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Sample records for betula platyphylla suk

  1. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  2. A New Monoterpene Glucoside from the Leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpene glucoside, (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-8-b-D-glucosyloxy-2,6-octadien- oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk. The structure was established by spectroscopic data.

  3. PLATYPHYLLIN A, A NOVEL COUMARONE FROM THE LEAVES OF BETULA PLATYPHYLLA SUK.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-JUAN WANG; YUE-HU PEI; HUI-MING HUA

    2001-01-01

    A novel coumarone, platyphyllin A (1), was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk..The structure elucidation was accomplished by the analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was identified as a new coumarone skeleton, which was first isolated from plants.

  4. 兴安白桦木材生长轮密度时间序列分析%Time Series Analysis of the Density of Wood Growth Ring for Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春起

    2012-01-01

    In order to further improve the applicable value of the wood, time series analysis of the density of wood growth ring for Betula platyphylla Suk. was studied. To do this,21 sample trees were col- lected and analyzed by selecting the ARIMA (0, 1, 1) as the best model via AIC criterion. The result showed that the residuals were white noise sequence, and the average relative error of the prediction data was within 10%, indicating that the model had a good prediction result.%为进一步提高木材的实际应用价值,并为森林资源经营提供理论支持,对兴安白桦木材生长轮密度的径向变异进行研究。采集兴安白桦试样21株,对其生长轮密度的径向变化规律进行时间序列分析,依据最小信息量AIC原则,选择ARIMA(O,1,1)为最优模型;白噪声检验结果表明,残差序列为白噪声序列,模型诊断通过;序列预测值与实测值相对误差在10%之内,模型获得较好的预测效果。

  5. The Correlation Analysis of Soluble Sugar and Starch Contents with Electrical Impedance in Betula platyphylla Suk.Roots under Waterlogging and Flooding Stresses%涝渍胁迫下白桦根系可溶性糖和淀粉含量与电阻抗的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昱; 邸葆; 张钢; 封新国; 徐成立; 田军

    2013-01-01

    以白桦(Betula platyphylla Suk.)2年生实生苗为材料,测定根系在涝渍胁迫下可溶性糖和淀粉含量与电阻抗图谱(electrical impedance spectroscopy,EIS)参数的变化,分析可溶性糖和淀粉含量与EIS参数的相关性.试验分对照、渍水和淹水3个处理组,处理时间为60d.结果表明:1)随着涝渍胁迫处理时间的延长,对照组可溶性糖含量呈整体缓慢上升趋势;渍水组呈先下降,后上升的趋势;淹水组呈先上升,后下降的趋势.2)随着涝渍胁迫处理时间的延长,对照和渍水组淀粉含量都呈整体上升的趋势;淹水组呈整体下降趋势.3)电阻抗图谱参数在涝渍胁迫处理期间均发生变化,且胞外电阻率(re)和弛豫时间(τ)的变化趋势相同.4)相关性分析结合通径分析表明,在涝渍胁迫期间,可溶性糖含量对re的影响最大,二者呈显著的正相关;淀粉含量对弛豫时间分布系数(Ψ)的影响最大,二者呈显著的负相关.说明电阻抗图谱参数能够有效地表征涝渍胁迫下白桦根系可溶性糖和淀粉的变化,电阻抗技术是研究林木根系在逆境胁迫下生理状况的一种有效方法.%Two-year-old seedlings of white birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) were used to measure soluble sugar and starch contents as well as electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) parameters of roots under waterlogging and flooding stresses.The correlations of the EIS parameters with tested soluble sugar and starch contents were analyzed.Three treatments,the control,waterlogging and flooding,were carried out with duration of 60 days.The results showed that:1) Following the prolong of stress treatments time,soluble sugar content of the control decreased slowly; that of the waterlogging treatment decreased firstly,and increased later on; that of the flooding treatment increased firstly,and then decreased.2) Following the prolong of stress treatments time,starch content of the control and waterlogging treatments increased

  6. Progeny test of tetraploid Betula platyphylla and preliminary selection of hybrid parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanwen Xu; Yu Liu; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Xiyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Estimating genetic parameters of parental lines through progeny testing and choosing good hybrid parents are important for genetically improving seed orchard trees. In this study, 24 tetraploid progeny seedlings were used as experimental materials, which came from test cross design:six tetraploid Betula platyphylla lines (Q33, Q13, Q103, Q19, Q83 and Q14) as female parents and four individual B. platyphylla diploid lines (F3, F4, F9 and F11) as male parents were crossed. Variance analysis of height, diame-ter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance showed that the differences between hybrid combinations reached highly significant levels. Using multi-objective decisionmaking, we performed a comprehensive assess-ment of the various hybrid combinations. Using a selection rate of 20% of the standard, five hybrids were selected;their genetic gains in average height, diameter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance were 20.95, 6.07, 13.07 and 8.96%, respectively. We also analyzed the combining ability and genetic parameter effect values of parents and hybrid combinations. The combined analysis revealed that Q13, Q103, Q33 and Q83 were superior females; F3, F4, and F9 were superior males; and F3 9 Q13, F4 9 Q83 and F9 9 Q33 were superior hybrid combinations. The heights and diameters of these proge-nies were 22.49 and 11.48% greater than average, respectively.

  7. 白桦APETALA2( AP2)转录因子基因的分离及其表达%Isolation and Expression of APETALA2 Transcription Factor Gene in Betula platyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 刘瀛; 孙丰宾; 戴超; 刘雪梅

    2012-01-01

    AP2 gene is a key transcription factor involved in flower development in plants. The full cDNA of AP2 gene was isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk. by methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) . Results showed that AP2 gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) ,of 1554bp encoding 517 amino acids. Molecular weight of the deduced protein of BpAPl is 56.74kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point is 6. 34. The AP2 functional sites and characterized domains were confirmed in the sequence, so the isolated gene was named as BpAPl, and registered in Gen Bank with accession number JN247408. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 51%~77% of identity with other twelve plant species, the maximum identity with Arabidopsis thaliana (77% ) and minimum identity with Pinus thunbergii (51% ). A phylogenetic tree was constructed according to multiple sequences alignment of all the thirteen plant species. Transcription expression of BpAPl was analyzed by qRT-PCR in different tissues and periods in B. platyphylla. Results showed that BpAPl was more highly expressed in floral organs than in vegetative organs, expression quantity more highly in young tissues than in mature tissues. It inferred that BpAP2 transfactor involved in the regulation of development of floral organs and meristematic tissues in Betula. In addition, a natural male inflorescence- abnormal mutant of B. platyphylla was used for transcription analysis of BpAP2. Results showed that BpAPl gene is expressed up-regulatedly in female inflorescences, while down-regulation in male inflorescences, young leaves and young shoots, which predicted that BpAPl should be involved in regulation and expression of multiple genes, and not only be involved in the development of floral organs, but also play some roles in the development of vegetative tissues.

  8. Rainfall redistribution of a virgin Pinus koraiensis forest and secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A virgin Pinus koraiensis forest in the Xiao-xing'an Mountains was selected to study its rainfall redistribution effect via 97 rainfall occurrences during a growing season.The following results were obtained:1) The canopy interception of the P.koraiensis virgin forest amounted to 98168 mm during a growing season (May to September),which was 19.6 per cent of the total rainfall and 1.3 times that of a secondary Betula platyphylla forest.Compared with other forest types in China (11.4%-36.5%),the ratio of the canopy interception in the virgin pine forest was at a medium level.2) The throughfall of the virgin pine forest was 395.77 mm,which accounted for 78.7% of total precipitation,and the stem-flow was 8.78 mm,accounting for 1.74% of total precipitation.Compared with the secondary birch forest,the virgin pine forest had lower throughfall but higher stem-flow.3) Cubic regression equations (p < 0.01)which describe the relation between throughfall,stem-flow and canopy interception in the virgin pine forest and rainfall in an open field were fitted.A linear regression equation (p < 0.01) was found to be a better fit for the relationship between throughfall of the secondary birch forest and rainfall outside the forest.Factors affecting throughfall and stem-flow were analyzed,with results providing a good reference to the study of rainfall redistribution in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests.

  9. Substrate Screening for Container Seedlings of Betula platyphylla%白桦容器育苗的适宜基质筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾斌英; 徐惠德; 刘桂丰; 李开隆; 孙志虎; 彭红梅; 滕文华

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to screen the suitable substrate for container seedling cultivation in the green house of the Intensive Breeding Base of Betula platyphylla in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province.The cultivation effects for different proportionings of peat, sand, and cultivated soil were analysed. Results showed that dif-ferent proportionings of peat, sand, and cultivated soil could significantly affect the relative content of chlorophyll, seedling height, basal diameter, and whole-plant biomass. As sand content was in the range of 0~20% , the chlorophyll content, seedling height, basal diameter, and whole-plant biomass reached their maximum values, while the above-mentioned indi-ces parabolically decreased with increasing percentage of sand. All the indices showed an increasing trend with increasing percentage of peat and a constant trend with increasing percentage of cultivated soil. Different proportionings of peat, sand, and cultivated soil could be classified into three groups according to the integrated analysis of relative chlorophyll content, basal diameter, seedling height, and whole-plant biomass. The optimum substrate proportion for cultivating con-tainer seedlings of B. platyphylla was screened out on the basis of economical and applicable principles, namely, the pro-portion of peat, sand, and cultivated soil was 2:1:7.%为了给东北地区白桦(Betula platyphylla Suk.)容器育苗提供适宜的基质配方,在东北林业大学白桦强化育种基地温室内,以河沙、草炭和耕作土为基质,对其18种配比的育苗结果进行了筛选.结果表明:3种基质的不同配比能够显著影响白桦苗木的SPAD值、苗高、地径和全株生物量.当河沙体积分数在0~20%的范围内,白桦苗木的SPAD值、苗高、地径和全株生物量处于最高值,随着基质中河沙比例的进一步增加,各指标呈抛物线下降;随着草炭比例的增加,各指标则呈现上升趋势;

  10. The effects of Betula platyphylla bark on amyloid beta-induced learning and memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Namki; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely associated with amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in the brain. Betula platyphylla, which has been used to treat various oxidative-stressed related diseases, has recently received attention for its preventive activity on age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of B. platyphylla bark (BPB-316) on Aβ(1-42)-induced neurotoxicity and memory impairment. Oral treatment using BPB-316 significantly attenuated Aβ-induced memory impairment which was evaluated by behavioral tests including the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze test. BPB-316 also inhibited the elevation of β-secretase activity accompanying the reduced Aβ(1-42) levels in the hippocampus of the brain. Furthermore, BPB-316 significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity and increased the glutathione content in the hippocampus. In addition, we confirmed that the expression of both cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-42)-injected mice were markedly upregulated by the treatment of BPB-316. Our data suggest that the extracts of B. platyphylla bark might be a potential therapeutic agent against AD.

  11. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  12. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  13. Analysis of three types of triterpenoids in tetraploid white birches (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and selection of plus trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Wang; Hui Zhao; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Chuanping Yang

    2015-01-01

    Betulin, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids that have significant medicinal value. Considerable amounts of these triterpenoids are available in the outer bark of white birch. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract triterpenoids from birch bark rapidly and with high efficiency. Using high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC), three types of triterpenoids were separated and detected. We examined the differences among triterpenoids extracted from diploid versus tetra-ploid white birch. Then, we used factor analysis to screen out tetraploid white birches with comprehensively excel-lent performance. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction include the use of ethanol as an extraction solvent, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.1 g/10 ml, ultrasonic power set at 100 W, a temperature of 60 ?C and an extraction time of 15 min. A reversed-phase C18 col-umn (4.6 mm 9 250 mm 9 5 lm) with a column tem-perature of 30 ?C and the mobile phase composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min were used, and the detection wavelength was 195 nm. No significant difference was observed between diploid and tetraploid white birch in terms of the content of three types of triterpenoids (at a confidence level of 0.05). As triterpenoid content, height, and DBH (diameter at breast height) are strongly interre-lated, we used factor analysis to evaluate all individuals, and we screened out six plus trees with excellent com-prehensive characters.

  14. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  15. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  16. Study on Precipitation Hydro-chemical Characteristic of Different Stages of Betula platyphylla Secondary Forest%不同林龄白桦次生林降雨水化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文影; 满秀玲; 张阳武

    2009-01-01

    This paper measured the precipitation, throughfall, stemflow and litter water in the Cl~- ,NH_4~+-N, Na~+ , NO_3~--N, TN, K~+ , Ca~(2+) ,Mg~(2+) of different stages of Betula platyphylla secondary forest . The paper studied the different properties of hydro-chemical between four different stages of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. The results showed: In precipitation the highest concentration was for Ca~(2+) and the lowest concentration was for Na~+. The average concentration of elements(in mg/L total) for the order Ca~(2+)>C1~-> K~+>N0_3~- —N>Mg~(2+)> Na~+ , the amount of each element was very various in terms of seasons alternate and in which the change of Cl~- was the smallest. NO_3~- - N and Ca~(2+) of throughfall was the lowest content in 25 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest, Cl~- and Mg~(2+)of throughfall was the lowest concentration in38 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest,Na~+ ,K~+ , Mg~(2+) of throughfall was the lowest concentration in 56 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. Cl~-, NO_3~--N, K~+ of stemflow was the lowest concentration in 38 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest, Na~+ , Ca~(2+) and Mg~(2+) of stemflow was the lowest concentration in 56 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. Cl~- , NH_4~- -N, Na~+and K~+ of litter wate was the lowest concentration in 25 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest,Mg~(2+) , Mn of litter wate was the lowest concentration in 38 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. Ca~(2+) of litter water was the lowest concentration in 56 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest.%通过对不同林龄白桦次生林林外降雨、穿透雨、树干茎流和枯透水中的Cl~-,NO_3~-N,Na~+,K~+,Ca2-,Mg~(2+)等进行测定,以研究4个林龄之间降水化学性质的差异.结果表明:林外降雨中Ca~(2+)的含量最高,Na~+含量最低,养分元素平均含量(以mg/L计)排列顺序为:Ca~(2+)>Cl~->K~+>NO_3~--N>Mg~(2+)>Na~+,各元素在

  17. Cognition-enhancing and neuroprotective activities of the standardized extract of Betula platyphylla bark and its major diarylheptanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Yong; Jeong, Eun Ju; Huh, Jungmoo; Cho, Namki; Kim, Tae Bum; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-15

    Diarylheptanoids have been the center of the intensive research efforts for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the standardized extract of B. platyphylla bark and its major diarylheptanoids in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice through cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. Oral administration of the standardized extract of B. platyphylla bark (100mg/kg body weight), aceroside VIII (1mg/kg body weight) and platyphylloside (1 or 2mg/kg body weight) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced amnesia in passive avoidance test. CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the cortex and hippocampus of the scopolamine-treated mice were markedly increased by the treatment of the standardized extract of B. platyphylla bark and platyphylloside. The standardized extract of B. platyphylla bark and its major diarylheptanoids also significantly protected HT22 cells against neurotoxicity induced by glutamate insult. The standardized extract of B. platyphylla bark and platyphylloside may ameliorate memory deficits by activating the CREB-BDNF pathway and prevent a neurodegeneration by inhibiting neuronal cell death.

  18. 天然杨-桦次生林空间结构特征%Spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana - Betula platyphylla secondary forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵芳丽; 余新晓; 宋思铭; 赵阳

    2011-01-01

    运用直径分布和空间结构参数混交度、大小比数和角尺度,分析了木兰围场4 hm2天然杨-桦次生林的空间结构.结果表明:天然杨-桦次生林林分径级结构呈反“J”型曲线;林分平均混交度为0.4,其弱度和零度混交比例达51.6%,山杨、白桦的平均混交度分别为0.25和0.39;以胸径、树高为参数的大小比数基本一致,显示山杨、白桦处于亚优势向中庸的过渡状态;林分水平分布格局与树木起测直径密切相关,当起测直径为1 cm≤DBH<6 cm时,林分呈聚集分布,当起测直径DBH≥6 cm时,林分呈随机分布.%This paper analyzed the spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana -Betula platyphylla secondary forest in a 4 hm2 plot of Mulan Paddock, based on the diameter distribution and the spatial structure parameters mingling degree, neighborhood comparison, and angle index. In the forest, the diameter distribution of the stands presented as an inverse ' J' curve, the average mingling degree was 0. 4, with the individuals at weak and zero mingling degree reached 51. 6% , and the average mingling degree of P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla was 0. 25 and 0. 39, respectively. The neighborhood comparison based on the diameter at breast height ( DBH) and tree height was almost the same, suggesting that the P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla were in the transition state from subdominant to middle. The horizontal distribution pattern had a close relation to the minimum measured DBH, being clustered when the DBH was ≥1 cm and <6 cm, and random when the DBH was ≥6 cm.

  19. [Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

    2011-04-01

    By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8-3.9 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summer and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring = autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summer under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring = autumn under heavy fire disturbance. At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7%, 65.6% -95.8%, and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore, fire disturbance

  20. The Evaluation of CP-001 (a Standardized Herbal Mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus for Cytochrome P450-Related Herb-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Hyun Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100 μg/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal.

  1. The effect of exogenous sugar solution and high concentration of CO2 on the contents of sugar and protein of Betula platyphylla leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYu-mei; YANGChuan-ping; WANGShu-juan; WUYue-liang; WANGWen-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The content of total sugar,sucrose,fructose and protein in the leaves of 3-yr.-old Betula platyphylla was measured after the treatment by three exogenous sugar solutions(sucrose,fructose,glucose) and three high concentrations of CO2(700,1400,2100μL·L-1) for about a month in 1998.The results showed that spraying three exogenous sugar solutions increased markedly the content of sugar and protein of leaves under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The effect of spraying exogenous sucrose solution was the best among the three exogenous sugars.The treatment of spraying exogenous sugar solution and 2100μL·L-1 CO2 constrained the accumulation of total sugar and protein of leaves.There was no difference in protein content of leaves when spraying glucose and fructose solutions under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The treatrnent of 2100μL·L-1 CO2 concentration significantly increased the contents of total sugar,sucrose,fructose,and protein of leaves compared with that of the 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2 except the plants spraying fructose solution.there was positive correlation between the content of sugar of leaves and CO2 concentration when spraying same exogenous sugar solution.

  2. 白桦基因表达半定量RT-PCR中内参基因的选择%Selection of internal control genes in semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Betula platyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴超; 刘雪梅; 周菲

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for researching lignin synthetic regulation, taking Betula platyphylla as investigated object, expression stability of four housekeeping genes in different tissues and periods were analyzed, which were 18S rRNA, Actin, Ubiquitin and Tubulin, respectively. The results showed that the expression of 18S rRNA, Actin and Ubiquitin were stable, and they could be used as internal control genes to analyze expression level of target genes in B. platyphylla. Tubulin was less stable, and could't be used as internal control genes to analyze expression of target genes.%为给调节木质素合成研究的开展提供理论基础,以白桦为研究对象,应用半定量RT-PCR技术分析白桦持家基因18S rRNA、肌动蛋自基因Actin、泛素基因Ubiquitin和微管蛋白基因Tubulin在白桦不同时期及不同部位中的表达.结果表明,18S rRNA,Actin及Ubiquitin基因在各样本间的表达无显著差异,说明这3个基因可作为校正白桦目标基因表达量的参照基因,而Tubulin基因在所有样品中的表达稳定性较差,不适宜作为白桦基因表达研究中的内参基因.

  3. Expression and Isolation of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL) Gene in Betula platyphylla%白桦苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)基因的分离及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋福南; 邢磊; 陈肃; 戴超; 刘雪梅

    2009-01-01

    利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从白桦(Betula platyphylla)中克隆了编码苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)的cDNA,其2322bp的ORF编码773个氨基酸,其推导的氨基酸序列包含PAL-HAL和PAL2个功能域以及酶活性中心序列GTITASGDLVPLSYIA,该序列同其它5种植物的序列一致性为60%~73%,其中与美洲红(Rhizophora mangle)树最高为73.1%.以该序列构建了系统进化树,白桦与美洲红树聚为一类,其余3种裸子植物长白松、沙地海岸松和银杏聚为一类.BplPAL1基因在各组织中均有不同的转录表达,在次生木质部表达最强,其次是幼叶,在花序中的表达量较低,说明BplPAL1基因在各组织中的调控和表达是不同的.

  4. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Individuals in Different Age-classes of Betula platyphylla in Huoshan Mountain of Shanxi Province%山西霍山白桦种群不同龄级立木的点格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳华; 闫明; 武丽君; 张直峰; 毕润成

    2011-01-01

    Betula platyphylla is a pioneer plant and is distributed intensively in Huoshan mountain. One 50 m x 50 m quadrat was established in Qiliyu from which we recorded the DBH of each individual and the spatial points of all individuals were mapped. The data were analyzed by point pattern analysis. All individuals were divided into four DBH classes; DBH I (DBH≤ 7 cm);DBH Ⅱ (7 cm 21 cm).The results of this study showed; (1) The densities of four age-classes varied in the order: age-class n >age-class Ⅲ >age-class Ⅰ>age-class Ⅳ. The middle age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ had many more individuals than age-classes I and Ⅳ, which indicated that the population was currently in decline. (2) The individuals of all age-classes focused on clumping distribution in space, except the age-class Ⅰ. The feature of clumping distribution became more significant with increasing age. (3) The relationships between individuals in different age-classes were significantly correlated with each other on a small scale,but became non-significant with increasing scale,except for age-classes I and n ,age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ,and age-classes n and Ⅳ.%以山西霍山地区的先锋树种之一白桦( Betula platyphylla)为研究对象,在霍山七里峪林场典型地段设置一个50 m×50 m的样方,应用点格局分析方法对其不同龄级(Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级和Ⅳ级)个体的分布格局及相互关系进行了研究.结果表明:(1)白桦种群不同龄级的个体间密度也不相同,中间龄级Ⅱ级(7 cm< DBH≤14 cm)和Ⅲ级(14 cm <DBH≤21 cm)的密度较大,幼龄和老龄个体密度小,年龄结构为衰退型;(2)除Ⅰ级(DBH≤7 cm)外,其余3个龄级集群分布特征比较明显,且随着龄级的增加,集群特征有更明显的趋势;(3)除Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅳ级(DBH >21 cm)之外,其余龄级间基本都是小尺度下负关联,并随尺度的增大关联性逐渐变得不显著.

  5. 以光合效率度量天然白桦种群生态位初探%Primary Probing into Niche of Natural Betula platyphylla Population by Means of Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱民; 祖元刚

    2002-01-01

    In terms of photosynthetic efficiency,which demonstrates the space-time function of plant,niche width of B. Platyphylla population was described.First,on the basis of net photosynthetic amount in certain time,the niche width of a birch was calculated.Then,the realized niche and rudimental niche of B. Platyphylla seedlings,young trees and adult trees were discussed.Finally, the dynamic of niche under special conditions was studied.

  6. 钾肥对白桦生理特性及三萜含量的影响%The Effects of Potassium Fertilizer on Physiological Characteristics and Triterpene Contents in Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬晓明; 齐凤慧; 尹静; 詹亚光

    2012-01-01

    为了研究钾肥对白桦防御酶及三萜含量的积累,从而建立生产三萜为目的的白桦栽培技术,建立钾肥调控三萜合成体系,以2年生白桦幼树为试材,通过施加高(15g/盆)、中(10g/盆)、低(5g盆)3种钾肥(KCI)对白桦进行处理,分析白桦叶片总三萜积累变化,同时对相关抗逆酶进行检测.结果表明,施用钾肥能够不同程度地提高白桦叶片中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)以及过氧化物酶(POD)的活性,并使叶片中可溶性糖含量增加,其中以中浓度钾肥效果最好,可使三萜含量达42.16 mg/(g·DW).在生长旺盛季节7-9月(哈尔滨),对白桦实施中浓度钾肥,可有效促进白桦叶片中三萜含量的积累.%In order to study the effects of potassium fertilizer on the activities of defensive enzymes and triterpene accumulation in the leaves of birch which paved the way for establishing a cultivating system of birch to produce triterpene via potassium application. 3 doses of potassium fertilizer (KC1), 15 g, 10 g and 5 g were applied to 2-year seedlings. Then the content of triterpene and the activity of defensive enzymes were determined by a spectrophotometer. The results showed that potassium fertilizer raised the activity of SOD, CAT and POD to different extent, respectively. The content of soluble sugar within the leaves also rose. Among the three doses, the mediate one (5 g) brought the best effect to triterpene accumulation [up to 42.16 mg/(g ? DW)]. Mediate potassium could effectively promote the accumulation of triterpene within the leaves of birch when were fertilized during the seasons for fast growing (from July to September in Harbin).

  7. Effects of Water,Nitrogen and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on Triterpenes Accumulation in Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)%水分、氮肥及MeJA处理对白桦三萜积累特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春晓; 尹静; 詹亚光; 任春林; 王智慧

    2012-01-01

    With one year and a half birch saplings as experimental materials, we investigated the effects of water,nitrogen and methyl jasmonate(MeJA) treatment on the accumulation of triterpenes and the accumulated regulation of triterpenes in birch. The results showed that,total triterpene is mainly distributed in stem bark and leaf in birch sapling,the average content is 71. 94 mg · G-1 and 81. 60 mg · G-1 respectively, and the lowest in root bark, which is 25. 45 mg · G-1. The accumulated peak of total triterpene in leaf is June and July;But accumulated peaks of total triterpene in stem bark and root bark are August and July, respectively. Moderate and severe drought stress had significantly contributed to the accumulation of total triterpene in leaf in the early stage of drought stress,which are 1. 24 and 1. 27 times of the control. The accumulation of total triterpene for water stress in stem bark is significantly higher than at of control in July.Water stress has not conducived to total triterpene accumulation of the stem bark in other months. In addition, drought stress is adverse to triterpene accumulation in the root bark. Nitrogen treatment in early stage (June) is not conducive to triterpenoids accumulation in the leaves and root bark,but has remarkably contributed to the triterpenoids accumulation in late stage (July-October). However, the nitrogen treatment has contributed to the triterpenoids accumulation in the stem bark in early stage (June-July). MeJA spraying has promoted the triterpenes accumulation in the leaf and root bark. In the accumulating peak stage, with 1. 52 and 1. 42 times of the control. Light drought, nitrogen fertilizer both contribute to height growth and biomass accumulation of birch saplings, but MeJA treatment is disadvantage on the whole plant bio-mass accumulation.%以一年半生白桦幼树为试材,研究水分、氮肥和茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)处理对白桦三萜物质积累的影响,并对白桦植株中三萜积累规律进行了探讨.结果表明:(1)白桦幼树植株中总三萜主要分布在茎皮和叶片,根皮中最低,平均含量分别为71.94、81.60和25.45 mg?g-1;叶片中总三萜积累高峰出现在6、7月份,茎皮和根皮中总三萜积累高峰分别出现在8月份和7月份.(2)干旱胁迫早期(6月)中度和重度干旱胁迫显著促进了叶中总三萜积累,分别是对照的1.24和1.27倍.茎皮中,除7月水分胁迫处理显著高于对照外,其它各月份水分胁迫不利于茎皮中总三萜含量积累,干旱胁迫不利根皮中三萜积累.(3)施氮早期(6月)不利于三萜在叶片和根皮中积累,中后期(7~10月),氮肥处理对三萜积累有显著促进作用;而施氮早期(6~7月)促进茎皮中三萜积累作用.(4) MeJA喷施处理对叶片和根皮中三萜积累(7月~10月)均具有显著的促进作用,在积累高峰期分别是对照的1.42倍和1.52倍.(5)轻度干旱、氮肥均促进了白桦幼树株高的增长和生物量的积累,而MeJA处理对整株生物量的积累不利.

  8. H2O2 Mediated Synthesis of Betulin in Cells of Betula platyphylla Induced by Fungal Elicitor%H2O2介导真菌诱导子促进白桦酯醇积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙美玲; 李晓灿; 王晓东; 詹亚光; 范桂枝

    2013-01-01

    The role of H2O2 in the synthesis of betulin in cells of birch (Betula platyphylla) induced by fungal elicitor was studied using suspension cell lines as the test materials.The results showed that the exogenously applied H2O2 decreased the cell viability and dry weight accumulation,however promoted the synthesis of betulin.Of them,the content of betulin was increased by 89.45% under treatment with 1 mmol·L-1 H2O2 for 12 h,and was increased by 73.72% under treatment with 0.1 mM H2O2 for 24 h.The fungal elicitor increased the synthesis of H2O2 and betulin by 391.67% and 185.22%,respectively.H2O2 scavenger catalase (CAT) significantly decreased induction effects of the fungal elicitor in H2O2 and betulin production in the birch cells and the contents reduced by 73.10% and 35.96%.The results suggested that H2O2 participated in the fungal elicitor-induced synthesis of betulin in birch cells.%以产白桦酯醇的白桦悬浮细胞系为试材,利用药理学试验,结合高效液相色谱和荧光显微镜技术,探讨过氧化氢(H2O2)在拟茎点霉属真菌诱导子促进白桦酯醇积累中的作用.结果表明:外源H2O2降低了细胞的活力和干质量的积累量,却提高了白桦酯醇的含量.其中,1 mmol· L-1H2O2处理12 h,白桦酯醇的含量比对照增加89.45%,0.1 mmol·L-1H2O2处理24 h,白桦酯醇的含量比对照增加73.72%.真菌诱导子促进了白桦悬浮细胞中H2O2和白桦酯醇的生成,在处理24 h时,分别比对照增加391.67%和185.22%.H2O2的清除剂过氧化氢酶减弱真菌诱导子对H2O2和白桦酯醇的诱导效应.由上述结果初步推断,H2O2参与了真菌诱导子诱导白桦酯醇积累的过程.

  9. Accumulation of Triterpenoids in Betula platyphylla Suspension Culture Induced by a Fungal Elicitor%真菌诱导子促进白桦悬浮细胞三萜的积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俏丽; 范桂枝; 詹亚光

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic fungus of Phomopsis isolated from birch(Betula platyphylla) bark can be used as an elicitor to induce accumulation of triterpenoids in birch cell suspension culture. The change of dry weight and triterpenoids content of birch suspension cell were investigated at early growth phase, exponential growth phase and late growth phase after a fungal elicitor of 40, 100, and 400 (xg-mL"' concentration was added to birch suspension cells. Results showed that different induction schemes all promoted accumulation of triterpenoids, while the treatments reduced the dry weight of birch cells. Suspension cells at exponential growth phase were most easy to be induced, and 40 ng-mL"' fungal elicitor enhanced the triterpenoids content to 29. 47 mg-g"1, increasing by 789$j than that of the control. We investigated changes in pH and conductivity of the medium, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase ( PAL) and peroxidase ( POD) under the optimal induction condition. Results showed that the fungal elicitor induced alkalinization of the medium and increased the conductivity, and significantly increased the activity of PAL and POD of birch suspension cells, which was 5. 70 and S. 74 fold as high as the control after 6 - 10 h of treatment, respectively. These results suggested that fungal elicitation induced defense reaction in birch suspension cell. General phenylpropanoid pathway and oxidative burst might involved in the triterpenoids accumulation induced by the fungal elicitor.%将促进白桦三萜积累的拟茎点霉属的内生真菌诱导子添加到白桦悬浮培养体系中,研究40,100,400pg·mL-1的真菌诱导子对生长初期、指数生长期和生长末期的悬浮细胞干质量和三萜积累的影响.结果表明:真菌诱导子的不同诱导方案均促进白桦悬浮细胞中三萜的积累,而细胞干质量积累却被抑制;其中最佳诱导条件为在指数生长期的白桦细胞中添加40 μg·mL-1的真菌诱导子诱导1天,诱导

  10. Compatible Tree Biomass Models for Natural White Birch (Betula platyphylla) in Northeast China Forest Area%东北林区天然白桦相容性生物量模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董利虎; 李凤日; 贾炜玮

    2013-01-01

    基于东北林区天然白桦实测生物量数据,通过2种方案(以总生物量为基础分级控制和以总生物量为基础直接控制)建立天然白桦一元和二元相容性生物量模型,模型参数估计采用非线性度量误差联立方程组估计方法,并采用加权回归的方法进行异方差的消除.结果表明:2种方案所建立的天然白桦一元、二元相容性生物量模型的确定系数R2 =0.800~0.988,模拟效率(EF) =0.80~0.97;2种方案所建立的相容性生物量模型的预测精度大多数在80%以上,树枝和树叶生物量模型的预测精度较差,但也在69%以上;所建立的相容性生物量模型中,总生物量和树干生物量模型效果较好,树根、树叶和树枝生物量模型效果较差.总的来说,2种方案所建立的相容性生物量模型都具有一定的精度,都能对天然白桦生物量进行很好的预估,以总生物量为基础直接控制方案所建立的一元和二元相容性生物量模型好于以总生物量为基础分级控制方案所建立的一元和二元相容性生物量模型,所以在进行天然白桦生物量预估时,建议采用以总生物量为基础直接控制所建立的相容性生物量模型.%Based on data of tree biomass for natural white birch (Betula platyphylla) in northeast China forest area,two methods (controlling jointly from level to level and controlling directly under total biomass) were used to establish the mono-element and dual-element compatible tree biomass model of natural white birch.And using nonlinear measurement error simultaneous equation estimated the parameters in the model,at the same time,the weighted regression was used to eliminate the heteroscedasticity.The results showed that R2 of mono-element and dual-element compatible model in this paper was 0.800-0.988,and the fit efficiency (EF) was 0.80-0.97.Besides,the precision of these models reached beyond 80%.On the other hand,the precision of foliage and

  11. Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greanhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing' an Mountains,Northeast China%火干扰对小兴安岭白桦沼泽温室气体排放的短期影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟长城; 张博文; 韩丽冬; 于丽丽; 顾韩

    2011-01-01

    By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8- 3.9 ℃ and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 ℃ and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summcr and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring= autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summcr under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring= autumn under heavy fire disturbance.At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7% , 65.6% -95.8% , and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore

  12. 真菌诱导子对白桦悬浮体系中N和P的吸收利用和三萜合成的影响%Effect of fungal elicitors on N and P utilization and triterpene synthesis of Betula platyphylla suspension cell culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 李晓灿; 翟俏丽; 詹亚光; 范桂枝

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship of N and P utilization and triterpene synthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla) suspension cell culture system induced by fungal elicitor. Methods Fungal elicitors (40 ug/mL) were added to the 8-day-old birch suspension cell culture, the change of N and P and triterpene content were analyzed by chemical colorimetry. Results The dry weight, triterpene content, and triterpene yield of birch cell decreased with the extension of fungal treatment time. Among them, triterpene content and yield were the highest after 1 d fungal induction, they were 21.98 mg/g and 123.82 g/L, respectively, about two times of the control. The pH value and conductivity of birch cell culture also reached a peak after 1 d fungal treatment with increase by 6.10% and 8.20%, respectively. The contents of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate increased after fungal treatment, but the content of phosphate was reduced after day 1 and 2 induction by 28.67% and 15.68%. The correlations between phosphate, ammonium, nitrate and triterpenoid contents in birch cell medium were improved significantly after fungal treatment. Conclusion It is reasoned that increased synthesis of triterpenes after fungal elicitors inducement may be related to the concentration changes of phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate.%目的 分析真菌诱导的白桦悬浮体系中N、P的吸收利用和三萜合成的关系.方法 在白桦悬浮细胞的生长末期添加40 μg/mL真菌诱导子,采用比色法分析真菌诱导后白桦悬浮体系中N、P和三萜量的变化.结果 白桦细胞的干质量、三萜量和产量随着真菌处理时间的延长表现为逐渐降低趋势.其中,三萜量和产量均于真菌诱导后第1天达到最高,分别为21.98 mg/g和123.82 g/L,约为对照的2倍;白桦悬浮体系的pH值和电导率在真菌诱导后第1天达到高峰,pH值增长了6.10%,电导率增加了8.20%;除细胞内磷酸根质量分数在诱导的第1、2天分别降低了28

  13. The Effect of Sodium Nitrite and Arginine on the Biosynthesis of Nitric Oxide and Triterpenoid in Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk) Suspension Cells%亚硝酸钠和精氨酸对白桦悬浮细胞中NO和三萜合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许道琦; 张杰琨; 王晓东; 詹亚光; 范桂枝

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the relation of nitric oxide (NO) and triterpenoid production. Sodium nitrite and arginine were added in the eight-day-old birch suspension cell culture, the change of triterpene content and NO content were analyzed by chemical colorimetry and fluorescence microscopy. NO and triterpenoid content were increased by 500 μg/L and 100 μg/L sodium nitrite and arginine, and the higher increasing was induced by 500 μg/L sodium nitrite and arginine. The content of NO and triterpenoid in birch cells induced by 500 μg/L sodium nitrite was higher than that of 500 μg/L arginine, the increasing rate of triterpenoid was 1.5 times. Inhibitor of NaN3 and L-NAME decreased the effect of sodium nitrite and arginine on the biosynthesis of NO and triterpenoid, the content of NO and triterpenoid were near to the level of control. These results preliminary indicated that NR and NOS were involved in triterpenoids biosynthesis in birch suspension culture, and NR might be play an important role in triterpenoids biosynthesis.%旨在分析亚硝酸钠和精氨酸处理12h后白桦悬浮细胞中一氧化氮(NO)和三萜含量的变化.在白桦悬浮细胞的生长末期添加硝酸还原酶(NR)和一氧化氮合成酶(NOS)的底物亚硝酸钠和精氨酸,采用比色法和荧光显微镜方法分析白桦悬浮体系中三萜含量和NO含量的变化.500 μg/L和100 μg/L的亚硝酸钠和精氨酸均促进了白桦悬浮细胞中NO和三萜的合成,其中500μg/L的亚硝酸钠和精氨酸促进作用最强.500μg/L亚硝酸钠处理下白桦细胞中的NO荧光强度和三萜含量均高于500μg/L精氨酸处理,其中三萜含量增加了1.5倍.将NR和NOS的抑制剂NaN3和L-NAME分别添加到亚硝酸钠和精氨酸处理的白桦悬浮体系中,发现亚硝酸钠和精氨酸对NO和三萜合成的促进作用被抑制了.NR和NOS来源途径的NO参与了白桦三萜的合成,可能NR来源途径的贡献大于NOS途径.

  14. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  15. Mastito sukėlėjų paplitimas Lietuvos galvijų populiacijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Stravinskaitė, Vida

    2014-01-01

    Darbo tikslas buvo nustatyti mastito sukėlėjų paplitimą Lietuvos pieninių galvijų populiacijoje. Įvertinti mastito sukėlėjų paplitimą Lietuvoje veisiamų pieninių galvijų bandose. Ištirti metų laiko įtaką mastitų sukėlėjų pasireiškimui karvių piene. Įvertinti mastitų sukėlėjų paplitimą karvių tešmens ketvirčiuose. Ištirti metų sezono ir mastito sukėlėjų įtaką somatinių ląstelių skaičiui pieno mėginiuose.

  16. Diplycosia platyphylla (Ericaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Peter; Amoroso, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Diplycosia platyphylla P.W.Fritsch, a new species from Mindanao Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the Bornean D. urceolata but differs by its green or slightly flushed pink petioles 4–7 mm long, wider leaf blades, acute calyx lobe apices, and lavender mature fruiting calyx. The new species is known only from a single collection made from Mount Apo in North Cotabato Province, southern Mindanao.

