthim (Wight Walp. leaves, jambu (Psidium guajava L. leaves, lada (Piper nigrum L. fruits, and jahe (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes; idioblast cells wich contained starch grains were found in brotowali (Tinospora crispa (L. Miers stems, lada fruits, and jahe rhizomes; and latex cells were found in brotowali stems.

  19. Ferroelectric phase transition, ionicity condensation, and multicriticality in charge-transfer organic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishine, Jun-Ichiro; Luty, Tadeusz; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2004-02-01

    To elucidate a pressure-temperature phase diagram of the quasi-one-dimensional mixed-stack charge-transfer complex tetrathiafulvalene-P-chloranil (TTF-CA), we study the quasi-one-dimensional spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model. In addition to the local charge-transfer energy (Δ) and the inter-stack polar (dipole-dipole) interaction (J⊥), we take account of the interstack electrostriction (Coulomb-lattice coupling). Using the self-consistent chain-mean-field theory, where the intra-stack degrees of freedom are exactly treated by the transfer-matrix method, we reproduce the gas-liquid-solid like phase diagram corresponding to the neutral (N), paraelectric ionic (Ipara), and ferroelectric ionic (Iferro) phases, respectively. Our classical model describes an essential point of the multicritical behavior of TTF-CA, i.e., the interchain electrostriction exclusively enhances the charge concentration (ionicity condensation), but does not affect the interchain ferroelectric coupling. This effect leads to appearance of the intermediate Ipara phase in between the N and Iferro phases on the Δ-T phase diagram.

  20. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

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    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  1. Disordered gambling among university-based medical and dental patients: a focus on Internet gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, George T; Petry, Nancy M

    2002-03-01

    The authors evaluated gambling behaviors, including Internet gambling, among patients seeking free or reduced-cost dental or health care. Three hundred eighty-nine patients at university health clinics completed a questionnaire that included the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; H. R. Lesieur & S. Blume, 1987). All respondents had gambled in their lifetimes, with 70% gambling in the past 2 months. On the basis of SOGS scores, 10.6% were problem gamblers, and 15.4% were pathological gamblers. The most common forms of gambling were lottery, slot machines, and scratch tickets. Internet gambling was reported by 8.1% of participants. Compared to non-Internet gamblers, Internet gamblers were more likely to be younger, non-Caucasian, and have higher SOGS scores. This study is among the first to evaluate the prevalence of Internet gambling and suggests that people who gamble on the Internet are likely to have a gambling problem. Results also illuminate the need to screen patients seeking health care services for gambling problems.

  2. Transfer-matrix study of a hard-square lattice gas with two kinds of particles and density anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago J; Stilck, Jürgen F

    2015-09-01

    Using transfer matrix and finite-size scaling methods, we study the thermodynamic behavior of a lattice gas with two kinds of particles on the square lattice. Only excluded volume interactions are considered, so that the model is athermal. Large particles exclude the site they occupy and its four first neighbors, while small particles exclude only their site. Two thermodynamic phases are found: a disordered phase where large particles occupy both sublattices with the same probability and an ordered phase where one of the two sublattices is preferentially occupied by them. The transition between these phases is continuous at small concentrations of the small particles and discontinuous at larger concentrations, both transitions are separated by a tricritical point. Estimates of the central charge suggest that the critical line is in the Ising universality class, while the tricritical point has tricritical Ising (Blume-Emery-Griffiths) exponents. The isobaric curves of the total density as functions of the fugacity of small or large particles display a minimum in the disordered phase.

  3. Thermodynamic Casimir effect in films: the exchange cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    We study the thermodynamic Casimir force for films with various types of boundary conditions and the bulk universality class of the three-dimensional Ising model. To this end, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of the improved Blume-Capel model on the simple cubic lattice. In particular, we employ the exchange or geometric cluster cluster algorithm [Heringa and Blöte, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4976 (1998)]. In a previous work, we demonstrated that this algorithm allows us to compute the thermodynamic Casimir force for the plate-sphere geometry efficiently. It turns out that also for the film geometry a substantial reduction of the statistical error can achieved. Concerning physics, we focus on (O,O) boundary conditions, where O denotes the ordinary surface transition. These are implemented by free boundary conditions on both sides of the film. Films with such boundary conditions undergo a phase transition in the universality class of the two-dimensional Ising model. We determine the inverse transition temperature for a large range of thicknesses L(0) of the film and study the scaling of this temperature with L(0). In the neighborhood of the transition, the thermodynamic Casimir force is affected by finite size effects, where finite size refers to a finite transversal extension L of the film. We demonstrate that these finite size effects can be computed by using the universal finite size scaling function of the free energy of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  4. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

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    Neil Snow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae are proposed from Madagascar, including: E. andapae N. Snow, E. barriei N. Snow, E. bemangidiensis N. Snow, E. calciscopulorum N. Snow, E. delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, E. echinulata N. Snow, E. gandhii N. Snow, E. hazonjia N. Snow, E. iantarensis N. Snow, E. malcomberi N. Snow, E. manomboensis N. Snow, E. obovatifolia N. Snow, E. ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, E. ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., E. razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., E. tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and E. wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known, digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species, Endangered (2 species, and Critically Endangered (4 species. Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and E. scottii H. Perrier respectively.

  5. Effect of water extracts from edible Myrtaceae plants on uptake of 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose in TNF-α-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the glucose uptake activity of the water extracts from the leaves and fruit of edible Myrtaceae plants, including guava (Psidium guajava Linn.), wax apples [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and L.M. Perry], Pu-Tau [Syzygium jambo (L.) Alston], and Kan-Shi Pu-Tau (Syzygium cumini Linn.) in FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The fluorescent dye 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose was used to estimate the uptake ability of the cells. Glucose uptake test showed that pink wax apple fruit extract (PWFE) exhibits the highest glucose uptake activity, at an increment of 21% in the insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes as compared with the TNF-α-treated control group. Vescalagin was isolated using column chromatography of PWFE. This compound, at the concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, exhibits the same glucose uptake improvement in insulin-resistant cells as PWFE at a 100-µg/mL dose. We postulate that vescalagin is an active component in PWFE that may alleviate the insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes.

  6. Molecular characterization of twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers in the polyploid fruit tree species Syzygium samarangense (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J M; Tsai, C C; Yen, C R; Ko, Y Z; Chen, S R; Weng, I S; Lin, Y S; Chiang, Y C

    2015-10-21

    Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry (wax apple) is an important commercial fruit tree in Southeast Asia. Here, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate genetic diversity and distinguish cultivars in this species. In total, 161 microsatellite loci with sufficient flanking sequences to design primer sets were isolated from wax apple using a magnetic bead-enrichment method. Fifty-eight primer sets were designed based on the flanking sequences of each single sequence repeat (SSR) locus and were tested using 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. Twenty SSR loci were found to be polymorphic and transferable across the 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. The number of alleles and effective number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4 to 12 and from 1.697 to 9.800, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.150 to 0.595 (mean = 0.414). Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.502 to 0.866 (mean = 0.763). These new microsatellite loci will be of value for characterization of genetic diversity in wax apples and for the identification of cultivars.

  7. Chemogenomics driven discovery of endogenous polyketide anti-infective compounds from endosymbiotic Emericella variecolor CLB38 and their RNA secondary structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashavantha Rao, H. C.; Rakshith, Devaraju; Harini, Ballagere Puttaraju; Gurudatt, Doddahosuru Mahadevappa; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2017-01-01

    In the postgenomic era, a new strategy for chemical dereplication of polyketide anti-infective drugs requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endosymbiotic fungal strain CLB38 was isolated from the root tissue of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) which was collected from the Western Ghats of India. The isolate CLB38 was then identified as Emericella variecolor by its characteristic stellate ascospores culture morphology and molecular analysis of ITS nuclear rDNA and intervening 5.8S rRNA gene sequence. ITS2 RNA secondary structure modeling clearly distinguished fungal endosymbiont E. variecolor CLB38 with other lifestyles in the same monophyletic clade. Ethyl acetate fraction of CLB38 explored a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogens. Biosynthetic PKS type-I gene and chromatographic approach afford two polyketide antimicrobial compounds which identified as evariquinone and isoindolones derivative emerimidine A. MIC of purified compounds against test microorganisms ranged between 3.12 μg/ml and 12.5 μg/ml. This research highlights the utility of E. variecolor CLB38 as an anticipate source for anti-infective polyketide metabolites evariquinone and emerimidine A to combat multidrug resistant microorganisms. Here we demonstrates a chemogenomics strategy via the feasibility of PKS type-I gene and chromatographic approach as a proficient method for the rapid prediction and discovery of new polyketides compounds from fungal endosymbionts. PMID:28245269

  8. Tianma modulates proteins with various neuro-regenerative modalities in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Umamaheswari; Manavalan, Arulmani; Sundaramurthi, Husvinee; Sze, Siu Kwan; Feng, Zhi Wei; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Tianma (Rhizoma gastrodiae) is the dried rhizome of the plant Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae family). As a medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) its functions are to control convulsions, pain, headache, dizziness, vertigo, seizure, epilepsy and others. In addition, tianma is frequently used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders though the mechanism of action is widely unknown. Accordingly, this study was designed to examine the effects of tianma on the proteome metabolism in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to explore its specific effects on neuronal signaling pathways. Using an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation)-based proteomics research approach, we identified 2390 modulated proteins, out of which 406 were found to be altered by tianma in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Based on the observed data, we hypothesize that tianma promotes neuro-regenerative signaling cascades by controlling chaperone/proteasomal degradation pathways (e.g. CALR, FKBP3/4, HSP70/90) and mobilizing neuro-protective genes (such as AIP5) as well as modulating other proteins (RTN1/4, NCAM, PACSIN2, and PDLIM1/5) with various regenerative modalities and capacities related to neuro-synaptic plasticity.

  9. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  10. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Castanha tipo portuguesa no Brasil

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    Silvana Catarina Sales Bueno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Frutífera originária do Hemisfério Norte, a castanheira pertence à família das Fagaceae. O gênero Castanea apresenta sete espécies, das quais se destacam C. sativa Miller, C. crenata Siebold & Zucc., C. molissima Blume e C. dentata (Marsh. Borkh. Tais espécies receberam denominações de acordo com o local de origem e säo conhecidas, respectivamente, por castanha-portuguesa (Portugal, castanhajaponesa (Japäo e Coreia do Sul, castanha-chinesa (China e castanha-americana (América do Norte. Dada sua relevância como uma das mais importantes espécies frutícolas da antiguidade, as castanhas mantêm a tradição de consumo nas festas natalinas e, por conta de suas qualidades nutritivas e por ser um produto versátil, servem o ano todo, em alguns países, como alimento para pessoas e animais. O Núcleo de Produção de Mudas de Säo Bento do Sapucaí mantém uma coleção com algumas cultivares e seleção e, em parceria com a Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, vem estudando essa fruteira, que possui grande potencial para a fruticultura brasileira.