  17. Anticonvulsant properties of saponins from Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindo, Ben A; Anuka, Joseph A; McNeil, Lilly; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Adamu, Simon S; Amos, Samson; Connelly, William K; Lees, George; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2009-03-30

    Preparations of Ficus platyphylla have been used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy for many years and their efficacy is widely acclaimed among the Hausa communities of northern Nigeria. The anticonvulsant properties of the saponin rich fraction (SFG) obtained from the methanol extract of F. platyphylla stem bark were studied on pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and maximal electroshock seizures in mice. Effects of SFG were also examined in murine models for neurological disease and on relevant in vitro targets for anticonvulsant drugs. SFG protected mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures. SFG failed to protect mice against maximal electroshock seizures at doses tested. SFG neither abolished the spontaneous discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in a neonatal rat brain slice model of tonic-clonic epilepsy nor could it modulate chloride currents through GABA(A) receptor channel complex in cultured cortical cells. However, it was able to non-selectively suppress excitatory and inhibitory synaptic traffic, blocked sustained repetitive firing (SRF) and spontaneous action potential firing in these cultured cells. Our results provide scientific evidence that F. platyphylla stem bark may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties. SFG impaired membrane excitability; a property shared by most anticonvulsants particularly the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocking drugs, thus supporting the isolation and development of the saponin components of this plant as anticonvulsant agents.

  18. Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Casassa Vieira de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.

  19. Plant and insect diversity along an experimental gradient of larch-birch mixtures in Chinese boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Shi, Juan; Luo, Youqing; HELIÖVAARA, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining and increasing biodiversity level especially in pure plantations is one important way to improve the resistance of forests to pests in Chinese boreal forests. The present study tested the hypothesis that the increased degree of tree species mixture (quantified by the stem proportion of Betula platyphylla Suk. and Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) can affect the species richness and diversity of understory and insects. Twenty-one plots, ranging from pure larch stand to pure birch stand...

  20. Biodegradation and detoxification of reactive textile dye by isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Dayanad C; Telke, Amar A; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2009-03-01

    An isolated bacterium from a textile disposal site, Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, has the ability to decolorize the reactive textile dyes and methyl orange. This bacterium showed the potential to decolorize the textile dye Reactive Blue 59 at a high concentration (5 g/L(-1)), which is frequently used in the textile industry of Solapur, India. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, azoreductase, and dichlorophenol indophenol reductase was observed during the decolorization of Methyl Orange and Reactive Blue 59. Methyl Orange (as model azo dye) was used to understand the mechanism of biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The final product was identified as 1,4-benzenediamine, N, N-dimethyl by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies revealed the nontoxic nature of the products of Reactive Blue 59.

  1. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  2. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Demirci

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively found were α-copaene (12% and 10%, germacrene D (11% and 18% and δ-cadinene (11% and 15% in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation.

  3. Biodegradation of reactive textile dye Red BLI by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, D C; Patil, P S; Jadhav, J P; Govindwar, S P

    2008-07-01

    A novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing reactive textile dye Red BLI is isolated from the soil sample collected from contaminated sites of textile industry from Solapur, India. The bacterial isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis. The Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 decolorized Red BLI (50 mg l(-1)) 99.28% within 1h under static anoxic condition at pH range from 6.5 to 7.0 and 30 degrees C. This strain has ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes. UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and TLC analysis of samples before and after dye decolorization in culture medium confirmed decolorization of Red BLI. A significant increase in the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and NADH-DCIP reductase in cells obtained after decolorization indicates involvement of these enzymes in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity testing with the seeds of Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo, showed more sensitivity towards the dye, while the products obtained after dye decolorization does not have any inhibitory effects.

  4. Constitutive Model of Single Root System’s Resistance to Tensile Stress - Taking Pinus tabulaeformis, Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica and Larix gmelinii as Experimental Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Lihua Chen; Pinghua Wang; Yuanjun Yang; Jia He

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive model for the stress-strain relationship of single forest root system was developed in order to provide theoretical foundations for the mechanisms of soil-reinforcement by root system and offer a reliable basis for the analysis of root tensile strength character. This study started a general form of linear and non-linear stress-strain relation that was mathematically defined by four boundary conditions observed in typical tensile tests of single roots. The parameters of the mod...

  5. Penerapan Strategi Pemasaran Pada UMKM Melalui Metode Analisis SWOT (Studi Pada Toko Pakaian Sukli Fashion di Pasar Petisah Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy

    2016-01-01

    Each business unit aims to maintain its viability and to develop, by maintaining and increasing the profit. These objectives can be achieved through marketing, by implementing marketing strategies by analyzing the internal and external factors of the company. The research was conducted at Sukli Fashion Clothing Store. Phenomenon is the slow progress of this shop business when business efforts have been made. The purpose of this study is to analyze the internal and external factors of comp...

  6. Composición del aceite esencial de Cunila platyphylla Epling (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto Bordignon, Sergio Augusto de; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Spitzer, Volker

    1998-01-01

    El aceite esericial de Cunila platyphylla, especie nativa del sur de Brasil, fue analizado por cromatografía de gases (GC), cromatografía en fase gaseosa acoplada a espectrometría de masa (GC/MS) y resonancia magnética nuclear de carbono 13 (13C-RMN). El principal constituyente del aceite de las hojas es la pulegona (71,2%). Otros compuestos encontrados en cantidades significantes son el limoneno (23%) y el lindo1 (l,4%).

  7. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  8. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma'il Shittu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300 mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

  9. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyani, D.C.; Telke, A.A.; Dhanve, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Jadhav, J.P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)], E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l{sup -1}), at temperature 30 deg. C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24 h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

  10. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l-1), at temperature 30 deg. C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24 h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

  11. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Dhanve, R S; Jadhav, J P

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l(-1)), at temperature 30 degrees C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

  12. Chemical characteristics of surface colour of birch veneer (Betula pendula)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid This thesis investigates the discoloration of veneer produced from silver birch (Betula pendula) logs by means of biochemical and chemical analyses on the veneer and sap obtained from wood which was soaked at varying temperatures (20-70 ˚C). Drastic colour development was confirmed from the sap squeezed from green birch wood. The results from biochemical tests on the sap by sodium dodec...

  13. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA.

  14. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Joshi; Gyanendra Kumar Saxena; Vikas Singh; Ekta Arya; Rahul Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Mo...

  15. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  16. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  17. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59) by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    OpenAIRE

    Mane, U. V.; Gurav, P. N.; Deshmukh, A.M.; Govindwar, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and p...

  18. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna M; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik M; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Zin, Noraziah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity). Aim This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol. Conclusion On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary

  19. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaibani MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhanna M Alshaibani,1 Juriyati Jalil,2 Nik M Sidik,3 Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel,4 Noraziah M Zin1 1Programme of Biomedical Science, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia; 4Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25 has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity. Aim: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic

  20. Optimization of CMCase production from sorghum straw by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 under solid substrate fermentation using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibin, El Mubarak Musa; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Naseer; Abuelhassan, Nawal Noureldaim; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2013-11-01

    The cellulase production using sorghum straw as substrate by fungal culture of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was investigated in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The optimum CMCase was achieved by testing most effective fermentation parameters which were: incubation temperature, pH and moisture content using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD). The carboxymethyl cellulase activity (CMCase) was measured as the defining factor. The results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the regression quadratic model was obtained. The model was found to be significant (p<0.05) and the effect of temperature (25-40°C) and pH (4-7) was found to be not significant on CMCase activity whereas the moisture content was significant in the SSF conditions employed. The high yield of predicted CMCase activity (0.2 U/ml) was obtained under the optimized conditions (temperature 40 □C, pH 5.4 and moisture content of 80%). The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and it was found that the model was valid.

  1. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane, U. V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

  2. Evaluation of chromate reductase activity in the cell-free culture filtrate of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A K

    2016-08-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromate resistant and reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine overburden of Sukinda valley, Odisha, India has been evaluated for its hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction potential using cell-free culture filtrate as extracellular chromate reductase enzyme. Production of the enzyme was enhanced in presence of Cr(VI) and its reducing efficiency was increased with increasing concentration of Cr(VI). The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the maximum specific velocity (Vmax) of the extracellular Cr(VI) reductase were calculated to be 54.03 μM Cr(VI) and 5.803 U mg(-1) of protein respectively showing high affinity towards Cr(VI). The reducing activity of the enzyme was maximum at pH 6.5-7.5 and at a temperature of 35 °C and was dependent on NADH. The enzyme was tolerant to different metals such as Mn(II), Mg(II) and Fe(III) and was able to reduce Cr(VI) present in chromite mine seepage. These findings suggest that the extracellular chromate reductase of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has a great promise for use in Cr(VI) detoxification under different environmental conditions, particularly in the mining waste water treatment systems. PMID:27176938

  3. 白桦细胞悬浮培养产三萜及其营养成分消耗的动态%Kinetics of Triterpenoid Production and Nutrient Consumption in Birch (Betula platyphylla) Suspension Cell p

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范桂枝; 翟俏丽; 于海娣; 王晓东; 王博; 詹亚光

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the basic media and inoculum size on birch cell growth and the triterpenoid production were investigated using birch suspension cells, on this basis, the kinetic relationships of birch cell growth, triterpenoid production and nutrient consumption were also analyzed. The results showed the opbimal conditions for the birch cell growth and triterpenoid production were 20 ~ 30 g· L-1(FW) of inoculum size, in B5 medium. The kinetics analysis for birch cell suspension culture showed that triterpenoid production was increasing with the birch cell growth during a cell subculture cycle. During the teriod, the maximum specific growth rate was 0. 18 on the 12th day, and the maximum triterpenoid synthesis rate was 0.73 mg· g-1 on the 9th day. Sugar, NO3- , NH+4 and PO34- in the culture medium were nearly used up on the 9th day, The content of sugar, NO-3 , and PO34- in birch cell were highest on 6th day, but the content of NH+4 in birch cell were higher on 3th day. The results snggested that the nutrient deficiencies in medium wonld limited the cell rapid multiplication and triterpenoid content accumulation.%以产三萜的白桦悬浮系为试验材料,在优化白桦悬浮细胞生长与三萜积累的培养基种类和接种量的基础上,分析白桦悬浮细胞生长和三萜积累的动力学关系,同时考察1个培养周期内白桦细胞内外主要营养成分的变化.结果表明:1)在MS,NT,IS,WPM,1/2MS,B5 6种培养基和10~40 g·L-1接种量中,有利于白桦细胞生长和三萜生产的培养基为B5和接种量为20~30 g·L-1 FW;2)在1个培养周期内,白桦悬浮细胞培养过程中三萜的产量与细胞生物量是相偶联的,随着生物量的增加三萜产量呈增长趋势,其中,白桦细胞在第12天比生长速率达到最高0.18,三萜合成速率和比合成速率在第9天达到最高值,分别为0.73 mg·g-1和0.06;3)在白桦细胞培养的1个周期内,培养液中的蔗糖,NO3,NH+4和PO3-4在细胞培养的第9天基本被消耗掉,而细胞内的营养物质,除NH4+在第3天达最高值外,其他营养成分均在第6天达最大值.由此可推断:培养液中营养成分的不足限制了细胞的快速增值和三萜含量的提高.

  4. Cloning and ;activity analysis of BpGT14 gene promoter in Betula platyphylla%白桦BpGT14基因启动子克隆及表达活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾蕾; 孙丰坤; 李天宇; 寇萍; 詹亚光; 曾凡锁

    2016-01-01

    本文利用SiteFinding-PCR方法克隆了白桦BpGT14基因起始密码子ATG上游2169 bp序列,并通过PLACE启动子预测工具对其进行元件分析。结果表明,该启动子片段含有启动子核心元件及多种逆境及激素响应元件,同时具有植物苯丙烷及木质素生物合成的MYB类转录因子的重要结合基序。研究选取了其中含有启动子核心元件的1156 bp片段构建了pBpGT14宜GUS植物表达载体,利用农杆菌侵染的方法将pBpGT14::GUS报告基因瞬时转化烟草植株,鉴定该启动子在烟草中的表达活性及对非生物胁迫和激素的响应模式。对转基因烟草植株进行GUS染色,结果表明该启动子具有启动活性,且在茎段处活性较高;进一步分析非生物胁迫对烟草中GUS酶活性的影响,表明该启动子对ABA、NaCl、PEG及高温处理均有明显响应,且对于NaCl及PEG处理响应迅速。为了更好的鉴定白桦BpGT14基因启动子在白桦细胞中的启动活性及响应模式,本文构建了pBpGT14宜GFP载体并瞬时转化白桦茎段悬浮细胞,进行研究。 GFP转录水平分析结果与GUS酶活性结果基本一致,但其中部分时间点仍存在差异。选取PEG处理3、6、12及24 h的转GFP基因白桦茎段悬浮细胞,在显微镜下观察其绿色荧光蛋白,以此揭示该启动子对干旱的响应模式。结果表明,该启动子在白桦茎段悬浮细胞中启动了GFP的表达,在处理初期(3 h),荧光效果明显;随着处理时间的增加,细胞脱水明显,且在细胞壁表现高亮度荧光。%We cloned a 2 169 bp promoter sequence of BpGT14 gene from birch genomic DNA using the method of SiteFinding-PCR. The promoter sequence was analyzed by PLACE, and the result showed that this fragment contained promoter core elements and some elements which can respond to abiotic stress and hormones. Meanwhile, two important MYB transcription factor binding elements were found which regulate phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis. To study the promoter activity, a 1 156 bp fragment was chosen to construct pBpGT14::GUS plant expression vector and transformed into tobacco. GUS staining proved that the promoter had high activity in stem segments. When the tobacco was treated with GA and H2 O2 at 4℃, the promoter had no significant response and the enzyme activity had a downward trend. In contrast, the promoter activity was significantly increased by ABA, NaCl, PEG and 37 ℃ treatment. Further transformation of birch cells using pBpGT14宜GFP plant expression vector indicated that the promoter had a similar response pattern to that of tobacco treated with abiotic stress and hormone except for a few time points. As the promoter was significantly and quickly responsive to drought stress, we have observed the GFP fluorescence protein in birch stem segments suspension cells transformed by GFP for 3 , 6, 12 and 24 h with PEG treatment. The results showed that BpGT14 promoter had activity in birch stem segments suspension cells and fluorescence can be observed in the suspension cells, especially in cell walls. Successful implementation of this study has important significance for analysis of gene regulation and function. Meanwhile, it provides a theoretical basis for gene promoter function studies of other woody plants.

  5. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY OF BETULA PENDULA LEAVES AS A BIOINDICATOR OF AEROTECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF AGROLANDSCAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Lobkov, V.; Vetrova, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of our research was to determine the variability model and fluctuating asymmetry indices of the metric signs of Betula pendula as a typical species which grow uniformly in the Orel region and Orel.The following problems were solved:to collect material in the planting of silver birch in two areas;to determine the parameters of Betula pendula leaf blade and the level of its asymmetry; to explore the basic statistical properties of the asymmetry parameters of the individual feature...

  6. Dynamics of Betula ermanni population in subalpine vegetation in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chunjing; Han Shijie; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    Betula ermanni population was divided into three groups: the upper population (2 000~2 200 m), the middle population (1 700~2000 m), and the down population (1 400~1 700 m) in Changbai Mountain. The dynamics of Betula ermanni populations in subalpine vegetation are studied and the population life table,fecundity schedule, survival curves, age structure, and fecundity curves were established. The results showed that the middle population is obviously the transition from the upper population to the down population.

  7. Description of the immature stages of Kuwanina betula Wu & Liu, with a discussion of its placement in the Acanthococcidae family group (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San-An; Nan, Nan

    2015-03-09

    The immature stages of Kuwanina betula Wu & Liu are described and illustrated. Based on morphological and molecular data (18S and 28S rDNA), it is argued that K. betula is closer to Pseudochermes Nitsche than to Kuwanina Cockerell in Fernald and so this species is transferred to Pseudochermes as P. betula (Wu & Liu) comb. nov..

  8. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  9. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Joshi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Most of the constituents were found to be present in the ethanolic extract. Thus it was concluded that constituents of Betula utilis bark are more soluble in polar solvents. The ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and triterpenes. After identification of crude extract, the main work was to isolate the desired compound (betulin. So, fractionation of ethanolic extract was done by suspending it in water and then extracted it with n-hexane and dichloromethane. Betulin was isolated from dichloromethane fraction using column chromatography. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane in various ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:3; 1:2 was used as eluent for separation of desired compound from the dichloromethane fraction. After isolation of desired compound, it was subjected to characterization. For characterization studies; melting range, TLC and spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, Mass and NMR were utilized.

  10. The effect of fire disturbance on short-term soil respiration in typical forest of Greater Xing’an Range, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Sun; Tongxin Hu; Ji Hong Kim; Futao Guo; Hong Song; Xinshuang Lv; Haiqing Hu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire disturbance on short-term soil respiration in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) forests in Greater Xing’an range, northeastern China for further understanding of its effect on the carbon cycle in ecosystems. Our study show that post-fire soil respiration rates in B. platyphylla and L. gmelinii forests were reduced by 14%and 10%, respectively. In contrast, the soil heterotrophic respiration rates in the two types of forest were similar in post-fire and control plots. After fire, the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was dramatically reduced. Variation in soil respiration rates was explained by soil moisture (W) and soil tem-perature (T) at a depth of 5 cm. Exponential regression fitted T and W models explained Rs rates in B. platyphylla control and post-fire plots (83.1% and 86.2%) and L. gmelinii control and post-fire plots (83.7%and 88.7%). In addition, the short-term temperature coefficients in B.

  11. Augalų grybinių ligų sukėlėjai Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sode

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Vilija; Stankevičienė, Antanina

    2013-01-01

    Gausi augalų įvairovė botanikos soduose sąlygoja ir daugelio patogenų plitimą. Tęsiant 1925 m. pradėtus fitopatologinius tyrimus Kauno botanikos sode, šiuo metu VDU Kauno botanikos sodo Augalų patologijos mokslo sektoriaus veiklos tikslas – išanalizuoti Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sodo ekspozicijose ir kolekcijose augančių augalų fitopatologinę būklę – augalų ligų sukėlėjus ir jų pasireiškimo sezoniškumą. Botanikos sodo Dendrologijos, Gėlininkystės, Pomologijos ir Vaistinių ...

  12. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

  13. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed.

  14. Methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindo, Ben A; Schröder, Helmut; Becker, Axel

    2015-01-15

    Decoctions of Ficus plathyphylla are used in Nigeria's folk medicine to manage epilepsy for many years and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of Northern Nigeria. In this study, we examined the ameliorative effects of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark on seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. The (35)S-GTPγS, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors binding properties of the extract were also evaluated. Male CD-1 mice were kindled with an initial subeffective dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 37.5mg/kg, i.p.) for a total of 13 convulsant injections and the treatment groups concurrently received FP (100 and 200mg/kg). Control animals received the same number of saline injections. Twenty-four h after kindling completion the animals' learning performance was tested in a two-way shuttle-box. The animals were challenged with another subeffective dose of PTZ (32.5mg/kg, i.p.) on day 7 after kindling completion. Animals were sacrificed a day after the challenged experiment and the brains were processed for histological investigation. FP ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficits and neuronal cell loss in PTZ kindled mice. Components of the extract showed affinity for GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Glutamate release was diminished and the (35)S-GTPγS binding assay revealed no intrinsic activity at glutamatergic receptors. Our results revealed that FP contains psychoactive secondary metabolites with anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting the isolation and development of the biologically active components of this medicinal plant as antiepileptic agents.

  15. CORRELATION OF CONTENT ASCORBIC ACID IN THE ASSIMILATION APPARATUS BETULA PENDULA ROTH. WITH AGENT BY PATHOLOGICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-01-01

    Features of influence of set of anthropogenic factors and phytopathologic state of tree Betula pendula on concentration of ascorbic acid in it assimilation apparatus are considered. By criterion of influence Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pilat and to presence pollution adaptable ability of a plant to action stressful factors, and also possibility of development of the mechanisms which are responsible for inhibition of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid estimated. It is shown that from all analyse...

  16. Protective Role of Flavonoids and Lipophilic Compounds from Jatropha platyphylla on the Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in Macrophage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz-Pérez, Dulce L; Bang, Woo Young; Nair, Vimal; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel A; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Heredia, J Basilio

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen polyphenols (e.g, apigenin, genistein, and luteolin glycosides) and 11 lipophilic compounds (e.g., fatty acids, sterols, and terpenes) were detected by LC-MS/MS-ESI and GC-MS, respectively, in Jatropha platyphylla. Extracts from pulp, kernel, and leaves and fractions were studied to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. Phenolic and lipophilic extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ROS and NO production while not affecting mitochondrial activity or superoxide generation rate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, NO production was also diminished by lipophilic leaf fractions F1 and F2 with the latter fraction showing a greater effect and composed mainly of sterols and terpene. Furthermore, total extracts showed nonselective inhibitions against cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 activities. All together, these results suggest that J. platyphylla extracts have potential in treating inflammatory diseases and their activity is mediated by flavonoids and lipophilic compounds. PMID:26872073

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Sanjeev; Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D K; Rana, T S; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer.

  18. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Mishra

    Full Text Available Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB, in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA, oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A. Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer.

  19. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D. K.; Rana, T. S.; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  20. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Sanjeev; Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D K; Rana, T S; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  1. CORRELATION OF CONTENT ASCORBIC ACID IN THE ASSIMILATION APPARATUS BETULA PENDULA ROTH. WITH AGENT BY PATHOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Features of influence of set of anthropogenic factors and phytopathologic state of tree Betula pendula on concentration of ascorbic acid in it assimilation apparatus are considered. By criterion of influence Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr. Pilat and to presence pollution adaptable ability of a plant to action stressful factors, and also possibility of development of the mechanisms which are responsible for inhibition of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid estimated. It is shown that from all analysed in the yielded work abiotic and biotic factors most essentially the pathogenic factor affects change of concentration of ascorbic acid in sheet plates of trees concerning norm.

  2. Isolation and study of leaf proteins from trees. [Betula pendula, Polulus tremula, and Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvere, V.A.; Alksne, A.Ya.; Galvans, U.I.; Polis, O.R.

    1978-01-01

    The crude protein content of fresh leaves of (a) Betula pendula, (b) Polulus tremula and (c) Alnus incana, 10-15 years old was 18-23% of DM. Some l7 amino acids were found in analyses of purfied protein powder extracted for (a) and (b), the most abundant being glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, phenylanaline and lysine. The 11 essential amino acids for pig and poultry rations constituted 60% of the total amino acids weight; the powder is equal in quality to traditional protein feeds.

  3. The variation of the onset of Betula pendula (Roth. flowering in Rzeszów, SE Poland: fluctuation or trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global rise in air temperature has major implications for ecosystems, populations, ecology of many living organisms, public health as well as economy. Plants, like silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., strongly respond to the climatic variation. Therefore, the species is a good indicator of the global climate change, especially warming. The phenological observation was undertaken to verify the hypothesis on an acceleration of the start of Betula pendula pollen release in the season. The investigations were carried out in 2000–2015 (16 years in the Rzeszów area, SE Poland. On average, Betula pendula started to pollinate in the middle of April; the difference between the earliest and latest dates was nearly 1 month. The full pollination started on 18 April, on average. The timing of pollination strongly depended on the course of weather in February and March. The most crucial was temperature in the first half of March. Considering the synergistic impact of meteorological parameters, the most important were temperature and rainfall in January and February, rainfall in March and temperature just before the pollination. It was found that North Atlantic Circulation influenced pollen release in Betula pendula. The positive North Atlantic Oscillation in March and in December–March periods resulted in pollination onset. Tendency towards warmer average annual temperature was recorded, however the timing of phenophases did not follow it. Despite the strong relationship with temperature there was no acceleration of Betula pendula pollination. Probably, the climate warming effect on the onset and duration in Betula pendula phenophases would be detectable in longer than a 16-year period.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  5. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910–1930 to 1990–2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991–1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997–2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed ‘greening of the Arctic’ which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. PMID:25788025

  6. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

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    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  7. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Lundquist, Anders; Nordin, Annelie; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years ...

  8. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  9. Nauja vasarinių miežių dėmetligė ramularija (sukėlėjas Ramularia collo-cygni Sutton et Waller) Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    LIATUKAS, Žilvinas; Leistrumaitė, Algė

    2005-01-01

    Nauja vasarinių miežių dėmėtligė - ramularija (sukėlėjas Ramularia collo-cygni, Sutton, Waller) nustatyta Lietuvos žemdirbystės institute 2004 m. Ramularija atpažinta išryškėjus budingiems jai požymiams. Pagal atsparumą naujai ligai tirtos 33 registruotos Lietuvoje vasarinių miežių veislės tarpusavyje labai skyrėsi. Įvairių veislių miežių pieninės brandos (BBCH 73-77) pažeidimas ramularija svyravo nuo 0 iki 20 proc. Daugiau nei pusė tirtų veislių miežių buvo pažeista iki 5 proc. Tik 4 veislės...

  10. Laimo boreliozės paplitimo Lietuvoje ir ligos sukėlėjo Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. ospA geno sekų analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Juodišiūtė, Indrė

    2014-01-01

    Laimo boreliozė (LB) yra labiausiai paplitusi erkių platinama liga. Ligos sukėlėjus perneša Ixodes rūšies erkės. Didelį borelijų paplitimą lemia platus rezervuarinių šeimininkų ratas. Šį susirgimą gali sukelti kelios B. burgdorferi s. l. komplekso bakterijų rūšys: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Šiame darbe buvo tirtos 134 Ixodes ricinus erkės nuo 8 elninių gyvūnų (4 stirnų ir 4 elnių) ir 73 erkės nuo žolės (elninių teritorijoje). Naudojant dauginės polimerazės gra...

  11. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erofeeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013. Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  12. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose-response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  13. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  14. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM UKRAINIAN BETULA VERRUCOSA EHRH. POLLEN AFTER MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of silver birch pollen from different habitat of Ukraine were investigated in order to estimate their contamination with the Enterobacteriaceae family, anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Also resistance of 108 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from seven samples of Ukrainian Betula verrucosa Ehrh. pollen against 5 antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, meropenem, ceftriaxone and ofloxacin were determined. Disc diffusion method was used for antibiotic suceptibility testing according to EUCAST 2012. It is established the concentrations of enterobacteria ranged from 0.00 to 4.16 log cfu/g, of anaerobic bacteria – 2.48 to 4.90 log cfu/g and concentration of fungi ranged from 2.48 to 4.14 log cfu/g. Degree of pollen contamination is different depending on the habitats. The resistance of E. coli isolates was determined against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, meropenem and ofloxacin. But intermediate resistance in the 33.3% of E. coli isolates and susceptibility in the 8.3% to ceftriaxone was found out. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated for all samples of pollen in whole.

  15. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

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    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  16. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla.

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    Ji Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP, including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats.

  17. 高原湿地纳帕海周边山地不同植被类型枯落物持水特性%Water Holding Characteristics of Litters of Different Species in Mountainous Area of Napahai Plateau Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆梅; 田昆; 赖建东; 赵一鹤; 魏江舟

    2011-01-01

    The water holding capacity was characterized for the litters from eight plantation types in the mountainous area of Napahai Plateau Wetland. The results show that, for all the eight plantation types, the semi-decomposed and decomposed layer had higher litter storage and water reserving capacity than the freshly-littered layer. The litter storage decreased from highwood, shrub to waste grassland. Specifically, the litter storages of natural Picea asperata Mast, mixed forest of Pinus densata Mast and Rhododendron simsii Planch, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge and waste grassland demonstrated a capacity of 36.60, 30.67, 26.63, 25.61 and 5. 30 t/hm2 , respectively. Comparatively, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, and seriously human-disturbed Pinus densata Mast had the lowest. The water holding capacity of the litters increased rapidly during the initial first hour, and then slightly increased after 6~10 hour saturation. The highest water absorption rates were observed in the first 30 minute saturation time, and thereafter the rates decreased substantially. Water loss rates were similar for all the litters, showing a linear decreasing trend. Systematic analysis indicated that the litter of mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, the strongest flood-adjusting capacity, the most ideal water loss process and the highest water supply capacity, and the best hydro-ecological effect among the eight plantation types.%对高原湿地纳帕海周边山地8种不同植被类型枯落物持水特性进行了研究.结果表明,(1)8种植被类型枯落物储量和总持水量均表现出半分解+分解层>未分解层的变化趋势;枯落物储量呈现从乔木林到灌木林和荒草地逐渐降低的总体趋势;高山柳+白桦混交林最大总持水量最大,受人为干扰较为

  18. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

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    O. M. Zubrovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B

  19. Tolerance of an expanding subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa, to simulated caribou browsing.

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    Emilie Champagne

    Full Text Available Densification of the shrub layer has been reported in many subarctic regions, raising questions about the implication for large herbivores and their resources. Shrubs can tolerate browsing and their level of tolerance could be affected by browsing and soils productivity, eventually modifying resource availability for the caribou. Our objective was to assess the compensatory growth potential of a subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa Michx., in relation with caribou browsing and nutriment availability for the plants. We used a simulated browsing (0, 25 and 75% of available shoots and nitrogen-fertilisation (0 and 10 g m(-2 experiment to test two main hypotheses linking tolerance to resource availability, the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis and the Growth Rate Hypothesis as well as the predictions from the Limiting Resource Model. We seek to explicitly integrate the relative browsing pressure in our predictions since the amount of tissues removed could affect the capacity of long-lived plants to compensate. Birches fully compensated for moderate browsing with an overall leaf biomass similar to unbrowsed birches but undercompensated under heavy browsing pressure. The main mechanism explaining compensation appears to be the conversion of short shoots into long shoots. The leaf area increased under heavy browsing pressure but only led to undercompensation. Fertilisation for two consecutive years did not influence the response of birch, thus we conclude that our results support the LRM hypothesis of equal tolerance under both high and low nitrogen availability. Our results highlight that the potential for compensatory growth in dwarf birch is surpassed under heavy browsing pressure independently of the fertilisation regime. In the context of the worldwide decline in caribou herds, the reduction in browsing pressure could act synergistically with global climate change to promote the current shrub expansion reported in subarctic regions.

  20. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  1. Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Zheng Zhi-hua; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Using plant community analysis methods, we analyzed the floristic characteristics, species composition, community structure, population structure, and spatial distribution patterns of a Betula dahurica forest on the "1238" mountain of Badaling in Beijing, China. The results show that: 1) There are 33 plant species in the B. dahurica community, including 18 woody plant species. The B. dahurica forest is a monodominant community with 75.9% dominance. 2) Based on diameter at breast height (DBH)size class distribution, the population structure of B. dahurica and Acer mono-two heliophyllous and pioneer tree species is cascade-type, with both in an increasing stage. The population structure of Tilia mandshurica and T. mongolica, two shade-tolerant tree species, is inverse-J type, and they have more young seedling individuals and regenerate more stably. They are associated species of the pioneer tree species. The population structure of Quercus mongolica, as the associated species of climax species in the community, is sporadic, and its regeneration is fluctuating and random. Fraxinus rhynchophylla is a shade-tolerant tree species which has a unibar population structure and climax characteristics of pioneer tree species. The relative frequency of young seedlings reached 0.4.3) The dominant species B. dahurica is still in an increasing stage, and the regeneration of other species is steady or partly influences the community, putting the community in the pioneer species stage. From the population structure and distribution frequency ofF. rhynchophylla, the B. dahurica forest will approach to a climax state in the future.

  2. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  3. Dormancy release and chilling requirement of buds of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula and B. pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myking, T; Heide, O M

    1995-11-01

    Bud burst and dormancy release of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. from Denmark ( approximately 56 degrees N), mid-Norway ( approximately 64 degrees N) and northern Norway ( approximately 69 degrees N) were studied in controlled environments. Dormant seedlings were chilled at 0, 5 or 10 degrees C from October 4 onward and then, at monthly intervals from mid-November to February, batches of seedlings were held at 15 degrees C in an 8-h (SD) or 24-h (LD) photoperiod to permit flushing. A decline in days to bud burst occurred with increasing chilling time in all ecotypes. In November, after 44 chilling days, time to bud burst was least in plants chilled at 0 and 5 degrees C. The difference diminished with increasing chilling time, and in February, after 136 chilling days, bud burst was earliest in plants chilled at 10 degrees C. Long photoperiods during flushing significantly reduced thermal time after short chilling periods (44 and 74 days), but had no effect when the chilling requirement was fully met after 105 or more chilling days. No significant difference in these responses was found between the two species. In both species, chilling requirement decreased significantly with increasing latitude of origin. Bud burst was normal in seedlings overwintered at 12 degrees C, but was erratic and delayed in seedlings overwintered at 15 and especially at 21 degrees C, indicating that the critical overwintering temperature is between 12 and 15 degrees C. We conclude that there is little risk of a chilling deficit in birch under Scandinavian winter conditions even with a climatic warming of 7-8 degrees C. The likely effects of a climatic warming include earlier bud burst, a longer growing season and increased risk of spring frost injury, especially in high latitude ecotypes. PMID:14965987

  4. Individual tree mortality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of complex forest ecosystems is intimately related to their structural properties. Tree mortality is a major driver of forest stand dynamics and therefore plays an important role in the formation of forest structure. Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP was used to estimate the mortality probability of silver birch trees (Betula pendula Roth by using logistic models. In this study several spatial and non-spatial variables were tested to determine the most important mortality explanatory factors. Additionally, thinning variables were defined and implemented into the mortality models, to examine whether thinning practices could modify the stand structure and density, then leading to a lower mortality rate. The results of this study showed that tree mortality models that included either a five-year diameter growth rate (id5 as a measure of tree vitality, or the tree relative diameter (drel as a measure of competition, or both these two variables, were substantially better than any models not including these variables. In addition, any measures of spatial aggregation (agg and species proportion (sp within the zone of influence markedly improved the model predictions, though the mortality probability of trees declined where there was higher aggregation and species mixture. Our results also suggested that if thinning were conducted around the birch trees, depending on the thinning intensity, the number of neighbors is effectively reduced, and consequently the competition load within the influence zone decreases, leading to healthier growth and lower mortality rates of the shade-intolerant birch trees. We thus recommend to adopt thinning regimes in mixed forest stands to foster tree species diversity, and at the same time provide adequate growing space for birch trees within the stands. This will improve the forest structure and increase the adaptive capacity of forests, which is increasingly important under

  5. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  6. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    -B transparent filter control (Teflon), UV-B-absorbing filter (Mylar) and UV-AB-absorbing filter (Lexan). Ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical normally used to protect plants against ozone injury, was sprayed on the leaves both in the field and in an additional laboratory study to investigate if EDU mitigated......The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...

  7. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrovskaya O. M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B. pendula

  8. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  9. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...

  10. Phenolic compounds of the inner bark of Betula pendula: seasonal and genetic variation and induction by wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helander, Marjo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-11-01

    The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. PMID:23065107

  11. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jorgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz;

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betulanana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming...... of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates...

  12. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van't Westende Wendy PC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. Results All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01 were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01 was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Conclusion Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  13. What was behind the bark? : An assessment of decay among urban Tilia, Betula and Acer trees felled as hazardous in the Helsinki City area

    OpenAIRE

    Terho, Minna

    2009-01-01

    Old trees growing in urban environments are often felled due to symptoms of mechanical defects that could be hazardous to people and property. The decisions concerning these removals are justified by risk assessments carried out by tree care professionals. The major motivation for this study was to determine the most common profiles of potential hazard characteristics for the three most common urban tree genera in Helsinki City: Tilia, Betula and Acer, and in this way improve management pract...

  14. Sphagnum peatlands as a unique habitat for the long-term survival of glacial relicts: a case study of Betula nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Slowinska, S.; Noryśkiewicz, A. M.; Lamentowicz, M.; Kołaczek, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are characterized by distinctive vegetation, hydrology and local climate. They are very important areas for flora and fauna. In the last decade, much effort was made at better understanding of microrefugia and their important role in post-glacial migration of various plant species. The aim of this study is to explain a long-term persistence of the glacial relict Betula nana in a Sphagnum peatland in northern Poland far from the southern range of its natural distribution. We suppose that the persistence of Betula nana is driven by a) the morphology and geology of the catchment, b) the maintenance of open vegetation on the peatland surface and c) exceptional microclimatic and hydrological conditions. A detailed research was carried out on the peat profile using pollen analysis, to reconstruct the presence of open habitat on the mire during the Holocene. Furthermore, detailed monitoring of local climate, hydrology of the peatland and the surrounding area was conducted. The pollen analysis revealed a continuous presence of Betula nana in the postglacial history of the peatland. The results of local climate monitoring indicated that the mire possesses a typical microclimate, with air temperature amplitude much higher in relation to the open area, in particular during the growing season. This, in combination with the hydrology, which depends on the geology of the surrounding area, affects Betula nana population. Linje mire is a unique microrefugium sustained by local factors such as microclimate, geology, local relief and hydrology. However, it is still challenging to explain the intriguing case why this species still occurs within the study site. This work was funded by the National Science Centre grant NN306060940 and Polish-Swiss Research Programme PSPB-013/2010. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association.

  15. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure of Salix and Betula spp. at a Saline Site in Central Poland in Relation to the Seasons and Soil Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Thiem, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Saline stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting the growth and development of plants and associated microorganisms. While the impact of salinity on associations of arbuscular fungi is relatively well understood, knowledge of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of trees growing on saline land is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the density and diversity of EM fungi associated with three tree species, Salix alba, Salix caprea and Betula pendula, growing ...

  17. Genetic diversity of Betula luminifera populations at different elevations in Wuyi Mountain and its association with ecological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing XIE; Zhizhen LI; Ruzhu HUANG; Xiangxi XIAO; Yong HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 91 genets from four wild populations of Betula luminifera at different eleva-tions in the National Nature Reserve of the Wuyi Mountain,Fujian Province, China. Eighteen random primers (from 139 primers) produced a total of 199 scorable amplified fragments, of which 174 (87.44%) were polymorphic across all individuals. The genetic diversities of B.luminifera at the population level and species level were PPL = 60.05%, h = 0.2242, I= 0.3181 and PPL = 87.44%,h = 0.3442, I= 0.4899, respectively. The value of differ-entiation (Gst= 0.3486) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that there was a relatively high genetic differentiation among populations, and about one-third of the genetic variation occurred among populations. Pearson correlation analysis further revealed that the genetic diversity within populations had significant or very significant correlation with the elevation, climatic factors (annual average temperature and annual precipitation) and soil nutrient factors (total nitrogen, C/N ratio and organic matter). Mantel tests show that there was a significant correlation between the genetic distances among popula-tions and the distance of elevation, and the divergence of soil nutrient factors. The results of the present study suggested that the relatively high genetic differentiation among populations ofB. luminifera at different elevations might be caused by ecological factors and gene flow.

  18. Vertical profiles reveal impact of ozone and temperature on carbon assimilation of Betula pendula and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Maarit; Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Rousi, Matti; Oksanen, Elina

    2011-08-01

    Rising temperature and tropospheric ozone (O(3)) concentrations are likely to affect carbon assimilation processes and thus the carbon sink strength of trees. In this study, we investigated the joint action of elevated ozone and temperature on silver birch (Betula pendula) and European aspen (Populus tremula) saplings in field conditions by combining free-air ozone exposure (1.2 × ambient) and infrared heaters (ambient +1.2 °C). At leaf level measurements, elevated ozone decreased leaf net photosynthesis (P(n)), while the response to elevated temperature was dependent on leaf position within the foliage. This indicates that leaf position has to be taken into account when leaf level data are collected and applied. The ozone effect on P(n) was partly compensated for at elevated temperature, showing an interactive effect of the treatments. In addition, the ratio of photosynthesis to stomatal conductance (P(n)/g(s) ratio) was decreased by ozone, which suggests decreasing water use efficiency. At the plant level, the increasing leaf area at elevated temperature resulted in a considerable increase in photosynthesis and growth in both species.