  12. New records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India

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    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. New Records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 131-136. During the recent field survey of district Shopian four species of Pteridophytes are reported for the first time that constitutes new records for Kashmir valley. These species are Hypolepis polypodioides (Blume Hook, Pteris stenophylla Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal and Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng. Hylander. The diagnostic features of H. polypodioides are presence of long-creeping slender rhizome and eglandular, colorless or brown tinged hairs throughout the frond. P. stenophylla is characterized by having dimorphic fronds and 3 to 5 pinnae clustered at stipe apex. D. subimpressa is marked by pale-green lamina and the largest basiscopic basal pinnule in the lowest pair of pinnae. Similarly, the characteristic features of D. wallichiana are presence of huge frond size, glossier and dark-green lamina and dense browner scales in stipe and rachis. In present communication taxonomic description, synonyms, ecology and photographs are provided for each of these newly recorded species.

  13. 改良RACE技术克隆板栗短雄花序26S核糖体基因片段%Cloning of 26S Ribosomal Gene from Short Catkins Sport of Chinese Chestnut by the Advanced RACE Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 朱晓琴; 冯永庆; 秦岭

    2008-01-01

    RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends)技术是以RT-PCR为基础,根据部分已知基因序列(如EST),通过cDNA的3'端和5'端快速扩增获取全长cDNA的一种有效方法.本文作者以板栗芽变品种短雄花序为材料,利用改良SMART RACE的技术克隆了板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)26S基因5'端未知序列,所得到的cDNA的5'末端共有1 204 bp.序列比对分析显示,该检测的核糖体基因与已知其他物种中的核糖体基因高度同源,它与已克隆到的同源基因橡树和八角枫之间的同源性分别为98%和97%.

  14. The study of genetic diversity of Daemonorops draco (Palmae using ISSR markers

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    REVIS ASRA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asra R, Syamsuardi, Mansyurdin, Witono JR. 2014. The study of genetic diversity of Daemonorops draco (Palmae using ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 15: 109-114. The genetic diversity in five populations of Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume (Jernang: in Bahasa Indonesia was analyzed using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR markers. The screening results from using 15 ISSR primers showed that only 5 of ISSR primers had clear and reproducible bands. Based on the data from the matrix binary analyzed using POPGENE version 3.2, the highest genetic diversity was found in the Sepintun population at 0.0969 average heterozygosis (H and 0.146 average Shannon Index (I. The heterozygosis calculation of the total population (HT was 0.2571. The heterozygosis value within a population (HS=0.0704 was smaller than that between populations (DST=0.1867. Using the clustering analysis program Past version 32 on 43 individuals of D. draco, we found that there were three groups of D. draco. Group A consisted of 8 individuals in the Bengayoan population, group B consisted of 9 units in the Nunusan population and group C consisted of three populations; Tebo, Sepintun and Mandiangin consisted of 10, 8 and 8 individuals. The genetic similarity varied among all populations withthe values between 0.07-0.93.

  15. Bose-Einstein Condensation in low dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.

    2006-03-01

    Using path integral Monte Carlo simulation methods[1], we have studied properties of Bose-Einstein Condensates harmonically trapped in low dimemsion. Each boson has a hard-sphere potential whose core radius equals its corresponding scattering length. We have tightly confined the motion of trapped particles in one or more direction by increasing the trap anisotropy in order to simulate lower dimensional atomic gases. We have investigated the effect of both the temperature and the dimemsionality on the energetics and structural properties such as the total energy, the density profile, and the superfluid fraction. Our results show that the physics of low dimensional bosonic systems is very different from that of their three dimensional counterparts[2]. The superfluid fraction for a quasi-2D boson gas decreases faster than that for both a quasi-1D system[3] and a true 3D system with increasing temperature. The superfluid fraction decreases gradually as the two-body interaction strength increases although it shows no noticable dependence for both a quasi-1D system and a true 3D system. [1] K. Nho and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. A. 70, 53614 (2004).[2] N. D. Mermin and H. Wagner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1133 (1966);1.5inP. C. Hohenberg, Phys. Rev. 158, 383 (1967).[3] K. Nho and D. Blume, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 193601 (2005).

  16. Quantum spin-1 anisotropic ferromagnetic Heisenberg model in a crystal field: a variational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D C; Plascak, J A; Castro, L M

    2013-09-01

    A variational approach based on Bogoliubov inequality for the free energy is employed in order to treat the quantum spin-1 anisotropic ferromagnetic Heisenberg model in the presence of a crystal field. Within the Bogoliubov scheme an improved pair approximation has been used. The temperature-dependent thermodynamic functions have been obtained and provide much better results than the previous simple mean-field scheme. In one dimension, which is still nonintegrable for quantum spin-1, we get the exact results in the classical limit, or near-exact results in the quantum case, for the free energy, magnetization, and quadrupole moment, as well for the transition temperature. In two and three dimensions the corresponding global phase diagrams have been obtained as a function of the parameters of the Hamiltonian. First-order transition lines, second-order transition lines, tricritical and tetracritical points, and critical endpoints have been located through the analysis of the minimum of the Helmholtz free energy and a Landau-like expansion in the approximated free energy. Only first-order quantum transitions have been found at zero temperature. Limiting cases, such as isotropic Heisenberg, Blume-Capel, and Ising models, have been analyzed and compared to previous results obtained from other analytical approaches as well as from Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Masjid Besar Kauman Semarang : Sebuah Kajian Gaya Arsitektur dan Ornamen

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    Achmad Sidiq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Masjid Besar Kauman Semarang which is simply called as Masjid Besar Kauman is an ancient mosque in Central Java which has various characteristics: Javanese,Persian  and Arabian.Considering the model of the roof, the  mosque exposesits Javanese characteristics; even its triple overlapping roof  with the mustaka on the top reminds us to the Masjid Agung Demak. On the  other hand, looking at its gate the mosque belongs to Persian and Arabian  characteristics.  The mosque which was founded by Kyai Adipati Surodimenggolo II is a series of historical development of the mosque in Semarang.  In a short time, unfortunately, the mosque was on fire. In  23 April 1889 the mosque was rebuilt by G.I. Blume and Raden Tumenggung Cokrodipuro and by 23 November 1890 the rebuilding of the mosque completely finished. Suchinformation can be seen in the inscription on the sculpture at the mosque gate.

  18. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures.

  19. Accumulation and Dynamic Trends of Triterpenoid Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Achyranthus bidentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting Li; Zhenghai Hu

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between structural features of various vegetative organs and triterpenoid saponin accumulation in Achyranthus bidentata Blume was investigated using anatomy, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The results showed that the primary and secondary structures of roots, and the structures of stems and leaves of A. bidentata, were similar to those of ordinary dicotyledonous plants. The enlargement of its roots, however, was primarily associated with growth and differentiation of tertiary structures. There were collateral medullary vascular bundles in addition to the normal vascular bundles in the stem. The tertiary structure was not only main parts in the roots of A. bidentata, but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponin in its growth and development. The stem may be the essential transport organ of triterpenoid saponin, while palisade parenchyma may be the primary synthesis location. In November, the total quantity of triterpenoid saponin and overall biomass in the roots reach a maximum level. This was the best time, therefore, to harvest the roots and corresponded to the traditional harvest period. Despite the withered appearance of leaves, stems also contained substantial amounts of triterpenoid saponin, and it was recommended that the stems of A. bidentata should be used.

  20. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  1. Induction of autophagy by dimethyl cardamonin is associated with proliferative arrest in human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Amor, Evangeline C; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Han-Cheon; Kim, Hee Ju; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone; DMC) is a naturally occurring chalcone, and it is the major compound isolated from the leaves of Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMC on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, and programmed cell death in cultures of human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cells. Results showed that DMC inhibited HCT116 and LOVO cell proliferation and induced G(2) /M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the conversion of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I-LC3-II, an autophagosome marker, and the incorporation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), a marker for the acidic compartment of autolysosomes or acidic vesicular organelles. The treatment of HCT116 and LOVO cells using a combination of DMC with an autophagy inhibitor, such as 3-methyladenine (3-MA), beclin 1 siRNA, or atg5 siRNA, suppressed the effect of DMC-mediated anti-proliferation. These results imply that DMC can suppress colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cell proliferation through a G(2) /M phase cell-cycle delay, and can induce autophagy, the hallmark of Type II programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together, our results suggest that DMC may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for HCT116 and LOVO colorectal carcinoma cells.

  2. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-05

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  3. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  4. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

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    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  5. Effect of temperature on bending creep of wood during moisture adsorption; Mokuzai no kyushitsu katei no mage creep ni oyobosu ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumoto, M.; Takeda, T.; Nakano, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1996-04-15

    The effect of temperature (20-80{degree}C) on the bending creep of wood during moisture adsorption (7 % {yields} 16 %) and desorption (16 % {yields} 7 %) was investigated by using small beams of buna (Fague crenata Blume) and hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood. The test specimens were 120 men radially, 3 mm tangentially and 10 mm longitudinally. The span was 100 mm and the prescribed bending loads fitting to the test temperature were applied at the center of span. The final equilibrium moisture contents were attained in one step (fast) and in 7-8 steps (slow) by suitable humidity schedules in a testing chamber. Creep during moisture desorption was not dependent on temperature between 20{degree}C and 80{degree}C. On the other hand, creep during moisture adsorption was dependent not only on temperature but also on time and the range of moisture content. The difference in temperature dependence of creep between the adsorption and desorption period may be explained based on the behavior of the amorphous region composed of molecular network. Some possible explanations are given in terms of the response of the molecular network structure in the amorphous region during desorption and adsorption. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  7. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  8. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

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    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  9. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Porang by Streptomyces violascens BF 3.10 Mannanase for the Production of Mannooligosaccharides

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    A. H. Safitri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume is an indigenous Indonesian plant containing high hemicellulose as a source of glucomannan. An alternative way to produce a good quality of mannooligosaccharides was through hydrolysis of glucomannan by endo-β mannnase from actynomicetes. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, BF 3.10 isolate, isolated from Bukit Duabelas National Park soil, Jambi was identified as Streptomyces violascens BF 3.10. Reducing sugar was analyzed by dinitrosalicylic acid methods. The highest reducing sugar was achieved at the 72 hours of incubation. Mannanase of isolate BF 3.10 had the highest activity at pH 6 and temperature of 70 °C with enzyme activity of 16.38 U/mL and was stable at 4 °C for 48 h. During 5-hour of hydrolysis with substrate concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% porang glucomannan dissolved in 10 mL enzyme, mannooligosaccharides were produced with the degree of polymerization of 2-3. Visualization of the products by using thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods showed that mannooligosaccharides produced comprised of glucose, mannobiose, mannotriose, and mannotetraose. The degree of polymerization and the simple sugars produced indicated that mannanase produced by S. violascens actively catalyzed the hydrolysis of 1.4-β-D-mannoside linkage from β-1.4-mannan backbone, that eventually produced simple sugars of mannooligosaccharides.

  10. KARO’S LOCAL WISDOM: THE USE OF WOODY PLANTS FOR TRADITIONAL DIABETIC MEDICINES

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    Rospita Odorlina Situmorang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the plant species used traditionally by Karo people in North Sumatra, to cure diabetes, analyses the cultural significance index of those plants for the Karo, and clarifies phytochemical contents of the plants. Data were collected using survey method from selected respondents (n=54 based on their knowledge and practices in utilising medicinal plants to cure diabetic disease. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS of plants was determined using the method proposed by Turner. Results showed that twelve woody plant species have been used to cure diabetes: loning leave (Psychotria sp., kacihe leave (Prunus accuminta Hook, umbrella tree leave (Maesopsis eminii Engl, mutamba leave (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, cepcepan leave (Villebrunea subescens Blume, pirdot/cepcepan lembu leave (Saurauia vulcani Korth, raru bark (Cotylelobium melanoxylo, breadfruit leave (Artocarpus altilis, salam leave (Syzygium polyanthum Wight, mahogany seed (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmani, and yellow bamboo rod (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Five of those plants: loning, umbrella tree, mutamba, raru and salam have the highest cultural significance level. These five plants are highly needed in large quatities by the Karo people, so their availability in the forest should be securely conserved and protected. The plants used contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids which can help to lower blood sugar level.

  11. Pondberry (Lindera   melissifolia, Lauraceae seed and seedling dispersers and predators

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    Andreza M. Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia(Walter Blume is an endangered dioecious, clonal shrub that grows in periodically flooded forests of the southeastern United States. The probability of survival of dispersed pondberry seeds and new germinants is unknown, but few seedlings are noted in the forest. This study was undertaken to: (1 identify herbivores and predators of pondberry seeds and seedlings, (2 record the fate of pondberry seeds and seedlings after simulated dispersal in areas with lower and higher understory cover, and (3 calculate the probability of seed survival in the two cover types. The study was conducted in or near the Delta National Forest and the Delta Experimental Forest, MS. Pondberry seed and seedling plots were established at sites with high or low cover. Video cameras with infrared illumination were set up to monitor animal visitors to the plots. Image analysis indicated that swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman and wood rats (Neotoma floridana Ord cut or ate seedlings, while other animals visited the plots without damaging seedlings. Numerous bird species and mammals visited the seed plots and some were filmed eating seeds. Pondberry seeds exposed in open habitats had a significantly higher survival rate than those exposed in habitats with more herbaceous and woody understory cover. The novelty and quality of the temporal data collected via video monitoring indicate the importance of this method in collecting data that are not otherwise available on endangered and rare species.

  12. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  13. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed.

  14. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression.

  15. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  16. The Standard Cultivation Techniques for Chestnut in Xinyang City%信阳市板栗标准化栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵师成

    2012-01-01

    信阳市板栗产业近年来急剧衰退,市场严重萎缩;为适应市场需求,重振信阳市板栗产业,结合当地实际,必须强调板栗栽培各个管理环节的技术标准化,如科学规划建园、良好的土肥水管理与花果管理、合理的整形修剪、因地制宜的病虫防治技术等,大力普及推广板栗的标准化栽培技术,让板栗产业真正成为促进信阳市农业增效、农民增收的重要产业.%Xinyang chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) industry had been decline rapidly in recent years as the market had been seriously shrinking. To meet the demand of market and refresh Xinyang chestnut industry, the standardization management technology during chestnut cultivation, such as scientific planning and construction of chestnut orchard, suitable fertilizer and water management and flower and fruit management, reasonable pruning, pest control technology suitable to local conditions should be emphasized based on practical. The standardized cultivation technology of chestnut should be vigorously promoted so that chestnut industry could promote the efficiency of agricultural and income of farmer in Xinyang city.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  18. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J; Carroll, John F; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hamann, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC-MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species.

  19. Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI AYU LESTARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lestari DA, Santoso W (2011 Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 12: 28-33. Orchid is one of the ornamental plants which have been high commercial value. Therefore, orchid often has been over exploitation. Finally, some of orchid species are becoming threatened or even endangered. Purwodadi Botanical Garden as an institute of ex-situ conservation play role with it. The aim of this research is to inventory orchid’s species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi by explorative method. Observation for habitat study was focused on some ecological factors supported to orchids growth like host tree, zone growth on host tree, abundance of sunlight, thickness of substrate (moss, orchid species and number of invidual species. The result showed that there were 27 orchids species, consist of, 25 species (16 genera epiphytic orchid and 2 species terrestrial orchid such as Eulophia keitii var. celebica and Goodyera rubicunda (Blume Lindl. The host preference for the epiphytic orchid are the group of Myrtaceae family like Syzygium sp., Metrosideros vera Niederen and Metrosideros sp. They mostly grow on the main stem of the tree zone 1 on thick substrate (moss and get a little abundance of sunlight (calm.

  20. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  1. Socioeconomic interaction and swings in business confidence indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnisch, Martin; Pittnauer, Sabine; Solomon, Sorin; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model of interactive formation of individual expectations regarding the business climate in an industry. Our model is motivated by a business climate survey conducted since 1960 in Germany by the Ifo-institute ( www.ifo.de). In accordance with the data structure of this survey, in our model there is associated to each economic agent (business manager) a random variable with a three-element state space representing her possible types of expectations. The evolution of individual expectations in a finite population is then modeled as a spatio-temporal stochastic process with local interaction between agents. An appropriate structure of the interaction between agents in our setting turns out to be provided by a Festinger function (in physics called energy function or Hamiltonian) of the Blume-Capel type. Time series of the fractions of agents holding each type of expectations are obtained for the model by Monte Carlo simulations. We find that our model reproduces some generic features of the empirical time series obtained from the German business-climate data, in particular the occurrence of abrupt large but rare swings. In our model, such swings occur as spontaneous phase changes between macroscopic states.

  2. Efficiency of vegetable extracts for the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, in the laboratory

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    Flávio Roberto de Mello Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulgarly known as “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 spread itself to the majority of Brazilian states, and it became distinguished as one of the most serious pests affecting beans and maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the crude watery extracts of nine vegetable species on “vaquinha” adults. The laboratory experiment was carried out in completely randomized delineation, with ten treatments and four repetitions. For such, a bottle was used, containing five insect specimens and a common bean leaf (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previously immersed in the extract, covered with a clipping of porous cloth and fixed by a rubber band. The evaluated variable was the number of surviving D. speciosa specimens. The treatments consisted of salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, moscada nut (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbo (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and control (distilled water alone. The evaluations of survival were carried out every 24 hours over a period of 10 days. For the live specimen number, two-way analysis of variance (10 extracts x 11 times after application was used. The averages were grouped by the Duncan test on the level of 5% of probability. The most efficient extracts were timbo, moscada nut and cinamomo, with efficiency percentages varying between 80.4% and 100%.

  3. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  4. DIVERSITY OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN SECONDARY SUCCESSION OF IMPERATA GRASSLANDS IN SAMBOJA LESTARI, EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

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    Ishak Yassir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of  Imperata grassland areas is becoming increasingly important, both to create new secondary forest and to recover the original biodiversity. The diversity of  plant communities in secondary succession of  Imperata grasslands was studied using 45 subplots of  9 linear transects (10 m x 100 m. Data was collected and all stems over 10 cm dbh were identified, the Importance Values Index (IVI for all trees were calculated, saplings and seedlings were counted  and analysed, and soil samples were taken and analysed. Results showed that  after more than 10 years of  regeneration, 65 families were encountered consisting of  164 species, which were dominated by Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham, Vitex pinnata L., Macaranga gigantea (Reichb.f. & Zoll. Muell.Arg., Symplocos crassipes C.B. Clarke, Artocarpus odoratissimus Miq., and Bridelia glauca Blume. The effects of  regeneration, from Imperata grassland to secondary forest, on soil were the strongest in the A-horizon where an increase in carbon, N content, and pH were observed. Our result shows that Imperata grasslands appear to be permanent because of  frequent fires and human interferences and so far few efforts have been made to promote sustainable rehabilitation. If  protected from fire and other disturbances, such as shifting cultivation, Imperata grassland will grow and develop into secondary forest.

  5. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  6. Antiulcerogenic activity of the extracts of Struthanthus marginatus

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    Sônia M. de F. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastroprotective action of the aqueous extract (AE and the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Struthanthus marginatus (Desr. Blume, Loranthaceae, were performed with in vivo models in rodents using: ethanol, indomethacin or stress-induced ulcers, determination of gastric secretion and the mucus production. The scavenger activity of AE in vitro was tested by the DPPH method. The treatment with the extracts (125-1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated and demonstrated greater effectiveness of the aqueous extract. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in the gastric pH. The treatment of rats raised the gastric mucus production. Significant DPPH scavenging activity was evident in the AE. No sign of toxicity was observed. These results show that S. marginatus possesses gastroprotective activity. There are indications that the mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in acid secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence for the involvement of antioxidant activity in the gastroprotective mechanism.

  7. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

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    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  8. Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising system with competing short- and long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Octavio D Rodriguez; de Sousa, J Ricardo; Neto, Minos A

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the phase diagrams of the one-dimensional spin-1 Blume-Capel model with anisotropy constant D, in which equivalent-neighbor ferromagnetic interactions of strength -J are superimposed on nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions of strength K. A rich critical behavior is found due to the competing interactions. At zero temperature two ordered phases exist in the D/J-K/J plane, namely the ferromagnetic (F) and the antiferromagnetic one (AF). For lower values of D/J(D/J0.5, only phases AF and F exist and are separated by a line given by D/J=K/J. At finite temperatures, we found that the ferromagnetic region of the phase diagram in the k_{B}T/J-D/J plane is enriched by another ferromagnetic phase F^{^{'}} above a first-order line for 0.195

  9. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  10. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections.