  19. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells of chlorotic and prematurely yellowed leaves of Betula pendula Rothr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of chloroplasts was studied in mesophyll cells of the leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula showing interveinal chlorosis or premature yellowing, in comparison with leaves without symptoms or exhibiting symptoms of natural senescence. The leaves were collected between May 26 to June 7 and additionally in the September 10-12 from the upper part of the crown, from increments of the past four years. No major difference in ultrastructure of chloroplasts was found between spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. The following senescencerelated changes were observed in chloroplasts of prematurely yellowed leaves and showing inteveinal chlorosis: reduced chloroplast size, degeneration of the membrane systems of thylakoids and increased electron density of plastoglobuli. The most electron dark globules (lipid droplets were found together with starch grains in cells of spongy mesophyll of leaves showing interveinal chlorosis. Abnormal, spherical and rounded chloroplasts with electron-dark inside of thylakoids or the electron-dark stroma between thylakoids were found only in yellowed and chlorotic leaves in spring.

  20. The Effects of Surface Roughness on Adhesion Strength of Coated Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Birch (Betula L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina VITOSYTĖ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of surface roughness impact on adhesion properties, the samples of dried ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and birch (Betula L. wood were used. Before wood finishing, the surfaces of the samples were sanded. In order to get different surface roughness the abrasive material of P80, P120, P150, P180, P220 and P240 grit was used. The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax were measured in three directions: along the wood grain, across the grain and in the angle of 45º. Comparison of the results showed the non-linear dependency of roughness parameters. Afterwards the wood surface was coated with three different acrylic-polyurethane coating systems (1 layer of varnish without primer, 1 layer of primer and 1 layer of varnish, and 1 layer of primer and 2 layers of varnish. The adhesion strength was assessed using the pull-off method. Also the nature of the fracture was evaluated. It was determined that the peculiarities of surface roughness, coating system type and wood species signally results the values of the adhesion strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3094

  1. Effect of air pollutant NO₂ on Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus pollen fertility and human allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuinica, Lázaro G; Abreu, Ilda; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim

    2014-03-01

    Pollen of Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to two levels of NO2 (about 0.034 and 0.067 ppm) - both below current atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in Europe (0.11 ppm for NO2). Experiments were performed under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity continuously monitored. The viability, germination and total soluble proteins of all the pollen samples exposed to NO2 decreased significantly when compared with the non-exposed. The polypeptide profiles of all the pollen samples showed bands between 15 and 70 kDa and the exposure to NO2 did not produce any detectable changes in these profiles. However, the immunodetection assays indicated higher IgE recognition by patient sera sensitized to the pollen extracts from all exposed samples in comparison to the non-exposed samples. The common reactive bands to the three pollen samples correspond to 58 and 17 kDa proteins.

  2. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael den Herder

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer. 

  3. THE SOUTH KOREA'S RESEARCH ON LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF HUMAN EGGS FOR AFTER HWANG WOO-SUK'S CASE%"黄禹锡事件"后韩国研究用人类卵子的法律规制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬妍; 杨芳; 潘荣华

    2015-01-01

    人类卵子在医学研究领域具有独特的价值,鉴于人类卵子具有人身性和伦理性,国际社会颇为重视研究用卵子的规制. 韩国科学家黄禹锡领导的研究团队因忽视人类卵子的伦理问题,采用不正当手段收集和使用人类卵子进行科学研究,引发了举世关注的"卵子风波". 韩国以此为鉴,及时总结黄禹锡事件的教训,颁布实施《生命伦理与安全法》并多次修改,作为对黄禹锡事件的积极回应.2008年的修订稿对卵子捐赠与胚胎干细胞研究等相关内容进行完善,分析与总结韩国的法律应对经验对我国具有一定的借鉴意义.%Human eggs have unique value in the field of medical research. Owing to its personal and ethical nature, interna-tional community thinks highly of the rules and regulations of the egg for research. Ignoring the ethics of human eggs, the re-search team leaded by Korean scientist Hwang Woo-Suk collected and used human eggs for scientific research by illegal means, which caused the worldwide egg disturbance. Taking it as a mirror, South Korea learned lessons timely and enacted the Bioethics and Biosafety Act and modified repeatedly, as a positive response to Hwang's case. The revised version in 2008 per-fects relevant contents including egg donation and the research of embryonic stem cell. Analyzing and summarizing the South Korea's experience has certain significance for reference to our country.

  4. The prospects for the survival of the population of a boreal relict species, Betula humilis Schrk., in a small isolated peat bog in the Łęczna - Włodawa Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to identify the major risks to the population of Betula humilis Schrk. existing in a small isolated transitional peat bog near Lake Bikcze, in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. The biometric features of 40 Betula humilis individuals were measured as well as the growth of shoots, flowering and fruiting were observed. Habitat conditions were characterized by making measurements of selected abiotic and biocenotic environmental factors. The obtained results allowed us to identify two main threats to the proper functioning of the study population. The first one is the possible loss of genetic identity of the species as a result of probable ongoing introgression by the potential crossing of Betula humilis with other species of the genus Betula, which are numerous in the flora of the studied area. Another threat is a change in habitat conditions (mainly light and water conditions, which is due to the accelerated secondary succession manifested by the expansion of common species such as Salix cinerea, Betula pendula, and Phragmites australis.

  5. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  6. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  7. Daily dynamics of leaf and soil-to-branch hydraulic conductance in silver birch (Betula pendula) measured in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Õunapuu, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2013-07-01

    Daily dynamics of leaf (K(L)) and soil-to-branch hydraulic conductance (KS-B) was investigated in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) using evaporative flux method in situ: water potential drop was measured with a pressure chamber and evaporative flux was estimated as sap flux density measured with sap flow gauges. Canopy position had a significant (P effect on both K(L) and K(S-B). Upper-canopy leaves exhibited 1.7 and soil-to-branch pathway 2.3 times higher hydraulic efficiency than those for lower-canopy. K(L) varied significantly with time of day: K(L) for both upper- and lower-canopy leaves was lowest in the morning and rose gradually achieving maximal values in late afternoon (4.75 and 3.38 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹ MPa⁻¹, respectively). Relevant environmental factors affecting K(L) were photosynthetic photon flux density (Q(P)), air relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (T(A)). K(S-B) started rising in the morning and reached maximum in the lower canopy (1.44 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹ MPa⁻¹) at 1300 h and in the upper canopy (2.52 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹ MPa⁻¹) at 1500 h, decreasing afterwards. Environmental factors controlling K(S-B) were Ψ(S) and Q(P). The diurnal patterns of K(L) reflect a combination of environmental factors and endogenous rhythms. The temporal pattern of K(S-B) refers to daily up- and down-regulation of hydraulic conductance of water transport pathway from soil-root interface to leaves with respect to changing irradiance.

  8. Impact of light quality on leaf and shoot hydraulic properties: a case study in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Sack, Lawren; Õunapuu, Eele; Karusion, Annika

    2011-07-01

    Responses of leaf and shoot hydraulic conductance to light quality were examined on shoots of silver birch (Betula pendula), cut from lower ('shade position') and upper thirds of the crowns ('sun position') of trees growing in a natural temperate forest stand. Hydraulic conductances of leaf blades (K(lb) ), petioles (K(P) ) and branches (i.e. leafless stem; K(B) ) were determined using a high pressure flow meter in steady state mode. The shoots were exposed to photosynthetic photon flux density of 200-250 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ using white, blue or red light. K(lb) depended significantly on both light quality and canopy position (Peffect on K(P) . The highest values of K(lb) were recorded under the blue light (3.63 and 3.13×10⁻⁴ kg m⁻² MPa⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the sun and shade leaves, respectively), intermediate values under white light (3.37 and 2.46×10⁻⁴ kg m⁻² MPa⁻¹ s⁻¹ , respectively) and lowest values under red light (2.83 and 2.02×10⁻⁴ kg m⁻² MPa⁻¹ s⁻¹, respectively). Light quality has an important impact on leaf hydraulic properties, independently of light intensity or of total light energy, and the specific light receptors involved in this response require identification. Given that natural canopy shade depletes blue and red light, K(lb) may be decreased both by reduced fluence and shifts in light spectra, indicating the need for studies of the natural heterogeneity of K(lb) within and under canopies, and its impacts on gas exchange.

  9. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed. PMID:26342266

  10. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  11. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed.

  12. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  13. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  14. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples co...

  15. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. L The flavonoids of B. pendula Roth. and B. obscura Kot. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Betula pendula Roth. leaves were found to contain, beside the flavonoids detected earlier by other researchers, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside and quercetin 3-glycoside-7,4'-dimethyl ether. The investigated specimens of this species can be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence in them of 6-methoxykaempferide. Group I was characterized by larger leaf-blades containing this compound, whereas it was absent in group II with smaller leaves. The composition of the leaf flavonoids of B. obscura Kot. samples was identical with that of the specimens of the above-mentioned small leaved B. pendula.

  16. Light Media Selection for Growing Micro-propagated Seedlings of Betula alnoides%西南桦组培苗培育的轻基质筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宏炎; 曾杰; 黎明; 蒙彩兰; 郭文福

    2012-01-01

    Light media selection trial was conducted for cultivating micro-propagated seedlings of Betula alnoides. It was indicated that the media, clones and their interactions had significant (P 0. 05 ). The three light media were remarkably better than soil for the growth of B. alnoides seedlings. The flexibilities of five clones to these light media were also quite different, for example, the clone B5 adapted to all the media. As a whole, the medium with 25 percent of pine skin and 75 percent of carbonized sawdust was the best for cultivating micro-propagated seedlings of B. alnoides, and was recommended to be used in practice.

  17. Microbial Diversity of Primary Korean Pine Forests and Artificial Forests in Liangshui National Natural Reserve%凉水自然保护区原始红松林与人工林土壤微生物多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦萃; 熊毅; 张志

    2013-01-01

    采用BIOLOG微平板法,研究了小兴安岭凉水国家自然保护区内原始红皮云杉( Picea koraiensis Na-kai)红松林、青楷槭( Acer tegmentosum Maxim.)红松林与人工兴安落叶松( Larix gmelini Rupr.)林、白桦( Betula platyphylla Suk.)林土壤微生物多样性特征。结果表明:各林型土壤微生物AWCD值随土层深度与季节变化表现为,在表层与0~10 cm土层中,四季2种原始红松林均高于人工林;在>10~20 cm土层中以人工林在春、夏、秋三季最高,冬季仍以原始红松林最高。不同土层的3种微生物多样性指数均以青楷槭红松林最高,且显著高于2种人工林。可见,原始阔叶红松林土壤微生物比原始针叶红松林及人工林土壤微生物具有更丰富的多样性。%By BIOLOG microplate method, an investigation was conducted to study the soil microbial diversity characteristics of Picea.koraiensis Nakai, Acer tegmentosum Maxim, artificial Larix.gmelini Rupr.and Betula platyphylla Suk.in Liang-shui National Nature Reserve, Xiaoxing’an Mountain.The soil microbial AWCD values of the forest-type varied with soil depth and seasons:in the surface and 0-10 cm layer of soil, it was highest in two original Korean pine forest throughout the year;in the 10-20 cm layer of soil, it was highest in plantation in spring, summer and autumn, while it was highest in the primitive Korean pine forest in winter;three different soil microbial diversity indexes of all soil layers were highest in Acer tegmentosum Maxim forest, and significantly higher than those of two plantation.Therefore, the soil microbial diversi-ty of original Broad-leaved Korean Pine forest is richer than that of the original coniferous Korean pine forest and planta-tion.

  18. 基于CCA排序的霍山森林植物功能型划分%Classification of Plant Functional Types Based on CCA Ordination in Forest at Huoshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁献华; 毕润成; 闫明

    2011-01-01

    采用群落生态学的调查方法,在霍山七里峪设置80个样方并采集土壤样品.通过计算重要值和测定土壤理化性质(pH值、含水量、有机质含量、N、P、K含量),建立样方×物种矩阵和样方×环境矩阵,用CCA排序划分植物功能型.结果表明,随着海拔等环境因子的变化,可以将七里峪天然次生林划分为:F1山核桃Carya cathayensis Sarg.、虎榛子Ostryopsis davidiana Decaisne、披针叶苔草Carex lanceolata Boott.;F2油松Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.、三裂绣线菊Spiraea trilobata Linn.、荩草Arthraxon hispidus(Thunb.)Makio.;F3辽东栎Quercus wutaishanica Blume、连翘Forsythia suspensa(Thunb.)Vahl.Enum.、披针叶苔草;F4华北落叶松Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.、美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa(Vog.)Koehne、林荫千里光Senecio nemorensis Linn;F5 白桦Betula platyphylla Suk、毛榛子Corylus heterophylla Fisch.Ex Trautv.、披针叶苔草5个功能型.%This thesis adopted the investigation method of community ecology, 80 quadrates were set up and 80 soil samples were collected from QiLiYu. of Huoshan Mountain. By calculating the importance value and measurement the soil physical and chemical properfies ( soil pH, contents of soil water, contents of organic, N, P, K, etc. ), matrix of quadrates × species and matrix of quadrates × environmental factors were established. PlFls were defined according to CCA ordination. The results showed that: With changes of elevation and other environmental factors, HuoMountainQiliyu secondary forest can be divided into:Fl Carya cathayensis Sarg., Ostryopsis davidiana Decaisne, Carex lanceolata Boott. ; F2 Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. , Quercus wutaishanica Blume, Spiraea trilobata Linn, Arthraxon hispidus ( Thunb. ) Makio.; F3 Quercus wutaishanica Blume, Forsythia suspensa ( Thunb. ) Vahl. Eunm,, Carex lunceolata Boott. ;F4 Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. , Lespedeza formosa ( Vng. ) Koehne、Senecio nemorensis Linn;F5 Betula platyphylla

  19. Woody Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Natural vs. Restored Mountain Birch (Betula pubescens, Ehrh.) Woodlands in South Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Matthias; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Halldorsson, Gudmundur; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2010-05-01

    Following a period of land degradation lasting more than one thousand years, Iceland has been undertaken ambitious restoration and afforestation efforts for one century now. Afforestation has also been a central venture of the Icelandic government in order to meet the commitments assigned by the Kyoto Protocol because vegetation represents an important carbon sink. Yet, currently little is known on how much carbon is sequestrated effectively in afforested Icelandic woody ecosystems. In order to fill this knowledge gap the 'KolBjörk' (CarbBirch), a three year (2008-2011) Icelandic ecosystem research project, was launched. In this project the development of key ecosystem factors are studied in a chronosequence study of restored birch woodlands, ranging from 0-60 years in age. These factors are: a) forest growth, b) plant communities, c) soil biota, d) soil chemistry and physics and e) carbon stocks and fluxes. Restored woodlands are compared with: a) eroded land, representing the status of the area before restoration and b) original birch woodlands. The aim of present study which is part of 'KolBjörk' was to estimate the above-and belowground woody biomass and carbon stocks of old native birch (Betula pubescens) vs. restored birch woodlands in South Iceland. In summer 2009 31 trees (0.1-5.5m height) were measured and excavated and tree inventories (n=519) were established. The excavated trees formed the dataset to establish allometric biomass functions for young, afforested Icelandic mountain birch. The functions were statistically fitted using numerical nonlinear regression using Matlab. Subsequently, forest biomass and carbon stock of the four different old sites were estimated by the newly developed allometric relationships. The age of the four sites is 10, 15, 60 and 80 years, respectively, while the 80-yr old stand represents a natural grown forest, the others are replanted. The total C-stock in the 10-yr old birch stand was 2.0 Mg/ha, in the 15-yr old 11.0 Mg

  20. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    2002-07-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  1. Protein-lipid composition of silver birch (Betula verrucosa pollen and its antioxidant activity depending on habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shevtsova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen has various effects on the human body. In order to study and compare the biological activity of the mature pollen grains of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. we investigated the protein-lipid composition and total antioxidant activity (TAA of 10 samples from different habitats in the territory of Ukraine and the Slovak Republic. The collection sites are near highways and apartment blocks, as well as a nature reserve, forest and botanical garden. The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. A chromatographic analysis of fatty acids from lipids was performed using a “Cvet 500” gas chromatograph, equipped with a flame-ionization detector in the isothermal mode. The bioactivity of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of pollen grains was evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl by means spectrophotometry in vitro. The protein content of the pollen of B. verrucosa ranged from 17.9% to 25.6%, depending on the habitat. Unsaturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids. The profile of fatty acids indicates a higher content of palmitic (33.9%, oleic (29.5% and linoleic (27.8% acids and a low content of arachidonic (0.4% and pentadecanoic (0.8% acids. We also established that silver birch pollen is characterized by high antioxidant activity. The measured value of TAA for aqueous pollen extracts was within 74.8–85.5%. For the ethanol extracts it was quantified within 60.3–95.0% and for the methanol extracts – 46.1–92.6%. The Tukey test was used to determine the differences between the means at a level of P < 0.05. A strong correlation coefficient (0.70 was defined between the protein content and the TAA of aqueous extracts. In general, the Ukrainian and Slovak samples of pollen differ in the fatty acid composition of lipids and aqueous and ethanol TAA extracts. Pollen of B. verrucosa should be used for diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic purposes as close

  2. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Mourik; R.T. Slotboom; J. van der Plicht; H.J. Streurman; W.J. Hoek; W.J. Kuijper; L.W.S. de Graaff

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  3. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-Glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, J.M.; Slotboom, R.T.; van der Plicht, J.; Streurman, H.J.; Kuijper, W.J.; Hoek, W.Z.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  4. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits : A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Jan M.; Slotboom, Ruud T.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Streurman, Harm Jan; Kuijper, Wim J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; de Graaff, Leo W. S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  5. Effect of aluminium on in vitro rooting of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bojarczuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. and birch (Betula pendula Roth. microcuttings obtained from in vitro cultures on media with aluminium (Al+ or without aluminium (Al- were rooted in perlite saturated with a liquid 1/4 MS medium. Aluminium was added to the rooting medium in the form of aluminium sulphate or aluminium chloride. In the control, i.e. in the medium without aluminium, Al+ and Al- shoots usually developed similarly. Addition of aluminium to the rooting medium had a negative effect on the development of adventitious roots. Poplar and birch shoots obtained from cultures on media with aluminium (AI+ were distinguished by a greater tolerance of aluminium in the medium than shoots obtained from cultures on media without aluminium (A1-.

  6. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahauta, Arja I; Fortelius, Carola; Tuomainen, Marjo; Akerman, Marja-Leena; Rantalainen, Kimmo; Sipilä, Timo; Lehesranta, Satu J; Koistinen, Kaisa M; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Yrjälä, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils.

  7. Validation of Two Names Betula jiulungensis (Betulaceae) and Rubia ovatifolia (Rubiaceae)%九龙桦(桦木科)与卵叶茜草(茜草科)名称的合格发表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祁

    2007-01-01

    由于同时指定两号标本为模式,桦木科(Betulaceae)的九龙桦(Betula jiulungensis Hu exP.C.Li)和茜草科(Rubiaceae)的卵叶茜草(Rubia ovatifolia Z.Y.Zhang)是不合格发表的名称.现通过分别指定主模式,对九龙桦和卵叶茜草的名称作合格发表.

  8. 铁杉球蚜的生物学及空间分布%Biology of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and its spatial distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 肖银波; 肖育贵; 卢文华

    2007-01-01

    通过对铁杉(Tusga chinensis Pritz)-云杉(Picea retroflexac Mast)、铁杉-华山松(Pinus armardi Franch)、云南铁杉(Tusga domosa Eichler)-槭树(Acer mono Maxim)-桦木(Betula platyphylla Suk)四川主要铁杉林类型中铁杉球蚜Adelges tsugae Annand林间定株、种群随机抽样、室内饲养研究表明,铁杉球蚜在四川1年发生2代(越冬代和第1代),世代重叠,成虫营孤雌生殖.越冬代从4月上旬至第2年的4月下旬,产卵盛期在5月下旬,平均产卵量为15.58粒,1龄若虫具有滞育越夏习性;第1代从12月下旬至8月中旬,产卵盛期在3月下旬,平均产卵量为67.37粒,并可产生有翅成虫,但无转主危害现象.种群的发育与温度有相关性,温度高林分种群发育进度快于温度低林分.该虫的危害与生境有一定相关性,铁杉针阔混交林危害重于铁杉针叶林;同一树冠不同层次之间、不同方位之间危害程度差异不显著;当年受害严重的树株第2年受害不严重.

  9. Growth responses of Picea mongolica seedlings to defoliation rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chun-jing; HAN Shi-jie; QI Shu-yan; XU Wen-duo; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Picea mongolica W. D. Xu. is an endemic species in China. The spruce forest is only found in semi-arid habitat in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Based on the simulative defoliation experiment, it was proved that Picea mongolica seedlings had the compensatory and overcompensatory effects under the certain defoliation rate. The results of variance analysis on growth indexes showed that in PM Ⅰ (natural regeneration seedlings under Picea mongolica forest), the differences of H1 (height in June 23) and H2 (height in September 3) were extremely significant, and the difference of D(diameter at the breast height) were not significant. In PM Ⅱ (artificial regeneration seedlings under Betula platyphylla Suk. forest), the difference of H1 was significant, the difference of H2 was not significant, and the difference of D was extremely significant. The regression equations were established and the compensatory and overcompensatory points were obtained. In PM Ⅰ , the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D were 0.7628, 0.7436, 0.5725, and the overcompensatory points were 0.6056, 0.5802 and 0.2909 respectively. In PM Ⅱ, the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D are 0.5012, 0.3421, 0.2488, and the overcompensatory points are 0.4137, 0.2633 and 0.0747 respectively. These results suggested that the induction of compensatory growth mechanisms in spruce seedlings required a threshold level of defoliation, and the insects in Picea mongolica forest could be controlled in a certain degree.

  10. Dependence of Guaiacol Peroxidase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation Rate in Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth and Tillet (Tilia cordata Mill Leaf on Motor Traffic Pollution Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erofeeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormesis and paradoxical effects are frequently found for different plant parameters. These phenomena were also observed for lipid peroxidation (LP rate at environmental pollution. However, the role of antioxidant enzymes, particularly guaiacol peroxidases (GPX, in a nonmonotonic variation in the LP rate remains insufficiently explored. Therefore, dependence of GPX activity and LP rate in Betula pendula and Tilia cordata leaf on motor traffic pollution intensity was studied. Regression analysis revealed dependences of LP rate and GPX activity on traffic intensity. In B pendula, GPX activity enhanced significantly (up to 2.8 times relatively control under increased traffic that induced biphasic paradoxical effect for LP rate. In the first phase, LP level increased in comparison with the control, and in the second phase, it was normalized by enhanced GPX activity. In T cordata, dependences of GPX activity and LP rate on traffic pollution were paradoxical effects. However, there was no connection between change of GPX activity and LP rate under middle- and high-level pollution: LP level reduced relatively the control or normalized even if GPX activity was lower than the control. This indicates that in T cordata, other regulatory mechanisms instead of GPX were activated which could control LP rate under middle- and high-level pollution.

  11. The influence of weather conditions on the course of pollen seasons of alder (Alnus spp., hazel (Corylus spp. and birch (Betula spp. in Lublin (2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The start and rate of florescence of Alnus, Corylus and Betula are dependent on meteorological conditions. In the present paper we have analysed the effect of mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative air humidity and precipitation on the onset of the pollen season as well as on its length and annual count of pollen grains in alder, hazel and birch. The measurement of pollen fall was done by the gravimetric methods with the use of Durham sampler. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the determined characteristics of the pollen season and weather conditions. In the six-year research period 2001-2006 it was observed that low temperatures in January produced a delayed start of the pollen season in alder, hazel and birch. The beginning of flowering in these taxa was also influenced by thermal conditions prevailing directly before the season (ca. 10 days. The pollen season of the trees in question tended to be prolonged alongside with the increase in relative air humidity, but it was shortened due to higher temperatures. The volume of alder and hazel pollen release increased together with the rise in relative air humidity and precipitation. The annual counts of birch pollen increased along with rising temperature and decreasing relative air humidity and precipitation in the season.

  12. Contribution of Root Respiration to Total Soil Respiration in a Betula ermanii-Dark Coniferous Forest Ecotone of the Changbai Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; HAN Shi-Jie; ZHOU Yu-Mei; ZHANG Jun-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Total and root-severed soil respiration rates for five plots set up 50 m apart in a Betula ermanii Cham.-dark coniferous forest ecotone on a north-facing slope of the Changbai Mountains, China, were measured to evaluate the seasonal variations of soil respiration, to assess the effect of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration, and to estimate the relative contributions of root respiration to the total soil respiration. PVC cylinders in each of 5 forest types of a B. ermanii-dark coniferous forest ecotone were used to measure soil respirations both inside and outside of the cylinders. The contribution of roots to the total soil respiration rates ranged from 12.5% to 54.6%. The mean contribution of roots for the different plots varied with the season, increasing from 32.5% on June 26 to 36.6% on August 3 and to 41.8% on October 14.In addition, there existed a significant (P < 0.01) logarithmic relationship between total soil respiration rate and soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth. Also, a similar trend was observed for the soil respiration and soil water content at the surface (0-5 cm) during the same period of time.

  13. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples collected under plant saplings, using atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization. A number of relations concerning the occurrence of Al and Ca in soils and plant parts of B. pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, and leaves) were observed. Based on the research findings, the mechanism of Al migration from soil to the leaves of B. pendula can be presented. It was found that aluminum uptake may be limited in roots by high calcium concentration. The application of a new procedure based on the simple sequential extraction of water-soluble fractions (the most available and exchangeable fractions of Al) can be used as an effective tool for the estimation of aluminum toxicity in soils and plants. PMID:26370811

  14. Root produced DHZR-, ZR- and IPA-like cytokinins in xylem sap in relation to coppice shoot initiation and growth in cloned trees of Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, P; Saarelainen, A

    1994-10-01

    Six-year-old cloned Betula pubescens Ehrh. trees, grown outdoors at 65 degrees 01' N, were cut on six dates during the growing season to study coppice shoot development in relation to root-produced cytokinin-like compounds. Bleeding sap was collected over timed intervals for two days after cutting, and endogenous cytokinin-like compounds were measured by ELISA assay in HPLC-purified fractions of xylem sap. Initiation and development of coppice shoots on the clonally propagated plants were comparable to those in seedlings. Coppice shoot initiation was affected by the time of cutting, diminishing significantly after June. Of the cytokinin-like compounds detected in the xylem sap, zeatin riboside-like (ZR) compounds were present in the highest concentrations, and the concentrations of dihydrozeatin riboside-like (DHZR) and isopentenyladenoside-like (IPA) compounds were approximately one third and one eighth of the ZR concentrations, respectively. The concentration of cytokinin-like compounds was positively correlated with xylem sap flow rate. The export of cytokinin-like compounds, especially DHZR- and ZR-types, was positively correlated with the initiation and elongation rate of coppice shoots, the number of lateral branches, and the radial growth of the more slowly growing coppice shoots. The export of cytokinin-like compounds collected immediately after cutting may represent the basal value for each tree. This value is probably affected by the size and activity of the root system and may be a relevant estimate for predicting the success of coppicing.

  15. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  16. Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} during leaf maturation and senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontunen-Soppela, Sari, E-mail: sari.kontunen-soppela@joensuu.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Parviainen, Juha [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Ruhanen, Hanna [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); Brosche, Mikael [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Keinaenen, Markku [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Thakur, Ramesh C. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kolehmainen, Mikko [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kangasjaervi, Jaakko [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Oksanen, Elina [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Vapaavuori, Elina [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} were studied with microarray analyses from three time points during the summer of 2004 at Aspen FACE. Microarray data were analyzed with clustering techniques, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and Sammon's mappings, to detect similar gene expression patterns within sampling times and treatments. Most of the alterations in gene expression were caused by O{sub 3}, alone or in combination with CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} induced defensive reactions to oxidative stress and earlier leaf senescence, seen as decreased expression of photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes, and increased expression of senescence-associated genes. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} reflected surplus of carbon that was directed to synthesis of secondary compounds. The combined CO{sub 2} + O{sub 3} treatment resulted in differential gene expression than with individual gas treatments or in changes similar to O{sub 3} treatment, indicating that CO{sub 2} cannot totally alleviate the harmful effects of O{sub 3}. - Clustering analysis of birch leaf gene expression data reveals differential responses to O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  17. Combination treatment of elevated UVB radiation, CO2 and temperature has little effect on silver birch (Betula pendula) growth and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavola, Anu; Nybakken, Line; Rousi, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Petrelius, Mari; Kellomäki, Seppo; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    Elevations of carbon dioxide, temperature and ultraviolet-B (UBV) radiation in the growth environment may have a high impact on the accumulation of carbon in plants, and the different factors may work in opposite directions or induce additive effects. To detect the changes in the growth and phytochemistry of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings, six genotypes were exposed to combinations of ambient or elevated levels of CO2 , temperature and UVB radiation in top-closed chambers for 7 weeks. The genotypes were relatively similar in their responses, and no significant interactive effects of three-level climate factors on the measured parameters were observed. Elevated UVB had no effect on growth, nor did it alter plant responses to CO2 and/or temperature in combined treatments. Growth in all plant parts increased under elevated CO2 , and height and stem biomass increased under elevated temperature. Increased carbon distribution to biomass did not reduce its allocation to phytochemicals: condensed tannins, most flavonols and phenolic acids accumulated under elevated CO2 and elevated UVB, but this effect disappeared under elevated temperature. Leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 . We conclude that, as a result of high genetic variability in phytochemicals, B. pendula seedlings have potential to adapt to the tested environmental changes. The induction in protective flavonoids under UVB radiation together with the positive impact of elevated CO2 and temperature mitigates possible UVB stress effects, and thus atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature are the climate change factors that will dictate the establishment and success of birch at higher altitudes in the future.

  18. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  19. 高温热处理对西南桦材色的影响%Impact of Heat Treatment on Color of Betula alnodies Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太安; 王昌命; 曾金水; 汉丽辉; 付成方

    2012-01-01

    Taking mass loss as the intensity damage indictor after the heat treatment was applied to the wood, the impact of heat treatment on the color of Betula alnodies wood was studied, and the correlation analysis between the mass loss and color change was conducted. It was showed that the lightness of the wood was decreased, whereas the color difference was increased along with the increment of treating temperature and treating time duration. There was no distinct rule for the change of the color parameters L * , a * , and b * determined by the CIELAB method. The mass loss was increased with prolonging of the heat treatment, which might be applied as a right index to indicate the lightness change and color difference before and after the heat treatment.%以失重率作为木材高温处理的强度损失因子,研究热处理对西南桦材色的影响,并对失重率与材色变化进行关联分析.结果表明:西南桦木材的明度、色差随处理温度的上升和处理时间的延长而下降、增加,红绿度和黄蓝度变化规律不明显;失重率随处理温度的上升和处理时间的延长而增加,以其为处理强度损失因子对明度变化和处理前后试材色差具有良好的指示性.

  20. 长白山突变型林线岳桦对气候变化的响应%Climatic Response of Betula ermanii from Closed Treeline in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 刘惠清

    2011-01-01

    在长白山北坡局地突变型林线内选取10个样方,采用实测法测量岳桦两种生活型(灌木状和乔木状)的树高、径级,采用年轮法测定岳桦的树龄,计算分析长白山北坡2000m处48 a(1953-2000年)的积温变化.对获得的数据采用回归模型、小波分析、相关分析建立树高、径级与积温变化的关系.结果显示:对应长白山48年来积温变化的几个高温期(1960年代初、1980年代、1990年代后期),岳桦树高生长对气候变化有显著响应.灌木状岳桦在径级1~7、7 ~13、13~19和>19 cm阶段树高生长分为适应期,弱胁迫期和胁迫期.乔木状岳桦在径级13 cm和5 cm出现增长受限和适宜生长两个拐点.高温期对应岳桦树高的快速生长,岳桦树高增长的年际变化是对气温变化的积极响应.%On the north slope of Changbai Mountain 10 quadrats were selected in local closed treeline. The tree height and size class of shrub and single tree Betula ermanii were obtained from field measured, and the tree age was determined by standard dendrochronological techniques. The relationship between the tree height and size class was established by means of the regression model against the collected data. The variation tendency of accumulated temperature in the past 48 years on the 2 000 m high of the northern slope on Changbai Mountains was also calculated through the wavelet analysis method. The relationship between the tree height and accumulated temperature was established by means of multiple correlation analysis against the collected data. The results show that the tree height and size class have significant response against the high temperature period in the past 48 years on Changbai Mountains, including the beginning of 1960s, and late 1980s and 1990s. The tree height growth for shrub Betula ermanii is divided into adaptive phase, low stress phase and high stress phase according to its size class of 1 ~ 7, 7 -13, 13 ~ 19 and larger than

  1. [Expression analysis of miR164 and its target gene NAC1 in response to low nitrate availability in Betula luminifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Wu; Junhong, Zhang; Menghui, Huang; Minhui, Zhu; Zaikang, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen, an essential macronutrient for the growth and development of plants, affects above- ground biomass accumulation dramatically. Thus, it is very important to reveal the molecular mechanisms of how plants resist or adapt to low nitrogen availability. The NAC1(NAM, ATAF, CUC 1) gene, located in the upstream regulatory network, has been reported to resist low nitrogen by regulating expression of key downstream genes and thus root growth in (Populus tremula × alba).In this study, we detected the responses of miR164 and its target gene NAC1 under nitrate-starvation condition using the Betula luminifera somaclones G49-3 as material. The NAC1 gene which contains 1497 bp sequence, encodes 358 amino acids and contains a highly conserved NAM domain at N terminal was cloned by the RACE method. The NAC1 was then validated to be the target gene of miR164 via 5'-RACE, and the cleavage site was between the 10(th) and 11(th) base. The expression patterns of miR164 and its target gene NAC1 were further detected under nitrate-starvation condition through qRT-PCR analysis. The results showed that miR164 expression was repressed by nitrate-starvation at the beginning of the treatment (4 d) and then ascended. However, the expression pattern of miR164 in roots was different from that in shoots and leaves. Moreover, the expression levels of target gene NAC1 and miR164 were negatively correlated. The expression level of miR164 in root was increased while that of NAC1 was decreased under Re treatment, which indicated that miR164 and its target gene NAC1 play a regulatory role in response to low nitrate availability. The findings of our study may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR164 regulates target gene NAC1 at post-transcriptional level, and provide valuable information for further study of the regulatory roles of miR164-NAC1 under nitrate-starvation condition.

  2. Soil Seed Bank Characteristics Preliminary Comparison between Plantation and Natural Forest of Betula alnoides%西南桦人工林与天然林土壤种子库特征初步比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 刘海姣; 张劲峰; 耿云芬

    2013-01-01

    以西南桦人工林与天然林的土壤种子库为研究对象,采用室内萌发法对云南热区的西南桦人工林与天然林下0 ~10 cm深度的土壤种子库的种子储量及其垂直分布进行了研究.研究结果表明:①西南桦人工林有活力种子储量为2 027粒/m2,天然林有活力种子储量为3 043粒/m2;②西南桦人工林土壤种子库由21科38属的42种植物组成,其中乔木4种,占全部种类的0.69%;灌木16种,占7.70%;多年生草本10种,占14.90%;1 a生草本9种,占73.36%;藤本3种,占3.35%.西南桦天然林土壤种子库由24科43属的49种植物组成,其中乔木6种,占全部种类的10.56%;灌木15种,占18.31%;多年生草本14种,占4.38%;1 a生草本10种,占65.06%;藤本4种,占1.69%;③乔木、灌木的植物数量占总数的比例为天然林>人工林,而草本和藤本为天然林<人工林;④西南桦人工林与天然林土壤种子库有活力种子密度自上而下都呈现下降趋势,0~5 cm种子数量较5 ~ 10 cm多.%Taking soil seed bank of Betula alnoides plantation and Betula alnoides natural forest as the object, seeds storage and vertical distribution of soil seed bank under depth of 0 ~ 10cm were studied in Yunnan hot zone by using indoor germination method. The results showed that; (1)Vigor seed reserves of Betula alnoides plantation was 2027 seeds/ m2, and natural forest was 3043 seeds/ m2; (2) Soil seed bank of Betula alnoides plantation was consisted of 42 plant species belonging to 21 family and 38 genus, including 4 kinds of Arbor species, accounting for 0. 69% of all species; 16 kinds of shrubs, accounting for 7. 70% ; 10 kinds of perennial herbs, accounting for 14. 90% ; 9 kinds of annual herb, accounting for 73. 36% ; 3 kinds of Fujimoto, accounting for 3. 35% . Soil bank of Betula alnoides natural forest was consisted of 49 plant species belonging to 24 family and 43 genus, including 6 kinds of trees, accounting for

  3. Population dynamics of Betula ermanii associated with soil change on treeline of northern slope of Changbai Mountains%长白山北坡林线岳桦种群与土壤关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 刘惠清

    2011-01-01

    以长白山北坡林线为研究区,选择4块样地(83个样方)进行岳桦种群径级结构与土壤理化性质关系的研究.采用单因子方差等方法分析土壤理化性质(有机质、全氮、全磷、砾石含量)和岳桦种群(灌丛和乔木)径级结构的关系,采用相关分析法做岳桦种群与土壤性质的动态变化分析.结果表明土壤因子对岳桦种群的扩张有一定的制约作用,但不足以决定林线的进退,岳桦通过不断调整生活型克服土壤约束以应对气候变化.%This paper, taking the treeline of northern slope of Changbai Mountains as the research object, selected 4 plots (83 quadrats) to study diameter-class structure of Betula ermanii population and soil physical and chemical properties. Four indices of soil properties (SOM, TN, AN and gravel contents) and diameter-class structure of two life forms (shrub and single-trunk) were analyzed by ANOVA, correlation analysis and other statistical analysis. The relationships between population dynamics and soil change were investigated by correlation analyses. The results showed soil physical and chemical properties on different quadrats had obvious difference with different expansion of Betula ermanii population. Soil factor had a certain restrictive effect on population dynamics. However,soil factor did not play a crucial role in treeline shifts and population expansion. The gradual weakening of soil properties has an effect on treeline shifts with the passage of time.The Betula ermanii population tended to continuously adjust its life forms to adapt air temperature change in order to overcome soil restrictions.

  4. The Analysis of the Growing Process of Choerospondias Axillaris,Alnus and Betula Luminifera%南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦生长发育进程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文鸿

    2015-01-01

    对腾冲县苏江林场于2012年春季在杉木采伐迹地上采用南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦与萌生杉木营造混交林,3年生时进行了调查并分析。结果表明:造林3年后3个树种的幼林保存率均达到92%,南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦阔叶树种的早期生长均表现了较强的速生性,各树种平均树高和胸径依次为南酸枣6.0m 和6.5cm ,桤木5.8m和6.2cm ;光皮桦4.8m和4.4cm。南酸枣更适宜作为腾冲杉木采伐迹地的更新树种,营造速生丰产的工业原料林。%A mixed forest w hich contains Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus ,Betula luminifera and the coppice of Chinese fir was built on the cutover land of Chinese fir in Sujiang Forestry Centre in the spring of 2012 .The article conducts an investigation and analysis of the mixed forest after years .The results indicate that three years after the afforestation ,the preservation rate of the three species'young forest reaches 92% and the ear‐ly growth of the Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus and Betula luminifera shows stronger fast -growing .The average height and DBH of Choerospondias axillaris is 6 .0m and 6 .5cm .That of Alnus 5 .8m and 6 .2cm and that of Betula luminifera is 4 .8m and 4 .4cm .Therefore ,Choerospondias axillaris is more suitable being the regenerated species on the Chinese fir cutover land in Tengchong ,which aims to create fast -growing and high yield industrial raw material forest .

  5. 基质施肥对西南桦苗木生长的影响%Effects of Fertilizers on Seedling Growth of Betula alnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海娇; 王智斌; 庞岳燕; 李莲芳; 段安安; 王慷林

    2013-01-01

      The L16(45)orthogonal design was applied to implement 2 factors with each including 4 levels of organ⁃ic fertilizer and compound fertilizer. The purpose was to understand the influences of fertilizations on seedling growth of Betula alnoides. The results showed that:(1)There were significantly different effects of organic fertiliz⁃er,compound fertilizer and their interaction on seedling growth of basal diameter and heights for 150 and 210 days’old seedlings. the base diameter (BD)and heights of seedlings had a active response to. Organic fertilizer and their interaction were significantly presented a negative effects on the seedling growth,which indicated that Only compound fertilizer could promoted the seedling growth;(2)Among 16 treated combination,the sole fertiliza⁃tion of 50g/m2 compound fertilizer had basal diameter of 0.96mm (210d)and the heights of 6.7 and 9.8cm for 150 and 210 days’old seedlings,which were extremely larger than other treated combinations;(3)The optimal fer⁃tilizer combination was A1B2(organic fertilizer: 0kg/m2 with compound fertilizer 50g/m2),in terms of only com⁃pound fertilizer of 50g/m2 could promote seedling growth of B. alnoides. The optimal treated combination in theo⁃ry and practice was the consistent in the experiment.%  采用L16(45)正交试验设计进行有机肥和复合肥2因素各含4个水平的试验,了解其对西南桦苗木生长的影响。结果表明:(1)苗龄150d和210d时,有机肥、复合肥和二者的交互作用均极显著地影响西南桦苗木地径和苗高的生长。有机肥和二者的交互作用对苗木生长呈现极显著的负效应,单施复合肥即可达到促进西南桦苗木生长的目的;(2)有机肥和复合肥的16种配施中,单施复合肥50g/m2的平均地径和苗高在2个苗龄时均极显著地较其他配施的大,分别为0.96mm(210d)和6.7、9.8cm;(3)影响苗木生长的最佳配施为A1B2(有机肥0kg/m2

  6. 青海省湟水流域红桦林的分布规律%Distribution Law of Betula albo-sinensis Qinghai Huangshui River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生华

    2012-01-01

    通过二类资源调查数据总结了青海湟水流域的红桦林的分布及生境、组成与结构、林型、生长规律及更新与演替。调查结果表明:红桦林分布地区气候干湿季分明,分布区海拔2300—2900m;林分结构和组成不稳定且复杂;林型同龄单层纯林居多,主要有为苔草红桦林和灌木红桦林2种,相林不整齐,生长缓慢,树干分叉多枝,干形弯曲,尖削度较大,立木多呈团状分布。林分分层明显,可分为乔木层、下木层、草被层、苔藓层等四个层次;20龄后开始结实,40年后进入盛期,非常有利于天然更新。现有红桦林绝大部分是云杉林被破坏后而形成的次生林,红桦幼树随着年龄的增大,需光量也随之增加,常因不能忍受林内较弱的光照而逐渐衰弱和死亡。属云杉林演替过程中的一个过渡阶段。%Through Two types of resources survey data the paper summarize distribution and habitat, the composition and structure of forest types, growth regulation, and update and succession of Betula albo-sinensis Huangshui valley Qinghai. The survey results show that:distribution of regional climate wet and dry season clearly, the distribution of district elevation 2300-2900 ; stand structure and composition of the instability and complexity; forest types have monolayer pure forest, and shrub birch, forest irregular, slow growth, trunk forked branch, trunk-shaped bend, taper, stump mostly slug distribution. The obvious stand stratification, can be divid- ed into four levels of the tree layer,the understory layer,grass layer, moss layer; strong after 20 age ,40 years after the peak, is very conducive to natural regeneration. Existing birch, most of the spruce forest is destroyed after the formation of secondary forest, with age increases, the required amount of light also increases, often because they can not put up with weak light in the forest and gradually weakened and death

  7. STUDY ON THOUSAND-SEED WEIGHT,LONGEVITY AND VITALITY OF SEEDS OF BETULA LUMINIFERA%光皮桦种子千粒重、寿命及生命力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝小科; 朱守谦

    2003-01-01

    The thousand-seed weight, germination rate and vitality of seeds for Betula luminifera were studied. The results showed that the thousand-seed weight was different in various habitats, and varied with the age and the part of crown and fruit. The seed had a longevity of 32—37 days in general and with a characteristic of the rapid germination. The seed had a high germination rate during the early stage or perk stage of seed dispersal, and a lower germination rate during the end stage. The germination rate and vitality of mature seed reduced with the increase of the storing time, the change in seed ger-mination was significantly different at the various ages and habitats.

  8. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization.

  9. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. PMID:26595095

  10. Preliminary Study of Predominant Factors on Chromosome Doubling ofBetula alnoides%西南桦染色体加倍的影响因子初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 朱昌叁; 庞正轰

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a method for chromosome doubling ofBetula alnoideswas developed. Terminal buds from aseptic germination ofB. alnoides were used as explants, effect factors on chromosome doubling ofB. alnoides were discussed, such as concentration of colchicine, co-culture time of colchicine, preculture time. The results showed that the concentration of colchicine was better to be 120 mg·L-1 for chromosome doubling ofB. alnoides, and maximum chimaera number would be obtained in the regermination plantlet ofB. alnoides, after preculture without colchicine for 10 d and then co-culture with colchicine for 15 d.%以西南桦种子无菌萌发小苗的顶芽为外植体,探讨秋水仙素的浓度、处理时间及预培养时间对西南桦染色体加倍的影响,初步建立西南桦染色体加倍的方法。结果表明,使西南桦染色体加倍的秋水仙素浓度以120 mg·L-1为宜;在秋水仙素加倍处理前,预培养10 d后再加倍15 d效果较好,此时得到的西南桦嵌合体较多。

  11. 修枝高度对西南桦人工幼林生长的影响%Effects of pruning height on growth performance of young plantations of Betula alnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春胜; 吴龙敦; 赵志刚; 林天龙; 郭俊杰; 沙二; 曾杰

    2012-01-01

    A pruning trail was conducted with series of pruning heights in five-year-old plantations of Betula alnoides, so as to assess the effect of pruning heights on growth performances of Betula alnoide and determine the optimal pruning height. Diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and height of the lowest living branch were investigated in three years after pruning, and the volume was calculated by stem form factor at breast height. The results indicate that the increment of tree height and volume did not vary significantly under different treatments of pruning heights in three years after pruning. While DBH growth decreased apparently with increasement of pruning height and significant difference was seen between the control and other pruning treatments late in the first year after pruning, and there was no remarkable difference between them in the third year. Taking growth process and operational feasibility of pruning into consideration, the optimal pruning height was 6 meters for trees with height above 9.5 meters, and 5 meters for height above 8.0 meters, in other words, the pruning intensity was about 30%~40%. It not only had a weak effect on tree growth but also increased the production rate of high quality timber. The findings can provide scientific evidences for large-size knot-free timber production of B. alnoides.%以5年生西南桦人工林为研究对象,设置系列高度处理开展修枝试验,调查不同修枝处理当年及3年生西南桦的生长表现,从而探讨西南桦人工幼林的最佳修枝高度.研究结果显示:各修枝处理间西南桦树高及材积增长量在修枝后3年内均无显著差异,而修枝对西南桦当年的胸径生长有显著抑制作用,且随着修枝高度的增加而胸径增长量逐渐降低,而修枝后第3年各处理间胸径增长量差异不显著.综合考虑西南桦生长规律及修枝操作上的可行性,确定5年生时树高大于9.5 m的西南桦林木,其合适的修枝高度为6m

  12. White Birch Trees as Resource Species of Russia : Their Distribution, Ecophysiological Features, Multiple Utilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Zyryanova, Olga A.; TERAZAWA, Minoru; KOIKE, TAKAYOSHI; Zyryanov, Vyacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    Four birch tree species (Betula costata, B. pendula, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens) are traditionally important resource species in Russia. In the article, we discuss their spatial and ecophysiological features, biochemical constituents of the living tissues of the birches such as the wood, outer and inner bark, twigs, leaves, buds, roots. The exudation, tapping periods and sap productivity, exudated birch sap and derived birch tar are also reviewed. We show numerous useful wooden, medicinal, ...

  13. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjun Yang; Lihua Chen; Ning Li; Qiufen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most ...

  14. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic ions in plant parts of Betula pendula from two different types of ecosystems (Wielkopolski National Park and Chemical Plant in Luboń, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The results of inorganic and organic anion concentrations in samples of soils and plant parts of Betula pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, leaves), in the bioavailable fraction, are presented in this study. An ion chromatography method was applied for the first time in the simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions, as an effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples with different matrix. A linear gradient elution with potassium hydroxide allowed for the separation of both inorganic and organic ions such as: F(-), CH3COO(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2 (-), Br(-) and NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), CH2(COO)2 (2-), C2O4 (2-), PO4 (3-) and C3H5O(COO)3 (3-). The samples of soils and plant parts of B. pendula from the area of the Wielkopolski National Park (WNP) and the Chemical Plant in Luboń (LU; protected vs. contaminated area) were selected for the study. The obtained results indicated that such inorganic ions as: F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) are quite easily transported from soil to leaves. In contrast, the mechanism of migration could not be clearly defined for SO4 (2-) because the ion was retained in roots of many of the analysed samples. Significantly higher bioavailability of inorganic ions was observed for samples collected from the area of the WNP. Phosphates were the only ions which showed no variation in their concentrations between the two sampling sites, both for soils and plant parts of B. pendula. None of the organic anions was detected in soil samples. The acetate, formate, malonate, oxalate and citrate ions were detected in all leaf samples. The statistical analysis allowed the author to determine the mechanism of ion migration and accumulation in leaves and, additionally, determine the variation in the occurrence of inorganic and organic ions depending on the sampling site (WNP vs. LU). The results of the statistical analysis were confirmed by the bioacumulation (BF) and translocation (TF) factors.

  15. Comparison on soil microbial activities and bacterial diversity between Betula alnoides and Pinus massoniana plantations in red soil region, China%南方红壤区西南桦和马尾松人工林土壤微生物活性及细菌多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尚东; 吴俊; 谭宏伟; 刘永贤; 熊柳梅; 周柳强; 谢如林; 黄国勤; 赵其国

    2014-01-01

    目前,西南桦(Betula alnoides)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana)均是广西红壤区大规模种植的人工林树种。为了分析和评价这两个树种对土壤肥力和生态质量的影响,本文采用了稀释平板法和氯仿熏蒸提取法等传统方法分析了两种人工林土壤可培养微生物数量、微生物量碳、微生物量氮、涉及土壤碳、氮、磷循环相关酶活性等表征微生物活性的指标。同时,采用聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术分析了两种人工林土壤细菌多样性。结果表明,西南桦人工林土壤中可培养真菌数量与马尾松人工林虽无明显差异,但可培养细菌和放线菌数量均明显高于相应的马尾松人工林。土壤中β-葡萄糖苷酶、磷酸酶和蛋白酶活性在两种人工林之间虽无明显差异,但西南桦人工林各土层土壤的微生物生物量碳、氮指标均优于对应的马尾松林,表现出比马尾松更优的生态效果。此外,西南桦人工林土壤中各土层细菌多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener index)均高于相应的马尾松人工林土层。综上,比马尾松相比,西南桦是更有利于提高红壤区土壤肥力和维持林地土壤生态质量的造林树种。%In recent years, Betula alnoides and Pinus massoniana has been planted on large scale in red soil region of Guangxi Province. To clarify their influences on soil fertility and ecological quality in plantations, a comparative study was conducted to analyze the spatial variability of soil fertility and biological properties using the methods of dilution-plates and chloroform fumigation extraction. Meanwhile, the soil bacterial diversity in plantations was also analyzed by the method of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that the numbers of culturable bacteria and antinomycetes in the Betula alnoides plantation were significantly higher than

  16. Tissue Culture of Endangered Plant Betula microphylla var.paludosa and Its Pilotscale Experiment in Shanghai Area%濒危植物沼泽小叶桦组织培养技术及其在上海地区的中试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群

    2012-01-01

    为快速获得大量沼泽小叶桦苗,通过对茎尖进行丛生芽诱导、生根、移栽,成功获得了沼泽小叶桦组培苗.研究了沼泽小叶桦外植体不同灭菌方法、培养基等因素对沼泽小叶桦组培的影响.结果表明,10%次氯酸钠作为外植体消毒剂优于0.1%升汞,适宜的丛生芽诱导增殖培养基为MS+0.6 mg/L 6-BA+3%蔗糖+O.7%琼脂,最佳生根培养基为MS+3%蔗糖+0.7%琼脂.无菌苗移栽在蛭石∶珍珠岩∶草炭=3∶3∶4的介质中,成活率达100%,生长良好.%A large number of seedlings of Betula microphylla var. Paludosa was achieved by inducing adventitious buds, rooting and transferring. The effects of different disinfection methods, culture medium and proportions of transferring media on explants Betula microphylla var. Paludosa were investigated. The result showed that the disinfection effect of 10% sodium hypochlorite was better than 0.1% mercuric chloride. The appropriate culture medium for adventitious bud inducing proliferation was MS + 0. 6 mg/L 6-BA + 30 g/L sucrose + 7 g/L agar. The optimized rooting medium was MS + 30 g/L sucrose + 7 g/ L agar. The most effective medium for livability of asepsis sprout transferring of Betula microphylla var. Paludosa was vermiculite : per lite : peat = 3 : 3 : 4, and its surviving rate reached 100%. Tissue culture seedlings grew well in Shanghai area.

  17. 西南桦苗木猝倒病生防菌的筛选及鉴定研究%Isolation and Identification of Damping-off Antagonist of Betula alnoides Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 朱潇逸; 景跃波; 庞静; 赵永红; 李翠萍; 曾郁珉; 伍建榕

    2013-01-01

    The tissue isolation and dilution-plate were used on healthy seedlings tissue , rhizosphere soil and coffee shell composting matrix for isolating antagonists of damping-off disease of Betula alnoides seedlings;and the isolated strains were identified through molecular method .The confront culture was conducted between 17 isolated strains and the pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani to screen for antagonists .The results indicated that , the fungus strains 5#, 7#and bacteria BJ and JC1showed promising inhibition effects on two pathogens .The inhibi-tion rates of fungus strains 5# and 7# to the pathogens were 91.30 % and 90.12 % respectively , two bacteria strains had the inhibition belts of 0.4 cm and 0.5 cm, with the inhibition rates of 80.40%and 78.60% respec-tively , and BJ showed the better inhibition effect .The inhibition effects of two isolated fungal strains were better than bacterial strains .%采用组织分离法和稀释平板法对西南桦猝倒病发生区健康苗木组织、根际土壤及咖啡壳堆肥化基质进行菌种分离和分子鉴定。将分离获得的17株菌株与西南桦苗木猝倒病病原菌尖孢镰刀菌和腐皮镰刀菌进行平板对峙实验,筛选病原拮抗菌。结果表明,筛选出的真菌5#、7#及细菌 BJ、 JC1对西南桦苗木猝倒病原菌尖孢镰刀菌和腐皮镰刀菌具有较强抑制效果。其中真菌5#和7#的抑菌率分别为91.30%和90.12%;细菌BJ和JC1抑菌带较宽,对峙4天分别达0.4 cm和0.5 cm,抑菌率分别为80.4%和78.6%,且BJ抑菌效果更好;真菌与细菌比较,拮抗真菌5#和7#比拮抗细菌BJ和JC1抑制热区西南桦苗木猝倒病菌效果更好。通过对峙实验筛选出的5#、7#、 BJ和JC1拮抗菌,对热区防治苗木猝倒病及生防制剂的开发应用具有参考价值。

  18. System establishment of stem sections with a bud rapid propagation in Betula 'Royal Frost' and analysis on its influences%紫叶白桦茎芽快繁体系的建立及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 沈海龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop a high-frequency plant regeneration system for Betula 'Royal Frost', taking young sterile stem section with a bud in vitro from B. 'Royal Frost' as explants, bud direct multiplication and plantlet regeneration experiments were conducted. The results showed that the optimal shoots proliferation medium was WPM medium (pH=5.4) supplemented with 0.2 μmol·L-1 6-BA and 20 g·L-1 sucrose, proliferation rate reached 10.4, and the shoots grew well. Shoots growing medium was WPM medium (pH=5.8) supplemented with 20 g·L-1 sucrose, and microshoots with 1.7 cm height and 0.89 mm of base diameter were conducted after 30 days. The microshoots became complete regenerated plantlet through exvitro rooting culture. Microshoots had the highest rooting rate of 91.5%, the most root number of 5.0, and the longest root length of 6.5 cm, in the medium with composition of 50% peat moss, 20% vermiculite and 30% pearlite. The regenerated plantlets well grew in the medium.%为建立高效的紫叶白桦组培快繁体系,以紫叶白桦试管内无菌带芽茎段作为外植体,进行芽直接增生途径的植株再生研究.结果表明:WPM+0.2 μmol·L-16-BA+20 g·L-1蔗糖(pH5.4)是适合紫叶白桦芽直接增生的增殖培养基,增殖率可达10.4,丛生芽生长状态好.WPM+20 g·L-1蔗糖(pH5.8)是适合丛生芽生长和增壮的培养基,在此培养基上培养30 d时,丛生芽可分化形成高1.7 cm、基径0.89 mm的微枝.微枝经过试管外生根培养可形成完整的再生植株.在草炭土、蛭石和珍珠岩以5:2:3体积比混合的生根基质中,微枝生根率最高(可达91.5%),不定根数量最多(5.0条),平均根长最长(6.5 cm).再生植株在上述相同基质中生长状况良好.

  19. Effects of remnant old-growth trees on other tree stems in a secondary Betula albosinensis-Abies faxoniana forest on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China%青藏高原东缘红桦-岷江冷杉次生林中大径级保留木对其他林木的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂萍; 缪宁; 喻泓; 马姜明

    2014-01-01

    Aims As one of the biological legacies in degraded forest ecosystems after severe disturbance,remnant trees have many ecological effects in biodiversity maintenance and recovery of ecosystem structure and functioning.This study aims to understand the effects of remnant old-growth trees on other tree stems in a secondary Betula albosinensis-Abiesfaxoniana forest on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,China.Methods We established a 4 hm2 forest plot in a sub-alpine Betula albosinensis-Abiesfaxoniana stand in Miyaluo in western Sichuan,China.The species names,tree heights,diameters at breast height (DBH) (>1.3 m in height),and basal diameters (≥4 years,and ≤ 1.3 m in height) of all woody stems were recorded and the specific locations of all trees were mapped.Hegyi's competition index model was used to calculate the competition intensity between remnant old-growth trees and other dominant trees of different size-classes as well as the intra-and inter-specific competition intensity of the two dominant tree species,Abiesfaxoniana and Betula albosinensis.We used mark correlation functions kd(r) to explore the associations of the remnant old-growth trees with seedlings and saplings of A.faxoniana.Importantfindings The value of the inter-specific competition index (Hegyi's competition index (CI) =2.484) between B.albosinensis and A.faxoniana was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the values of the intra-specific competition indices of B.albosinensis (CI =1.711) and A.faxoniana (CI =1.548).The value of the competition index between remnant old-growth trees and the small trees ofB.albosinensis was largest among the competition indices between the remnant old-growth trees and tree stems of different size-classes.The competition indices between remnant old-growth trees orB.albosinensis and small trees of A.faxoniana,between remnant old-growth trees and small trees of A.faxoniana and between remnant old-growth trees of A.faxoniana and small trees of B

  20. Relationship Between Climate and Tree-ring Chronology of Betula ermanii on Tree-line in North Slope of the Changbai Mountains%长白山北坡林线处岳桦年轮年表及其与气候的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 赵秀海; 高露双; 姜庆彪

    2012-01-01

    运用相关函数及响应分析等树木年轮气候学方法,研究了长白山北坡林线处岳桦(Betula ermanii径向生长及其与气候的关系.结果表明,林线处岳桦年轮宽度年表具有较强的气候敏感性.其径向生长与上年7月和当年3月的温度显著负相关(P<0.05),与上年9月和当年7月的温度显著正相关;同时与上年6月降水量显著正相关.与季节性气候因子的响应分析表明,岳桦径向生长与当年春季(1~3月)和当年生长季前(4、5月)的平均温度呈显著负相关,与当年生长季前的平均最高温度显著正相关,与降水量的相关关系不显著.利用多元逐步回归方法模拟了岳桦年轮宽度指数与气候因子间的关系,并据此预测在温度和降水增加的背景下,林线处岳桦径向生长将降低14.8%.%The tree-ring width chronologies were developed in north slope of the Changbai Mountains to analyze the Betula ermanii radial growth-climate relationships through dendrochronological methods including correlation and response analysis. The results showed that the radial growth of Betula ermanii exhibited a significantly nagative correlation with monthly temperature of both previous July and current March (P < 0.05), a significantly positive correlation with monthly temperature of previous September and current July, and a significantly positive correlation with monthly total precipitation of previous June. Besides, the analysis of response toseasonally climatic factors showed that the tree-ring growth of B. Ermanii had a significantly negative correlation with mean temperature of current spring (January to March), a significantly negative correlation with mean temperature of the period before current growth season (April and May), and a significantly positive correlation with mean maximum temperature of the period before current growth season. But it showed no significant correlation with seasonally precipitation. Furthermore, the

  1. Optikos įmonės kompiuterizuotos IS sukūrimas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Paičienė, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Many small enterprises in Lithuania don’t use information systems in their accounting. This is because almost all of already developed accounting software is quite complex, expensive and has many additional features, witch aren’t useful for a small enterprises. This is why it has been decided to develop own specific software for a goods accounting. User interface and data structure should be adapted to the specific functions of the small optical enterprise. The purposes of the developed i...

  2. Retranslocation of foliar nutrients of deciduous tree seedlings in different soil condition under free-air O3 enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Shi C; Eguchi N; Meng F; Watanabe T.; Satoh F; Koike T.

    2016-01-01

    Retranslocation is the amount of an element that is depleted from old plant components and is provided for new growth. Leaf senescence is usually accelerated at elevated O3 (eO3), and leaf shedding is influenced by soil nutrient availability (and acidification). In this study, we focused on the net retranslocation and allocation dynamics of foliar nutrients (N, P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Al) to investigate the effect of eO3 on birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica), oak (Quercus mongolica var...

  3. Brood parasitism on the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) by the Oriental Cuckoo (Cuculus optatus)in an artificial nestbox in Beijing%北京小龙门地区中杜鹃寄生人工巢箱中的白眉姬鹟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文洪

    2013-01-01

    2005年在北京小龙门地区发现一对白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)在悬挂于一棵白桦(Betula platyphylla)树上的人工巢箱中繁殖,巢箱内共有5枚卵,其中1枚卵显著大于其他4枚,经过鉴定确认为中杜鹃(Cuculus optatus)的卵.这是首次记录到中杜鹃在人工巢箱中对白眉姬鹟的寄生现象.

  4. Screening and mutagenesis of Bacillus subtitles B26-10 with high antifungal activity against wood sapstain%抗木材变色高效菌株B26-10的诱变选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙薇; 常建民; 张柏林

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis B26 with antifungal activity against wood sapstain was isolated from the soil samples of Betula platyphylla Suk. Cells of Bacillus subtilis B26, as an original strain were mutated by UV irradiation to improve its antifungal activity. The mutant B26-10 was obtained due to enhanced activity in inhibiting Trichoderna viride 7258, Cerato-cystis fimbriata 8430, and Alternaria alternata 5173. Compared to the performance of strain B26, the antifungal activity of mutant B26-10 was promoted to 60 % for T. Viride 7258, 46 % for C. Fimbriata 8430, 25 % for A. Alternata 5173, respectively. Successive sub-culturing of B26-10 for 10 generations did not cause its antifungal activity loss. The antifungal activity of the supernatant, fermentation broth and the broth after treated with heating were also tested. The antifungal activity of fermentation broth was slightly higher than those of the supernatant; the fermentation broth lost antifungal activity after heating. The results indicated that the antifungal activity seems to be related with the production of active metabolites, and the active metabolites could be proteins. The successful control of sapstain can be obtained by the pretreat-ment of Bacillus subtilis B26-10 before the attack of sapstain. The results indicated that Bacillus subtilis B26-10 could be a potent organism for bio-control agent in the field of wood protection.%枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)B26分离自白桦林地土壤,对多种变色菌具有抑制效果.经紫外诱变,筛选得到1株抑菌活性更强的突变菌株B26-10.与菌株B26相比,突变菌株B26-10显著提高了对引起木材变色的绿色木霉7258、甘薯长喙壳8430和交链孢5173的抑菌效果,提高幅度分别为60%、46%和25 %.菌株B26-10经传代10次后,抑菌效果稳定.对突变菌株B26-10的上清液、发酵液及高温处理后的发酵液进行抑菌活性测定,结果表明,发酵液的抑菌活性略大于上清液抑菌活性,发酵

  5. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  6. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  7. ДЕФИНИЦИЯ ДИССЕМИНАЦИИ INONOTUS OBLIQUUS (PERS.) PIL. ТИПОМ ЛЕСА BETULA-КОНСОРЦИИ, ОПРЕДЕЛЯЮЩИМ ИНТЕГРАЛЬНУЮ КОНСТЕЛЛЯЦИЮ

    OpenAIRE

    Баландайкин, М.

    2013-01-01

    Устанавливаются особенности влияния типа леса Betula pendula Roth. на степень встречаемости в сформированных насаждениях патологического агента Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil.

  8. 拉萨-林芝植被样带不同群落类型的细根生物量%Biomass of Fine Root in Different Community Type on the Tibetan Vegetation Transect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永涛; 石培礼; 徐玲玲

    2009-01-01

    Fine root biomass was measured by soil core sampler in four community type on Tibetan Plateau, of which include two coppice of Betida platyphylla and Quercus aquifolioides , one shrub of Salix oritrepha, and one coniferous woodland of Pinus densata. The fine root density were Betida platyphylla of (785.9±290.4) g·m~(-2), Quercus aquifolioides of (801.0±279.5) g·m~(-2) , Salix oritrepha of (376.0±146.0) g·m~(-2) and Pinus densata of (431.2 ±171.1) g·m~(-2) . Result showed that the fine root density of two coppices was significantly higher than that of shrub and coniferous woodland. Dead fine root was 16.2% of the total fine root in Betula platyphylla, and the percentage were about 25% in other three type of forest. Distribution of fine root had the same pattern that high density of fine root appeared at 0~10 cm soil depth.%@@ 细根通常是指植被地下根系中直径小于2 nun的根,其生产和周转直接影响着整个生态系统的碳平衡和养分循环.在森林生态系统中约3%~84%(大部分为10%-60%)的净初级生产力被用于细根的生产(张小全等,2001);而细根的周转则是森林土壤C累积的最大输入量,如果忽略细根的生产、死亡和分解,土壤有机物质和养分元素的周转将被低估20%-80%(Vogt et al.,1986;1996).

  9. Genetic relationship of interspecies for eight birch species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic relationships of eight species of genus Betula were evaluatedusing ISSR marks. A total of 236 loci were generated from 17 ISSR primers. Perce ntage of polymorphic bands (PPB) varied from 5.93 to 19.92. The highest and the lowest level of genetic differentiation were detected in B. Ovalifolia and B. Ma ximowicziana Regel respectively. In these eight species, genetic diversity of bi rch (HT) was 24.38 %, and the genetic variation (GST ) interspecies was accounti ng for 79.36% of total genetic variation. According to the cluster results of ge netic distance, the eight species were classified into three groups as B. Davur ica, B. Ovalifolia, B. Platyphylla and B. Pendula for one group;B. Schmidtii, B . Costata and B. Ermanii Cham. Var. Communis for one group, and B. Maximowiczian a Regel for another group. The result of cluster is consistent with traditional morphological classification.

  10. THE WATER CONSERVATION OF THE MAJOR FOREST TYPES OF DAQING MOUNTAIN IN INNER MONGOLIA%内蒙古大青山主要林分类型水源涵养能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬至; 张秋良; 陈高娃; 青梅

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the canopy interception, water holding capacity of litter and soil moisture level was observed in natural pine forest and the different ages of secondary birch, and the observation data were analyzed by SAS data processing software. The regression equation of natural rainfall and canopy interception was established. The result shows that soil water holding capacity is increasing from the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation andyoung-aged forest、middle -aged forest、matured forest of Betula platyphylla natural secondary forest, but there is a downward trend as soil depth increased. Soil water holding capacity of Betula platyphylla natural secondary forest is higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation.%本文对研究区的油松人工林和天然白桦次生林不同林龄的林冠截留量、枯落物持水量及土壤层的持水量进行了观测,并通过SAS数据处理软件对观测数据进行了分析.建立了自然降雨与林冠截留的回归方程,不同分解程度枯落物持水比率及持水速率的表达式,并对不同林分类型土壤持水量进行多重比较分析,结果显示油松人工林和天然白桦次生林的幼龄林、中龄林、成熟林土壤持水量依次增大并随着土层深度的增大持水能力呈下降趋势,天然白桦次生林的土壤持水量高于人工油松林.

  11. 乌拉山自然保护区不同林分类型的土壤特征%Soil Characteristics of Different Forest Stand Types in Wulashan Natural Reserve of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永宏; 张立欣; 王伟峰; 王博

    2015-01-01

    To measure the physical and chemical properties of soil and understand soil characteristics of different forest stand types in the Wulashan Natural Reserve , 7 sample plots of Betula platyphylla Suk., Amygdalus mongol-ica ( Maxim.) Ricker, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.and grass land were set, and soil sampling from soil layers of 0~10 cm, 10 ~20 cm, 20~40 cm, and 40~60 cm were collected by taking 7 forest stand types as research objects. The results shows that there were obvious layering characteristics in the soil bulk density , moisture content , and the maximum water holding capacity, soil bulk density was the lowest in surface layer and increased with soil depth, while the soil moisture content and the maximum water holding capacity had the opposite rule , and there were sig-nificant difference among the plots in terms of physical properties.The content of soil organic matter had significant negatively relationship with soil bulk density ( r=-0.843**) , while had significant positive correlation with the moisture content and soil ( r=0.714**) and maximum water holding capacity ( r=0.713**) .By the composition and production of litter, different forest stand types could indirectly influenced soil physical properties through the soil organic matter content .The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content had an obvious phenomenon of laye-ring, and showed a tendency of Ncontent decreased with soil depth, while the total phosphorus content and the pH value had no significant difference among each layer.There were extremely significant positive correlation between the content of soil organic matter and total nitrogen among each plot ( r=0.817**) .The community structure and its dynamics had significant correlation with soil organic matter and total nitrogen content.This study showed that the cooperative feedback mechanism of soil and vegetation was mainly regulated by the soil organic matter content.%以乌拉山自然保护区7种林分类型为研究对象,

  12. 退化华北落叶松林枯落物对近自然经营的短期响应%Short-term response of litter of degraded Larix pricipis-rupprechtii forest to close-to natural management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董伯骞; 黄选瑞; 夏明瑞

    2011-01-01

    Taken the degraded Larix pricipis-rupprechtii man-made forest in the mountain area of north Hebei Province as objects, the short-term response of water-holding characteristics to different management measures in three years were studied, which could provide theoretical base for the research of the impact of close-to nature management measure on soil and water conservation function of forest. Results showed that: 1 ) In clear-cut strips (blockading + clear cut in strips + manual promote renew), litter storage increased firstly and then decreased, but in leave strip ( blockading only ), it increased continuously. 2 ) The increasing range for maximum water holding rate was clear cut strip 15 m (72. 54% ) > clear cut strip 30 m (49.54%) > leave strip (27.03%), for effective retention rate occurred clear cut strip 15 m ( 110. 13% ) > clear cut strip 30 m (83.27%) > leave strip (40.64%), and for maximum water holding capability was leave strip( 175.96% ) > clear cut strip 15 m (70. 39% ) > clear strip 30m (47.01%), and for effective water retention was leave strip (204. 99% ) > clear cut strip 30 m ( 141.96% ) > clear strip 15m (50. 37% ). 3) The litter mass, maximum water holding capability and effective water retention of afforestation land of Betula platyphylla Suk were larger than those of afforestation land of Larix principis-rupprechtii and Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour. It can be concluded that close-to nature management measure would significantly enhance the water conservation function of forest land in the short-term and it was effective measures for the restoration of ecological function of degraded Larix principis-rupprechtii forest.%以冀北山地退化华北落叶松人工林为研究对象,探讨枯落物持水性能对不同经营措施3年内的短期响应,为深入研究近自然经营对森林水土保持功能的影响提供理论依据.结果表明:1)皆伐带(封禁+带状皆伐+人工存进更新)

  13. AcEST: DK946208 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L protein OS=Xanthomonas oryzae pv. or... 33 9.3 tr|B2SUK4|B2SUK4_XANOP Exopolysaccharide xanthan biosynthes... 235 >tr|B2SUK4|B2SUK4_XANOP Exopolysaccharide xanthan biosynthesis pyruvyltransf

  14. 庞泉沟地区山地杨桦林优势种种群格局与动态%POPULATION PATTERN AND DYNAMICS OF MOUNTAINOUS POPLAR-BIRCH FOREST IN PANGQUANGOU NATURAL RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田世广; 张金屯; 张钦弟; 张斌; 苏日古嘎

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic changes of forest communities in various stages are shown as the dominant population growth and demise and changes of competitive strength, this change trend can be effectively described by size structure and pattern analysis. The paper studies characteristics of dynamic change in the mountain poplar-birch in the Pangquangou National Nature Reserve. and results show that Populus trernula and Betula platyphylla and Picea wilsonii are clumped within a certain scale, Populus tremula, and Picea wilsonii occupy similar habitat. Picea wilsonii own notable advantage in the competition, and will replace Populus tremula in the succession. For population change in the community is relative stable Betula platyphylla and Betula albosinensis, long-presence, and possible form broadleaf-coniferous forest mixed forest together with Picea wilsonii.%森林群落的动态变化在各个阶段表现为优势种群数量增长和消亡及竞争强弱的变化,径级结构和格局分析能有效地描述这种变化的趋势.本文研究庞泉沟自然保护区山地杨桦林这种变化特征,结果表明群落变化过程中,一定尺度范围内的山杨、白桦、青杆在小尺度上均为集群分布,在大尺度上趋于随机分布.山杨和青杆呈明显正相关关系,占据相似的生境,青杆在竞争中占有优势,在演替过程中将取代山杨.白桦和红桦在群落变化过程中较为稳定,在演替中可能将长期存在,与青杆形成针-阔叶混交林.

  15. Vartotojo prieigos duomenų saugojimo lustinėse kortelėse metodo sukūrimas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Matačiūnas, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Darbe nagrinėjama galimybė panaudoti lustinę kortelę saugoti vartotojo prieigos duomenis. Analizuojami raktų apsikeitimo protokolai DH-EKE, SRP. Taip pat nagrinėjama saugaus ryšio technologija TLS. Pasiūlomas konkretus autentifikavimo protokolas skirtas naudoti su lustinėmis kortelėmis. Atliekamas protokolo saugumo, greitaveikos tyrimas. In this paper we research the possibility to use smart card as a secure storage to store user access data. We study such key exchange algorithms as SRP, D...

  16. КОРРЕЛИРОВАНИЕ СОДЕРЖАНИЯ АСКОРБИНОВОЙ КИСЛОТЫ В АССИМИЛЯЦИОННОМ АППАРАТЕ BETULA PENDULA ROTH. С ДЕЙСТВИЕМ ПАТОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО АГЕНТА

    OpenAIRE

    Баландайкин, М.

    2014-01-01

    Рассматриваются особенности влияния совокупности антропогенных факторов и фитопатологического состояния дерева Betula pendula на концентрацию аскорбиновой кислоты в ассимиляционном аппарате. По критерию воздействия Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pilat и присутствию поллютантов оценивалась адаптационная способность растения к действию стрессоров, а также возможность выработки механизмов, отвечающих за ингибирование биосинтеза аскорбиновой кислоты. Показано, что из всех проанализированных в дан...

  17. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  18. The effect of meteorological factors on airborne Betula pollen concentrations in Lublin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Krystyna; Kubik-Komar, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of the birch atmospheric pollen seasons in Lublin in the period 2001-2010. Pollen monitoring was conducted using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 sampler. The atmospheric pollen seasons were determined with the 98% method. Regression analysis was used to determine correlations between meteorological conditions and the pattern of the birch pollen season. On average, the birch pollen season started on 12 April, ended on 13 May, and lasted 32 days. The peak value and the Seasonal Pollen Index showed the greatest variation in particular years. All the seasons were right-skewed. During the study years, a trend was found towards earlier occurrence of the seasonal peak. Regression equations were developed for the following parameters of the atmospheric pollen season: start, duration, peak value and average pollen concentration during the season. The obtained model fit was at a level of 64-81%. Statistical analysis shows that minimum temperature of February and March and total rainfall in June in the year preceding pollen release have the greatest effect on the birch atmospheric pollen season in Lublin. Low temperatures in February promote the occurrence of high pollen concentrations.

  19. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  20. Selective Solvents for Extraction of Triterpenes from Betula Pendula Outer Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Rižikovs, J; Dobele, G.; Jurkjāne, V; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    The volume of birch plywood production in Latvia is illustrated by the 208 000 m3 of plywood sold in 2011 and about 562 000 m3 of processed birch veneer blocks. Wood residues such as bark, veneer shorts, cut off ends and others are used as a fuel. It would be more expedient to increase the birch wood utilisation degree by involving also birch outer bark in the processing cycle. It makes up 2% of the veneer blocks’ mass. At the J.S.C. “Latvijas Finieris”, about 6000 t per year of graded and mi...

  1. Determining the age of young silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees growing on former agricultural

    OpenAIRE

    Tkaczyk, Miłosz; Tomusiak, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In Poland, according to the law (amendment of the act of 21st May 2010) – on the provision of information on the environment and its protection, public participation in environmental protection and environmental impact assessments etc. (Official Law Journal article 08.199.1227, as amended) – the owner can cut down trees without permission, if they do not exceed the age of 10 years old. However, if an owner happens to cuts down a tree on his property without knowing the age of the ...

  2. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  3. Fruit wall anatomical structure of the genus Betula section Lenta (Betulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Yatsenko; Igor O. Yatsenko

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of the Lentae are referred to lower syncarpous nuts. Unlike most birches, the three-lobed scales in section Lentae stay attached to the axis for a long time. The fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp (derivative of outer tissues of inferior ovary, the tissues of receptacular origin) and the pericarp itself (mesocarp and the endocarp derivating from the ovary wall). The epicarp consists of two zones: epidermis and subepidermal zone. Two-four layers of larger sclerenchymatous cel...

  4. Structure changes and succession dynamic of the natural secondary forest after severe fire interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin-fan; LIU Guang-ju; WANG Zhi-cheng

    2009-01-01

    The structure and dynamic succession law of natural secondary forest after severe fire interference in recent 20 years were studied by adopting the method of deducing time series from the spatial sequence of vegetation in Heihe region, Heilongjiang, China. Two typical and widely distributed forest types in the study area, namely forest type A and forest type B, were selected as study subjects. Forest type A is pure broadleaf forest or broadleaf mixed forest mainly composing of superior Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana in the area with gradient 25°. Species richness, vegetation coverage, important value, and similarity index of community in different layers (Herb, shrub, small tree, and arbor layers) were investigated and analyzed for the two typical forests. The results show that after fire interference, the species richness and coverage in each layer in forest type A were higher than that in forest type B. Both for forest type A and B, with elapse of post-fire years, the species richness and coverage of herbs and shrubs showed a decline tendency, while those of arbor layer present a rising tendency. Through comparison of the important values of species in each layer and analysis of community structure changes, the dynamic process of post-fire vegetation succession for forest type A and B was separately determined. Post-fire 80 years' succession tendency of forest type A is B. platyphylla and Larix gmelinii mixed forest. Its shrub layer is mainly composed of Corylus heterophylla and Vaccinium uliginosum, and herb layer is dominated by Carex tristachya, Athyrium multidentatum, and Pyrola incarnate; whereas, the post-fire 80 years' succession of forest type B is Q. mongolica and B. davurica mixed forest. Its shrub layer is mainly composed of lespedeza bicolar and corylus heterophylla and herb layer is dominated by Carex tristachya, Asparagus densiflorus, and Hemerocallis minor.