  11. Biophysical controls of carbon flows in three successional Douglas-fir stands based on eddy-covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiquan; Falk, Matthias; Euskirchen, Eugénie; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Suchanek, Thomas H; Ustin, Susan L; Bond, Barbara J; Brosofske, Kimberley D; Phillips, Nathan; Bi, Runcheng

    2002-02-01

    We measured net carbon flux (F(CO2)) and net H2O flux (F(H2O)) by the eddy-covariance method at three Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) sites located in the Wind River Valley of southern Washington State, USA. Stands were approximately 20, 40 and 450 years old and measurements were made between June 15 and October 15 of 1998 in the 40- and 450-year-old stands, and of 1999 in the 20- and 450-year-old stands. Our objectives were to determine if there were differences among the stands in: (1) patterns of daytime F(CO2) during summer and early autumn; (2) empirically modeled relationships between local climatic factors (e.g., light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water content, temperature and net radiation) and daytime F(CO2); and (3) water-use efficiency (WUE). We used the Landsberg equation, a logarithmic power function and linear regression to model relationships between F(CO2) and physical variables. Overall, given the same irradiance, F(CO2) was 1.0-3.9 mol m-2 s-1 higher (P < 0.0001 for both seasons) at the two young stands than at the old-growth stand. During summer and early autumn, F(CO2) averaged 4.2 and 6.1 mol m-2 s-1 at the 20- and 40-year-old stand, respectively. In contrast, the 450-year-old forest averaged 2.2 and 3.2 mol m-2 s-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Increases in VPD were associated with reduced F(CO2) at all three stands, with the greatest apparent constraints occurring at the old-growth stand. Correlations between F(CO2) and all other environmental variables differed among ecosystems, with soil temperature showing a negative correlation and net radiation showing a positive correlation. In the old-growth stand, WUE was significantly greater (P < 0.0001) in the drier summer of 1998 (2.7 mg g-1) than in 1999 (1.0 mg g-1). Although we did not use replicates in our study, the results indicate that there are large differences in F(CO2) among Douglas-fir stands of different

  12. Análisis de sequías y productividad con cronologías de Pseudotsuga menziesii Rob. & Fern., y su asociación con El Niño en el nordeste de México

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    María Rafaela Arreola-Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con tres cronologías de Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtenidas en la Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO, en el estado de Nuevo León, México, se determinaron periodos de sequías y productividad analizando el patrón de crecimiento radial durante un lapso de 120 años. Se estudió la asociación entre el índice de crecimiento radial de las cronologías y los registros instrumentales de factores climáticos (precipitación y temperatura, obtenidos de cuatro estaciones meteorológicas vecinas a los sitios de muestreo. Se asociaron las cronologías con el índice multivariado del ENSO (MEI. Los resultados indican que en las cronologías resaltan cuatro periodos de sequías que se presentaron entre los años: 1885-1903, 1907-1937, 1950-1963 y 1998-2003. La productividad disminuye notablemente de 1.18 mm año-1 de crecimiento radial en épocas húmedas a 0.82 mm año-1 durante la presencia de sequías. Existe buena asociación entre el Índice de Crecimiento Radial Estandarizado (ICRE de las cronologías con la precipitación invernal observada. La reconstrucción de la precipitación invernal basada en las cronologías, muestra un ascenso paulatino a través del tiempo, desde 1880 hasta 2003. La correlación del ICRE de las tres cronologías y el MEI presenta buena asociación en la mayoría de los meses del año, principalmente, durante los meses que cubren las estaciones de otoño, invierno y primavera, indicando que el crecimiento del ancho de los anillos se ve favorecido con la presencia de bajas temperaturas y precipitaciones por arriba del promedio durante el invierno o la etapas primarias de la primavera.

  13. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

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    L. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  14. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  15. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  16. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-02-23

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  17. Native root xylem embolism and stomatal closure in stands of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine: mitigation by hydraulic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, J-C; Warren, J M; Meinzer, F C; Brooks, J R; Coulombe, R

    2004-09-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the passive movement of water via roots from moist to drier portions of the soil, occurs in many ecosystems, influencing both plant and ecosystem-water use. We examined the effects of HR on root hydraulic functioning during drought in young and old-growth Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws) trees growing in four sites. During the 2002 growing season, in situ xylem embolism, water deficit and xylem vulnerability to embolism were measured on medium roots (2-4-mm diameter) collected at 20-30 cm depth. Soil water content and water potentials were monitored concurrently to determine the extent of HR. Additionally, the water potential and stomatal conductance ( g(s)) of upper canopy leaves were measured throughout the growing season. In the site with young Douglas-fir trees, root embolism increased from 20 to 55 percent loss of conductivity (PLC) as the dry season progressed. In young ponderosa pine, root embolism increased from 45 to 75 PLC. In contrast, roots of old-growth Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine trees never experienced more than 30 and 40 PLC, respectively. HR kept soil water potential at 20-30 cm depth above -0.5 MPa in the old-growth Douglas-fir site and -1.8 MPa in the old-growth ponderosa pine site, which significantly reduced loss of shallow root function. In the young ponderosa pine stand, where little HR occurred, the water potential in the upper soil layers fell to about -2.8 MPa, which severely impaired root functioning and limited recovery when the fall rains returned. In both species, daily maximum g(s) decreased linearly with increasing root PLC, suggesting that root xylem embolism acted in concert with stomata to limit water loss, thereby maintaining minimum leaf water potential above critical values. HR appears to be an important mechanism for maintaining shallow root function during drought and preventing total stomatal closure.

  18. Ação antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil Antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes são compostos que atuam inibindo e/ou diminuindo os efeitos desencadeados pelos radicais livres e compostos oxidantes. Os chás são bebidas populares e fontes significativas de compostos fenólicos, sendo considerados importantes integrantes das dietas devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antioxidante de uma variedade de chás e condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil. Os chás analisados foram das plantas: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia sinensis (L O. Kuntze (fermentado, Camelia sinensis (não-fermentado, Lippia alba N.E. Brown,Mentha arvensis L., e Pyrus malus L. Os condimentos analisados foram: Eugenia aromatica Baill, Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume, Laurus nobilis L. e Origanum vulgare L. O método utilizado para avaliar a ação antioxidante foi o da atividade seqüestradora de radicais livres DPPH em solução metanólica. Todas as amostras analisadas demonstraram atividade em suas diferentes concentrações. Camelia sinensis (não-fermentada foi a mais ativa com CI50= 0,14 mg/mL, cujos principais compostos antioxidantes são epigalocatequinas. Os condimentos mais ativos foram Cinnamonum zeylanicum (CI50 = 0,37 mg/mL, Eugenia aromatica Baill (CI50 = 0,46 mg/mL e Laurus nobilis (CI50 = 0,76 mg/mL, cujo principal antioxidante relatado foi o eugenol.Antioxidants are compounds that remove free-radicals or minimize their availability to generate oxidative stress. Teas are popular beverages providing a significant source of phenolic compounds, important components of the human diet due to their antioxidant properties. The present work had the objective of evaluate the antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil. The analysed teas were from the plants: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia

  19. Tannins Dynamic of 15 Tropical Trees and Shrubs%15种热带乔灌木单宁含量动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂; 字学娟; 周汉林; 徐铁山; 刘国道

    2011-01-01

    Tannin contents of 15 tropical trees and shrubs were observed from March 2009 to Feb. 2010. Tannin levels of forage plants were ranked as: Ficus hispida L. F. (0. 39%), Erythrina variegata Linn. (0.77%); Cratylia argentea (Desv. ) Kuntze (0.78%); Dendrolobium triangulate (Retz. ) Schindl. (1. 16%); Cajanuscajan (Linn. ) Huth (1. 29%); Senna bicapsularis (Linn. ) Roxb. (1. 38%); Microcos paniculata Linn. (1.56%); Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb. Ex Link) Hassk. (1.57%); Ficus auriculata Lour. (1. 62%); Senna didymobotrya (Fresen. ) H. S. Irwin et Barneby (1. 82%); Flemingia macro-phylla (Willd. ) Prain (1. 91%); Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. ) Blume (2. 14%); Leucaena leuco-cephala (Lam.) de Wit (2.34%); Acacia fame siana (Linn.) Willd. (2.67%); Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt (2. 80%). There were significant monthly dynamic of tannin contents in all tested tropical trees and shrubs leaves, related to species, growing period and environment. Additionally, utilization and tannin physiology were also discussed in this paper.%通过对15种热带乔灌木不同月份(2009年3月至2010年2月)单宁含量的测定,以期明确部分木本饲用植物单宁含量及其动态变化趋势.结果表明:15种热带乔灌木单宁平均含量由低到高顺序如下:对叶榕(Ficus hispida L.f.)(0.39%)<刺桐(Erythrina variegata Linn.)(0.77%)<克拉豆(Cratylia argentea( Desv.)Kuntze) (0.78%)<假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)(1.16%)<木豆(Cajanus ca jan (Linn.)Huth)(1.29%)<双荚决明(Senna bicapsularis (Linn.) Roxb.)(1.38%)<破布叶(Microcos paniculata Linn.)(1.56%)<圆叶舞草(Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb.ex Link) Hassk.)(1.57%)<大果榕(Ficus auriculata Lour.)(1.62%)<长穗决明(Senna did ymobotr ya( Fresen.)H.S.Irwin et Barneby)(1.82%)<大叶千斤拔(Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Prain)( 1.91%)<黄牛木(Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume) (2.14%)<银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala( Lam

  20. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  1. Banco de sementes como indicador de restauração de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG Seed bank as indicator of restoration of a kaolin mining - degraded area in Brás Pires, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o banco de sementes sob vegetação secundária em uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de solo de 0,5 x 0,5 m até a profundidade de 5,0 cm. As amostras foram mantidas em viveiro por quatro meses, sendo metade em sombreamento de 11,5% (luz e metade em sombreamento de 60% (sombra. A germinação das sementes foi comparada nas duas condições de sombra (11,5% e 60%, utilizando-se o teste t para amostras independentes. Foram amostradas 36 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias com maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae, com nove espécies, Rubiaceae com cinco e Poaceae com quatro. A maioria das espécies (66,7% e dos indivíduos (82,2% amostrados no banco foi de herbácea. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos germinados do banco foram as herbáceas Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D. Webster, Cenchrus sp. e Eragrostis sp. e a arbustiva Leandra niangaeformis Cogn. Entre as arbóreas, destacaram-se em número de indivíduos Luehea grandiflora Mart. e Trema micranta (L. Blume. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas oriundas de áreas antropizadas do entorno indicou baixa resiliência da vegetação presente na área degradada em caso de ocorrer alguma perturbação severa.This study aimed to characterize the soil seed bank under secondary vegetation in an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, Brazil. Forty soil samples of 0.5 x 0.5 m were collected to the depth of 5.0 cm. The soil samples were maintained in nursery for four months, half in shading of 11.5% (light, and half in shading of 60% (shade. Seed germination was compared under the two shade conditions (11.5% and 60%, utilizing the t test for independent samples. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 botanical families were sampled. The families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae with 9, Rubiaceae with 5, and Poaceae with 4. Most of the

  2. Protective effects of Guizhi-Fuling-Capsules on rat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie-Jun; Qiu, Yan; Mao, Jun-Qin; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Rui, Yao-Cheng; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies revealed that Guizhi-Fuling-Capsules (GZFLC), a traditional Chinese medical (Kampo) formulation composed of five kinds of medicinal plants, Cinnamomum cassia BLUME (Cinnamomi Cortex), Paeonia lactiflora PALL. (Peonies Radix), Paeonia suffruticosa ANDREWS (Moutan Cortex), Prunus persica BATSCH (Persicae Semen), and Poria cocos WOLF (Hoelen), exerts a protective effect against vascular injury and has a protective effect against glutamate- or nitro oxide-mediated neuronal damage. In the present study, the effect of GZFLC in a rat in vivo model of focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion was investigated. Administration of GZFLC (0.3 and 0.9 g/kg, p.o.) after focal cerebral ischemia significantly decreased brain infarction and water contents in rats subjected to 2-h ischemia followed by 24-h reperfusion from 31.72 +/- 2.49%, 84.76 +/- 1.63% in the model group to 17.31 +/- 3.66%, 82.51 +/- 1.36% and 8.30 +/- 3.73%, 81.35 +/- 1.73%, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of inflammatory cytokines in ischemic brain showed that GZFLC treatment significantly down-regulated expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta and tissue necrosis factor-alpha and markedly up-regulated expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-10R both in mRNA and protein levels. The serum levels of these inflammatory cytokines were also regulated the same way. These results suggested that GZFLC may be beneficial for the treatment of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury partly due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. 植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、性别分化和结蓬的影响%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth,Sex Differentiation and Fructification of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕守芳; 闫爱玲; 王贵禧

    2003-01-01

    @@ 板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)原产我国,是重要的经济林树种.板栗普遍雄花多、雌花少,雌雄花比例常为1∶2 000~4 000,这是造成产量低的主要原因[1],因此,促进雌花分化,减少雄花数量对提高板栗产量具有重要意义.板栗花芽分化的特点与苹果(Malus spp.)、梨(Pyrus spp.)不同,板栗在芽内只进行雄花序原基的分化,而雌花簇和所有花器官分化形成都是在芽外完成的.李中涛等[2]认为在母枝大芽内形成雏梢(即是来年新梢),并分化形成全部雄花序原基,而其上的两性花序要在来年春季发芽后形成.板栗混合花芽的分化具有可塑性,易受外源激素和外界条件等的影响[3].板栗花芽分化的这种特异性和可塑性吸引着研究者不断地探索,本文探讨了5种植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、花芽性别分化和结实的影响,目的在于增加雌花、减少雄花和提高板栗的产量.

  4. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  5. Effect of wood hardness and secondary compounds on feeding preference of Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasseney, Boris Dodji; Deng, Tianfu; Mo, Jianchu

    2011-06-01

    Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is one of the most destructive plant pests in China, which control relies mainly on baits strategies. Baits made from the wood of eight different tree species were used to study the feeding preference of this termite, and conversely wood protection strategies of the tree species. Three bait types were used to identify wood protection strategies: solid wood (physical and chemical protection), crude flour (chemical protection) made from ground wood, and extracted flour (no protection) made by extracting crude flour with ethanol and toluene. Feeding preference was influenced by wood species and bait type. For solid wood, Magnolia denudata Desr (75%) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr (41%) were most preferred; for crude flour, E. glabripetalus (97%) and Quercus variabilis Blume (92%) were most preferred; and for extracted flour, there were no significant differences between wood species, demonstrating the influence of chemical defense. The greatest contrast between bait types was for Platanus orientalis L, the least preferred as solid wood and crude flour, suggesting that chemical defense compounds are particularly important in this species. Solid wood consumption was inversely correlated with wood density. Extracted flour consumption was positively correlated with glucose concentration. There was no direct effect of holocellulose and other components tested. O. formosanus preferred to fed on soft wood with low chemical protection (M. denudata); conversely trees protected their wood either physically [e.g., E. glabripetalus, Q. variabilis, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, and Ligustrum lucidum Aiton] or chemically (Populus bonati Levl) or a combination of both strategies (Liquidamba formosana Hance and P. orientalis).

  6. [Determination the Change of Main Trace Elements in the Ovary with Self- and Cross-Pollination of Chinese Chestnut by ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Guo, Su-Juan; Wang, Jing; Peng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Peng, Ya-Qin

    2015-10-01

    Castanea mollissima Blume has potential as an non-wood forest trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in China. In order to elucidate the trace elements of chestnut ovary, the major trace elements of self- and cross-pollination chestnut ovary were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that self- and cross-pollination 5-50 d, six trace elements trends showed fluctuations. After cross-pollination 20 d, the content of Ca was up to 6.50 mg x g(-1), while the self-pollination 10 d, the content of Ca reached up to 7.77 mg x g(-1). After cross- and self-pollination pollination 30 d, the content of Mg were highest, 4.19 and 4.69 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross-pollination 5 d, the content of Zn reached the highest, 0.038 7 mg x g(-1), while self-pollination 10d the content of Zn was 0.039 9 mg x g(-1). After self- and cross-pollination 35 d, the content of Fe were 0.022, 0.019 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross- and self-pollination 20 d, the content of Cu were 0.056, 0.045 mg x g(-1), respectively. After self-pollination 40d, the content of Mn reaching the highest was 1.204 mg x g(-1), while cross-pollination 30 d, the content of Mn reached its maximum 0.845 mg x g(-1). The results can provide a reference for spraying fertilizer on the ovary development, thereby improving chestnut production.

  7. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  8. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  9. Plants of the Araceae family for malaria and related diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FRAUSIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the current work we performed a review of the Araceae family species traditionally used to treat malaria and its symptoms. The aim is to reveal the large number of antimalarial Araceae species used worldwide and their great unexplored potential as sources of antimalarial natural products. The SciFinder Scholar, Scielo, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google books search engines were consulted. Forty-three records of 36 species and 23 genera of Araceae used for malaria and symptoms treatment were found. The neotropical genera Philodendron Schott and Anthurium Schott were the best represented for the use in the treatment of malaria, fevers, liver problems and headaches. Leaves and tubers were the most used parts and decoction was the most common preparation method. The extracts of Araceae species inhibit the in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite, the Plasmodium falciparum Welch, and significant median inhibitory concentrations (IC50 for extracts of guaimbê-sulcado (Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb. Schott, aninga (Montrichardia linifera (Arruda Schott, Culcasia lancifolia N.E. Br. and forest anchomanes (Anchomanes difformis (Blume Engl. have been reported demonstrating the antimalarial and cytotoxicity potential of the extracts and sub-fractions. In the only report about the antimalarial components of this family, the neolignan polysyphorin and the benzoperoxide rhaphidecurperoxin presented strong in vitro inhibition of the D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodiumfalciparum (IC50 = 368-540 ng/mL. No live study about antimalarial activity in animal models has been conducted on a species of Araceae. More bioguided chemical composition studies about the in vitro and also thein vivo antimalarial activity of the Araceae are needed in order to enhance the knowledge about the antimalarial potential of this family.

  10. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  12. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  13. Phylogeny of Panax using chloroplast trnC-trnD intergenic region and the utility of trnC-trnD in interspecific studies of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunghee; Wen, Jun

    2004-06-01

    Sequences of the chloroplast trnC-trnD region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained for all species of Panax L. (the ginseng plant genus, Araliaceae) to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. The trnC-trnD phylogeny is congruent with the ITS phylogeny for the diploid taxa of Panax. This study is the first use of the trnC-trnD sequence data for phylogenetic analysis at the interspecific level. We evaluated this DNA region for its phylogenetic utility at the lower taxonomic level for flowering plants. The trnC-trnD region includes the trnC-petN intergenic spacer, the petN gene, the petN-psbM intergenic spacer, the psbM gene, and the psbM-trnD intergenic spacer. The petN and psbM genes are small, 90 and 104-114 bp across angiosperms, respectively, and have conserved sequences. We have designed universal amplification and sequencing primers within these two genes. Using these primers, we have successfully amplified the entire trnC-trnD region for a diversity of flowering plant groups, including Aralia L. (Araliaceae), Calycanthus L. (Calycanthaceae), Corylus L. (Betulaceae), Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae), Hydrocotyle L. (Apiaceae), Illigera Blume (Hernandiaceae), Nelumbo Adans. (Nelumbonaceae), Nolana L. ex L.f. (Solanaceae), Prunus L. (Rosaceae), and Staphylea L. (Staphyleaceae). In Panax, the trnC-trnD region provides a similar number of informative phylogenetic characters as the ITS regions and a slightly higher number of informative characters than the chloroplast ndhF gene. We thus demonstrate the utility of the trnC-trnD region for lower-level phylogenetic studies in flowering plants.

  14. Differences in transpiration characteristics of Japanese beech trees, Fagus crenata, in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Makiko; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Hiura, Tsutom

    2010-06-01

    Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) is widely distributed across the Japan archipelago. This species requires morphological and physiological plasticity to cope with the diverse environmental conditions across its geographical range. In this study, we monitored transpiration (E) to examine plasticity mechanisms as an example of geographical variation in whole-tree water use. We determined E by measuring the sap flux of Japanese beech trees in three stands: Kuromatsunai (KR), Kawatabi (KW) and Shiiba (SH), which were located in different areas in Japan. We conducted biometric measurements to characterize leaf and crown morphology and evaluated geographical variations in E characteristics, such as canopy aerodynamic conductance, canopy stomatal conductance (G(S)) and decoupling coefficient (Omega). Leaf morphology and crown shape showed clear geographical clines. Individual leaf areas decreased in the order KR > KW > SH. The crown shape in the KR and KW stands was cylindrical but planar in the SH stand. We evaluated the effects of leaf and crown morphology on E characteristics. The Omega values showed that, while E in the KW and SH stands was highly sensitive to G(S) and atmospheric evaporative demand, E in the KR stand was sensitive to radiative energy. To maximize carbon gain without further water loss, trees maintain a high G(S) in a moist habitat. For example, the KR trees may decrease E by reducing their absorbed radiation energy by adjusting the individual leaf size and crown structure. Our results indicate that the geographical variation in the water use pattern of Japanese beech is determined by the interaction between its physiological and morphological status.

  15. First-order and tricritical wetting transitions in the two-dimensional Ising model caused by interfacial pinning at a defect line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the critical behavior of the Blume-Capel model with three spin states (S =±1,0) confined between parallel walls separated by a distance L where competitive surface magnetic fields act. By properly choosing the crystal field (D), which regulates the density of nonmagnetic species (S =0), such that those impurities are excluded from the bulk (where D =-∞) except in the middle of the sample [where DM(L/2)≠-∞], we are able to control the presence of a defect line in the middle of the sample and study its influence on the interface between domains of different spin orientations. So essentially we study an Ising model with a defect line but, unlike previous work where defect lines in Ising models were defined via weakened bonds, in the present case the defect line is due to mobile vacancies and hence involves additional entropy. In this way, by drawing phase diagrams, i.e., plots of the wetting critical temperature (Tw) versus the magnitude of the crystal field at the middle of the sample (DM), we observe curves of (first-) second-order wetting transitions for (small) high values of DM. Theses lines meet in tricritical wetting points, i.e., (Twtc,DMtc), which also depend on the magnitude of the surface magnetic fields. It is found that second-order wetting transitions satisfy the scaling theory for short-range interactions, while first-order ones do not exhibit hysteresis, provided that small samples are used, since fluctuations wash out hysteretic effects. Since hysteresis is observed in large samples, we performed extensive thermodynamic integrations in order to accurately locate the first-order transition points, and a rather good agreement is found by comparing such results with those obtained just by observing the jump of the order parameter in small samples.