  5. Plant Diversity and Its Elevational Gradient Patterns in Wulu Mountain, Shanxi, China%山西五鹿山植物物种多样性及其海拔梯度格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 苗艳明; 张钦弟; 毕润成

    2012-01-01

    Samplings were gathered and examined in forests along altitudinal gradients of Wulu Mountain, China. The results indicated that the major communities in the forests can be classified as Quercus wutaishanica, Pinus labulaeformis, Acer ginnala, Betula platyphylla, Pinus bungeana, Syringa reticulate- Acer ginnala and Betula platyphylla community. Our research suggests that the Quercus wutaishanica community appears to be a dominant community in a successional stage toward temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests. The species richness in different layers of these communities can be distinguished as, herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer. Both the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Simpson diversity index showed similar patterns. The species diversity indices of different layers and overall importance value of the forest communities indicate that the forests appear to be successional and sub-climax communities in Wulu Mountain. Our research also suggests that there is a peak with higher species diversity index in the communities of middle elevation. We suggested that the pattern could be affected by temperature, moisture , and human disturbance. The pattern could also be influenced by the nature of successional stages and sub-climax communities.%采用典型取样法,沿海拔梯度对五鹿山自然植被进行调查.结果表明:五鹿山主要群落类型为辽东栎(Quercus wutaishanica)群落、油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)群落、茶条槭(Acer ginnala)群落、白皮松(Pinus bungeana)群落、暴马丁香-茶条槭(Syringa reticulate-Acer ginnala)群落和白桦(Betula platyphylla)群落.其中,辽东栎群落略占优势,这可能暗示着该地区植被具有继续向暖温带落叶阔叶林演替的倾向.各层次植物物种丰富度呈现出草本层>灌木层>乔木层特征,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson多样性指数整体规律为草本层>灌木层>乔木层.以五鹿山森林群落不同层次的各种物种多样性指数和森林

  6. Botanical Verification of Divine Trees in “Legend of Mountains and Rivers”%《山海经》三大神木的植物学考订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘本玺; 李恒; 龙春林; 裴盛基; 李尚雨; 李晓明

    2013-01-01

    《山海经》中有太阳东出扶桑、日中建木、西归若木的传说,长期以来一直存疑,争论不休,直到四川广汉三星堆遗址出土了青铜神树,才证明了传说的真实性.我们结合《山海经》等相关典籍,从植物学角度对扶桑、建木、若木的原植物进行探讨,基于典籍描述、考古资料、植物形态特征、生态习性和地理分布等,初步考订扶桑的植物原型为桦木科白桦(Betula platyphylla),建木的植物原型为杉科杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata),若木的植物原型为木棉科木棉(Bombax ceiba).%There is a tale in the Chinese ancient book “Legend of Mountains and Rivers” where the sun rises from a “Fusang Tree” in the east,hangs above a “Jian Tree” at noon,and goes down at the “Ruo Tree” in the west.People have debated the reality of such Divine Trees for many centuries and arguments for and against their existence did not stop until Bronze Trees were discovered in Sanxingdui,Guanghan Prefecture,Sichuan Province.This archaeological discovery proved that Divine Trees referred to in folklore existed.Here we report verification of prototypes of the three Divine Trees referred to in “Legend of Mountains and Rivers”,based on botanical knowledge and reference to the ancient literature.We verified that the Fusang Treeg Tprototype may have been Betula platyphylla,the Jian Tree's prototype was possibly Cunninghamia lanceolata,while the Ruo Tree's prototype may have been Bombax ceiba.

  7. 哈尔滨市3种阔叶树树干钠镁钙铝纵向变化特征%Longitudinal Variation in Na,Mg,Ca,Al of Trunk for Three Kinds of Broadleaf Tree in Harbin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于辉; 高禾

    2013-01-01

    species is lower and the value is matching .The order of the migration of the four elements in the trunk from easy to difficult is :Phelloden-dron amurense (Mg > Ca > Na > Al) ;Quercus mongolica (Ca > Na > Al > Mg) ;Betula platyphylla (Mg > Al > Ca> Na) .Migration ability of Quercus mongolica on Na , Phellodendron amurense & Betula p latyphylla on Mg , Quercus mongolica & Betula platyphylla on Al ,Ca element are stronger .

  8. 黑河地区不同优势树种林下枯落物量的比较%Comparing the Litter Amounts under Dominant Tree Species of Heihe District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元发; 吴铭

    2014-01-01

    枯落物是森林生态系统物质循环的一个重要组成部分,具有极为重要的水文功能,枯落物水文生态功能的发挥首先取决于枯落物的量。通过对黑河地区不同优势树种林下枯落量的调查与测定,结果表明:黑河地区各种优势树种中,落叶松的单位面积上枯落物总干质量最大,达到5.46 t 灋hm -2,而樟子松的单位面积上枯落物总干质量最小,只有1.08t 灋hm -2,赤杨、山杨、柞树、白桦、黑桦单位面积上枯落物总干质量为2.93~4.9t 灋hm -2。%Litter is an important constituent part in forestry ecosystem cycle ,with vital hydrological function ,which is determined primarily by litter amount .In this work ,litter amount under dominant tree species of Heihe district was surveyed .The result manifested litter amount of unit area was highest under Larix gmelinii ,up to 5 .46 t · hm -2 , while it was lowest under Pinus sylvestris ,only with 1 .08 t · hm -2 .Under A lnus japonica ,Populus davidiana , Quercus mongolica ,Betula platyphylla ,Betula dahurica ,it was from 2 .93 to 4 .9 t · hm -2 .

  9. Study on the Relationship between Forest Fire and Forest Types in Saihanba Forest Center%塞罕坝机械林场森林类型与林火关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于士涛

    2014-01-01

    该文通过对塞罕坝机械林场野外调查获取实地数据来分析林场的林型特征与火灾的关系,得出结论如下:樟子松纯林属于极易燃类型;白桦林属于中等易燃类型;蒙古栎林属较易燃类型;落叶松和白桦的混交林内属于较难燃类型;落叶松、樟子松和云杉的混交林内属于较易燃类型。%In this dissertation datum gotten by some field investigation was also used to analyze the rela⁃tion between forest fire and the character of forest. The main conclusions as follows:Forest of L. gmelinii is difficult to burn;forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv is very inflammable;forest of Betula platy⁃phylla Suk is mid-inflammable;forest of Quercus mongolica Fisch is correspondingly inflammable. Mixed for⁃est of L. gmelinii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica Litv is uninflammable;mixed forest of L. gmelinii,P. syl⁃vestris var. mongolica Litv and Picea asperata Mast is correspondingly inflammable.

  10. Growth responses of gypsy moth larvae to elevated CO2:the influence of methods of insect rearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhu Ji; Lin-Li An; Xiao-Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on foliar chemistry of two tree species (Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag.and Betula platyphylla) and on growth of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae were examined.Furthermore,we focused on the comparison of results on the growth responses of larvae obtained from two methods of insect rearing,the nochoice feeding trial performed in the laboratory or in situ in open-top chambers.On the whole,both primary and secondary metabolites in the leaves of the two tree species were significantly affected by main effects of time (sampling date),CO2 and species.Elevated CO2 significantly increased the C:N ratio and concentrations of the soluble sugar,starch,total nonstructural carbohydrates,total phenolics and condensed tannins,but significantly decreased the concentration of nitrogen.Higher contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins were detected in the frass of larvae reared in elevated CO2 treatments.Overall,the growth of gypsy moth larvae were significantly inhibited by elevated CO2 and CO2induced changes in leaf quality.Our study did not indicate the two methods of insect rearing could influence the direction of effects of elevated CO2 on the growth of individual insects; however,the magnitude of negative effects of elevated CO2 on larval growth did differ between the two insect rearing methods,and it seems that the response magnitude was also mediated by larval age and host plant species.

  11. Analysis of organic acids in selected forest litters of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJin-feng; CUIXiao-yang

    2003-01-01

    Larch (Larix olgensis), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and White birch (Betula platyphylla) are the major planting species in northeast China. The samples of forest litters were collected from the stands of the above 4 species in Laoyeling and Jianlagou experiment stations of Maorshan Exp. Forest Farm (45°12′-45°30′N,127°30′-127°48′E), Northeast Forestry University, in early October 2002. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis were carried out on the organic acids existing in freshly fallen litters (L layer) and hemi-decomposed litters (F layer) of the four forest species by using Gas Chromatogram system. A wide variety of organic acids were identified, including oxalic, malonic, fumaric,succinic, maleic, malic, citric, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0 acids. In respect of L litters of all samples, the oxalic acid content (over 30 mg/g) was the highest of the seven low-molecular-weight organic acids identified, while the content of oleic or linoleic (above 40 mg/g) was found to be highest among the six high aliphatic acids identified. As to F litters, oxalic acid content was also the highest, followed by linoleic and oleic. For the same tree species or the same forest, the kinds and contents of organic acids in L litters were more abundant than that in F litters.

  12. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fansuo; Sun, Fengkun; Li, Leilei; Liu, Kun; Zhan, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5) sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374) were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  13. [Soil nutrient status of pure birch and larch plantations based on their seedlings bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-ling; Wang, Qing-cheng; Sun, Xin-xin

    2011-08-01

    One-year-old birch (Betula platyphylla) and larch (Larix olgensis) seedlings were respectively planted in pots with the soils taken from 35-year-old pure birch and larch plantations, and the seedlings growth, biomass increment, foliar nutrient content, and soil nutrient status were monitored, aimed to evaluate the fertility levels of the two soils and the possible interspecific interaction in mixed larch-birch forest. Birch soil had significantly higher contents of total N and available N than larch soil, while larch soil had significantly higher contents of total P, available P, and total K than birch soil (P birch seedlings growing on birch soil were 69%, 52%, and 65% (P birch seedlings growing on birch soil was higher than that on larch soil, while the foliar P concentration was higher when the seedlings were growing on larch soil than on birch soil. The birch soil had higher content of available N because of the higher litterfall, while the larch soil had greater available P because of the higher P mobilizing effect. It was predicted that in mixed birch-larch forest, the complementary interaction of soil N and P could benefit the growth of the two tree species.

  14. Scale correlation between vegetation and soil in larch forest, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After the analysis on the linages of species, the fractal dimensions of vegetation and soil in a managed larch(Larix gmelini) forest in Daxingan Mountains, NE China were estimated separately, and their scale correlation was discussed. (1) The dominant species of the larch forest, larch and the important accompany species, birch(Betula platyphylla) were homogeneously distributed along the transect. The other species were heterogeneous, and can be divided into three groups located on the right , left and central parts of th transect respectively. The transect can be separated into two parts at the position for the 29th quadrat(580m). (2) The fractal dimension in the large scale range from 200 to 400m was lower than that in the small scale range from 0 to 200m in the forest, indicating the different variation regularities of spatial heterogeneity in different scale ranges. The inflection point at 200m was one of the key scales of spatial hierarchy of the larch forest. (3) The scale variation of the forest was correlated with that of soil pH on large scales, which reflected the indirect control of the dominant species to the spatial pattern and species distribution of understories by changing soil acidity in the forest and the indirect effects of forest management.

  15. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  16. Belowground carbon pools and dynamics in China's warm temperate and sub-tropical deciduous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the first estimates of pools and dynamics of microbes, roots, plant litter and soil organic carbon (SOC in three dominant types of China's vast deciduous forest area: Betula platyphylla, Quercus liaotungensis, and Quercus aliena varacuteserrata. Organic matter degradation rates overshadowed litter inputs as the main determinant of the soil carbon stocks. Across the three forests, rates of litter decomposition were also indicative for turnover rates of SOC. Litter and SOC decay was faster in the sub-tropical than in the warm-temperate forests. Among the latter, SOC turnover was highest in the forest producing the higher-quality litter. Microbial biomass was, as expected, correlated with SOC content. Microbial activity, in contrast, was highest at the sub-tropical forest, despite the lower SOC availability, lower fraction of labile SOC, and lower soil microbial biomass. These results may contribute to increased understanding of controls over belowground carbon cycling in deciduous forests.

  17. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  18. Response of seedlings of different tree species to elevated C02 in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; JILan-zhu; WANGMiao; LIQiu-rong

    2003-01-01

    Eco-physiological responses of seedlings of eight species, Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis, Lanx olgensis,Populus ussuriensis, Betula platyphylla, Tilia amurensis, Traxinus mandshurica and Acer mono from broadleaved/Korean pine forest, to elevated CO2 were studied by using open-top chambers under natural sunlight in Changbai Mountain, China in two growing seasons (1998-1999). Two concentrations of CO2 were designed: elevated CO2 (700 pmol· mol-1) and ambient CO2 (400μmol· mol-1). The study results showed that the height growth of the tree seedlings grown at elevated CO2 increased by about 10%-40% compared to those grown at ambient CO2. And the water using efficiency of seedlings also followed the same tendency. However, the responses of seedlings in transpiration and chlorophyll content to elevated CO2 varied with tree species.The broad-leaf tree species were more sensitive to the elevated CO2than conifer tree species. All seedlings showed a photo-synthetic acclimation to Iong-term elevated CO2.

  19. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guodong; Yu, Xinxiao; Fan, Dengxing; Jia, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r) functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono) and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined. PMID:27028757

  20. Bioconversion of Birch Wood Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate to Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947

  1. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansuo Zeng

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5 sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374 were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  2. Annual and Monthly Variations in Litter Macronutrients of Three Subalpine Forests in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wan-Qin; WANG Kai-Yun; S.KELLOM(A)KI; ZHANG Jian

    2006-01-01

    Macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in litter of three primarily spruce (Picea purpurea Masters) (SF), fir (Abies faxoniana Rehder & E. H. Wilson) (FF), and birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) (BF) subalpine forests in western China were measured to understand the monthly variations in litter nutrient concentrations and annual and monthly nutrient returns via litterfall. Nutrient concentration in litter showed the rank order of Ca > N > Mg > K > S > P. Monthly variations in nutrient concentrations were greater in leaf litter (LL) than other litter components. The highest and lowest concentrations of N, P, K, and S in LL were found in the growing season and the nongrowing season, respectively, but Ca and Mg were the opposite. Nutrient returns via litterfall showed a marked monthly pattern with a major peak in October and one or two small peaks in February and/or May, varying with the element and stand type, but no marked monthly variations in nutrient returns via woody litter, reproductive litter, except in May for the BF, and moss litter. Not only litter production but also nutrient concentration controlled the annual nutrient return and the monthly nutrient return pattern. The monthly patterns of the nutrient concentration and return were of ecological importance for nutrient cycling and plant growth in the subalpine forest ecosystems.

  3. Flavonoids in the leaves of Polish species of the genus Betula L. IV. The flavonoids of Betula pubescens Ehrh., B. carpatica Waldst., B. tortuosa Ledeb., and B. nana L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides the flavonoids detected earlier, the leaves of purebred B. pubescens specimens were found to contain quercetin 3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, luteolin 4'-glucoside, isoquercitrin, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside, whereas B. nana exhibited a low content of myricetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside, and also possibly quercetin 7-rhamnoside. The qualitative composition of the flavonoids of desiccated B. tortuosa leaves seems to point to the validity of the assumption that this birch is of hybrid origin. The set of flavonoids in B. carpatica was almost identical with that in B. tortuosa.

  4. Elevated CO2 interacts with herbivory to alter chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf temperature in Betula papyrifera and Populus tremuloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Paul D; Hillstrom, Michael L; Lindroth, Richard L; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-08-01

    Herbivory can influence ecosystem productivity, but recent evidence suggests that damage by herbivores modulates potential productivity specific to damage type. Because productivity is linked to photosynthesis at the leaf level, which in turn is influenced by atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, we investigated how different herbivore damage types alter component processes of photosynthesis under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2). We examined spatial patterns in chlorophyll fluorescence and the temperature of leaves damaged by leaf-chewing, gall-forming, and leaf-folding insects in aspen trees as well as by leaf-chewing insects in birch trees under ambient and elevated CO(2) at the aspen free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site in Wisconsin. Both defoliation and gall damage suppressed the operating efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in remaining leaf tissue, and the distance that damage propagated into visibly undamaged tissue was marginally attenuated under elevated CO(2). Elevated CO(2) increased leaf temperatures, which reduced the cooling effect of gall formation and freshly chewed leaf tissue. These results provide mechanistic insight into how different damage types influence the remaining, visibly undamaged leaf tissue, and suggest that elevated CO(2) may reduce the effects of herbivory on the primary photochemistry controlling photosynthesis.

  5. Effect of latitude and mountain height on the timberline (Betula pubescens ssp. czerpanovii elevation along the central Scandinavian mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Odland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously published isoline maps of Fennoscandian timberlines show that their highest elevations lie in the high mountain areas in central south Norway and from there the limits decrease in all directions. These maps are assumed to show differences in “climatic forest limits”, but the isoline patterns indicate that factors other than climate may be decisive in most of the area. Possibly the effects of ‘massenerhebung’ and the “summit syndrome” may locally have major effects on the timberline elevation. The main aim of the present study is to quantify the effect of latitude and mountain height on the regional variation of mountain birch timberline elevation. The study is a statistical analysis of previous published data on the timberline elevation and nearby mountain height. Selection of the study sites has been stratified to the Scandinavian mountain range (the Scandes from 58 to 71o N where the timberlines reach their highest elevations. The data indicates that only the high mountain massifs in S Norway and N Sweden are sufficiently high to allow birch forests to reach their potential elevations. Stepwise regression shows that latitude explains 70.9% while both latitude and mountain explain together 89.0% of the timberline variation. Where the mountains are low (approximately 1000 m higher than the measured local timberlines effects of the summit syndrome will lower the timberline elevation substantially and climatically determined timberlines will probably not have been reached. This indicates that models of future timberlines and thereby the alpine area extent in a warmer world may result in unrealistic conclusions without taking account of local mountain heights.

  6. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  7. The pattern of intrapopulational and interpopulational changes of Betula pendula in Iran, based on leaf morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Esmaeilpour Poodeh; Kambiz Taheri Abkenar; Ali Aalami; Amireslam Bonyad

    2014-01-01

    Despite superior medicinal properties of Birch, there aren’t any studies reported on its morphological diversity. For the first time, leaf samples were collected from four different sites, each site 10 trees and each tree 30 fertile and sterile shoots and leaves (totally 2400). In analyzing the mean values, the Siahmarz kuh showd the maximum and the Marmishoo minimum size mean. Angle of leaf base and number of veins had minimum and fluctuating asymmetry and distance border had a maximum coeff...

  8. The pattern of intrapopulational and interpopulational changes of Betula pendula in Iran, based on leaf morphological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeilpour Poodeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite superior medicinal properties of Birch, there aren’t any studies reported on its morphological diversity. For the first time, leaf samples were collected from four different sites, each site 10 trees and each tree 30 fertile and sterile shoots and leaves (totally 2400. In analyzing the mean values, the Siahmarz kuh showd the maximum and the Marmishoo minimum size mean. Angle of leaf base and number of veins had minimum and fluctuating asymmetry and distance border had a maximum coefficient of variation, minimum and maximum morphological diversity respectively. Average size of sterile leaf traits was larger than average size of fertile leaf traits. It seemed that Siahmarz Kuh is had the most interapopulation diversity and could apply a transition source to sink. The slightest change in the veins of the population in birch was more strongly controlled by genes. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated high statistical significance of all factors: leaf type, population, type population, tree nested population and type × tree nested population. The cluster analysis identified three clusters, the first cluster contained only Marmishoo trees. Because the majority of the population, geographic distribution of genotypes was not consistent with the grouping that could be due to the influence of environmental factors on morphological traits, so it is recommended to use molecular markers. Canonical discriminant analysis showed that petiole length ratio and fluctuating asymmetry could be used in future research on morphological diversity among populations of B. pendula.

  9. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. III. The flavonoids of B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves were found to contain compounds characteristic of B. "nova" i.e. myricitrin, isoquercitrin and probably also kaempferol 3-rhamno-7-glucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and quercetin 7,3',4'-trimethyl ether. They also contain compounds which occur in B. pendula Roth. (kaempferol 3-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-glactoside, 6-methoxykaempferide, acacetin 7-glucoside, and probably scutellarein 7-glycoside. These biochemical traits bring out still better the hybrid origin of B. oycoviensis.

  10. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive.

  11. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  12. Fomozės sukėlėjų Leptoshpaeria maculans ir L. biglobosa paplitimas įvairių rūšių bastutinių šeimos augaluose

    OpenAIRE

    Fedaravičiūtė, Sigita

    2014-01-01

    Magistrantūros studijų darbu siekta nustatyti Leptosphaeria maculans ir L. biglobosa rūšių paplitimą ir pasiskirstymą ant įvairių rūšių bastutinių šeimos augalų (Brassica napus var. biennis, Brassica napus var. annua, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea var. italica) bei grybo surinkto iš skirtingų augalų rūšių augimo specifiką in vitro sąlygomis.

  13. Oversight framework over oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer: comparative analysis of the Hwang Woo Suk case under South Korean bioethics law and U.S. guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the current regulatory regime instituted in South Korea and the United States would have prevented Hwang's potential transgressions in oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we compare the general aspects and oversight framework of the Bioethics and Biosafety Act in South Korea and the US National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and apply the relevant provisions and recommendations to each transgression. We conclude that the Act would institute centralized oversight under governmental auspices while the Guidelines recommend politically-independent, decentralized oversight bodies including a special review body for human embryonic stem cell research at an institutional level and that the Guidelines would have provided more vigorous protection for the women who had undergone oocyte procurement for Hwang's research than the Act. We also suggest additional regulations to protect those who provide oocytes for research in South Korea.

  14. 东北百里香化感作用%Allelopathy of Thymus mandschuricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 马喜娟; 张秀珍

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathy of Thymus mandschurricus Ronn. on Jive receptor plants, namely Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Larix gmelini, Betula platyphylla, Tagetes erecla and Petunia hybrid by the method of biological test. Results showed that stem-leaf and root extracts of T. mandschuricus had some inhibitory effects on seed germination of B. platyphylla and P. hyhrida, and the inhibitory effects weakened with decreasing extract concentration. Lower concentration of extract had a stimulative effect on seed germination of P. sylvestris var. mongolica to a certain degree. Stem-leaf and root extracts of T. mandschuricus had no harmful effect on the seedling growth of T. erecla and P. hybrida. Extract with a volume ratio of 1 : 1 had certain inhibitory effect on seeding growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica and L gmelini. The allelopathy effect of stem-leaf extract was stronger than that of root extract. Root length of the receptor plants received a stronger allelopathy effect than seedling height.%通过生物测定法研究了东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对樟子松、兴安落叶松、白桦、万寿菊、矮牵牛的种子萌发及幼苗生长的化感作用.结果表明,东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对白桦、矮牵牛的种子萌发有一定抑制作用,抑制效应随水浸液母液与水的体积比降低而减弱;母液与水的体积比低的水浸液对樟子松的种子萌发有一定促进作用.东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对万寿菊和矮牵牛幼苗生长无明显不良影响,V(母液)∶V(水)=1∶1的水浸液对樟子松、兴安落叶松的幼苗生长有一定抑制作用.东北百里香茎叶水浸液对受体植物的化感作用强于根水浸液.受体植物幼苗的根长受到的化感作用强于苗高.

  15. Effect of Thinning on the Structure and Succession of Secondary Forest Communities in Changbai Mountains of China%抚育对长白山幼龄次生林群落结构与动态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏广新; 牟长城

    2012-01-01

    采用抚育采伐试验方法,研究了不同经营方式(对照、常规经营和优化经营)对长白山林区5种典型幼龄次生林林群落(落叶松—白桦林、杨桦林、杂木林、硬阔林及阔叶红松林)的树种组成结构、径级结构及演替趋势的影响规律.结果表明:优化经营能够提升高幼龄林群落中红松、水曲柳等珍贵树种的地位(重要值提高37.5%~400.0%),提高森林经营价值;优化经营能够显著降低各类型幼龄林的小径木株数比例(7.2% ~ 29.9%)及提高中径级林木的比例(5.1%~26.4%),充分发挥森林的生产潜力;优化经营能够改变幼龄林的演替趋势(由次生林转化为阔叶红松林),从而加速地带性顶极植被阔叶红松林的恢复进程.%Effects of three thinning regimes ( control, routine thinning and optimal thinning) on the composition of tree species, diameter distribution and succession trend of five typical young secondary forest communities dominated by Larix olgensis, Betula platyphylla; Populus davidiana, B. Platyphylla and Quercus mongolica; P. Davidiana, Tilia amurensis, Acer Mono and Phellodendron amurensis ; Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica, Fraxinus mandshurica and Juglans mandshurica; Pinus ko-raiensis, F. Mandshurica, P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla, respectively, were studied in Changbai Mountain of China. Importance values of some high-value tree species such as P. Koraiensis and F. Mandshurica in optimal thinning communities increased by 37. 5% -400. 0% compared with those in the control communities, so the silvicultural value was much improved. Small diameter trees decreased by 7. 2% -29. 9% and medium diameter trees by 5. 1% -26. 4% in optimal thinning communities compared with the un-thinning communities, so its potential productivity was fully realized. The succession trends of un-thinning communities were still secondary forest communities generally, but that of optimal thinning developed towards climax

  16. Species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve,Beijing%北京百花山自然保护区树附生苔藓植物物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 李俊清; 石爱平; 于建军; 王文和

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing in 2004-2010. A total of 495 specimens were recorded, belonging to 34 species, 21 genera, and 13 families, among which, Pottiaceae, Leskeaceae, Entodontaceae, Orthotrichaceae, and Hypnaceae were the dominant families, and Lindbergia sinensis, Pylaisiella polyantha, L. brachyptera, and Frullania musicicola were the dominant species. There were three peaks of the vertical distribution of the epiphytic bryophytes, i. e. , altitude 1700 m (10 species) , and only 5 species were distributed at altitude 1200-1300 m. Shannon index was the highest for Betula platyphylla ( 1. 816) and the smallest for Juglans mandshurica (1. 500) , Pielou evenness index was the highest for Populus davidiaria (0. 910) and the smallest for Q. liaotungensis (0.591) , Simpson index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (0.335) and the smallest for P. davidiana (0. 181) , and Patrick index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (13) and the smallest for P. davidiana and J. mandshurica (7). The species diversity indices of the epiphytic bryophytes were related to habitat, bark crack, and water availability.%北京百花山保护区树附生苔藓植物共有13科21属34种,其中优势科有丛藓科(Pottiaceae)、薄罗藓科(Leskeaceae)、绢藓科(Entodontaceae)、木灵藓科(Orthotrichaceae)和灰藓科(Hypnaceae),优势种有中华细枝藓(Lindbergia sinensis)、金灰藓(Pylaisiella polyantha)、细枝藓(L.brachyptera)、盔瓣耳叶苔(Frullania musicicola)等.海拔1200 m以下地带(14种)、海拔1400 ~ 1500 m地带(11种)以及海拔1700 m以上地带(10种)是百花山树附生苔藓植物垂直分布的3个高峰.海拔1200 ~ 1300 m为低谷(5种).树附生植物物种Shannon指数最大的是白桦(Betula platyphylla)(1.816),最小的是核桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)(1.500);山杨(Populus davidiana)树附生植物的Pielou均匀度指数最高(0

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Forest Community Stability of Different Types of Low-Quality Forest Stands in the Greater Higgnan Mountains%大兴安岭不同类型低质林群落稳定性的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋启亮; 董希斌

    2014-01-01

    The low-quality forest community stability was comprehensively evaluated by calculating subordinate function values of a model which was established based on fuzzy synthetic evaluation by a total of 30 factors of 5 indices of species diversity,soil physical properties,soil chemical properties,litter characteristics and soil carbon flux in 5 typical low-quality forest stands that mixed conifer and broadleaved forest,Populus davidiana forest,Quercus mongolica forest,Betula platyphylla forest and broadleaved mixed forest in the Greater Higgnan Mountains. The results showed that: The indices of species diversity,litter characteristics and soil carbon flux of mixed conifer and broadleaved forest are highest,the index of soil chemical properties of broadleaved mixed forest is highest,the index of soil physical properties of Quercus mongolica forest is highest,forest community stability of 5 types of forest communities in the Great Higgnan Mountains,ranked in the decreasing order of community of mixed conifer and broadleaved forest > broadleaved mixed forest > Quercus mongolica forest>Betula platyphylla forest >Populus davidiana forest. The evaluation results can provide theoretical basis for the ecosystem restoration of low-quality forest stands in the Greater Higgnan Mountains.%以大兴安岭林区分布的针阔混交林、山杨林、蒙古栎林、白桦林和阔叶混交林5种典型低质林森林群落类型为研究对象,选择反映森林群落基本特征的物种多样性、土壤物理性质、土壤化学性质、枯落物特性和土壤碳通量这5项指标,共30个评价因子,运用模糊数学中隶属函数的方法综合评价低质林森林群落稳定性。结果表明:针阔混交林物种多样性、枯落物特性、土壤碳通量指标最高,阔叶混交林土壤化学性质指标最高,蒙古栎林土壤物理性质指标最高,大兴安岭5种森林群落稳定性表现为针阔混交林>阔叶混交林>蒙古栎林>白

  18. 我国东北4种常见阔叶乔木物候对气候变化的响应%Response of 4 Common Broad-Leaved Arbors Phenology to Climate Change in the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴顺祥; 郭泉水; 辛学兵; 刘玮; 洪明

    2011-01-01

    物候现象是指示气候及自然环境变化的重要指标(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001;Moresette et al.,2009).自然物候记录可以提供全球环境变化最直接和最有效的证据.已有研究结果表明,受全球气候变化影响,1952-2000年地中海地区(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001)、1851-1994年匈牙利(Walkovszky,1998)、1936-1998年美国Wisconsin地区(Bradley et al.,1999)和1970-1999年美国华盛顿地区(Abu-Asab et al.,2001)的许多植物花期提前了1个星期左右;中国北纬33°左右地区植物的早春物候每10年提前1.1 ~4.3天,晚春物候提前1.4~5.4天(Zheng et al.,2006).%In order to reveal the response of four broad - leaved arbors to climate change, we studied relationships between interannual variations of air temperature and various phenophases (I.e., seasonal biological events) of broad-leaved arbors species ( Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila and Morus alba ) in the Harbin, based on meteorological data from 1951 -2008 and phenological data from 1963 -2008. Results showed that the air temperature in Harbin had an increasing trend from 1951 to 2008, especially after 1978. The increase of the annual minimum temperature was greater than that of the annual maximum temperature and annual mean temperature. Annual precipitation slightly increased, but not significantly. In the period of 1963 -2008, bud burst, beginning of leaf expansion and first flowering of the 4 species all shifted to 5. 7 d, 10. 2 d and 7. 9 d earlier, respectively, and end of leaf - falling was delayed for 7. 5 d. The pattern of phenological change was consistent with that of air temperature change. The phenophases earlier or later was mainly subjected to air temperature, especially the mean temperature of the same month and previous month when phenophase began. The phenophase had little correlation with the precipitation. When the mean temperature in March rose up by 1 ℃ , Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila

  19. 冀北山地天然次生林土壤有机质空间异质性研究%Spatial Variability of Soil Organic Matte in Natural Secondary Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文俊; 魏曦; 朱宝才

    2015-01-01

    【目的】以冀北山地山杨白桦天然次生林为研究对象,探讨该群落土壤垂直方向有机质的分布格局和空间变异特征。【方法】采用大面积野外调查数据,运用统计学、GIS 空间结构分析技术进行分析。结果表明:土壤有机质含量最高的是0~20 cm 层,20~40 cm 有机质含量最小。变异系数随土壤深度的增加逐渐增大,3层都属于中度变异;3层有机质含量的最佳理论模型分别为指数模型、高斯模型和球型模型;各层有机质含量集中区和插值分析分级面积有所不同,但总体变化规律是一致的。0~20 cm 土层土壤有机质含量最大,20~40 cm 层是有机质消耗集中区,有机质含量最小,40~60 cm 层处于中等水平。【结论】研究区是属于次生山杨白桦林,土壤环境受外界破坏较少,土层垂直方向空间变异不显著,母质层有机质的形成和表层土壤有机质的消耗都处在合理的范围内,体现了该区域土壤处于健康、可持续发展的良好状态。%Objective]Populus davidiana + Betula platyphylla natural secondary forest was used as research objective in this study.The aim of this study was to explore the vertical distribu-tion and spatial variation of soil organic matter of the forest.[Method]Field survey data,statis-tics and GIS spatial structure analysis techniques were used in this study.[Results]The content of soil organic matter was the highest in the 0-20 cm layer but the content of 20-40cm was the lowest.The coefficient of variation increased with increasing soil depth and three layers belonged to moderate variation.The best theoretical models of organic matter in three layer were exponen-tial,Gaussian and spherical models.Each layer organic matter content focus area and interpola-tion analysis grade area was different,but the overall change was the same.Soil organic matter of 0 -20 cm layer was the largest.Soil layer of 20-40 cm was

  20. Natural Regeneration Pattern of Urban Forests in Harbin%哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅琳琳; 冯树丹; 达良俊; 宋坤; 王冰; 关兵兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen the urban protects of the variety of vegetation biodiversity and reasonable utilization, to perfect the system of ecology theory about the urban vegetation, the author did a lot of research about Haerbin urban forest natural succession pattern. The author decided to adopt the vegetation sociology research combine with every wood investigation research, researching 11 kinds of urban forest natural regeneration pattern in Harbin. The results showed that the difference kinds and quantities of composition about the woody plants under the forest different types of urban forest in maintaining woody plant diversity were quite different. Based on frequency distribution of DBH, population structure of each tree species fell into 3 types: unimodal type, L type and sporadic type. In the case, 4 representative species belonged to unimodal type: Populus berolinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolic; 4 L-types were: Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Ulmus pumila; 3 sporadic types were: Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Picea koraiensis. It was suggested that the habitat, the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of urban forests.%为了加强城市植被生物多样性的保护与合理利用,完善城市植被生态学研究的理论体系,对哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局进行研究.采用植被社会学调查与每木调查相结合的方法,对哈尔滨11种城市森林类型进行天然更新格局研究.结果表明,林下木本植物的种类和数量组成有所差异,不同城市森林类型在维持木本植物多样性方面存在较大差异.根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将各树种的种群结构归纳为3种类型:种群结构单峰型的为中东杨(Populus berolinensis)、黑皮油松(Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelini)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var

  1. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  2. Retranslocation of foliar nutrients of deciduous tree seedlings in different soil condition under free-air O3 enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Retranslocation is the amount of an element that is depleted from old plant components and is provided for new growth. Leaf senescence is usually accelerated at elevated O3 (eO3, and leaf shedding is influenced by soil nutrient availability (and acidification. In this study, we focused on the net retranslocation and allocation dynamics of foliar nutrients (N, P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Al to investigate the effect of eO3 on birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica, oak (Quercus mongolica var. crispula, and beech (Fagus crenata seedlings grown in different soil conditions. Seedlings of the 3 species were planted in a free-air O3 enrichment system under 3 soil types (brown forest soil, serpentine soil, volcanic ash soil for one growing season. All tree species were grown with 3 replications per each plot at elevated O3 (about 80 ppb and ambient condition (O3 ranging 25-35 ppb. Leaf samples were taken from the top part of seedlings during the growing season in mid-September, and senescing leaves were sampled in mid-November. Both were collected for chemical composition analysis. Retranslocation rate of P was markedly increased by eO3 in birch and significantly differed among soil types in oak seedlings, while was constant across treatments in beech seedlings. Retranslocation of N in oak seedlings was significantly affected by soil type. Retranslocation of other elements was most sensitive to both eO3 and soil type in beech seedlings. The influence of differential growth patterns among species in modulating the physiological response of seedlings to high levels of ozone and different soil conditions are discussed.

  3. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability. PMID:25796887

  4. Landscape patterns of overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes in a cool-temperate forest watershed in northern Hokkaido,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2007-01-01

    Within a forested watershed at the Uryu Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Hokkaido, overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes were measured at different landscape zones over two years. The wetland zone covered with Picea glehnii pure stand. The riparian zone was deciduous broad-leaved stand dominated by Alnus hirsuta and Salix spp., while the mixture of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen conifer dominated by Betula platyphylla, Quercus crispula and Abies sachalinensis distributed on the upland zone.Annual litterfall averaged 1444, 5122, and 4123 kg·hm-2·a-1 in the wetland, riparian and upland zones, respectively. Litterfall production peaked in September-ctober,and foliage litter contributed the greatest amount (73.4%-87.6 %) of the annual total litterfall. Concentrations of nutrients analyzed in foliage litter of the dominant species showed a similar seasonal variation over the year except for N in P. Glehnii and A. Hirsuta. The nutrient fluxes for all elements analyzed were greatest on riparian zone and lowest in wetland zone. Nutrient fluxes via lit terfall followed the decreasing sequence: N (11-129 kg·hm-2·a-1) > Ca (9-69) > K (5-20) > Mg (3-15) > P (0.4-4.7) for all stands. Significant differences were found in litterfall production and nutrient fluxes among the different landscape components. There existed significantdif ferences in soil chemistry between the different landscape zones. The consistently low soil C:N ratios at the riparian zone might be due to the higher-quality litter inputs (largely N-fixing alder).

  5. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt.,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as signifi-cant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respira-tion were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  6. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt., Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG JingYun; LIU GuoHua; ZHU Biao; WANG XiaoKe; LIU ShaoHui

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as significant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respiration were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  7. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.