  16. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  17. Change of interception process due to the succession from Japanese red pine to evergreen oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Shin'ichi; Tanaka, Tadashi; Sugita, Michiaki

    2005-12-01

    Extensive measurements of rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in a forest during succession from Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) to a combination of red pine and lower canopy trees—evergreen oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume) and evergreen theaceous tree ( Eurya japonica Thunb.) allowed the effect of this succession on the interception of rainfall to be evaluated. The measurements were conducted on two occasions: 1984/1985, and 2001/2002 when the lower canopy trees had become dominant. During this period, 75% of the red pines had been removed, and there was a substantial increase in stemflow ( p<0.01), essentially no change in throughfall ( p<0.01), and a substantial decrease in interception ( p<0.01). The increase in stemflow was attributed to the increase in lower canopy trees; trees that have steeply angled branches, smooth bark surfaces and water repellent leaves; all of which enhance stemflow. The decrease in interception was due to the decrease in canopy water storage (2.6-1.1 mm/event) and an increase in evaporation during rainfall event (0.7-1.1 mm/event). The decrease in storage partly resulted from the removal of red pines, the bark of which is thick, flaky, and therefore, very absorptive. It was responsible for 88% of the actual rainfall storage at the beginning of the experiment. During the 17 year-period, the size of the lower canopy trees increased more rapidly than that of red pines. The increase in evaporation was due to the increase in canopy gaps by the removal of 75% of the red pines during the succession, and was a minor factor in affecting interception loss.

  18. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations.

  19. Gastrodin suppresses BACE1 expression under oxidative stress condition via inhibition of the PKR/eIF2α pathway in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-S; Zhou, S-F; Wang, Q; Guo, J-N; Liang, H-M; Deng, J-B; He, W-Y

    2016-06-14

    The expression of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is increased in the brain of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oxidative stress may be the potential cause of this event. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin (Gas), a main component of a Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been demonstrated to display antioxidant activity and suppresses BACE1 expression. However, the mechanisms by which Gas suppresses BACE1 expression are not clear. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the effect of Gas treatment on memory impairments in Tg2576 mice. The level of oxidative stress in the brain of Tg2576 mice was determined by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS. In vivo and in vitro, we detected the expression levels of BACE1, pPKRThr446, PKR, pPERKThr981, PERK, peIF2αSer51, and eIF2α using western blot analysis. We found that Gas improved learning and memory abilities of Tg2576 transgenic mice and attenuated intracellular oxidative stress in hippocampi of Tg2576 mice. We discovered that the expression levels of BACE1, activated PKR (pPKRThr446) and activated eIF2α (peIF2αSer51) were elevated in the brains of Tg2576 mice and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, peptide PKR inhibitor (PRI) and Gas down-regulated BACE1 expression in Tg2576 mice and H2O2-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting activation of PKR and eIF2α. Gas alleviates memory deficits in mice and suppresses BACE1 expression by inhibiting the protein kinase/Eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (PKR/eIF2α) pathway. The research suggested that Gas may develop as an drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F

    1992-08-01

    provide for species preferring forest interior habitat as well as species favoring edge and early seral habitats. As a result of ecosystem research, the management of stream and riparian networks can now be based on understanding of forest-stream interactions and designed within a drainage-basin context. Overall, emphasis in research and management seems to be in early stages of shifting from featured species-e.g., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina)-to ecosystems, and from the scale of forest stands to landscapes and the entire region. In addition to the contributions of ecosystem research to redesign of management techniques, ecosystem scientists also have roles in the social processes for determining the future course of management of natural resources. An important medium for scientist participation is establishment of adaptive management programs, in which management activities are conducted as experiments to test hypotheses and to develop information needed for future natural resource management.

  1. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  2. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Orchard Soils in South China as Affected by Fertilization Depths and Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizers are heavily applied in orchards of the hilly and mountainous topography of South China and may increase nutrient loadings to receiving waters.A simple runoff collecting system was used to measure the effects of different fertilization treatments on total N and P concentrations of surface runoff in a Chinese chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)orchard in Dongyuan County,Guangdong Province,China.In such orchards,fertilizer was typically applied in two short furrows or pits on either side of each tree.Treatments included three application depths(surface,10 era and 20 cm),and three application rates(low,median and high).Results showed that 90.5% of the runoff water samples had a total N concentration higher than 0.35 mg L-1 and 54.2% had a total P concentration higher than 0.1 mg L-1.Fertilizer application at all depths and at all but the lowest rate significantly increased total N and P concentrations in runoff water.Fertilization with chemical compound fertilizer at a soil depth of 20 cm prodiuced significantly lower(P<0.05)total N concentration in runoff than both surface and 10-cm depth fertilization,and significantly lower(P<0.05)total P concentration in runoff than surface fertilization.Total N and P concentrations in runoff significantly increased with the application rate of organic fertilizers.With the exception of total P concentrations,which were not significantly different between the control and fertilization at a rate of 119 kg P ha-1 in organic form,all the other fertilization treatments produced significantly higher total N and total P concentrations in runoff than the control.A fertilization depth ≥ 20 cm and an application rate ≤ 72 kg N ha-1 or 119 kg P ha-1 for compound organic fertilizer was suggested to substantially reduce N and P runoff losses from hillslope orchards and to protect receiving waters in South China.

  3. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  4. Masting in Fagus crenata and its influence on the nitrogen content and dry mass of winter buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-08-01

    In Fagus, full-mast seeding years are invariably followed by at least one non-mast year. Both flower and leaf primordia develop during the summer within the same winter buds. Flower bud initiation occurs when the N content of developing seeds is increasing rapidly. We hypothesized that competition for nitrogen (N) between developing seeds and buds limits flower primordium formation in mast years and, hence, limits seed production in years following mast years. We tested this hypothesis in three Fagus crenata Blume forests at elevations of 550, 900 and 1500 m. Bud N concentration (N con), amount of N per bud (N bud) and dry mass per bud (DM) were compared between a mast year (2005) and the following non-mast year (2006), and between winter buds containing both leaf and flower primoridia (BF), which were formed during the non-mast year, and winter buds containing leaf primordia only (BL), which were formed in both mast and non-mast years. In addition, leaf numbers per shoot corresponding to the analyzed buds were counted, and the effect of masting on litter production was analyzed by quantifying the amounts of litter that fell in the years 2004 to 2007. The dry mass and N content of BF formed in 2006 by trees at both 550 and 1500 m were 2.1-3.4-fold higher than the corresponding amounts in BL, although the numbers of leaves per current-year shoot in 2007 that developed from the two bud types in the same individuals did not differ significantly. These results indicate that more N and carbohydrate are expended in producing BF than in producing BL. The amount of litter from reproductive organs produced in the mast year was similar to the amount of leaf litter at 900 and 1500 m, but three times as much at 550 m. Leaf numbers per shoot were significantly lower at all elevations in the mast year than in the non-mast years (and the amount of leaf litter at 550 and 1500 m tended to be lower in the mast year than in the non-mast years. In conclusion, preferential allocation

  5. Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein suppresses agonist-driven CB1 receptor internalization and regulates receptor replenishment in an agonist-biased manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Lawrence C; Leone-Kabler, Sandra; Luessen, Deborah J; Marrs, Glen S; Lyons, Erica; Bass, Caroline E; Chen, Rong; Selley, Dana E; Howlett, Allyn C

    2016-11-01

    Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is a CB1 receptor (CB1 R) distal C-terminus-associated protein that modulates CB1 R signaling via G proteins, and CB1 R down-regulation but not desensitization (Blume et al. [2015] Cell Signal., 27, 716-726; Smith et al. [2015] Mol. Pharmacol., 87, 747-765). In this study, we determined the involvement of CRIP1a in CB1 R plasma membrane trafficking. To follow the effects of agonists and antagonists on cell surface CB1 Rs, we utilized the genetically homogeneous cloned neuronal cell line N18TG2, which endogenously expresses both CB1 R and CRIP1a, and exhibits a well-characterized endocannabinoid signaling system. We developed stable CRIP1a-over-expressing and CRIP1a-siRNA-silenced knockdown clones to investigate gene dose effects of CRIP1a on CB1 R plasma membrane expression. Results indicate that CP55940 or WIN55212-2 (10 nM, 5 min) reduced cell surface CB1 R by a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent process, and this was attenuated by CRIP1a over-expression. CP55940-mediated cell surface CB1 R loss was followed by a cycloheximide-sensitive recovery of surface receptors (30-120 min), suggesting the requirement for new protein synthesis. In contrast, WIN55212-2-mediated cell surface CB1 Rs recovered only in CRIP1a knockdown cells. Changes in CRIP1a expression levels did not affect a transient rimonabant (10 nM)-mediated increase in cell surface CB1 Rs, which is postulated to be as a result of rimonabant effects on 'non-agonist-driven' internalization. These studies demonstrate a novel role for CRIP1a in agonist-driven CB1 R cell surface regulation postulated to occur by two mechanisms: 1) attenuating internalization that is agonist-mediated, but not that in the absence of exogenous agonists, and 2) biased agonist-dependent trafficking of de novo synthesized receptor to the cell surface.

  6. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    , H., Blume, F., et al... 'PBO Monument Stability Experiment Analysis' for the initial results of the data quality comparison from these locations.

  7. Photosynthesis acclimation, leaf nitrogen concentration, and growth of four tree species over 3 years in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen treatment in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Duan, Honglang; Li, Yuelin; Zhang, Deqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Xu, Zhihong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane (Australia). Centre for Forestry and Horticultural Research

    2011-10-15

    Up to date, most studies about the plant photosynthetic acclimation responses to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration have been performed in temperate areas, which are often N limited under natural conditions and with low ambient N deposition. It is unclear whether photosynthetic downregulation is alleviated with increased N availability, for example, from increased N deposition due to fossil fuel combustion in the tropics and subtropics. Awareness of plant photosynthetic responses to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration will contribute to the better understanding and prediction of future forest productivity under global change. Four tree species, Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Ormosia pinnata (Lour.) Merr, Castanopsis hystrix AC. DC., and Acmena acuminatissima (Blume) Merr. et Perry were exposed to a factorial combination of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentration at ca. 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}) and N deposition (ambient and ambient + 100 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) in open-top chambers in southern China for 3 years since March 2005. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rate, leaf N concentration, and tree growth of all species were measured. The CO{sub 2} treatments did not affect light-saturated net photosynthetic rate of all species grown with the high N treatment. However, S. superba grown with the low N treatment (ambient) had 23% and 47% greater net photosynthesis in the ambient CO{sub 2} concentration than those in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration for December 2006 and November 2007 (20 and 31 months after the treatments were applied), respectively, and A. acuminatissima grown with the low N treatment had 173%, 26%, and 121% greater net photosynthesis in trees grown in the ambient CO{sub 2} concentration than those in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration for July 2006 (16 months after the treatments), December 2006 (20 months), and November 2007 (31 months), respectively, whereas

  8. Analyses on composition and diversity of endophytic fungi in different parts of Lindera glauca from Tianmu Mountain%天目山山胡椒不同部位内生真菌组成及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓菡; 李文超; 秦路平

    2012-01-01

    采用表面消毒法,从浙江天目山野生山胡椒[ Lindera glauca( Sieb.et Zucc.) Blume]的茎、叶和树皮中分离出内生真菌,基于ITS序列分析进行分类鉴定;并以内生真菌的分离率、定殖率、分离频率、多样性指数(H')及相似性系数为指标,分析了山胡椒内生真菌的菌群组成及多样性.结果显示:在26株山胡椒样株的728块组织块中共分离得到328株内生真菌(茎、叶和树皮中分别有161、40和127株);共鉴定出44个分类单元(茎、叶和树皮中各有19、18和28个),其中25个分类单元鉴定到种、17个鉴定到属、2个鉴定到科,ITS序列的GenBank登录号从JF502420至JF502462.在44个分类单元中,有40个分类单元属于子囊菌(310株),存在于山胡椒的各个部位;仅有4个分类单元属于担子菌(18株),且仅存在于茎和树皮中.山胡椒茎、树皮和叶中内生真菌的定殖率分别为65%、60%和15%,分离率分别为0.77、0.61和0.19;叶和树皮中内生真菌的多样性指数均为2.63,远大于茎(H’=1.83).山胡椒内生真菌的优势属为Phomopsis、Paraconiothyrium、Phoma和Colletotrichum,大量存在于叶、茎和树皮中.山胡椒茎与树皮、茎与叶及叶与树皮间内生真菌的相似性系数分别为0.27、0.19和0.18,显示树皮和叶之间以及树皮和茎之间内生真菌的组成极不相似.研究结果表明:山胡椒体内存在大量的内生真菌,其茎、叶和树皮的内生真菌菌群组成具有一定程度的多样性和差异性,且内生真菌的分布具有组织特异性.%By the surface sterilization method, endophytic fungi were isolated from stern, leaf and bark of wild Lindera glauca ( Sieb. et Zucc.) Blume from Tiammu Mountain of Zhejiang Province, and were identified and classified according to ITS sequence analysis result. Taking isolation rate ( IR), colonization rate( CR) , relative frequency ( RF) , Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H') and similarity coefficient

  9. Antiepileptic Drug-Related Adverse Reactions and Factors Influencing These Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Bakrani V. Antiepileptic Drug-Related Adverse Reactions And Factors Influencing These Reactions. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3:23-27. ObjectiveAccording to the basic role of drug side effects in selection ofan appropriate drug, patient compliance and the quality of life inepileptic patients, and forasmuch as new dugs with unknown side effect have been produced and introduced, necessity of this research and similar studies is explained. This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of anti epileptic drug (AED related adverse reactions in children treated with AEDs.Material & MethodsIn this descriptive study, children less than 14 years old with AEDside effects referred to the Children’s Medical Center and MofidChilderen’s Hospital (Tehran, Iran were evaluated during 2010-2012.The informations were: sex, age, incriminating drug, type of drug side effect, incubation period, history of drug usage, and patient and family allergy history. Exclusive criterions were age more than 14 years old and reactions due to reasons other than AEDs (Food, bite, non-AEDs, etc..ResultsA total of 70 patients with AED reaction were enrolled in thisstudy. They included 26 (37% females and 44 (63 % males. The maximum rate of incidence was seen at age less than 5 years old. All the patients had cutaneous eruptions that the most common cutaneous drug eruption was maculopapular rash. The incidence of systemic and laboratory adverse events was less than similar studies. The most common culprit was phenobarbital (70% and the least common was lamotrigine (1.4%.ConclusionIn this study, we found higher rates of drug rash in patients treated with aromatic AEDs and lower rates with non-aromatic AEDs. Various endogenous and environmental factors may influence the propensity to develop these reactions. Refrences1. Blume WT, Lu¨ders HO, Mizrahi E, et al. Glossary of descriptive terminology for

  10. Viewpoints on impacts of climate change on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    soil quality in ecosystems based on modern respiratory approaches. In: Cenci R., Sena F. (eds.) Biodiversity-bioindication to evaluate soil health. European Commission EUR 22245EN, p. 59-64 Dilly O., Blume H.-P., Munch J.C., 2003. Soil microbial activities in Luvisols and Anthrosols during 9 years of region-typical tillage and fertilisation practices in northern Germany. Biogeochemistry 65, 319-339 IPPC 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon, S. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27, 753-760 Knorr W., Prentice I.C., House J.I., Holland E.A. 2005. Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon to warming. Nature 433, 298-301 Mamilov, A. Sh., Dilly, O., 2002. Soil microbial eco-physiology as affected by short-term variations in environmental conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 1283-1290

  11. Comparison of drought strategies of three co-existing woody plants by their hydraulic structures%从水力结构比较3种共存木本植物的抗旱策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳欣; 徐洁; 白坤栋; 冯锦霞; 张劲松; 万贤崇

    2011-01-01

    通过盆栽控水方法测定了华北石质山区刺槐、栓皮栎和侧柏3个主要造林树种在干旱胁迫以及随后的复水条件下气体交换和水分关系的变化,分析了这3个树种抗旱特性的差异。结果表明:1)在供水充足时,刺槐光合作用强、气孔导度大、耗水速度快。2)刺槐对土壤水分变化最为敏感,当土壤水分含量降低时,其光合速率和气孔导度迅速下降。3)复水后,刺槐和栓皮栎恢复速度比侧柏快。4)当小枝导水损失率发生变化时,刺槐的气孔导度变化迅速,相比之下,栓皮栎和侧柏对土壤水分变化以及其气孔导度随水力变化的反应都较为平缓。5)刺槐在水分充足时迅速进行光合积累,而干旱时,通过气孔关闭甚至落叶来避免过度失水。另外2种植物在中度干旱时,尤可保持光合作用,其中侧柏更为突出。在华北半干旱的石质山区,刺槐的发展受到较大限制。%This paper investigates the physiological characteristics for drought resistance among three main afforestation woody species(ie Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Quercus variabilis Blume,Platycladus orientalis(L.) Franco) in lithoid mountainous areas in north China.Variations in their gas exchanges and water relations were comparatively measured during withholding water and subsequent rewatering of potted seedlings.The results showed that:1) under well-watered conditions,black locust(R.pseudoacacia) had the strongest photosynthesis,the greatest stomatal conductance and water consumption among the three species.2) However,black locust was most sensitive to soil drying among the three species,its photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rapidly declined.3) On being rewatered,both gas exchanges and water relations were able to be rapidly recovered in all three species,among which black locust and cork oak(Q.variabilis) had faster recovery than arborvitae(P.orientalis).4) Stomatal

  12. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Organic Carbon in Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir in North China%密云水库上游流域土壤有机碳特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 王效科; 欧阳志云

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool constitutes an important portion of the global carbon pool and has significant impacts on land productivity and global climate change. The study on soil organic carbon has been one of the hot issues of the world. However, related research of the filed in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the largest reservoir in North China, is relatively rare. The distribution characteristics and influencing factors (such as climate, topography and soil characteristics) of soil organic carbon in seven kinds of typical land use types of the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir were analyzed in the study, and the results showed as follows. 1) In the target domain, soil organic carbon contents in natural secondary forests and grasslands were much higher than those in shrubs and artificial forests, while that in croplands was the lowest. In the whole soil profile (0 - 40 cm), the average soil organic carbon content was in order of natural secondary Populus davidiana Dode-Belula platyphylla Suk. Mixed forest > grassland > natural secondary Quercus wutaishanica Blume forest > shrub > artificial Larix principis-rupprechlii Mayr. Forest>artificial Pinus labulaeformis Carr. Forest>cropland. 2) Soil organic carbon contents in the top soil layer (0 - 10 cm) were the highest and decreased rapidly with the increase depth in the six kinds of land use types except grassland, which showed a slight increase from 0 to 20 cm and a small drop from 20 to 40 cm in depth. 3) Soil organic carbon content in each layer was significantly positively correlated with altitude, soil water content and nitrogen content (p0.05). Further partial correlation analysis indicated that the most principal factors influencing soil organic carbon content varied with soil depth, and they were soil nitrogen content, bulk density and pH in the 0 - 10 cm layer, soil nitrogen content, bulk density and slop in the 10-20 cm layer, soil nitrogen content and annual precipitation in the 20

  13. Expression of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 in gastric cancer, its relationship with prognosis, and its role in gastric cancer cell proliferation%促肝再生磷酸酶-3在胃癌患者组织中的表达及其对胃癌细胞生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡世荣; 陈创奇; 王昭; 何裕隆; 崔冀; 吴文辉; 吴晖; 詹文华

    2008-01-01

    PRL-miR-neg, respectively. Un-transfected progenitor cells were used as controls. MTT assay was used to examine the proliferation of these cells. RTPCR and Western blotting were used to detect the RNA and protein expression of PRL-3 in the SGC7901 cells. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided into 3 equal groups to be inoculated subcutaneously with SGC7901 ceils transfected with Lent. rPRL3-miRs or blank vector, and control SGC7901 ceils respectively. The growth of tumor was observed and the tumor sizes were measured 21 days later. Results 85 of the 137 gastric cancer samples (62%) showed high PRL-3 expression and 26 (19%) showed moderate and low PRL-3 expression. High PRL-3 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size ( P< 0. 01 ), infiltration depth (P< 0. 01 ), lymph node metastasis ( P< 0. 01 ), hepatic metastasis ( P< 0. 01 ), adjacent organ invasion ( P< 0. 01 ), and TNM staging ( P< 0. 01 ). The median survival time of the patients with high PRL-3 expression in the primary tumor was 18.9 months, significantly shorter than those with moderate or low expression (39.1 and 74.3 months respectively, both P< 0. 01 ). The growth rate of the SGC7901 cells transfected with the recombinant lentivirus expressing artificial PRL-3 miRNA was significantly lower than that of the blank vector-transfected group. The implanted tumor size of the Lenti. rPRL-3-miR-B transfection group was ( 1.92 ±0. 18 ) cm3, significantly smaller than those of the control and Lenti. rPRL-miR-neg groups [(4.86±0.38) and(4.74±0.39)cm3 respectively, both P<0.01]. Conclusion High PRL-3 expression is associated with gastric cancer progression. Silencing of PRL-3 significantly suppresses the proliferation of gastric cancer cells and tumor growth. PRL-3 plays a key role in the growth of gastric cancer. PRL-3 should be considered as a potential therapeutic target.