  8. 凉水保护区土壤产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶细菌群落结构%The community structure of laccase-like multicopper oxidase-producing bacteria in soil of Liangshui Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 谷惠琦; 崔岱宗; 范晓旭; 张曦; 赵敏

    2012-01-01

    在凉水国家级自然保护区3种主要林型红松(Pinus koraiensis)、白桦(Betula platyphylla)及云杉(Picea dietrich)林采集林下土壤样品,以铜离子作为筛选剂处理后,结合平板分离法与基于16S rDNA V3区片段的变性梯度凝胶电泳(Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis,DGGE)技术,调查了土壤样品中产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶(laccase-like multicopper oxidase,LMCO)细菌的群落结构.这是研究产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶细菌在环境中存在的种、属及分布的新尝试.平板分离获得10株细菌均为芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus sp.),其中梭状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus fusiformis)未见相关报道.通过DGGE图谱分析可知,产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶细菌在研究地不同林型土壤中的群落结构无明显差异,在红松林土壤中多样性最为丰富.DGGE条带测序结果表明,取样地土壤中产类漆酶细菌主要为罗尔斯顿菌属(Ralstonia sp.)、肠杆菌属(Enterobacter sp.)、芽孢杆菌属和一些未培养细菌.%Laccases catalyze the oxidation of various aromatics, particularly phenolic and amine substrates, making them valuable in industrial applications. Laccases also play an important role in soil organic matter (SOM) turnover processes and the global carbon cycle due to their involvement in the synthesis and degradation of lignin as well as transformation of lignified substrates and humic substances. Laccases belong to the protein family of multicopper oxidases characterized by copper atoms in the active center. Laccases or laccase-like multicopper oxidases ( LMCO) have been extensively studied especially in fungi. Recently, increasing evidence points to a wide occurrence of LMCO in bacteria. As bacterial communities are known to decompose pollutants and municipal wastes involving large quantities of phenolic substances and organic matter, it can be deduced that bacterial LMCO might also participate in lignin degradation and SOM cycling. Copper atoms not only constitute

  9. 甘肃兴隆山主要森林类型土壤渗透性%Soil Infiltration Characteristics of Main Forest Types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强; 凌雷; 张广忠; 柴春山; 闫沛斌; 陶继新

    2013-01-01

    0-60 cm soil layer of six main forests, including Picea wilosonii forest, Picea wilosonii and Betula platyphylla forest, Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forest, Catanester multiglorus and Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, was conducted to investigate the infiltration capability in 2010 and provide basis for the evaluation of water conservation function of forest and sustainable management of water conservation forests. The results showed that the infiltration eigenvalues of six forest types are as: initial infiltration rate>average infiltration rate>stable infiltration rate. The characteristics of soil infiltration differ significantly with deferent forest types. The comprehensive score for soil infiltration is in the range of -1.960 0-1.944 9, and the natural forest is obviously better than plantation. The soil infiltration capability of natural forest gradually increases with its development of positive succession. Correlation analysis showed that soil infiltration capability is greatly affected by soil physical and chemical properties. Soil infiltration has not only close relation with bulk density and porosity, but also with soil nutrient contents and pH. Combined with the correlation analysis, ten soil physical and chemical properties factors, which extremely significantly or significantly influenced soil infiltration, were selected to build four dominant factor equations of soil permeability by stepwise regression method with the correlation coefficient of higher than 0. 850 0 (P<0. 01 ). In four equations , the first introduced factor is the soil bulk density, and it is the most important one among many impact factors. The hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, pH value and soil organic matter are the secondary factors. Horton infiltration model is the best one to describe the soil infiltration process of water conservation forests in

  10. 吉林省几种常见生物质颗粒燃料的性能%Fuel Performances of Several Common Biomass Pellets in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启昌; 张英楠; 王峰洁; 孙国文; 颜科

    2009-01-01

    对吉林省几种常见树种颗粒燃料的性能指标进行了测定分析.结果表明,7种颗粒燃料以玉米秸秆颗粒的灰分质量分数最大(11.90%),沙松去皮颗粒的灰分质量分数最低(0.37%);杨木颗粒的去灰分热值最大(20.896kJ/g),其次是椴桦混颗粒(20.885kJ/g),白桦去皮颗粒的去灰分热值大于白桦未去皮颗粒,木质颗粒大于秸秆颗粒.木质颗粒燃料以杂木颗粒燃料的轴向抗压性最强,其轴向载荷值为0.2355kN,其次为沙松去皮颗粒,其轴向载荷值为0.2149kN,白桦未去皮颗粒要强于去皮颗粒;白桦未去皮颗粒燃料的径向抗压性最强,其径向载荷值为0.6402kN,其次为杂木颗粒,其径向载荷值为0.6242kN,白桦未去皮颗粒要强于去皮颗粒.从抗压性角度分析宜选用杂木颗粒.杨木颗粒和杂木颗粒的质量损失率相对于其他4种颗粒较低,分别为0.1316%和0.1438%.椴桦混颗粒燃料的渗水率最大(10.235%),其次为白桦去皮颗粒(10.233%),白桦未去皮颗粒的抗渗水性要强于去皮颗粒.通过不同时间抗渗水性能测试,20h后,6种木质颗粒都呈完全剥落状,但杂木颗粒状态要稍好一些,外型仍呈颗粒状.不同颗粒燃料的去灰分热值、轴向载荷和抗渗水率具有显著差异(t检验,p<0.05).%A study was conducted to determine the fuel performances of seven common biomass pellets in Jilin Province. Results showed that the highest ash content was 11.90% for corn straw, and the lowest was 0. 37% for Abies holophylla pellet. It was also found that Populus simonii pellet had the largest ash-free caloric value (20.896 kJ) , then followed by the mixture of Tilia amurensis, Tilia mandshurica and Betula platyphylla pellet (20. 885 kj) , and the largest ash-free caloric value of wood pellet was larger than that of straw pellet. Ash-free calorific value for peeled B. platyphylla pellet was larger than that for the unpeeled, and the same result was also found in axial load

  11. Interactive effects of elevated ozone and temperature on carbon allocation of silver birch (Betula pendula) genotypes in an open-air field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, Anne; Biasi, Christina; Holopainen, Toini; Rousi, Matti; Mäenpää, Maarit; Oksanen, Elina

    2012-06-01

    In the present experiment, the single and combined effects of elevated temperature and ozone (O(3)) on four silver birch genotypes (gt12, gt14, gt15 and gt25) were studied in an open-air field exposure design. Above- and below-ground biomass accumulation, stem growth and soil respiration were measured in 2008. In addition, a (13)C-labelling experiment was conducted with gt15 trees. After the second exposure season, elevated temperature increased silver birch above- and below-ground growth and soil respiration rates. However, some of these variables showed that the temperature effect was modified by tree genotype and prevailing O(3) level. For instance, in gt14 soil respiration was increased in elevated temperature alone (T) and in elevated O(3) and elevated temperature in combination (O(3) + T) treatments, but in other genotypes O(3) either partly (gt12) or totally nullified (gt25) temperature effects on soil respiration, or acted synergistically with temperature (gt15). Before leaf abscission, all genotypes had the largest leaf biomass in T and O(3) + T treatments, whereas at the end of the season temperature effects on leaf biomass depended on the prevailing O(3) level. Temperature increase thus delayed and O(3) accelerated leaf senescence, and in combination treatment O(3) reduced the temperature effect. Photosynthetic : non-photosynthetic tissue ratios (P : nP ratios) showed that elevated temperature increased foliage biomass relative to woody mass, particularly in gt14 and gt12, whereas O(3) and O(3) + T decreased it most clearly in gt25. O(3)-caused stem growth reductions were clearest in the fastest-growing gt14 and gt25, whereas mycorrhizal root growth and sporocarp production increased under O(3) in all genotypes. A labelling experiment showed that temperature increased tree total biomass and hence (13)C fixation in the foliage and roots and also label return was highest under elevated temperature. Ozone seemed to change tree (13)C allocation, as it decreased foliar (13)C excess amount, simultaneously increasing (13)C excess obtained from the soil. The present results suggest that warming has potential to increase silver birch growth and hence carbon (C) accumulation in tree biomass, but the final magnitude of this C sink strength is partly counteracted by temperature-induced increase in soil respiration rates and simultaneous O(3) stress. Silver birch populations' response to climate change will also largely depend on their genotype composition.

  12. 紫叶白桦组培快繁技术研究%Research on Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation in Betula ‘Royal Frost’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梦姝

    2016-01-01

    [目的]建立“紫叶白桦”组培快繁体系.[方法]选取当年生半木质化枝条的顶芽和侧芽为外植体进行芽直接增生途径再生研究.[结果]获取最佳外植体诱导培养基、最佳增殖培养基和最佳生根培养基,最佳移栽基质为蛭石+草炭(1∶1).[结论]为建立“紫叶白桦”组培快繁体系提供依据.

  13. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    variables and local shrub dominance. We found that establishment of shrub ramets was positively related to summer precipitation, which implies that the current high dominance of B. nana at our study site could be related to high summer precipitation in the period from 1960 to 1990. The results confirmed...... that early summer temperature is most influential to annual growth rates of B. nana. In addition, summer precipitation stimulated shrub growth in years with warm summers, suggesting that B. nana growth may be co-limited by summer moisture supply. The dual controlling role of temperature and summer...

  14. Carbon Sink in Natural Swamp Forest Ecosystems in Lesser Xing' an Mountains%小兴安岭天然森林沼泽生态系统碳汇功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌; 牟长城; 刘夏; 顾韩

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the potential of carbon sink in live types of natural swamp forests in Lesser Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China. Biomass of the swamp forests was determined by setting up standard plots at Youhao Forestry Bureau of Yichun City. Soil fluxes of CO, and CH4 were measured by static opaque chamber and gas chroma-tography techniques. Regression models for biomass were established for predicting net primary productivity of trees. Results showed that the carbon concentration of all plant species in the five types of swamp forests ranged torn 40.2% to 49.3%. The net carbon fixed by plants in Alnus sibirica swamp, Betula platyphylla swamp, Larix gmelinii-Carex schmidtii swamp, L gmeti-nii-moss swamp, and L. gmelinii-Sphagrum spp. swamp were 161.20, 273.56, 242.18, 205.02, and 295.33 g · m-2 · a-1, respectively. The carbon emissions from soils, including conversion of CH4 into carbon, in A. sibinca swamp, B. platyphyllu swamp, L gmelinii-C. schmidtii swamp, L. gmelinii-miass swamp and L. gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp were 226.49, 253.57, 191.86, 169.53 and 127.33 g ·m-2 · a-1, respectively. The CO2-C sinks in B. platyphylla swamp, L gmeli-nii-C. schmidtii swamp, L. gmelinii-moss swamp, and L. gmelinii-Sphagman spp. swamp were 19.99, 50.32, 35.49 and 168.00 g · m-2 · a-1, respectively, while the source of CO2-C from A. sibirica swamp was 65. 29 g · m-2 · a-1.%为了定量评价小兴安岭森林沼泽生态系统碳汇潜力,在伊春市友好林业局岭峰林场设立了标准地,采用静态暗箱—气相色谱法测量土壤CO2和CH4的排放通量,调查小兴安岭5种天然森林沼泽生物量,并建立了生物量回归模型,以推测乔木净初级生产力.研究结果表明:5种森林沼泽各类植被物种碳质量分数范围为40.2%~49.3%,毛赤杨(Alnus sibirica)沼泽、白桦(Betula platyphylla)沼泽、落叶松(Larix gmelinii—苔草(Carex schmidtii)沼泽、落叶松—藓类(Moss)沼

  15. 长白山次生杨桦林树木短期死亡动态%Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭臣; 郝占庆; 叶吉; 蔺菲; 原作强; 邢丁亮; 师帅; 王绪高

    2013-01-01

    Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of .the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH≥1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28. 79 m2 ·m-2 to 30. 55 m2·m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBH<5 cm occupied 65% of the total. B. platyphylla and P. davidiana contributed most in the dead individuals with large DBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals widi different size classes showed greater variation.%以长白山次生杨桦林5 hm2样地为对象,以2005和2010年两次调查数据为基础资料,分析了2005-2010年间样地主要树种的组成、数量,死亡个体的径级分布,以及不同生境类型下主要树种的更新特征.结果表明:研究期间,样地内树木胸径(DBH)≥1 cm的独立个体的树种数由46种增至47种,新增3个树种,2个树种因仅有的一个个体死亡而消失;独立个体数由16509株减少为15027株,其中,死亡个体数2150株,占2005年个体总数的13%,新增个体数668株,净减少1482个个体

  16. Population Characteristics of Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum) in Wandashan Mountain%完达山地区槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长宝; 徐增奇; 岳仁杰

    2013-01-01

    Population characteristics of mistletoe in seven types of host trees of six communities in Laopinggang forest farm were studied from April to November 2012.Results showed that:As a whole,the ultimate distribution pattern of mistletoe was determined by the host trees.However,the distribution pattern of mistletoe on individual host trees was aggregated.In terms of quantitative characteristics,the numbers of mistletoe in host trees was Populus davidiana > Betula platyphylla > Alnus sibirica > B.dahurica > Tilia amurensis var.tricuspidata =Acer tegmentosum >A.mono,and the mean number of fruit in a mistletoe was P.davidiana > B.platyphylla > A.sibirica > A.tegmentosum > T.amurensis var.tricuspidata > A.mono > B.dahurica.Red fruit and yellow fruit mistletoe were found on the same host species and the ratio of these two types was one to one.Genetically,the seeds of mistletoe showed excess propagation and their dispersal process had a close relationship with Bombycilla garrulus.Among these seeds,82% were found on fallen leaves,15% on shrubs and 3% on the trunk of host trees.It was concluded that the distribution pattern of host trees,composition and development degree of communities,living habit of seed dispersers and reproductive strategy of mistletoe itself played major roles in the development of the population.%于2012年4-11月对老平岗林场6个群落中7种寄主上的槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群进行了研究,结果表明:以寄主为单位,槲寄生的最终分布格局取决于寄主的格局;而在每个寄主上则呈聚集性分布.从数量上看,寄生强度为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>黑桦>紫椴=青楷槭>色木槭;各寄主上单株槲寄生平均结果量为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>青楷槭>紫椴>色木槭>黑桦;红黄两种果实型植株的比例近于1∶1.从遗传上看,槲寄生表现出过量繁殖特征;其种子传播与太平鸟存在密切联系,

  17. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  18. Antitumor activity and immunoregulatory effect of triterpenes isolated from betulaplatyphylla%白桦三萜类物质的抗肿瘤作用及其对免疫功能的增强效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 李岩; 金雄杰

    2000-01-01

    To study the antitumor activity and immunoregulatory effect of Triterpenes isolated from Betula Platyphylla (TBP)Methods: Inhihition rate (IR) on tumor growth was determined by the mice with transplantable tumors (melanoma B16, Sarcoma 180, Lewislung carcinoma and Ehrlich ascites cancer), splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA was measured by H-TdR incorporation; cytotoxicity ofmacrophage was observed by 3H-TdR release; activity of TNF and NK cell was determined by dye (natural red)release. Results: IR of 0.80 g/kg and 1.20 g/kg TBP on all of above tumor strains were greater than30% in vivo. TBPdoes not show significant effect of splenocyte Prolifera-tion and NK cell activity, but significantly promoted the activity of TNF producted by macroghage and splenocyte. TBP also increase the cyto-toxicity of macrophage. Conclusion:TBP shows potent antitumor effect in vivo. Promoting nonspecific immunoactivity is one of the antitumormechanism of TBP.%目的:研究白桦三萜类物质(TBP)体内抗肿瘤作用及其对荷瘤小鼠免疫功能的影响。方法:利用小鼠体内移植瘤模型,测定TBP对小鼠黑色素瘤B16、肉瘤S180、Lewis肺癌和艾氏腹水癌等肿瘤的抑瘤率。采用放射性掺入法检测ConA诱导的脾细胞增殖反应;放射性释放法检测巨噬细胞细胞毒活性;中性红释放法检测TNF和NK细胞活性。结果:TBP对各瘤株的抑瘤率均达到30%以上,对黑色素瘤B16的效果最好,抑瘤率为51.4%。TBP对ConA诱导的增殖反应和NK细胞活性无明显影响,但可促进巨噬细胞和脾细胞分泌TNF,增加巨噬细胞的细胞毒活性。结论:TBP具有良好的抗肿瘤作用,增强机体的非特异性免疫功能是其抗肿瘤机制之一。

  19. Assessing the Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on the Decomposition and Associated Diversity of Fungal Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the effect of litter mixture on decomposition has been well documented, few studies have examined the relationships between richness and relative abundance of leaf species in litter mixture and changes in universal fungal communities during the decomposition process in temperate forests. In this study, we used the litterbag method and included three leaf litter species, i.e., aspen (Populus davidiana Dode, birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev and oak (Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour, to investigate the mass loss rate and diversity of universal fungal communities in each litter treatment, which were sampled in situ after 180, 240, 300 and 360 days of decomposition (between 2012 and 2013 in broadleaved mixed forests in Chinese temperate forests. Eight mixture proportions were examined: pure aspen litter (10A, pure birch litter (10B, pure oak litter (10O, 50% aspen litter mixed with 50% birch litter (5A:5B, 50% aspen litter mixed with 50% oak (5A:5O, 50% birch litter mixed with 50% oak litter (5B:5O, 10% birch litter mixed with 80% aspen litter and 10% oak litter (1B:8A:1O, 30% birch litter mixed with 40% aspen litter and 30% oak litter (3B:4A:3O. Over 360 days of decomposition, approximately 46.6%, 43.6%, 28.0%, 54.4%, 40.2%, 39.5%, 54.5% and 49.46% of litter mass was lost from 10A, 10B, 10O, 5A:5B, 5A:5O, 5B:5O, 1B:8A:1O and 3B:4A:3O, respectively. In addition, the number of fungal denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE bands showed a positive correlation with mass loss rate, indicating a positive feedback between leaf litter decomposition and universal fungal communities in the leaf litter. The results revealed that the 5A:5B, 1B:8A:1O and 3B:4A:3O litter mixtures had a synergistic effect on the litter mixture, while the 5A:5O and 5B:5O litter mixtures had a nearly neutral effect on the litter mixture. Thus, leaf litter species composition and relative abundance seem to be more important than leaf litter richness in driving

  20. 黑里河国家级自然保护区昆虫多样性研究%Preliminary Study on Insect Diversity in Heilihe National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成; 袁树先; 刘斐; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    2007年6~9月对黑里河自然保护区昆虫进行了系统调查研究,并用多样性指数对昆虫的多样性进行了测度.采集到该区昆虫223种,分别隶属干11目65科176属.群落的α多样性分析结果表明:不同群落多样性指数的变化顺序是蒙古栎林林缘群落>白桦林林缘群落>河滩草地群落>平榛林林缘群落>人工针叶林群落;在5个不同群落中,蒙古栎林林缘群落昆虫的物种数、个体数、物种多样性指数及物种均匀度指数均高于其他群落.群落的相似性分析和聚类分析结果表明,不同群落昆虫之间的相似性差异显著,昆虫群落多样性变化主要与植被类型有关.%The insects collected from Heilihe National Natural Reserve in Chifeng of inner Mongolia were investigated systematically from June to October in 2007, and various diversity indexes were used to test insect diversity in the reserve. The results indicated that there are 223 species of pollinators, which belong to 11 orders, 65 families, 176 genera, a-grade community diversity analysis indicated that the order of five communities diversity indexes was: Quercus mongolica forest edge community > Betula platyphylla forest edge community > riverside meadow community > Corylus heterophylla forest edge community > man-made coniferous forest edge community. In five different communities, indexes of insects in the Quercus mongolica forest edge community, such as number of species, individuals, species diversity index and species uniformity indexes were higher than those of other four kinds of communities. Similarity and clustering analysis of communities indicated that similarities of insects in each different community had significant difference. Changes of insects community diversity are mainly in connection with vegetation type.

  1. Tree Productivity and Water Potential Productivity in Returning Farmland to Forest Project in Datong County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jing; Liu Chenfeng; Zhao Wanqi; He Kangning

    2004-01-01

    From 2002 to 2003, based on the investigation of sample plots and stem analysis of remained plantation communities in the areas of returning farmland to forest in the 1980s in Datong County, Qinghai Province, this paper studies tree productivity and moisture potential productivity of six types of plantations on the land of returning farmland to forest, such as green poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch (Betula platyphylla) and China spruce (Picea asperata) mixed forest, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) pure forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest and so on. The results show that: in sub-humid region of Loess Plateau, 3 000 trees per hm2 is a proper standard of planting density. Under current condition, the productivity index of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch pure forest, China spruce pure forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest with the density of 2 100-3 333 trees per hm2 can serve as potential productivity standard of actual biomass of arbor established forest. In sub-humid area, Thornthwaite Model is adopted to estimate plant climate potential productivity, which is about 8 462 kg·hm-2·a-1. The actual potential water productive efficiency of Purplecone spruce (Picea purpurea) and Asia white birch pure established forest are 17.22 and 22.14 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively, and that of green poplar and shrub mixed established forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed established forest are 21.14 and 19.09 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively. The potential productivity of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest which have grown into forest with the density of 3 000 trees per hm2 have attained or been close to that of local climax community, which is local maximum tree productivity at present. These types of forestation models are the developing

  2. Tennisemusketärid / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Treener Cyril Suk vormib mitmekordsest Eesti tennisemeistrist Jürgen Zoppist Praha tenniseakadeemias maailmaklassimängijat. Kommenteerib Eesti tennisekoondise peatreener Peeter Lamp. Vt. samas ka lühivestlust Jürgen Zoppiga

  3. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Organic Carbon in Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir in North China%密云水库上游流域土壤有机碳特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 王效科; 欧阳志云

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool constitutes an important portion of the global carbon pool and has significant impacts on land productivity and global climate change. The study on soil organic carbon has been one of the hot issues of the world. However, related research of the filed in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the largest reservoir in North China, is relatively rare. The distribution characteristics and influencing factors (such as climate, topography and soil characteristics) of soil organic carbon in seven kinds of typical land use types of the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir were analyzed in the study, and the results showed as follows. 1) In the target domain, soil organic carbon contents in natural secondary forests and grasslands were much higher than those in shrubs and artificial forests, while that in croplands was the lowest. In the whole soil profile (0 - 40 cm), the average soil organic carbon content was in order of natural secondary Populus davidiana Dode-Belula platyphylla Suk. Mixed forest > grassland > natural secondary Quercus wutaishanica Blume forest > shrub > artificial Larix principis-rupprechlii Mayr. Forest>artificial Pinus labulaeformis Carr. Forest>cropland. 2) Soil organic carbon contents in the top soil layer (0 - 10 cm) were the highest and decreased rapidly with the increase depth in the six kinds of land use types except grassland, which showed a slight increase from 0 to 20 cm and a small drop from 20 to 40 cm in depth. 3) Soil organic carbon content in each layer was significantly positively correlated with altitude, soil water content and nitrogen content (p0.05). Further partial correlation analysis indicated that the most principal factors influencing soil organic carbon content varied with soil depth, and they were soil nitrogen content, bulk density and pH in the 0 - 10 cm layer, soil nitrogen content, bulk density and slop in the 10-20 cm layer, soil nitrogen content and annual precipitation in the 20

  4. 黄土高原半干旱丘陵区不同树种纯林土壤性质极化研究%SOIL POLARIZATION UNDER PURE STANDS OF DIFFERENT TREE VARIETIES IN SEMI-ARID HILLY AREAS OF THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增文; 段而军; 刘卓玛姐; 冯顺煜

    2009-01-01

    to polarization (I = P/R) were proposed for polarization analysis based on results of determination of soil properties of soil samples collected from a variety of mature stands of pure and mixed forests using a multi-point mixed sampling method at multiple sites in the semi-arid, hilly area of loess plateau. Results show very strong polarization (P>0.20) of the following soil properties: chemical properties under Pinus tabulaeformis forest; chemical and biological properties under Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Hippophae rhamnoides forests; chemical, biological properties and trace elements content under Ulmus pumila forest; biological properties under Betula platyphylla forest; and biological and physical properties under Acer ginnala forest. Among the species in this study, pure stands of P. tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacia resulted in serious depletion of soil nutrient reserves; Pure stands of P. orientalis increased soil fertility; Pure stands of U. pumila increased soil fertility but decreased trace elements content; Pure stands of B. platyphylla worsened soil biological properties; Pure stands of A. ginnala led to depletion of soil nutrient reserves and deterioration of soil biological properties; and Pure stands of H. rhamnoides did to depletion of soil nutrient reserves and degradation of soil biological and physical properties. The anti-polarization capacities of P. simonii and P. tabulaeformis were the highest and of U. pumila the lowest. Relative to anti-polarization capacity, the ratios of polarization resistance to polarization of the stands fell into the category of more than "medium" (I_a>0.40)including chemical and physical properties under P. tabulaeformis forest, all the soil properties as a whole under P. orientalis, R.pseudoacia and U. pumila forests, and biological, physical and chemical properties under B. platyphylla forest.

  5. Effects of air temperature and relative humidity on equilibrium moisture content and time-lag of forest land surface dead fine fuels%气温和空气相对湿度对森林地表细小死可燃物平衡含水率和时滞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海清; 陆昕; 孙龙; 曲智林; 梁宇; 李海洋

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study was conducted to determine the effects of air temperature and relative humidity on the equilib-rium moisture content (EMC) and time-lag of forest dead fine fuels by takingLarix gmeliniileaves, Betula platy-phyllaleavesand mixture ofL. gmeliniiand B. platyphylla leaves as examples. Methods Measurements were made on moisture content of fuels under different air temperature and humidity conditions (a total of 20 temperature by relative humidity combinations). Equations describing the dynamics of moisture content of fine-grain fuels in three types of forests were developed and theEMC and time-lag were esti-mated. The moisture-time mode,EMC-temperature andEMC-relative humidity models, time-lag-temperature and time-lag-relative humidity models for fine-grain fuels were also established. Important findings Data were fit by fourEMC models. The Van Wanger model gave the best fit with small er-rors (both mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMAE) within 0.01); the performance of Nel-son model was worst. Further analysis revealed that both air temperature and relative humidity significantly af-fectedEMC and time-lag. Air temperature was negatively correlated withEMC and time-lag, whereas relative humidity was positively correlated withEMC andtime-lag. Using the time-lag-relative humidity model overesti-mated the time-lag. There are some uncertainties and limitations remaining in the current analysis, and further re-search is needed on both desorption and absorption processes of fine fuels, with broader range of fuel types and more influencing factors.%以落叶松(Larix gmelinii)叶片、白桦(Betula platyphylla)叶片、落叶松-白桦叶片混合物为例,初步研究了气温和空气相对湿度对地表细小死可燃物平衡含水率和时滞的影响,对这3种可燃物在不同气温、不同空气相对湿度条件下(共20个温湿度组合)失水过程中的含水率进行了测定。通过统计软件建立了相应条件下3

  6. 祁连山北坡退化林地植被群落的自然恢复过程及土壤特征变化%Dynamics of vegetation structure and soil properties in the natural restoration process of degraded woodland on the northern slope of Qilian Mountains,northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成章; 石福习; 董小刚; 任珩; 盛亚萍; 高福元; 杨文斌

    2011-01-01

    The natural restoration of woodland is important to explain the ecological process in forest ecosystem.It is significant implications to assess degraded woodland dynamics and ecological effects under artificial fostering approach in theoretically and practical for forest biodiversity conservation and sustainable management in semiarid mountains.Study site was located in the Han Quangou basin forest distribution zone in the Qilian Mountains of northwestern China.In this area, the wood of Picea crassifolia has been depleted after logging or grazing disturbance.The wood vegetation had been degraded and changed to shrub, grassland and scattered Betula-Populus secondary forests.In 2001 year, we have established 4 fixed observation plots ( 10m × 10m) along the elevation 50m interval range from 2468m to 2736m.In each plot, we have chose 3 grids (4m ×4m) for shrubs, 6 grids (1m × 1m) for grasses, 2 grids ( 1m × 1m) for soil.In August, we have investigated vegetation community characteristics including species number, community coverage,plant density, community height, species frequency and wood diameter at breast height ( DBH > 1 cm) in different years woodland (from 2001 to 2008).The soil physical-chemical properties of investigated plot including soil bulk density, soil water content, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen were determined in indoor laboratory.In the study, changes in the species composition and relative important value (Ⅳ) of main species, community structure, species diversity and soil properties were analyzed by methods of variance analysis.The results showed that after human disturbance was forbidden, the habitation of woodland became well gradually within 8 years.From 2001 to 2008, the number of family, genus and species of plant community increased apparently.In the process of community succession, former species was replaced by the subsequent species frequently.The Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana gradually become the constructive

  7. 5个温带树种冠层枝叶非结构性碳水化合物浓度的空间变异%Within-crown variation in concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates of five temperate tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 王传宽; 王兴昌

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates ( NSC) are important carbon reserves, particularly in trees, because they represent a large pool of biomass. Diverse strategies for carbon use and allocation are closely connected to ecological and evolutionary theories of trade-offs and niche partitioning. Crown is not only the source of NSC in a tree, but also a key NSC storage pool. However, few studies investigated within-crown variation in NSC concentrations, although such variation may introduce uncertainties in estimating NSC allocation in trees. In this study, we measured NSC concentrations in foliage and branches of five temperate tree species in northeastern China. The species included one evergreen conifer (Pinus koraiensis), one deciduous conifer ( Larix gmelinii) , and three deciduous broadleaved species ( Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Betula platyphylla). The objectives were to (1) examine vertical differences in NSC concentrations among foliage and small branches of different ages (diameter ≤ 3 cm) within the crown, (2) examine axial variations in NSC in bark, sapwood and heartwood of coarse branches (i.e. first order branches), and (3) explore the relationship between NSC concentration and diameter in coarse branches. Branch samples were randomly taken from the upper-, mid-and lower-crown layers 3—7 times across the season. The samples were divided into foliage ( current-year, one-year-old, and older than one year) and small branches. In late October, one coarse branch from each of the three broadleaved species was sampled and separated into 1—2 m-long sections consisting of bark, sapwood, and heartwood. All samples were analyzed for NSC concentration (including soluble sugars and starch) with a modified phenol-sulfuric method. The results showed that:(1) There were no significant vertical variations in foliage NSC concentration for any species except L. gmelinii, for which the starch concentration in late May was significant higher in the mid

  8. Estrés oxidativo y respuestas fisiológicas a la acumulación de metales pesados en Betula celtiberica micorrizada y no micorrizada cultivada en un suelo contaminado

    OpenAIRE

    Murube Torcida, Ester Maria

    2014-01-01

    Los metales pesados no son biodegradables lo que hace que sean contaminantes muy persistentes en el medio ambiente, lo que supone un grave riesgo no sólo para la salud medioambiental sino también para la salud humana. La fitorremediación se presenta como una alternativa biológica sencilla y viable en la descontaminación de suelos; sin embargo, está influenciada por la biodisponibilidad de los metales pesados en el suelo así como por su toxicidad y por las actividades microbianas de la rizosfe...

  9. 关帝山森林土壤有机碳和氮素的空间变异特征%Spatial Variations of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen of Forestland in Guandi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀清; 韩有志

    2011-01-01

    Classical statistics and geo-statistics were used to analyze the spatial variations and distribution pattern of soil organic carbon( SOC), total nitrogen(TN) and C/N ratio of forestland in three ecological areas of Pangquangou National Nature Reserve in Guandi Mountain of Shanxi Province, China. The results showed that the SOC and TN increased firstly but fell off afterwards, the C/N decreased continually with the succession level from artificial forest to secondary broad-leaved forest composed of Betula albo-sinensis, Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana in early phase succession, to secondary Picea, Populus, Betula mixed forest in later stage succession. The coefficient of variation of SOC, TN and C/N varied from 11.74% to 64.71% which showed medium variations. The Range of SOC and TN in artificial forest was larger but still smaller than that in secondary forest, this explained a lower variation degree and more homogeneous spatial distribution of SOC and TN in artificial forest than that in secondary forest.The structural variance ratio of SOC, TN and C/N in artificial forest was in the range of 0-64.8%, which meant a weak or medium spatial autocorrelation, while the structural variance ratio of SOC, TN and C/N in secondary forest was more than 75%, appearing high spatial autocorrelation, and structural variance ratio of the narrated above 3 index showed a increasing trend with progressive succession. Kriged maps showed that SOC, TN and C/N in artificial forest present a high fragmentized distributions but a regular patched distributions. Forest succession, disturbance and toporographic condition have important effects on spatial variation and its characteristics of SOC, TN and C/N of forestland.%在庞泉沟自然保护区选择3个生态功能区设置典型样地,运用经典统计学和地统计学方法研究了森林土壤有机碳、全氮及碳氮比的空间变异特征及分布格局.结果表明,随着生态系统由人工林→次生演

  10. Larval instar impact on host selection suitability of asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM).%亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫寄主选择与龄期关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏靖; 骆有庆; 石娟; 王德鹏; 沈绍伟

    2012-01-01

    The Asian gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM) is one of three gypsy found in Asia. European gypsy moth was introduced to USA which caused a great damage moth subspecies that is . Former study showed Asia gypsy moth could harm more kinds of trees than European gypsy moth. In this experiment, we choose 16 kinds of tree species to test host selection suitability which are common in USA or China. Statistics mortality rate, developmental duration and pupae weight to analyze the host impact on Asia gypsy moth. The result showed the larve of AGM feed on Acer saccharum, Betula platyphylla, Populus canadensi could complete life cycle. Larvae feed on Juniperus rigida, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus megistophylla, Picea koraiensis, Albizia julibrissin, Lirioden- dron chinense × tulipifera, Pinus bungeana, Pinus massoniana and Pinus thunbergii all died before 2nd instar. Larvae feed on P. tabulaeformis, P. strobus and Diospyros kaki after 4th instar, mortality is lower than 2nd instar. Once the larve develop after 4th instar, host range is wider than 1 st and 2nd instar.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性的害虫,常被分为欧洲型和亚洲型2种类型,欧洲型舞毒蛾在传入美国之后造成了巨大危害。之前报道指出亚洲型舞毒蛾的寄主范围比欧洲型舞毒蛾的广,故造成的危害和损失更大,北美植物保护组织据此对中国的高风险港口实施了船舶特别检疫措施,对我国的进出口贸易产生了巨大影响。鉴于此,本实验以16种北美和中国常见的行道树种和绿化树种作为供试树种,分析了不同寄主植物对亚洲型舞毒蛾生长发育指标的影响规律。结果表明:饲喂白桦、加杨和糖槭的幼虫可以完成生活周期。饲喂杜松、女贞、大叶黄杨、红皮云杉、合欢、杂交鹅掌楸、马尾松、黑松和白皮松的幼虫在2龄以前全部死亡。虽然2龄以前幼虫饲喂北美乔松、油松和柿树后死亡率较高,但

  11. Water Conservation of Litterfall in Different Mixed Forest Types of White Birch and Larch in Daxing’ an Moun- tain%大兴安岭不同类型白桦落叶松混交林枯落物水源涵养功能1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红振; 李凤日; 贾炜玮; 王树芳

    2014-01-01

    With the data of four 40 m ×40 m sample plots from primary larch forest and conifer-hardwood mixed forest in the Huzhong National Nature Reserve in Daxing’an mountain, we studied the water conservation of the litterfall in larch forest, and white birch (Betula platyphylla) and Larch (Larix gmelini) mixed forest with different tree composition.We meas-ured the accumulation and water holding capacity for different litterfall component for each plot.The accumulation and wa-ter holding capacity of forest litter of different forest type are 17.46 t/hm2-22.48 t/hm2 and 60.30 t/hm2-81.48 t/hm2 , respectively .They both have significant difference among different forest types and both decrease with the reduction of larch ratio, i.e., 10 Larch>8 Larch 2 White birch>6 Larch 4 white birch>4 Larch 6 White birch.The sequence of the ef-fective to the rainfall of the different forest litterfall in the various tree compositions is 4 Larch 6 White birch>6 Larch 4 white birch>10 Larch>8 Larch 2 White birch.There is the highest correlation between the effective interception of the semi-decomposed and the rainfall with the correlation coefficient of 0.820.%以大兴安岭地区呼中国家自然保护区针阔混交的原始林为研究对象,在不同树种组成的林分中设置4块40 m×40 m标准地,通过枯落物不同组分累积量以及持水量的测定、计算和分析,对落叶松林和白桦-落叶松混交林枯落物水源涵养功能进行了研究。结果表明:各类型林分的枯落物干物质累积量为17.46~22.48 t/hm2,枯落物最大持水量为60.30~81.48 t/hm2,两者均在各林分间差异显著,都随着落叶松所占比例的减小而减小,由大到小顺序为:10落、8落2白、6落4白、4落6白。不同树种组成的林分枯落物对降雨的有效拦蓄量由高到低的顺序是4落6白、6落4白、10落、8落2白,且与半分解有效拦蓄量相关性最高,相关系数达到0.820。

  12. 白桦和落叶松苗木对其纯林土壤养分的生物检测%Soil nutrient status of pure birch and larch plantations based on their seedlings bioassay.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠玲; 王庆成; 孙欣欣

    2011-01-01

    利用35年生白桦、落叶松纯林土壤分别栽植白桦、落叶松1年生苗木,通过对苗木生长、生物量、叶片养分及土壤养分变化的研究,对两种土壤的肥力进行评价,探讨白桦、落叶松混交林种间互作机制.结果表明:白桦纯林土壤全氮、碱解氮含量显著高于落叶松纯林土壤(P<0.05),落叶松纯林土壤全磷、全钾、速效磷含量显著高于白桦纯林土壤(P<0.05).盆栽第1年,白桦纯林土壤上的白桦苗木苗高、地径和生物量分别比在落叶松纯林土壤上增加69%、52%和65%( P<0.05),落叶松苗木分别增加12%、8%和37%(P>0.05).以白桦纯林土壤为基质时,白桦、落叶松苗木叶片氮浓度高于落叶松纯林土壤,而磷浓度低于落叶松纯林土壤.白桦凋落量大且分解速度快,落叶松对土壤磷具有活化作用,导致白桦纯林土壤氮素有效性较高,落叶松纯林土壤有效磷含量较高.推测两树种混交时,土壤氮、磷的互补作用可能对林分产量产生有益的作用.%One-year-old birch (Betula platyphylla) and larch ( Larix olgensis) seedlings were respectively planted in pots with the soils taken from 35-year-old pure birch and larch plantations, and the seedlings growth, biomass increment, foliar nutrient content, and soil nutrient status were monitored, aimed to evaluate the fertility levels of the two soils and the possible interspecific interaction in mixed larch-birch forest. Birch soil had significantly higher contents of total N and available N than larch soil, while larch soil had significantly higher contents of total P, available P, and total K than birch soil ( P<0.05 ). In the first growth season, the height and collar diameter growth and the biomass accumulation of birch seedlings growing on birch soil were 69% , 52% , and 65% (P<0. 05) higher than those growing on larch soil, and the larch seedlings also had 12% , 8% , and 37% gains of the indices, respectively. The foliar N

  13. 北京百花山自然保护区不同植被地面生苔藓植物物种多样性%Species Diversity of Floor Bryophytes in Different Vegetations in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 王文和; 颜亭玉; 李俊清

    2013-01-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index,the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophytes in the Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve in Beijing were studied.The results showed that there were 65 floor species (including subspecies and varieties) belonging to 31 genera of 13 families.Species composition,dominant families and dominant species were different in 8 kinds of vegetation,Pottiaceae and Bryaceae were the absolutefamilies in meadow and shrub,but the Entodontaceae was the most common family in forest vegetation.The species similarity between Pinus tabulaeformis forest and deciduous broadleaved forest was the highest (0.516 3),but meadow and Vitex negundo shrub between mostly forest vegetation were zero.The growth base was the most important environment factor related to the distribution of floor bryophytes,and the humidity,herbage coverage,litter coverage were also related to the distribution of the bryophytes on floor.Betula platyphylla forest and deciduous broadleaved forest were the center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for the bryophyte diversity conversation.%采用相似性系数和物种多样性指数对北京百花山自然保护区8种植被内地面生苔藓植物的物种多样性进行了研究,得知8种植被中地面生苔藓植物有13科31属65种(含种以下的单位),优势科6科,优势种12种.不同植被中苔藓植物的物种组成、优势科和优势种不同,丛藓科和真藓科植物在草甸和灌丛内占绝对优势,而森林植被内的绢藓科为绝对优势科;油松林和落叶阔叶混交林的物种相似性最高为51.63,草甸和荆条灌丛与大部分植被的物种相似为0.地面生苔藓植物的分布与其生长的基质相关性最大,另外水分条件、小生境、草本层盖度和凋落物盖度等也影响地面生苔藓植物的分布.白桦林和落叶阔叶混交林应成为生物多样性保护的重点植被类型.

  14. Diurnal Variation and Influenced Factors of Soil Respiration in Five Typical Low-quality Forest in Daxing’ an Mountains%大兴安岭5种类型低质林土壤呼吸日变化及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋启亮; 董希斌

    2014-01-01

    以大兴安岭地区针阔混交低质林、山杨低质林、蒙古栎低质林、白桦低质林、阔叶混交低质林为研究对象,采用LI-8150多通道土壤呼吸自动测量系统测定了不同类型低质林土壤呼吸速率的日变化,并测定了观测点的土壤温度、湿度、理化性质以及枯落物。结果表明:不同类型低质林土壤呼吸速率差异显著,土壤呼吸速率白天均高于夜晚,1 d中最高值出现在12:00-14:00,最低值出现在23:00-03:00,土壤呼吸速率与土壤温度的关系适合指数模型(R2为0.73~0.82),土壤呼吸速率与土壤温度和土壤湿度呈显著的二次曲线关系(R2为0.61~0.85),土壤温湿度双因子复合模型能更好解释不同类型低质林土壤呼吸速率的差异。土壤呼吸速率与土壤总孔隙度、有机质质量分数存在显著的正相关性,与土壤pH值、氮质量分数及半分解枯落物蓄积量相关性也较高。%We measured the change of soil respiration rate by using soil respiration measurement LI-8150, and the soil tempera-ture, soil moisture, soil physical and chemical properties, litter in five typical low-quality forest stands including mixed co-nifer and broadleaved forest, Populus davidiana forest, Quercus mongolica forest, Betula platyphylla forest and broadleaved mixed forest in Daxing’ an Mountains.The soil respiration rates were significantly different between different types of low-quality forest.The soil respiration rates during the day were higher than that in the night, the highest rate occurred from 12:00 to 14:00, and the lowest rate occurred between 23:00 to 3:00.Exponential model was suitable to the relation be-tween soil respiration rate and soil temperature ( with R2 of 0.73-0.82) , soil respiration rate and soil moisture was quadrat-ic curve relationship ( with R of 0.61-0.85) , soil temperature and moisture complex double factor model could better ex-plain the

  15. Effect of freezing-thawing on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization in Changbai Mountain%冻融对长白山森林土壤碳氮矿化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国晶; 周永斌; 代力民; 周旺明

    2012-01-01

    长白山地区秋末春初常常存在冻融过程,冻融过程影响土壤水分分布而改变土壤理化性质.通过室内模拟实验,研究了冻融过程(-20~15℃)对长白山阔叶红松(Pinus koraiensis)林和白桦(Betula platyphylla)林土壤有机碳和氮矿化过程的影响.结果表明,经过3次冻融循环,冻融处理土壤矿化速率显著高于对照处理,但经过多次冻融循环过程,冻融处理抑制土壤有机碳矿化过程,对照处理土壤有机碳矿化速率高于冻融处理(P=0.019).在培养结束后,冻融处理的阔叶红松林和白桦林土壤无机氮质量分数,分别是对照处理的1.88倍和1.96倍;冻融次数也是影响土壤有机氮矿化的一个重要因素,35次冻融循环后,阔叶红松林和白桦林土壤中无机氮分别提高了2.10倍和2.81倍.冻融循环促进了土壤有机氮的矿化,有利于土壤中有效氮的累积,为春季植物生长提供足够的氮素,但也潜在增加了土壤中无机氮流失的风险.%There are many freezing-thawing cycles (FTC) during the late autumn and early spring in ChangbaiMoutain. Freezing-thawing cycles affected the availability of soil water significantly, which would influence the soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of freezing-thawing cycles (-20-15℃)on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forests (HS) and Birch forest (BH) soils. The results showed that the carbon mineralization rate of freezing-thawing treatment was higher than control treatment after the third freezing-thawing cycles. But, with the numbers of freezing-thawing increasing, the freezing-thawing restrained the carbon mineralization, and the carbon mineralization rate of control treatment was higher than freezing-thawing (/MI.0I9). The inorganic nitrogen concentration in soil of HS and BH were 1.88 and 1.96 times as that of the control treatment

  16. Changing Regularity of Soil Moisture Content in Pinus koraiensis Plantation Ecosystems%红松人工林生态系统土壤含水率变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 王军; 李艳红; 张文天

    2011-01-01

    于2005年4月,对不同地类、不同土层垂直深度、不同季节的土壤含水率进行了连续3a的定位测定,并探讨了影响土壤含水率的相关因子.结果表明,红松郁闭林分土壤含水率为22.52%,均超过未郁闭的红松纯林和红松-白桦混交林.表层(0~10cm)土壤含水率最高,为22.62%,并呈现出随土壤深度的加深而含水率逐渐减小.在水热同季的生长季节中,土壤含水率随季节的变化而变化,在降水大的年份土壤含水率达到24.28%,在一年中8月份土壤含水率最大(29.58%),7月份次之(23.18%);8月中旬土壤含水率最高(27.61%),7月上旬次之(25.89%). 土壤含水率与降水量呈密切的线性相关关系.在幼林培育中为了保持土壤中水分,建议加速幼林郁闭,增加地表覆盖度,提高土壤蓄水潜力,减少土壤蒸发.%Orientation determination of soil moisture content in Pinus koraiensis plantations was conducted on different types of land, at different vertical depth of soil layers and in different seasons for three consecutive years in April 2005. The related factors affecting soil moisture content were discussed. Results showed that the forests with closed-canopy had the highest soil moisture content (22.52%), which was higher than that of the pure P. koraiensis plantations with unclosed-canopy and the mixed forest of P. koraiensis and Betula platyphylla. The surface soil layer (0-10 cm) possessed the highest soil moisture content ( 20.20% ), and the soil moisture content decreased with the deepening of soil layer. In the growing season with abundant quantity of heat and precipitation, the soil moisture content changed with seasons. The hishest soil moisture content (24.28%) appeared in the year with abundant precipitation. August had the highest soil moisture eontent (29.58%), followed by July (23.18%). In terms of the three periods of each month, the highest soil moisture content (27.61%) occurred in the middle ten days of

  17. 大兴安岭北部森林景观对气候变化的响应%Responses of boreal forest landscape in northern Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓娜; 贺红士; 吴志伟; 梁宇

    2012-01-01

    With the combination of forest landscape model (LANDIS) and forest gap model (LINKAGES) , this paper simulated the effects of climate change on the boreal forest landscape in the Great Xing' an Mountains, and compared the direct effects of climate change and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape. The results showed that under the current climate conditions and fire disturbances, the forest landscape in the study area could maintain its dynamic balance, and Larix gmelinii was still the dominant tree species. Under the future climate and fire disturbances scenario, the distribution area of L. gmelinii and Pinus pumila would be decreased , while that of Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Populus suaveolens, Chosenia arbuti-folia, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica would be increased, and the forest fragmentation and forest diversity would have an increase. The changes of the forest landscape lagged behind climate change. Climate warming would increase the growth of most tree species except L. gmelinii, while the increased fires would increase the distribution area of P. davidiana, P. suaveolens, and C. ar-butifolia and decrease the distribution area of L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. pumila. The effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape were almost equal to the direct effects of climate change, and aggravated the direct effects of climate change on forest composition, forest landscape fragmentation, and forest landscape diversity.%将森林景观模型LANDIS和林窗模型LINKAGES相结合,模拟气候变化对大兴安岭森林景观的影响,并比较分析了气候变化对森林景观的直接影响与通过火干扰改变所产生的影响.结果表明:维持当前气候和火干扰情景的条件下,森林景观保持动态平衡,兴安落叶松占据优势树种地位,未来气候情景下,兴安落叶松和偃松的分布面积降低,白桦、山杨、甜杨和钻天柳等阔叶树

  18. Effects of tree species on soil organic carbon density:A common garden experiment of five temperate tree species%树种对土壤有机碳密度的影响:5种温带树种同质园试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薪琪; 王传宽; 韩轶

    2015-01-01

    树种通过改变凋落物输入与周转及根系活动影响土壤的理化和生物学性质及固碳功能。合理选择树种是碳汇林业中一个亟待解决的理论和实践问题。为了减少林分特征和立地条件差异的影响,2004年在相同气候、土壤和经营历史的立地上建立了东北地区常见树种同质园,10年(2013–2014年)后测定了其中的3种阔叶树(白桦(Betula platyphylla)、胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)、水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica))和两种针叶树(落叶松(Larix gmelinii)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica))人工纯林的土壤有机碳(SOC)及土壤容重、全氮、微生物生物量碳、微生物生物量氮、pH值等相关因子,旨在比较探索树种对SOC含量及其垂直分布的影响。结果表明:(1)树种显著影响0–40 cm土层SOC总密度(p 水曲柳林>白桦林>落叶松林>樟子松林;10–20 cm土层变化范围为1.56–2.19 kg·m–2,表现为樟子松林>胡桃楸林>水曲柳林>白桦林>落叶松林;20–30 cm土层变化范围为1.17–2.10 kg·m–2,表现为白桦林、水曲柳林显著高于其他树种纯林;30–40 cm土层变化范围为0.84–1.43 kg·m–2,表现为白桦林显著高于其他树种纯林。(2) SOC密度垂直分布格局因树种和土层而异。胡桃楸林、落叶松林0–10 cm土层SOC密度占0–40 cm土层总密度的相对量显著高于其他树种纯林,白桦林20–40 cm土层的SOC密度相对量显著高于其他树种纯林,这说明不同层次SOC密度的主控因子因树种而异。(3)不同树种纯林SOC浓度、容重差异显著,且两者呈负相关。胡桃楸林、水曲柳林和落叶松林SOC密度与土壤微生物生物量、土壤pH值均呈正相关关系。5个树种纯林SOC密度均与全氮密度呈正相关关系。研究表明,树种通过改变土壤理化性质和微生物活动而显著影响SOC密度,不同树种SOC密度垂直变化格局可能是由不同树种在各个土层

  19. Effects of tree species on soil organic carbon density:A common garden experiment of five temperate tree species%树种对土壤有机碳密度的影响:5种温带树种同质园试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薪琪; 王传宽; 韩轶

    2015-01-01

    Aims Forest trees alter litter inputs, turnover and rhizospheric activities, modify soil physical, chemical and bio-logical properties, and consequently affect soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and carbon sink strength. That how to select appropriate tree species in afforestation, reforestation and management practices is critical to enhancing forest carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of tree species on SOC den-sity and vertical distributions. Methods A common garden experiment with the same climate, soil, and management history was established in Maoershan Forest Ecosystem Station, Northeast China, in 2004. The experimental design was a completely ran-domized arrangement with twenty 25 m × 25 m plots, consisting of monocultures of five tree species, including white birch (Betula platyphylla),Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica),Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mand-shurica), Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii), and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica), each with four replicated plots. A decade after the establishment (2013–2014), we measured carbon density and related factors (i.e., bulk density, total nitrogen concentration, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, pH value) in soils of the 0–40 cm depth for these monocultures. Important findings Results showed that tree species significantly influenced the SOC density in the 0–40 cm depth (p ash> birch > larch > pine, in the 10–20 cm depth from 1.56 to 2.19 kg·m–2, in the order of pine > walnut > ash > birch > larch, in the 20–30 cm depth from 1.17 to 2.10 kg·m–2, and in the 20–40 cm depth from 0.84 to 1.43 kg·m–2. The greatest SOC density occurred in the birch stands in the 20–40 cm depth. The vertical distributions of SOC density varied with tree species. The percentage of SOC in the 0–10 cm depth over the total SOC in the soil profile was significantly higher in the walnut and larch stands than in others, while the

  20. Med Kingo på dybt vand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Lars Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Tag med digteren Thomas Kingo ud på dybt vand i selskab med lektor og mag.art. Lars Arndal, der kaster nye perspektiver på Kingos forlisdigt Hierte-Suk. Arndal kommer hermed også med et bud på, hvordan man som lærer kan invitere eleverne med på opdagelse i digtet...

  1. Kunst rahvani ehk Kwangju biennaal / Siram

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siram, pseud., 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Biennaal "Tolmutera, veetilk" Lõuna-Koreas, avatud kuni 13. XI 2004. Kuraatorid Yongwoo Lee (New York, Soul), Kerry Brougher (Washington-distrikt), Suk-won Chang (Kwangju). City Light Award - Watercio Caldas (Brasiilia), Korea fondi preemia - Jennifer Allora ja Guillermo Calzadilla (Kuuba) jt. Johann Köleri nim. Positivistlik Kunsttööstuskool osales biennaali performance'iprogrammis

  2. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.G. van der Heyden; T.D. van de Ven; T. Opthof

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and. fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fr

  3. Kloonimiskuningas osutus tüssajaks / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Lõuna-Korea teadlane Hwang Woo-Suk astus möödunud aasta lõpus pettuses süüdistatuna tagasi Souli ülikooli professori kohalt, olles varem alusetult väitnud, et on saavutanud läbimurde geenitehnoloogias ning suudab tõhusalt tüvirakke luua

  4. From Hero to‘Goat'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The spectacular fall of South Korea's best-known scientist Hwang Woo Suk for falsifying his embryonic stem cell research has shocked his own country and once again highlighted the importance of scientists' integrity and ethical standards. Hwang, 52, a professor at Seoul National University before he

  5. Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

  6. AcEST: DK945237 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ope platyphylla GN=matK P... 30 4.9 sp|Q9TNB1|MATK_CONMJ Maturase K OS=Convallaria majali...FLYPLLFQEYIYALAHNHGL---NGSIFYEPVEVFGYDNKSSLVLVKRLITRIYQQNFLI 74 >sp|Q9TNB1|MATK_CONMJ Maturase K OS=Convallaria majali

  7. BasicS oli Physicochemical Properties and Soil Fungal Diversti y under Different Forest Ty pes of Urban Forest%城市森林不同林型下土壤基本理化特性及土壤真菌多样性1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高微微; 康颖; 卢宏; 王秋玉

    2016-01-01

    .mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis, Picea koraiensis, and forest edge grassland as control to de-termine the main soil physicochemical properties including soil pH , relative water content and electrical conductivity , and detected the soil fungal metagenomics diversity .There were significant variation among different soil samples in three soil basic properties, such as 4.597-7.393 for pH value,4.11%-10.90%for relative water content, 953.000-3 443.333μs· cm-1 for soil electrical conductivity .The pH value and soil electrical conductivity were highest for soil of Juglans mandshu-rica plantation, and the lowest for Larix gmelinii plantation.There were great difference in soil fungal metagenomics among eight soil samples.Total of 362 species, 211 genera, 124 families, 63 orders and 24 classes, 8 eumycota were in all soil samples.There were clear changes in the level of Eumycophyta and Eumycetes , including Ascomycota , Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota , Zygomycota , and Glomeromycota .An ancient mycorrhizal fungi of Ascomycota newly discovered in recent years was found in the forest soil of Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, while Agaricostibomycete fungi of pucciniomycoti-na, Basidiomycota were detected in the control samples and Glomeromycota fungi in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica and Fraxinus mandshurica, Exobasidiomycete fungi of Ustilaginomycotina Basidiomycota were only detected in the forest soil of Picea koraiensis and control. The dominant species were the fungi of Ascomycota phylum in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica, and Basidiomycota fungi in the forest soil of Betula platyphylla, Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, Picea koraiensis in Eumycophyta level .The dominate spe-cies in Eumycetes level were mainly Agaricomycetes fungi , in which sordariomycetes fungi of Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota as the dominate species were only found in the soil sample of Fraxinus mandshurica.

  8. NOTES ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF SUKINGU “bathroom” SUKINGU “banyo” KELİMESİNİN ETİMOLOJİSİ ÜZERİNE YENİ GÖRÜŞLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip GÜNER

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we do an etymological essay of the word sukınguwhich used in Sekiz Yükmek. According to Juten Oda sukıngı is derivated from suk- or sok- “to thrust into” and it means “winter dwelling”. Marcel Erdal disagrees this opinion and claims that it is derivated from sogın- “cool themselves” and he transcribes this word as sogıngu means “refreshing room for the summer”. Şen claims that this word is derivated from sukın- which means “to take a bath” in Old Turkic and explains its meaning as “bathroom”. We share the same views with Şen about the meaning of sukıngu. But we claim that the root of this word is sug- “to drain (water etc.” in Old Turkic. Then added this word -(Xn- reflexive suffix and it became sugın- “to bathe”. -gu+ in Turkic, makes place names and when this suffix added to the sugıngu it means “bathroom”. Bu çalışmada Sekiz Yükmek’te geçen sukıngu kelimesinin yapısı ve anlamı üzerinde durulacaktır. Kelime, Juten Oda tarafından suk- ~ sok- “sokmak, girdirmek” köküne dayandırılarak “kışlık konut” olarak anlamlandırılmıştır. Marcel Erdal bu anlamlandırmaya itiraz ederek kelimenin sogın- “soğumak”tan türediğini ve “yazları dinlenilecek oda” anlamına geldiğini ileri sürmüştür. Şen ise sukıngu’nın Eski Türkçede “yıkanmak” anlamında sukın- fiilinden geldiğini söylemiş ve onu “banyo” olarak anlamlandırmıştır. Kelimenin “banyo” anlamını taşıdığı hususunda Şen ile aynı görüşleri paylaştığımızı belirtmek isteriz ancak yapısını “(su vb sıvı maddeler için dökmek” anlamında bir sug- fiilinden -(Xn- dönüşlülük ekiyle “yıkanmak” anlamını kazanmış olan sugınfiiline dayandırıp bu fiilden mekân adları da türeten -gu+ ile “yıkanacak yer, banyo” anlamında sugıngu olarak açıklamaya çalışacağız.

  9. Stem-cell spin: Covering the Hwang-affair in Science and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the South Korean cloning expert Woo Suk Hwang was found guilty of fraud and scientific misconduct. The scandal was reaching far beyond Hwang’s own laboratory encompassing national pride, geopolitics and regional discussions of stem-cell research. But the HIn 2006 the South Korean cloning...... expert Woo Suk Hwang was found guilty of fraud and scientific misconduct. The scandal reached far beyond Hwang’s own laboratory, encompassing national pride, geopolitics and global discussions of stem-cell research. But the Hwang affair was also a case of fierce competition between two of the world...... a caring and concerned South Korean research director. Science was true to this narrative over a two-year period until finally, around Christmas 2005, there was no longer any doubt about Hwang’s misbehaviour. In Nature, on the other hand, Hwang was, from the very beginning, treated with suspicion...

  10. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M A G; van de Ven, T; Opthof, T

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fraud case' and raise some ethical concerns about the issue. Finally, we pay attention to plagiarism, autoplagiarism and double publications. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:25-9.).

  11. Communal action of microbial cultures for Red HE3B degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, P S; Phugare, S S; Jadhav, S B; Jadhav, J P

    2010-09-15

    The consortium PMB11 consisting of three bacterial species, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil was identified as Bacillus odysseyi SUK3, Morganella morganii SUK5 and Proteus sp. SUK7. The consortium possessed the ability to decolorize various textile dyes as well as mixtures of dyes. PMB11 could decolorize Red HE3B (50 mg l(-1)) with 99% of decolorization within 12 h in nutrient broth, while in mineral medium it could decolorize up to 97% within 24h. Induction in the activities of various oxidative and reductive enzymes indicates the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization. Biodegradation of the dye was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC and FTIR analysis. The Red HE3B degradation pathway was proposed by GC-MS analysis. Various metabolites formed after the degradation were identified as 2,5-diaminobenzene 6-aminotriazine, aniline 2-sulfate, aniline 3-sulfate, 2-amino 5-chlorotriazine and naphthalene. Phytotoxicity studies revealed that metabolites formed after degradation were significantly less toxic in nature.

  12. Phylogeographic patterns in Leccinum sect. Scabra and the status of the arctic/alpine species L. rotundifoliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships in the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus Leccinum section Scabra. Species of this section are exclusively associated with Betula and occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of arctic, alpine,

  13. 采金迹地自然恢复植被对土壤锰元素化学形态的影响%Effects of naturally recovered vegetation on chemical speciation of Mn in gold-tracesmining wasteland,northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨肃; 蔡体久; 满秀玲; 谷金锋; 郎燕

    2012-01-01

    应用BCR连续提取法,以大兴安岭漠河县胭脂沟典型采金迹地4种自然植被群落类型为研究对象,研究了不同植被群落类型对土壤锰元素4种化学形态的影响。结果表明:大穗薹草--玉蝉花群落、兴安柳--白桦群落、兴安落叶松群落和樟子松群落土壤弱酸可提取态锰平均含量占该群落总量的比例分别为36.25%、36.63%、31.04%和43.39%;可还原态锰平均含量占总量的比例分别为30.71%、32.98%、36.80%和27.28%;可氧化态锰平均含量占总量的比例分别为9.07%、7.10%、8.30%和7.13%;残渣态锰平均含量占总量的比例分别为23.97%、23.28%、23.86%和22.20%。通过因子分析表明:大穗薹草--玉蝉花群落对锰难分解形态固持效果好,且对土壤弱酸可提取态锰含量积累较高;兴安柳--白桦群落对锰难分解形态固持效果差,且对土壤弱酸可提取态锰含量消耗较大;樟子松群落对土壤弱酸可提取态锰含量积累程度最高,且有利于锰难分解形态向着对植物有效的形态转化;兴安落叶松群落对土壤弱酸可提取态锰含量消耗最大,且对锰难分解形态活化程度低。此研究结果可为采金迹地人工恢复植被过程中筛选植物提供参考。%Four vegetation types of typical gold-mining wasteland were selected as the study subjects in Rouge Ditch of Mohe County in Daxing’an Mountain,northeastern China.By applying BCR sequential extraction method,the effects of different vegetations on four chemical speciations of soil Mn were studied.The results showed that average contents of soil EX-Mn in Carex rhynchophysa-Iris ensata community(CR),Salix hsinganica-Betula platyphylla community(SH),Larix gmelinii community(LG),and Pinus sylvestris community(PS) were about 36.25%,36.63%,31.04% and 43.39% of the total content;average contents of RED-Mn took up 30.71%,32.98%,36.80% and 27.28% of the total;average contents of OXI-Mn took up 9

  14. 刺槐与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对微量元素释放的影响%Influences of mixed leaf litter decomposition of Robinia pseudoacacia with other trees on microelements release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜良贞; 刘增文; 祝振华; 李茜

    2012-01-01

    whole Loess Plateau, through collecting leaf litter of R. pseudoacacia and other 10 trees at the end of autumn,cutting the leaf to some fragments (a=l cm) or 1 cm needles,and gathering humus soil (0-20 cm) of no forested land as medium,the incubation of mixed leaf litter decomposition had been carried out for 345 d with the method of nylon mesh bag buried with soil in the same condition of tem- perature and moisture. Then,the microelements (Cu,Zn,Ni,Cd) contents before and after leaf litter de-composition were determinated with the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS)method. [Result] The re- lease rates of Cu,Zn,Ni and Cd during unique leaf litter decomposition of Populus simonii ,Hippophae rh- amnoides ,Platycladus orientalis and Quercus liaotungensis are all the fastest and the turnover period is 1 year or a little more. Mixing litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with P. simonii,Ulmus pumila, H. rh- amnoides separately would produce promoted actions on release of the microelements, whereas mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, P. orientalis, Betula platyphylla and Caragana microphylla separately would produce inhibitory actions on release of the 4 microelements. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus tabulaeformis and Larix principis-rupprechtii separately would promote release of Cu, but inhibit releases of Zn, Ni and Cd. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Q. liaotungensis would promote releases of Zn and Cd,but inhibit releases of Cu and Ni. [Conclusion] Mixed forestation of R. pseudoacacia with other trees which promote release of microele- ments after mixed litter decomposition would be helpful for the microelement cycling and utilization in for- estland.

  15. 黄土区次生植被恢复对土壤有机碳官能团的影响%Effect of revegetation on functional groups of soil organic carbon on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 赵世伟; 张扬; 马帅; 李晓晓

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation succession affects soil physical and chemical properties, including organic carbon functional group species, quantities, and structural changes. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) functional groups during the vegetation restoration process could reveal the processes governing changes in the composition and properties of humus. The study was on the Loess Plateau in the Ziwuling forest region of Shaanxi Province, where various stages of secondary forests have developed. At different phases of development, vegetation systems in this region have changed from pioneer herbage species, which initially colonized abandoned croplands, (Bothriochloa isehemum, Artenmisia giradii, Stipa bungeana, Artenmisia sacrornai, Spodiopogen sibiricus, Sophora flavecens,Themeda japonica, and Arundinella anomala) , to secondarv shrubs (Hippophae rhamnoides, Sophora viciifdia, and Ostrjopsis davidiana) , to an early forest community ( Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, and Platycladus orientalis with groups of trees and/or shrubs) , and finally to a Liaotungesis community forming the mature forest. The SOC content in the 0-40 cm soil layer increases significantly during the vegetation succession from abandoned cropland to mature Liaotungesis forest. The rate of increase in SOC is different during vegetation succession, and organic carbon functional groups varied among the different plant communities. Recent studies using synchrotron-based C( 1s) near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) have shown it to be an effective, non-invasive technique, which can be used to identify and fingerprint the complex structural characteristics of SOC. Consequently it can be used to investigate the impact of management on the composition and biogeochemical cycling of organic C at the molecular level in terrestrial ecosystems. This synchrotron radiation technology has rarely been used to study SOC structure in China before so we used it in this study with the objective of developing a

  16. Difference of Litter Carbon Densityi n Natural Secondary Birches-Mongolian Oak Forest%天然次生白桦林蒙古栎林凋落物碳密度的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁壮; 尚杰

    2015-01-01

    We measured and calculated the carbon density of litter fall in natural secondary birch -mongolian oak forest in the north of Changbai Mountain and Zhangguangcai Mountain .The litter carbon density in 42-year-old birch forest was 2.477 t· hm-2· a-1, and 1.049 t· hm-2· a-1 for 20-year-old birch forest, with difference of 136.13%.Litter carbon density in 20-year -old Mongolic oak forest was 0.948 t· hm-2 · a-1 , and 2.686 t· hm-2 · a-1for the 50-year-old Mongolic oak forest , with the deviation of 183.33%, and with the significance ANOVA result of ( P0.05) although in quantitative terms .The average value of carbon density in litter organs showed outstanding difference (P<0 .05) with leaf, branch, skin, fruit, dung, and ovum in the proper order , and the value rose with the forest age .Seasonal trend of carbon density in birch and Mongolic oak forest was regular and was divided into three stages according to the characteristics of carbon density trend , that was litter fall in growing season , litter fall in stop grow-ing season and winter dormancy with the highest value in the stop growing season , and the lowest in the winter dormancy .%在长白山北部、张广才岭西坡,东北林业大学老山人工林实验站,测试与计算天然次生白桦林( Betu-la platyphylla Suk.)和蒙古栎林(Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Ledeb.)凋落物碳密度。结果表明:20年生白桦林凋落物碳密度为1.049 t· hm-2· a-1,42年生白桦林凋落物碳密度为2.477 t· hm-2· a-1,相差136.13%;20年生蒙古栎林凋落物碳密度为0.948 t· hm-2· a-1,50年生蒙古栎林凋落物碳密度为2.686 t· hm-2· a-1,相差183.33%;经方差分析,均相差显著( P<0.05),说明林龄是影响碳密度变化的主要因素。2种林分类型凋落物碳密度的变化,经方差分析均无显著(P >0.05),在数量上虽有小的差异,但在理论上没有变化。不同

  17. Species diversity of forest communities in Pangquangou Nature Reserve, Shanxi of China%山西庞泉沟自然保护区森林群落物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭华; 邓永利; 张峰; 董刚; 李世广

    2013-01-01

    in herb layer but had less difference in tree and shrub layers.There existed significant differences (P<0.01) among the Patrick index,Simpson index,and Shannon index and between the Pielou index and Alatalo index.In Ass.3 (Larix principis-rupprechtii-Spiraea pubescens+Rosa bella-Fragaria orientalis),there was a significant negative correlation (r =-0.643,P<0.05) between shrub and herbaceous layers; in Ass.8 (Betula platyphylla+Populus davidiana-Cotoneaster acutifolius+R.bella-Carex stenophylloides),shrub layer had a significant negative correlation (r=-0.458,P<0.05) with tree layer but a significant positive correlation (r=0.404,P<0.05) with herbaceous layer; in Ass.11 (Picea meyeri-C.stenophylloides+Carpesium cernuum),tree layer was significantly negatively correlated with herbaceous layer (r=-0.949,P<0.05).

  18. 青海不同林分类型土壤养分与微生物功能多样性%Soil Nutrients and Microbial Functional Diversity of Different Stand Types in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向泽宇; 张莉; 张全发; 刘伟; 王根绪; 王长庭; 胡雷

    2014-01-01

    available phosphorus content was Xunhua,Jianzha,Huangzhong > Datong 1 #,Datong 2 #,Ledu > Minhe,and the available potassium content was Datong 2 #,Minhe > Ledu > Datong 1 #,Huangzhong,Xunhua,Jianzha. The total potassium content of each stand type was not significantly different. The accumulation of overall soil nutrients in different stand types was in turn Datong 1#,Jianzha > Huangzhong > Xunhua > Datong 2# > Ledu > Minhe. Effects of four tree species on the distribution and improvement of soil nutrients were in sequence of Picea asperata > Betula platyphylla> Populus davidiana > Larix gmelinii. The soil microbial community functional diversity index in the various stand types was Ledu,Minhe > Datong 1 #,Datong 2 #,Huangzhong,> Xunhua,Jianzha. The principal component analysis of carbon source utilization of the soil microbial community in different stand types showed that carbohydrates and amino acids were the main carbon source. RDA of each stand type soil nutrient content and microbial community functional diversity indicated that soil nutrient factors well explained the variation of the microbial community functional diversity. Soil nutrient had important influence on microbial community functional diversity. The organic matter, nitrogen and available phosphorus were the main factors influencing the metabolism of soil microbial communities.

  19. Enhanced dissolution and oral absorption of tacrolimus by supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Lee DR; Ho MJ; Jung HJ; Cho HR; Park JS; Yoon SH; Choi YS; Choi YW; Oh CH; Kang MJ

    2016-01-01

    Dae Ro Lee,1 Myoung Jin Ho,1 Hyuck Jun Jung,1 Ha Ra Cho,1 Jun Seo Park,1 Suk-Hyun Yoon,2 Yong Seok Choi,1 Young Wook Choi,3 Chung-Hun Oh,2,4,5 Myung Joo Kang1 1College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Medical Laser, Graduate School, Dankook University, Dongnam-gu, Choenan, Chungnam, 3College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 4Department of Oral Physiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, 5Abel Medi-Tech Inc., Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: A new Solu...

  20. Stem cell research: cloning, therapy and scientific fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E

    2006-10-01

    Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed. PMID:16965321

  1. Oikeaa balettia? : Tähtäimessä nykybaletin opettamisen metodi

    OpenAIRE

    Marttinen, Fox

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin nykybaletin opetusmetodin kehittämistä. Klassisen baletin opetus rakentuu selkeiden metodien varaan. Nämä eivät tarjoa enää kaikkia niitä taitoja, joita tanssija tarvitsee työskennellessään nykybalettiteosten parissa. Työssä käsiteltiin tanssia esittävän taiteen näkökulmasta. Tutkimus pohjautui holistiseen ihmiskäsitykseen, jonka mukaan ihminen on tajunnallisuutensa, kehollisuutensa ja situationaalisuutensa muodostama kokonaisuus. Työn eettisenä taustana oli suk...

  2. Research Misconduct—Definitions, Manifestations and Extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.

  3. Interneto paslaugas teikiančių įmonių marketingo strategijos

    OpenAIRE

    Egidė-Patašienė, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Pirmoje darbo dalyje buvo įvertinta ir nagrinėta įmonės strateginė orientacija, strateginio planavimo ir valdymo esmė, apibrėžta marketingo strategijos samprata, pateikti pagrindiniai marketingo strategijų tipai, priklausomai nuo įmonės užimamos pozicijos rinkoje, konkurentų ir kt. veiksnių bei nusakytas teorinis marketingo strategijos įmonėje sukūrimo modelis. Antroje darbo dalyje, remiantis moksliniais straipsniais bei rastais pavyzdžiais mokslinėje marketingo literatūroje, buvo įvertinti m...

  4. Patikimumo, saugumo ir rizikos analizės metodai

    OpenAIRE

    Krikštolaitis, Ričardas

    2012-01-01

    Straipsnyje pateikiama klasterio mokslininkų vykdyto Nacionalinės mokslo programos „Ateities energetika“ projekto „Energetinio saugumo analizės ir integruoto saugumo lygio vertinimo metodikos sukūrimas ir tyrimas“ gautų rezultatų apžvalga. Pagrindiniai projekto pasiekimai – sudaryta energetinių sistemų grėsmių analizės ir vertinimo metodika bei energetinio saugumo lygio vertinimo metodika. In the article review of received results of the project “Development of methodology for Energy secur...

  5. Elliptic genera of 2d N=2 gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Benini, Francesco; Hori, Kentaro; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    We compute the elliptic genera of general two-dimensional N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) gauge theories. We find that the elliptic genus is given by the sum of Jeffrey-Kirwan residues of a meromorphic form, representing the one-loop determinant of fields, on the moduli space of flat connections on T^2. We give several examples illustrating our formula, with both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups, and discuss some dualities for U(k) and SU(k) theories. This paper is a sequel to the authors' previous paper arXiv:1305.0533.

  6. The level 2 and 3 modular invariants of SU(n)

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, Terry

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we explicitly classify all modular invariant partition functions for su(n) at level 2 and 3. Previously, these were known only for level 1. The level 2 exceptionals exist at n=10, 16, and 28; the level 3 exceptionals exist at n=5, 9, and 21. One of these is new, but the others were all anticipated by the "rank-level duality" relating su(n) level k and su(k) level n. The main recent result which this paper rests on is the classification of "ADE_7-type invariants".

  7. Bagatellid : maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld, Ivo Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2011-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: 14. Tšaikovski nimelisest konkursist. Daniel Barenboim tõstetakse rüütliseisusesse. Orkestrist I, Culture Orchestra. Charles Dutoit plaanib luua Lõuna- ja Põhja-Koread ühendava orkestri. Lahkus Josef Suk. Seiji Ozawa pälvis Praemium Imperiale auhinna. Cardiffi lauljate konkursi võitis Valentina Nafornita. Lahkus Nikolai Petrov. Venetsueelas lööb laineid noor dirigent Jose Omar Davila. "Jazzkaare" täht Brass Jaw sai Suurbritannias suure tunnustuse osaliseks. Põhjamaade Nõukogu muusikaauhinna teenis Mats Gustafsson. Black Eyed Peas paneb pillid kotti. Kuuba kitarrist Manuel Galban surnud. Eesti on Tšehhi jazziraadio fookuses

  8. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS KUWANINA FROM CHINA(HEMIPTERA,COCCOIDEA, ERIOCOCCIDAE)%中国隙毡蚧属一新种(半翅目,蚧总科,毡蚧科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安; 刘锦

    2009-01-01

    A new species of genus Kuwanina K.beula sp, nov., collected on Betula ablo-sinensis from Henan Province of China, is described and illustrated. A key to species of the world is provided. Type specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, Beijing Forestry University.%记述采自我国河南省嵩县白云山红桦 Betula ablosinensis上的隙毡蚧属1新种:红桦隙毡蚧Kuwanina betula sp.nov..同时给出了该属分种检索表.模式标本保存在北京林业大学昆虫标本室.

  9. 几种麦冬及其伪品的组织学鉴别比较研究%Comparative Study on Histological Identification of Tuber of Dwarf Lilyturf and False Medical Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义梅

    2005-01-01

    对麦冬的药典品种麦冬Ophiopogon japonicus(Thunb)Ker-Gawl,地方品种湖北麦冬Liriope spicata(Thunb.)Lour.var.proliferaY.T.Ma及阔叶麦冬Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang,伪品淡竹根Lophatherum gracile Brongn.及石刁柏根Asparagus officinalis L.进行了组织学鉴别、显微摄影和特征比较等方面的研究.

  10. REEVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE EXTINCIÓN DE CINCO ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO POLIANTHES L. (AGAVACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo; Eloy Solano; Abisaí García-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Con base en el método de evaluación del riesgo de extinción de las especies silvestres en México (MER), se redefinió el de Polianthes densiflora, P. howardii, P. longiflora, P. palustris y P. platyphylla. Estas cinco plantas se encuentran listadas en la categoría de protección especial en la Norma Oficial Mexicana y fueron catalogadas como raras por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). El criterio A del MER (amplitud de la distribución geográfica) se estimó med...

  11. 大兴安岭盘古林场森林景观的空间分布格局及其关联性%Spatial Point Patterns and Associations of Forest Landscapes in Pangu Forest Farm in Daxing’an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董灵波; 刘兆刚; 李凤日

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]The research of multi-scale spatial distribution pattern and associations of forest landscapes has become a hotspot in landscape ecology. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern and associations of the main forest landscapes in Daxing ’an Mountains,which can contribute to clarify the formation and maintenance mechanism of forest landscapes in this area and also can provide some insights for healthy management of the forest landscapes.[Method]Based on the data of forest resource inventory in Pangu forest farm in Daxing’an Mountains in northeastern China,the spatial distribution pattern and associations of the main forest landscape types ( natural Larix gmelinii forest,natural Betula platyphylla forest,natural coniferous mixed forest and natural mixed broadleaf-conifer forest) were characterized by using the O-ring statistics within Programita software and kernel density function within ArcMap software. [Result]The result of kernel density function indicated that the mean patch density for each forest type were 0. 73 -1. 57 km -2 ,and the spatial variation coefficient were up to 99. 75% -119. 67%,which both illustrated the distribution of the four forest landscapes were significantly clumped in spatial dimensions. The O-ring statistics showed that the main forest landscape types were significantly clumped at small scale,and tended to be in random distribution with the increase of scale. Spatial associations showed that there were negative correlations at small scale,non-correlations at medium scale,and positive correlations at large scale among different forest landscapes. Forest cutting and forest fire are the major driving forces for the change of forest landscape in the study area. [Conclusion]Our assessment indicated that the forest landscapes in this area have presented the trends of fragmentation during the recent 100 years,due to the long term forest harvest,forest fires and other interference factors

  12. 5种温带森林生态系统细根的时间动态及其影响因子%Temporal dynamics and influencing factors of fine roots in five Chinese temperate forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向飞; 王传宽; 全先奎

    2013-01-01

    Production and mortality of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2mm) and influencing factors are important to energy flow and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems,but remain poorly understood mainly due to the limitation of methodology.In this study,we used a minirhizotron technique to investigate the temporal dynamics in fine root length production (FRP) and mortality (FRM) of five representative forest ecosystems in Northeast China during the period between May and October of 2010.Soil temperature (Ts),soil moisture (Ms),and leaf area index (LAI) were simultaneously measured for each stand.The stands were aspen-birch forest dominated by Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla,hardwood forest dominated by Fraxinus mandshurica and Juglans mandshurica,Mongolian oak forest dominated by Quercus mongolica,Korean pine (Pinus Koraiensis) plantation,and Dahurian larch (Larix grnelinii) plantation.The experimental design included five forest types,three 20 m×30 m replicate plots in each forest type.The results showed that the FRP and FRM were significantly (P<0.001) affected by forest types,sampling times and their interactions.The FRP was (13.34 ± 0.90)μm·cm-2·d-1(mean ± SE),(13.04 ± 0.82) μm·cm-2·d-1,(8.74 ± 1.14) μm·cm-2·d-1,(8.02 ± 2.77) iμm·cm-2·d-1,and (7.59 ± O.82) μm· cm-2· d-1 for the aspen-birch,hardwood,larch,pine,and oak stands,respectively;and the FRM was (5.02 ±0.36) μm·cm-2·d-1,(6.85±0.32) μm·cm-2·d-1,(5.05 ±0.61) μm·cm-2·d-1,(3.88 ± 0.35) μm·cm-2·d-1,and (3.88 ± 0.61) μm·cm-2·d-1,correspondingly.The FRP showed a unimodal seasonal pattern with peaks varying with forest types.The FRM increased gradually as the growing season proceeded,and reached its maximum at the end of the growing season for all the stands except for the aspen-birch and hardwood stands where it peaked in early August.Ts,Ms,and LAI all exerted significant positive effects on FRP and FRM (P<0.05),which,together,explained more than 68% and 53% of

  13. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in R...