  14. The Application of Local Wisdom for Production of Condiment Isan' Food Ingredient into Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitchapanrawee Phengphol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of the research derives from a lack of study and understanding about the production of condiment Isan food and ingredients being introduced into commercial, even though Isan food is popular among consumers widespread both inside and outside the country. The government introduced a policy to expand trade to create an export value of Isan products. The purpose of the research is to study the local wisdom in the field of the application of the ingredients used in Isan food. In addition, the purpose is to study about the problems of applying local wisdom to produce Isan food for consumption into commercial. Approach: The fields of study are Kalasin, Khon kaen, Maha Sarakham and Roi-Et. These are the places of Isan food local culture and original application of Isan food that have been producing to the present and also popular among the consumers widespread. There are 5 types of food that are chosen to be the proposition; Kaeng Wai (Curry Wai, Kai Yang (Roasting chicken, Tom Kai Ban (Boiled chicken, Mok Lab Pla Thong (Grilled Lab Pla Thong and Om Pla (Fish soup from 9 restaurants. Using Qualitative Research for data gathering from the concerning document, the data will be collected from fieldwork, survey, observation, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 71 informants, presenting the result by using analytical descriptive. Results: The local wisdom of application of Isan food ingredients is a herb that is easy to find in the local area. It is used for the deodorizing of meat and as a garnish to give taste and flavor to the consumer. Isan food is highlighted as spicy and salty. A Spicy taste is from hot chili and dried chili. A Salty taste can be regarded as an important deliciousness that is an identity of Isan food from pickled fish and salt. A Sour test derives from tamarinds. Ya Nang (Tiliacora triandra is used in order to reduce uric acid of Wai (Calamus caesius Blume. Adding ginger, Kha

  15. Symbiotic seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl%大雪兰种子的共生培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仕坛; 伍建榕; 胡隽; 杨宏光; 陆露; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to screen mycorrhiza fungus that can promote the seed germination and form the symbiosis with Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl and scale produce high quality seedling, we first symbiosis cultivated seeds with different fungi in the medium of cortices symbiotic culture, then measured the biomass of seedlings, re - separation of fungus strain, studied the 3D hypha net by using the optical microscope and electron microscope, and determined the seed vitality with TFC method. The results showed that strain CLB111 and MLX102 that were separated from roots of Cymbidium goeringii Rchb. f. and C. Sinense Willd can promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The differences of germination rates between treatments with strain symbiosises and control were significant. Re - separations from the culture medium confirmed the strains in symbiosis roots were the same as the inoculated strains. The optical microscope and electron microscope observation found that many fungus hypha infected into embryo cell and formed the 3D hypha net, and the embryo started differentiation. TFC measurement showed that the Seed had high vitality. No strain was found by re - separation from culture medium, no hy- pha was observed and very low vitality under control treatment. Thus, It can be concluded that strain CLB111 and MLX102 can form the symbiosis and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The experiments found the fungus Cymbidium separated from adult orchids and the fungus that promote the seed germination were the same strains in mastersii. This phenomenon was different from the C, astrodia elata Blume. It was also confirmed that funguses that can form symbiosis with and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii were not abso- lutely specific. Under certain condition, different strains can significantly promote germination of one orchid species. It may need further investigation to verify the differences under different ecological conditions.%为

  16. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI Akabar ASADI-POOYA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sharifzade M. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 40-44.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics of the patients with West syndrome (WS in south Iran.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of WS were recruited in the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between September 2008 and May 2012. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure type(s, epilepsy risk factors, EEG and imaging studies of all patients were registered routinely.ResultsDuring the study period, 2500 patients with epilepsy were registered at our epilepsy clinic. Thirty-two patients (1.3% were diagnosed to have WS. Age of onset (mean ± standard deviation was 4.99 ± 3.06 months. Sixteen patients were male and 16 were female. Nine (28.1% were reported to have two or more seizure types and 23 (71.8% had one seizure type (epileptic spasms. At referral, no developmental delay was detected in two patients and in the rest, a mild to severe delay was noted.Electroencephalography showed typical hypsarrhythmia in 59.4% of our patients and modified hypsarrhythmia or atypical presentations were seen in 40.6%. Two patients had pyridoxine (B6-dependent seizures, confirmed by oral B6 trial.ConclusionVariants of the classical triad of WS including other seizure types, atypical EEG findings, and normal psychomotor function at the beginning could be observed in some patients. Rarely, treatable genetic disorders (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent seizures should be considered in those in whom no other diagnosis is evident. References1. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Sep;42(9:1212-8.2. Carmant L

  17. Insects Carrying Damage to Plants of the Gentts Syringa%危害丁香属植物的昆虫种类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红; 严善春

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted on insects that cause damage to 13 species (variations) of plants of the genus Syringa in Heilongjiang Forest Botanical Garden and on the Campus of two universities (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine and Northeast Forestry. Universitv) in Harbin. At least 11 species of insects are harmful to the investigated Syringa plants. The trunk borer Phassus excrescens Butler can cause injury and damage to nine species or variations, namely S. oblata Lindl. ,S. villosa Vahl. , S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. vulgaris Linn. , S. velutina Kom. , S. vu!garis dahua' , S. reticu/ara (Blume) Ham var. mandshurica (Maxim.) Hara and S. dilatata, which indicates that P. excrescens attacks an extremely wide range of host plants. The defoliator Psilogranma increta ( Walker, [ 1865 ] ) can damage S. oblata. S. villosa, S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. velutina Diels Linn. and S. uudgaris ev. ‘zihong'. The phloem-sucking insect Coccurra ussuriensis (Borchs) was found only to cause damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Pseudococcus comstocki ( Kuwana, 1902) ) is harmful to S reticulata var. nandshurica and S. microphylla. Lepidosaphes salicina Borchsenius can cause great damage to S. oblata, S. villosa, S. emodi, Syringa oblata Lindl. var. a/ba Hort. ex Rehd. , Syringa dilatata Nakai, Syriaga vulgaris and its variations, and occasionally can be fonnd causing damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Moreover, Dendrothrips ornatus (Jablonowsky, 1894) was found to damage the leaves of Syringa spp. , two unidentified lepidopterous larvae feed on .S oblate, and two species of unidentified thrips and one species of aphid feed on .S retictdata var. mandshurica.%为了明确丁香属(Syringa spp.)植物虫害的防治对象.对黑龙江省森林植物园丁香园、黑龙江中医药大学校园、东北林业大学校园及部分家属区的绿化带内丁香属13种(变种)植物进行了整株虫害调查,系统地分析、总结了危害丁香属的

  18. 脱脂、脱蛋白处理对板栗粉膨胀势的影响%Effect of De-Fat and De-Protein Treatments on Swelling Power of Chinese Chestnut (C.mollissima Bl.) Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽松; 林顺顺; 张柏林; 王贵禧

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The experiments were conducted to compare the swelling power of chestnut native powder of 24 cultivars of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) from different cultivar groups, and investigate the effect of de-fat and/or de-protein on swelling power of different cultivars of Chinese chestnut power. [Method] The contents of protein, fat and starch were determined by Kjeldahl method, Soxhlet extraction method and Anthracene ketone colorimetric method, respectively. The native power, de-fat power and de-protein power of chestnut were obtained by freeze-drying, SoxhLet extraction and alkali liquor precipitation, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.0. [ Result ] Differences of swelling power of chestnut native powder were found among different cultivars and different cultivar groups. Native powder of chestnut from North Cultivar Groups (NCG) had the lowest swelling power compared with other two cultivar groups. De-fat treatment had less influence on swelling power of chestnut powder. However, de-protein treatment increased significantly the swelling power of all cultivars chestnut. There were obvious differences in swelling power and the changes of swelling among cultivars after de-protein, but no differences among different cultivar groups were found. The combination of de-fat and de-protein resulted in significant increases in swelling power and there existed differences among the cultivars. The swelling power of de-protein powder of chestnut followed the sequence: North Cultivar Groups (NCG) > Mid-type Cultivar Groups (MCG) > South Cultivar Groups (SCG). There was a significant difference between NCG and SVG. The differences of content of starch, protein and fat occurred in different cultivar chestnuts, and apparent correlation between starch content and swelling power of chestnut powder were conformed in the meanwhile. [Conclusion] Starch was the main factor influencing swelling power of chestnut powder. Protein

  19. Foliar concentration of heavy metals in the leaves of trees in mining area as a mechanism for phytoremediation%矿区常见乔木叶片重金属特征及其修复应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱媛; 何际泽; 杨汉彬; 张良军; 黄良美; 温远光; 杨梅; 张新英

    2013-01-01

    Sn, 0.13 g Sb, 0.79 g Pb;for C. mollissima can uptake 99.82 g Mn, 5.20 g Zn, 0.28 g Cu, 0.24 g As, 0.048 g Cd, 0.017 g Sn, 0.26 g Sb, 0.94 g Pb;but would be inappropriate to use due to the risk of people consuming the potentially toxic fruit. Therefore H. acerba and C. camphora may be good trees to plant when restoring mining areas.%  对广西河池大厂矿区内的植被和立地条件进行调查分析,旨在寻找一些可用于植物生态修复重金属污染的乔木,并估算其去除重金属的能力.在调查区内设立了3个村屯采样点,对常见树木,如沙梨(pyrus pyrifolia(burm.f.)nakai)、板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)、拐枣(Hovenia acerba)、柚子树(Citrus maxima)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、樟树(Cinnamomum camphora)、柿子树(Diospyros kaki)和枇杷(Eriobotrya japonica)等8种植物叶片及周围表层土壤进行采样,检测叶片和土壤中重金属总量(Mn、Zn、Cu、As、Cd、Sn、Sb、Pb).对植物叶片采用ICP-MS及ICP-AES进行测定,土壤的重金属用ICP-AES进行检测.结果发现表土重金属含量均超过广西土壤背景值的5~1200倍,其中Cd污染最严重,为背景值的1200多倍.3个采样点位之间及同一采样点内不同植物叶片对重金属的吸收无显著性差异(Mn 除外),8种植物叶片固定重金属的范围如 Cu为3.3319 mg·kg-1-10.8851 mg∙kg-1,As为1.7811 mg·kg-1-46.2178 mg·kg-1,Cd为0.04655 mg·kg-1-4.9897 mg·kg-1;其中拐枣树叶对Mn有较高吸收,分别达811.11 mg·kg-1,352.31 mg·kg-1,220.11 mg·kg-1.以生物量估测模式计算的屯一8种植物单株叶片总量对重金属的总吸收量,单株拐枣叶总量可吸收21.25 g Mn、3.003 g Zn、0.20 g Cu、0.28 g As、0.066 g Cd,、0.014 g Sn、0.17 g Sb和1.23 g Pb,而单株樟树叶可吸收1.55 g Mn、0.79 g Zn、0.17 g Cu、0.12 g As、0.011 g Cd、0.017 g Sn、0.14 g Sb和0.40 g Pb.但所调查果树中的梨树和板栗树单株叶总量吸收重金属也较高,梨可吸收2.90 g Mn、3.32 g