  14. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Satarupa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gramnegative (58% bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130 showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2-8 mM when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92 tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6-17.8 mM, the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate.

  15. Effects of landuse change on the hydrologic regime of the Mae Chaem river basin, NW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapakpawin, P.; Richey, J.; Thomas, D.; Rodda, S.; Campbell, B.; Logsdon, M.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryConflicts between upland shifting cultivation, upland commercial crops, and lowland irrigated agriculture cause water resource tension in the Mae Chaem watershed in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In this paper, we assess hydrologic regimes of the Mae Chaem River with landuse change. Three plausible future forest-to-crop expansion scenarios and a scenario of crop-to-forest reversal were developed based on the landcover transition from 1989 to 2000, with emphasis on influences of elevation bands and irrigation diversion. Basin hydrologic responses were simulated using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Meteorological data from six weather stations inside and adjacent to the Mae Chaem watershed during the period 1993-2000 were the climate inputs. Computed stream flow was compared to observed discharge at Ban Mae Mu gauge on Mae Mu river, Ban Mae Suk gauge on Mae Suk river, and at Kaeng Ob Luang, located downstream from the district town in Mae Chaem. With current assumptions, expansion of highland crop fields led to slightly higher regulated annual and wet-season water yields compared to similar expansion in the lowland-midland zone. Actual downstream water availability was sensitive to irrigation diversion. This modeling approach can be a useful tool for water allocation for small watersheds undergoing rapid commercialization, because it alerts land managers to the potential range of water supply in wet and dry seasons, and provides information on spatial distribution of basin hydrologic components.

  16. Rigid Holography and Six-Dimensional N=(2,0) Theories on AdS_5 times S^1

    CERN Document Server

    Aharony, Ofer; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Field theories on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space can be studied by realizing them as low-energy limits of AdS vacua of string/M theory. In an appropriate limit, the field theories decouple from the rest of string/M theory. Since these vacua are dual to conformal field theories (CFTs), this relates some of the observables of these field theories on AdS to a subsector of the dual CFTs. We exemplify this `rigid holography' by studying in detail the 6d N=(2,0) A_{K-1} superconformal field theory (SCFT) on AdS_5xS^1, with equal radii for AdS_5 and for S^1. We choose specific boundary conditions preserving sixteen supercharges that arise when this theory is embedded into Type IIB string theory on AdS_5xS^5/Z_K. On R^{4,1}xS^1, this 6d theory has a 5(K-1)-dimensional moduli space, with unbroken 5d SU(K) gauge symmetry at (and only at) the origin. On AdS_5xS^1, the theory has a 2(K-1)-dimensional `moduli space' of supersymmetric configurations. We argue that in this case the SU(K) gauge symmetry is unbroken everywhere in...

  17. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  18. Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van A.F.M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of shadin

  19. AcEST: DK957328 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 332 2e-89 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN...TGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVST 179 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  20. AcEST: DK963239 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 328 2e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...SGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQV 177 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=

  1. Flynn Effects on Sub-Factors of Episodic and Semantic Memory: Parallel Gains over Time and the Same Set of Determining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency). We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched…

  2. COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF PINE AND BIRCH SPECIES WITH DIFFERENT SCHEME OF COMBINATION Сравнительная характеристика сосново-березовых культур с различной схемой смешения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiryan K. G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of condition and growth of Pinus sylvestris and Betula Pendula in their cohabitation in poor sand soils (A2 in the condition of some forest enterprises of Voronezh region; the most effective way of combination of this species is revealed

  3. Effective height development of four co-occurring species in the gap-phase regeneration of Douglas fir monocultures under nature-oriented conversion. Forest Ecology and Management, Pages 189-198

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Breugel, van M.; Sterck, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Natural regeneration in gaps in Douglas fir forest stands in the Netherlands mainly consists of Betula pendula (Roth.), Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix kaempferi (Carr.), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco). Even though these species are well known, the autogenic development of these species in an

  4. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  5. How to measure distinct components of visual attention fast and reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Habekost, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    for the Swedish Betula-project, a longitudinal study investigating changes in cognitive functions over the adult life span (Nilsson et al., 2004). The test consists of a computer-based letter recognition task with stimulus displays of varied durations followed by pattern masks or a blank screen. The temporal...

  6. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassen, H.B.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Limpens, J.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2. Th

  7. Environ: E00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00796 Birch Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Salicy...late, Tannin, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] Betula pendula [TAX:3505] Betulaceae Birch leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Betulaceae (birch famly) E00796 Birch ...

  8. Spatial interactions between ungulate herbivory and forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    The SE-Veluwe is a forested area in The Netherlands consisting mainly of Pinus and heathlands and includes mono- and mixed species stands of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Betula pubescens and B. pendens. In this area, forest managers differ in manage

  9. Books received by the Rijksherbarium library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1992-01-01

    The fifth issue of this series comprises extended keys for the determination of 148 species of Ectomycorrhizae (Abies 1, Betula 17, Carpinus 1, Fagus 31, Larix 10, Picea 51, Pinus 33, Pseudotsuga 4, and Quercus 2). The glossary, synoptic tables, literature as well as proposals for the arrangement of

  10. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  11. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  12. Estimation of Provincial Spatial Distribution Information of Forest Tree Species ( Group) Composition Using Multi-Sources Data%基于多源数据的省级树种(组)成数空间分布信息估测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇佳; 陈尔学; 李世明

    2016-01-01

    the forest plot data of 9 counties collected by the forest resources inventory in second level and the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference.[Result]7 tree species ( group) composition numbers including Quercus mongolica,Betula platyphylla,Tilia amurensis, Ulmus davidiana,Populus,Juglans mandshurica and Larix olgensis were extracted and the corresponding distribution maps were produced. The results showed a good consistency with the fixed plots in field. Taking county as statistic unit,the following quantitative technical targets have been achieved: the coefficient of determination ( R2 ) was 0. 83,and the RMSE was 0. 34. Specifically,the accuracy has been further validated by dividing the whole coverage of Jilin Province into grids of 20 km × 20 km,30 km × 30 km,40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km,taking the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference and the grid as statistic unit. Better results could be achieved at the scale of 40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km. The RMSE of Ulmus davidiana composition number was 0. 35 and the RMSE of Quercus mongolica composition number was 0. 65. The optimal k-value could be determined for the phenomenon that the RMSE firstly reduced and then tended steady with the rising k-value. In addition,the estimation accuracy of the two-layer stratification estimation method was higher than that of the direct estimation method. The results showed that: the average RMSE of estimating tree species ( group) composition using two-layer stratification estimation method was 0. 1 less than that using direct estimation method.[Conclusion]The proposed method for estimating the provincial spatial distribution information of forest tree species (group) composition using multi-sources data has proved to be an effective method to estimate forest parameters. Based on this method,the distribution map of forest tree species ( group) composition numbers was successfully produced with high accuracy. The results indicated that the value

  13. Lietuvos valstybės prekės ženklo svarba tarptautinėje arenoje

    OpenAIRE

    Majauskaitė, Aurelija

    2014-01-01

    Tarptautinė rinka yra itin konkurencinga, pastaruoju metu Lietuva aktyviai bando į ją įsilieti visapusiškai ir lygiateisiai. Prekės ženklo sukūrimas yra svarbus įrankis kiekvienai valstybei, bandančiai pristatyti save pasauliui, tad kyla didelis neaiškumas, kaip sukurti nacionalinį identitetą atspindintį prekės ženklą, kuris gerintų valstybės įvaizdį bei atneštų jai didžiausią naudą. Lietuvai, tik prieš metus susikūrusiai logotipą, šalies rinkodaros tema yra nauja ir itin aktuali, savoka "val...

  14. Denotation and connotation in public representation: Semantic network analysis of Hwang supporters' internet dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo

    2013-04-01

    This article analyzes the internet discourses of Korean people who supported Hwang Woo Suk despite the disclosure of his scientific misconduct. During the controversial period, those who supported Hwang constructed a narrative of a fallen hero trapped by jealous rivals and an "unjust" society. The supporters' dramatized discourses compete with expert opinions of Seoul National University's Audit Board and prosecutors that investigated the scientific fraud. By introducing and applying an innovative method of semantic network analysis, this study explores how the supporters represent their personal concerns in daily life and latent social problems in South Korea, as well as the failure of science communication. In short, the supporters' internet representations connote concerns in daily life that motivated their sympathy and activism for Hwang.

  15. Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B

    2016-02-26

    Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality. PMID:26967398

  16. SMD Publikuotų straipsnių apžvalga: Lietuvos zoologijos sodo kukurūzinių žalčių, karališkųjų gyvačių, stepinių vėžlių burnos mikrofloros tyrimas ir atsparumo antimikrobinėms medžiagoms nustatymas

    OpenAIRE

    Neverauskas, Donatas

    2014-01-01

    Stomatitas yra dažna roplių burnos infekcinė liga. Didėjant namie auginamų roplių skaičiui, daugės ir klinikinių atvejų veterinarijos gydyklose. Svarbu identifikuoti sukėlėjus ir paskirti tikslingą antimikrobinę terapiją. Tyrimui burnos gleivinės tepinėliai paimti iš: 8 kukurūzinių žalčių, 2 karališkųjų gyvačių ir 13 stepinių vėžlių, auginamų Lietuvos zoologijos sode. Išskirta burnos mikroflora: kukurūzinių žalčių-Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp.; karal...

  17. Trimatės vartotojo sąsajos, kuriamos atkuriamosios grafikos priemonėmis

    OpenAIRE

    Vižinienė, Asta

    2007-01-01

    Atkuriamosios grafikos priemonės leidžia sukurti trimatę vartotojo sąsają, panaudojant įvarius trimačius modelius. Darbo tikslas: Trimačių modelių aprašymo kalbų analizė ir trimatės vartotojo sąsajos modelio sukūrimas. Darbo uždaviniai: išnagrinėti literatūrą apie trimatės vartotojo sąsajos kūrimą, atlikti atkuriamosios grafikos priemonių, skirtų kurti trimačius objektus, analizę bei pagrindinių virtualios realybės aprašymo kalbų analizę, pasinaudojant atkuriamosios grafikos priemonėmis sukur...

  18. 5S管理及其在我厂的应用%5S Management & Its Application in Our Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓华

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 5S管理的定义以及与其它管理活动的关系 1)5S管理的定义 5S管理是指整理(SEIRI)、整顿(SEITON)、清扫(SEISO)、清洁(SETKETSU)、素养(SHIT-SUK)五个项目,因日语的罗马拼音均以"S"开头而简称5S管埋.5S管理起源于日本,通过规范现场、现物,营造一目了然的工作环境,其最终目的是提升人的品质,养成良好的工作习惯.

  19. Lithuania’s democratic prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbell, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Kaip rodo įvairūs tarptautiniai indeksai, Lietuva sukūrė visiškai veikiančią demokratiją. Nagrinėjant šiuos indeksus kaip visumą, matyti, kad Lietuva, lyginant su kitomis šalimis, už­ima aukštą vietą. Tarp indeksų, kuriuose Lietuva už­ima aukštą vietą, yra šie: politinių teisių ir pilietinių laisvių vertinimas, atliekamas Freedom House, korupcijos lygis, matuojamas Transparency International, nuomonės reiškimo ir atskaitingumo priemonės, politinis stabilumas, valdžios efektyvumas, reglamentav...

  20. Assessment of the employee motivation system: a case study of a production enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Matuzienė, Ina; Gaidamavičienė, Dovilė

    2009-01-01

    Straipsnyje daugiausia dėmesio skiriama darbuotojų išlaikymo įmonėje problemai, nes tiriamuoju laikotarpiu (2008 m. kovo– balandžio mėn.) Lietuvoje vis dar buvo pastebimas ekonomikos augimas. Šį augimą lydėjo darbo jėgos paklausos stygius rinkoje, o tai sukėlė aršią įmonių konkurenciją dėl žmogiškųjų išteklių. Siekdami išlaikyti darbuotojus, vadovai nuolat kėlė klausimus: kaip pasiekti, kad darbuotojai dirbtų efektyviai ir atsidavę? Kokias darbo sąlygas sukurti? Kokį atlyginimą mokėti? Kaip s...

  1. Vaistinių augalų ligos pavasarį Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sode

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Vilija; Ragažinskienė, Ona

    2012-01-01

    Straipsnyje pateikiami duomenys apie 2006–2012 metų pavasariais aptiktas vaistinių augalų ligas Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sodo Vaistinių augalų mokslo sektoriaus kolekcijose ir ekspozicijose. Vegetacijos pradžioje kasmet galima pastebėti dėmėtligių ant kai kurių rūšių daugiamečių augalų (Bergenia crassifolia, Hedera helix, Oenothera biennis) pernykščių lapų. Kai kurių rūdligių pirmosios vystymosi stadijos sukėlėjai pažeidžia ir vaistinius augalus (Alium spp., Sanguisorba m...

  2. Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B

    2016-02-26

    Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality.

  3. Pasmos (Septoria linicola) plitimas pluoštiniuose linuose ir žalingumo mažinimas

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzdevienė, Elvyra; Dabkevičius, Zenonas

    2005-01-01

    1999-2003 m. Lietuvos žemdirbystės instituto Upytės bandymų stotyje ištirti linų grybinės ligos pasmos sukėlėjo plitimo ypatumai, linų veislių ir lietuviškų linų selekcinių numerių jautrumas šiai ligai bei fungicidų efektyvumas nuo pasmos. Pasmos plitimą linuose lėmė birželio - rugpjūčio mėnesių meteorologinės sąlygos, sėjos laikas bei pasėlio išgulimas. Lietingais 2001 m. ir 2003 m. veislių 'Ariane' ir 'Kastyčiai' pasėliuose pasma pažeidė atitinkamai 84-96 proc. ir 69-74 proc. stiebų, o saus...

  4. SBVR struktūrizuotos natūralios kalbos klausimų redagavimo įrankis

    OpenAIRE

    Pocius, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Ontologijos užklausų rašymas paprastiems vartotojams yra per daug sudėtingas. Vartotojai labiausiai mėgsta pateikti užklausas natūralia kalba. Tačiau dar nėra sukurtų programų, kurios suprastų tikrą natūralią kalbą. Šiuo metu galimas sprendimas yra naudoti ribotą (struktūrizuotą) natūralią kalbą, kuri sudaroma pagal tam tikrus šablonus. Sukūrus SBVR metamodeliu grindžiamą struktūrizuotos natūralios kalbos užklausų redaktorių, vartotojui nereikėtų specialistų pagalbos norint peržiūrėti ontolog...

  5. Lotynų Amerikos muzikos sklaida Lietuvos kultūroje

    OpenAIRE

    Damidavičiūtė, Virginija

    2007-01-01

    XX amžiuje skirtingų tautų kultūros neišvengiamai sąveikauja tarpusavyje, daro įtaką viena kitai ir tuo pačiu viena kitą. Pagyvėjus kultūriniams mainams Europoje pradėta gana aktyviai domėtis Lotynų Amerikos kultūra ir, žinoma, viena iš domėjimąsi sukėlusių kultūros sričių yra muzika, kadangi ji yra labai plačiai paplitusi kultūros sritis, t.y. muzikinis ugdymas vyksta ne tik ugdymo institucijose, bet ir už jų ribų. Daugiausiai apie Lotynų Amerikos muziką išgirstame ir sužinome iš tokių infor...

  6. Greek catholic resistance to compulsory conversion to orthodoxy in Hołubla: facts and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bobrykas, Vitoldas

    2009-01-01

    Po Sausio mėn. sukilimo numalšinimo (1863–1864) vienas iš rusifikacijos Lenkijos karalystėje pasireiškimų buvo Rytų apeigų katalikų Bažnyčios likvidacija, priverstinai prirašant tikinčiuosius stačiatikių Bažnyčiai. Prieš 1875 m. Bažnyčios panaikinimą rytų apeigos buvo pradėtos „gryninti” nuo lotyniškų „svetimybių“. Tokie veiksmai sukėlė pasipriešinimą tarp Rytų apeigų katalikų tikinčiųjų. Todėl Rusijos valdžiai teko pasitelkti kariuomenę, kad įgyvendintų savo sumanymus. Naudojant jėgą buvo už...

  7. SUSY WT identity in a lattice formulation of 2D N=(2,2) SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoh, Daisuke, E-mail: kadoh@riken.j [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 2-1, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi, E-mail: hsuzuki@riken.j [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 2-1, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-01-04

    We address some issues relating to a supersymmetric (SUSY) Ward-Takahashi (WT) identity in Sugino's lattice formulation of two-dimensional (2D) N=(2,2)SU(k) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM). A perturbative argument shows that the SUSY WT identity in the continuum theory is reproduced in the continuum limit without any operator renormalization/mixing and tuning of lattice parameters. As application of the lattice SUSY WT identity, we show that a prescription for the Hamiltonian density in this lattice formulation, proposed by Kanamori, Sugino and Suzuki, is justified also from a perspective of an operator algebra among correctly-normalized supercurrents. We explicitly confirm the SUSY WT identity in the continuum limit to the first nontrivial order in a semi-perturbative expansion.

  8. Spruce forests (Ass. Sphango girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br.-Bl. 39 Polak. 62 on excessively moistened peatlands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normunds Priedits

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out on swamp spruce forests on peatland in Latvia gives a detailed notion of the phytosociological structure of Ass. Sphagno girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br. - BI. 39 Polak. 62 in the western part of the East-European Plain at the Baltic Sea. The paper reflects one of the aspects of swamp forest investigation results in Latvia on forest communities, its biodiversity and presevation. Ninety-one sample plots with Picea abies as the dominant in the tree layer or co-dominant with Betula pendula, Betula pubescens or Pinus sylvestris are described according to phytosociological Braun-Blanquet methodology. Floristic features of spruce communities belonging to Caricoso-phragmitosa and Dryopterioso-cnricosa forest site types are analysed. The results are compared with similar investigations carried out in the Baltic Sea region states and neighbouring countries.

  9. Pulse Pressure magnifies the effect of COMT Val158Met on 15 Year Episodic Memory Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showe...

  10. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-01-01

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids ...

  11. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAF LITTER OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Konoshina, S.; Khilkova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of heavy metal accumulation of leaf litter of woody plants: Aesculus hippocastanum Aesculus hippocastanum, heart-shaped linden Tilia cordata, Siberian larch Larix sibirica, mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia, warty birch Betula verrucosa, growing within Orel City is given. The kinds of woody plants, which leaf litter has the largest accumulation of heavy metals are determined. The maximum total content of heavy metals in leaf litter was observed in mountain ash and birch.

  12. AcEST: DK955920 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 296 7e-79 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso... Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 296 bits (757), Expect = 7e-79 Ident...RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV 519 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV 141 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI

  13. AcEST: DK956633 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 350 5e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson... Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLS 190 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length

  14. AcEST: DK959506 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 374 e-102 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson... 201 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 374 bits

  15. AcEST: DK952919 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 358 1e-97 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...LSTHS 658 VVEPYNSVLSTHS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHS 193 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  16. AcEST: DK955655 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 259 4e-68 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P....A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 45

  17. AcEST: DK958049 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 346 8e-94 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 346 bits (887), Expect =

  18. AcEST: DK961804 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 292 1e-77 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...TGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVY 172 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 L

  19. AcEST: DK951921 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 329 7e-89 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...GSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSP 175 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1

  20. AcEST: DK948361 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 400 e-110 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...STHSLLEHTDVAVLLDNEAIYDICR 214 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Leng

  1. AcEST: DK954985 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 339 7e-92 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TU...KKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 Query: 633 V 635 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  2. AcEST: DK956379 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 350 3e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...ALNVDVTEFQTN 258 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1

  3. AcEST: DK963473 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 325 1e-87 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P...RKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYP 173 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wil...sonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 325 bits (833), Expect = 1e-87 Identit

  4. AcEST: DK949329 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 335 2e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...637 V 639 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Lengt

  5. AcEST: DK963606 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available W7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 333 5e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson..._9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 333 bits (854), Expect = 5e-90

  6. AcEST: DK959840 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7TIW7|B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 333 6e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 333 bits (854), Exp

  7. AcEST: DK954281 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-92 tr|B7TIW7|B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 341 3e-92 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso...>tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 341 bits (874

  8. DYNAMICS AND DISTINCTIONS IN CONCENTRATION OF THE BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF LEAVES OF THE BIRCH GROWING IN IMPURE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex of features of influence of external factors on frame of the basic photosynthetic pigments of a sheet plate of a birch is discussed. Besides, specificity of influence of the infectious pathological stress-factor – xylotroph basidial macromycet (facultative saprotroph a tinder fungus bevelled – on the content of a chlorophyll of phylum a, b, their sums, lipochromes, an interrelation of pigments in sheet plates of trees Betula pendula Roth. is shown.

  9. The effects of physical activity on the association between self-reported stress and episodic memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamäki, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent stress has been found to impair brain structures essential to memory. The cognitive reserve model suggests that physical activity supplies protection against memory decline in neuropathologies. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether leisure physical activity modifies the predicted negative effect stress has on memory. A sub-sample derived from the Betula Study comprised 267 participants between 50 and 65 years. Memory was assessed by a SPT free recall and stress by ...

  10. Diabetes and cognitive functioning : The role of age and comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of type 2 diabetes on cognitive function in adulthood and very old age. The effects of diabetes are studied both in populations free from dementia, and in a clinical Alzheimer's disease population. For Studies 1 & 11, a non-demented, non-depressed, sample of very old (>75 years of age) persons from the Kungsholmen Project in Stockholm, Sweden, was used. For Study Ill, data from the Betula prospective cohort study were employed. All select...

  11. Selection of trees for rubbing by red and roe deer in forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Jaime; Bugalho, Miguel; Cortez, José Paulo; Iason, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...

  12. Ground bryophyte diversity in secondary birch forests in western Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Yan; Weikai Bao

    2011-01-01

    Secondary birch (Betula spp.) forest is an important vegetation type in western Sichuan, China. These forests have naturally regenerated from primary fir (Abies spp.) forests after clear-cutting. However,little is known about ground bryophyte species composition and community structure during this succession sequence. In our study, we sampled three plots in 9-, 22-, and 42-year old secondary forests, and a primary fir forest, respectively, in Jinchuan County. We found that bryophyte coverage ...

  13. Does tree seedling growth and survival require weeding of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera)?

    OpenAIRE

    Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Wördehoff, René; Lamatsch, Klaus; Bachmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) on survival and growth of naturally regenerated silver birch (Betula pendula) and planted Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba) seedlings was studied in a weeding experiment over 3 years. Three different treatments were applied: control, mowing, and hand weeding by pulling out the entire plant. There were no consistent treatment effects on height and diameter of the tree seedlings. The coverage of Rubus fruticosus had a...

  14. Firewood properties of some Indian mountain tree and shrub species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, B.P.; Tomar, J.M.S. [ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Agroforestry Div., Meghalaya (India)

    2002-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of 26 indigenous mountain fuelwood species of North-Eastern Himalayan region was carried out to identify trees with potential for fuelwood production. A fuelwood value index (FYI) was defined as calorific value x density/ash content. Betula nitida, Machilus bombycina, Itea macrophylla, Cryptomeria japonica, Gmelina arborea, Simingtonia populnea, Macaranga denticulata and Schima wallichii were shown to have promising firewood production. (Author)

  15. Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and...

  16. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...

  17. Root system traits of Norway spruce, Scots pine, and silver birch in mixed boreal forests: an analysis of root architecture, morphology, and anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the functional-structural characteristics of root systems of Betula pendula Roth., Picea abies (L.) Karst., and Pinus sylvestris L. in mixed boreal forest stands differing in their developmental stage and site fertility. The root systems of these species had similar structural regularities: horizontally-oriented shallow roots defined the horizontal area of influence, and within this area, each species placed fine roots in the uppermost soil layers, w...

  18. Betulin Complex in γ-Cyclodextrin Derivatives: Properties and Antineoplasic Activities in In Vitro and In Vivo Tumor Models

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Bojin; Rita Ambrus; Gerhard Wenz; Hai Ming Wang; Corina Danciu; Cristina Dehelean; Codruta Şoica; Mariana Anghel

    2012-01-01

    Given the present high incidence of melanoma and skin cancer, interest in potential drugs of plant origin has increased significantly. Pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes are widely distributed in plants, offering numerous pharmacological benefits. Betulin is an important compound in the bark of Betula pendula Roth and has important therapeutic properties, including antitumor activities. Its biological effect is limited by its poor water solubility, which can be improved by cyclodextrin compl...

  19. Spatial distribution of forests and woodlands in Iceland in accordance with the CORINE land cover classification

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Traustason 1971; Arnór Snorrason 1960

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a united geographical database for all known forest and woodland areas in Iceland, both natural and planted. This first edition of the database follows forest and woodland classifications used in the European CORINE land cover program. According to the database, the total area of forests and woodlands in Iceland was estimated as being 156,800 ha, divided into natural downy birch (Betula pubescens) woodland (115,400 ha) and forest plantations (41,400 ha). The natural birch ...

  20. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  1. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Guenther [Institute of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139, Dortmund (Germany); Konieczynski, Pawel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, ul. Hallera 107, 80-416, Gdansk (Poland)

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves (folium Betulae), peppermint leaves (folium Menthae), sage leaves (folium Salviae), valerian roots (radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots (radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (<5000 Da). Further characterisation of the low molecular weight fraction is done by using size exclusion chromatography and different detectors, namely element specific AAS detection, diode array UV-VIS detection and electrochemical detection. The similarities and differences of the plant extracts are well reflected by the respective chromatograms, and typical plant constituents can be identified by their spectral and electrochemical properties (e.g. flavonoids in Betula). Mg and Mn species are selectively detected by AAS in closely neighbouring chromatographic regions for all five samples. However, there are significant differences between the samples investigated. In all cases a good correlation exists between detection of these metals (Mg, Mn) and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), which is selective for carbohydrates. The respective molecular weight of carbohydrate species is in the range of approximately 300-600 Da. The distribution of zinc species (detectable only in the Betula extract) is totally different from that of Mg and Mn species. For zinc, many more species are detected, and there is no correlation to carbohydrates; instead (poly)phenols are involved in zinc complexation. (orig.)

  2. БИОХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ КОНСТИТУТИВНОЙ РЕЗИСТЕНТНОСТИ БЕРЕЗЫ ПОВИСЛОЙ (BETULA PENDULA ROTH. ) К ПОВРЕЖДЕНИЮ НАСЕКОМЫМИ-ФИЛЛОФАГАМИ В УСЛОВИЯХ АНТРОПОГЕННОГО ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Колтунов, Е. В.; ЯКОВЛЕВА М.И.

    2014-01-01

    Проведено изучение биохимических факторов природной (конститутивной) энтоморезистентности из листьев березы повислой из затухших очагов непарного шелкопряда и за их границами. Хроматографический анализ (ВЭЖХ) выявил 51-54 фенольных соединения. В образцах за границами очагов выявлено преобладание фенольных соединений с заметным возрастанием содержания в пике (38,9%), по сравнению с контролем (образцы из очагов). В их составе флавоноиды, фенолгликозиды, фенолкарбоновые кислоты. В составе фенолг...

  3. ВЛИЯНИЕ ТЕХНОГЕННОГО ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЯ НА СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ФЕНОЛЬНЫХ СОЕДИНЕНИЙ В ЛИСТЬЯХ БЕРЕЗЫ ПОВИСЛОЙ (BETULA PENDULA ROTH.) В УСЛОВИЯХ УРБАНИЗАЦИИ

    OpenAIRE

    ШАВНИН С.А.; Колтунов, Е. В.; ЯКОВЛЕВА М.И.

    2014-01-01

    Хроматографический анализ фенольных соединений из листьев березы повислой в условиях урбанизации на разном расстоянии от городской автомагистрали выявил 51-54 соединения. Из общего количества идентифицировано 15 фенольных соединений (флавоноиды, фенолкарбоновые и гидроксикоричные кислоты). Попарный сравнительный анализ образцов из листьев деревьев вблизи автомагистрали показал значительное преобладание фракций со снижением содержания соединений (68,18%). Возрастание содержания фенольных соеди...

  4. 经椎间孔椎体间融合术治疗复发性腰椎椎间盘突出症的疗效分析%Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation: an analysis of therapeutic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑刚; 丁文元; 申勇; 徐佳欣; 安志辉; 杨少坤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion ( TLIF ) in treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Methods From February 2008 to June 2010, 27 patients ( average age 52. 4, ranging 28 ~ 64 years old ) with recurrent lumbar disc herniation, who had been treated by TLIF, were collected in the present study. Japanese Orthopaedic Association ( JOA )score system and Nakai standards were used to evaluate the clinical results. Suk criterion was used to evaluate bone graft fusion. Results All the patients were followed up for 8-36 months ( a mean of 23 months ). According to JOA score system, excellent outcomes were obtained in 20 cases and good in 7, with the average improvement rate being 88. 5%. According to Nakai standard, excellent outcomes were obtained in 18 cases, good in 6 cases, and fair in 3 cases, with the excellent and good rate being 88. 9%. Bone grafts in all patients were fused according to Suk criterion. Conclusion TLIF is an effective procedure for treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation; it can obtain satisfactory clinical results.%目的 探讨经椎间孔椎体间融合术(transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion,TLIF)治疗复发性腰椎椎间盘突出症(recurrent lumbar disc herniation,RLDH)的疗效.方法 2008年2月~2010年6月应用TLIF技术再手术治疗的RLDH患者27例,年龄为28~64岁,平均52.4岁.采用日本骨科学会(Japanese Orthopaedic Association,JOA)评分系统、Nakai标准评价治疗效果,Suk方法评价植骨融合情况.结果 患者均获得随访,随访时间为8~36个月(平均23个月).术后根据JOA评分,优20例,良7例,平均改善率88.5%;根据Nakai评分标准,优18例,良6例,可3例,优良率88.9%;根据Suk标准患者椎间植骨均获得骨性融合.结论 TLIF是治疗RLDH的有效术式,可以获得满意临床效果.

  5. Anatomía floral comparativa del género Polianthes (Agavaceae Comparative floral anatomy of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Serrano-Casas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio anatómico de las flores de algunas especies en los subgéneros Polianthes y Bravoa del género Polianthes L. (Agavaceae, con el propósito de investigar si la actual clasificación subgenérica es adecuada. Los taxa analizados del subgénero Polianthes fueron P. densiflora, P. nelsonii y P. platyphylla, y del subgénero Bravoa, P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii y P. multicolor. Las características anatómicas florales entre las especies son similares y comparten con otros miembros de la familia Agavaceae los nectarios septales y los óvulos anátropos, bitégmicos y crasinucelados. En los taxa del subgénero Bravoa, los filamentos se originan en la base del tubo floral, mientras que en el subgénero Polianthes se originan por debajo de los tépalos internos del perianto. Anteriormente, sin considerar la anatomía de las flores, se planteaba que los filamentos se originaban en ambos subgéneros desde la base del tubo del perianto y que éstos permanecían adnados al mismo, separándose a diferentes niveles. En el nivel interespecífico, P. howardii presenta nectarios de mayor longitud que los lóculos, en relación con los de las otras especies estudiadas.An anatomical floral study of some species of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae, of both subgenus Polianthes and subgenus Bravoa (Agavaceae was carried out, with the aim of testing the adequacy of the present subgeneric classification. The taxa studied of subgenus Polianthes were P. densiflora, P. nelsonii and P. platyphylla; and P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii and P. multicolor of subgenus Bravoa. The anatomical characters between these species are similar, sharing with other members of the Agavaceae family the septal nectaries and the anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellated ovules. In the taxa of subgenus Bravoa, the filaments originate from the floral tube base, while in subgenus Polianthes they originate near the base of the internal tepals

  6. Levantamento florístico das tribos Psychotrieae, Coussareeae e Morindeae (Rubiaceae na região de Porto Rico, alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4474 Flora survey of tribes Psychotrieae, Coussareeae and Morindeae in the region of Porto Rico, high river Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4474

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição de Souza

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A elevada diversidade florística das regiões tropicais torna-as importantes na busca de novas fontes fitoterápicas e alimentícias, fazendo dos levantamentos florísticos importantes estudos para a ampliação do conhecimento dessa fitodiversidade. Este trabalho foi elaborado buscando ampliar o conhecimento da flora do alto rio Paraná, em especial das tribos Psychotrieae, Coussareeae e Morindeae da família Rubiaceae. A área deste estudo localiza-se a aproximadamente 22º41’-22º51’S e 53º12’-53º28’W, abrangendo parte dos Estados do Paraná e do Mato Grosso do Sul. Coletas de material botânico foram realizadas durante os anos de 1992 a 1995, tendo sido elaboradas chaves de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies. Foram levantados quatro gêneros e seis espécies, Palicourea (P. crocea, Psychotria (P. carthagenensis e P. leiocarpa, Coussarea (C. contracta e C. platyphylla e Cephalanthus (C. glabratus.The great diversity of flora in tropical regions transforms them into very important food and phytotherapy sources. Flora surveys are indispensable for a profounder knowledge of this biodiversity. Research work aimed at improving knowledge on the flora of the high river Paraná with special emphasis to the tribes Psychotrieae, Coussareeae and Morindeae. The area lies in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul at 22º41’-22º51’S and 53º12’-53º28’W. Botanic samplings were carried out from 1992 to 1995 and species identification keys, description and illustrations were elaborated. Four genera and six species were surveyed, or rather, Palicourea (P. crocea, Psychotria (P. carthagenensis and P. leiocarpa, Coussarea (C. contracta and C. platyphylla and Cephalanthus (C. glabratus.

  7. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos

  8. Soil Warming and Fertilization Effects on Growth Ring Widths of Arctic Shrubs - Application of a Novel Dendroecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate Garcia, M.; Heijmans, M.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Niklaus, P. A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is suggested as the main driver of shrub expansion in arctic tundra regions. Shrub expansion may have consequences on biodiversity and climate, especially through its feedbacks with the energy budget. A better understanding of shrub expansion mechanisms, including growth rate patterns and stem anatomy changes, and their sensitivity to climate is needed in order to quantify related feedbacks. We present a novel dendroecological approach to determine the response of three arctic shrub species to increased soil temperature and nutrients. A full factorial block-design experiment was run for four years with a total of thirty plots. Six individuals of each species were sampled from each plot to test for treatment effects on growth rate and stem anatomy. We compared the ring width of the four years of experiment with the one of the four previous years. The preliminary results for Betula nana and Salix pulchra suggest a significant effect of the treatments on the growth ring width. The response is stronger in Salix pulchra than in Betula nana individuals. And, while Salix pulchra is more sensitive to the combined soil warming and fertilization treatment, Betula nana is to the fertilization treatment. We could not observe an effect of treatment on the stem anatomy, likely because bark thickness co-varies with age. We found significant positive correlations of cork, cortex and phloem thickness with xylem thickness (used as a proxy of age), and a significant difference in stem anatomy between species. The results suggest species-specific growth sensitivity to soil warming and nutrient enhancement. The use of experimental dendroecology by manipulating environmental conditions according to future climate scenarios and testing effects on shrub anatomy and annual growth will increase our understanding on shrub expansion mechanisms. Ongoing plant trait analysis and consecutive application in a 3D radiative transfer model will allow to quantify the feedback of

  9. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  10. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

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    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  11. Twenty-two years of warming, fertilisation and shading of subarctic heath shrubs promote secondary growth and plasticity but not primary growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Campioli

    Full Text Available Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses, fertilisation (nutrients addition and shading (hessian fabric, and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth and cambial growth (secondary growth, and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such

  12. Stature of Sub-arctic Birch in Relation to Growth Rate, Lifespan and Tree Form

    OpenAIRE

    JÓNSSON, THORBERGUR HJALTI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life exp...

  13. Arboristični vidiki snegoloma v mestni občini Ljubljana v zimi 1999:

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, Lena; Oven, Primož; Torelli, Niko

    2005-01-01

    As a result of heavy snow in February 1999, trees were damaged in the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Of the investigated 624 trees, 195 (31%) were damaged by snow. On average, 1.7 branch and top per tree were broken. Snow damaged 17 tree species, affecting particularly Aesculus hippocastanum L. and, to a lesser extent, Betula pendula ROTH. and Salix x sepulcralis SIMONK. Decay was the most frequent defect at the failure location and was often associated withincluded bark and vicinity of old mec...

  14. Analysis of trees planted in vicinity of hospitals in Ljubljana as a source of pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Kofol Seliger, Andreja; Pirnat, Janez

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses woody plants growing in the vicinity of hospital buildings situated along Zalog Road, Korytko Street, Šlajmar Street, Bohorič Street and Njegoš Street in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Woody plants are an immediate potential source of allergenic pollen, affecting all park users such as patients, visitors and hospital employees. The most allergenic tree species in the park was found to be birch (Betula pendula Roth.), which accounts for 6.8% of all registered trees. The low allergenic...

  15. Air pollution and the respiration of certain tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makedonska, T.; Slavova, V.

    1973-01-01

    These studies are conducted to compare the effects of air pollution on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia Milld.) ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) and European birch (Betula alba L.). With increasing concentrations of air pollution these species react by increasing the intensity of respiration, as in separate cases the increase reaches up to 40%. Most sensitive to air pollution is the horse chestnut, followed by birch and ash-leaved maple; least sensitive is London plane. With respect to gas resistance birch and ash-leaved maple rank close to the horse chestnut but are more resistant than the horse chestnut and less sensitive than London plane.

  16. rboricultural aspects of snow-damage in the citz of Ljubljana in the winter 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, Leon; Torelli, Niko; Oven, Primož

    2005-01-01

    As a result of heavy snow in February 1999, trees were damaged in the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Of the investigated 624 trees, 195 (31%) were damaged by snow. On average, 1.7 branch and top per tree were broken. Snow damaged 17 tree species, affecting particularly Aesculus hippocastanum L. and, to a lesser extent, Betula pendula ROTH. and Salix x sepulcralis SIMONK. Decay was the most frequent defect at the failure location and was often associated withincluded bark and vicinity of old mec...

  17. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....... METHODS: Thirty-five patients with severe rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever) to birch pollen were allocated to double-blinded clustered IT with a depot birch pollen extract (Betula verrucosa) or placebo injections. Seven patients in each group had concomitant self-reported seasonal asthma. Treatment...... antihistamines (P effects at the same level as placebo...

  18. Environmentally friendly utilization of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The thesis deals with various ways of utilization of biomass. Chapter 1 compares three biomass types: birch wood Betula sp., marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and terrestrial moss Pleurozium schreberi, as precursors for preparation of biosorbents for removal of copper ions from diluted water solutions. Small sample doses (0.5 g/100ml) of the biosorbents prepared from alga and moss enabled more than 90 % removal of Cu (II) ions from diluted water solutions (5-20 mg/l). The sample from birch...

  19. AcEST: DK948735 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTD 199 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1...E Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 369 e-101 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wils...onii GN=TUA1 P... 369 e-101 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin OS=Gossypium hirsu

  20. Contribución al conocimiento de agaricales y russulales de los Pirineos aragoneses (Valles de Ordesa y Pineta-Huesca).

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO CERCEDA, M.L., FREIRE, L.

    1991-01-01

    En este trabajo enumeramos unas 40 especies de macromicetos,   pertenecientes a los órdenes Agaricales y Russulales, que fueron   encontrados por los autores, durante el otoño de 1989, en la II   Campaña de Microflora Ibérica. Las especies han sido recolectadas preferentemente en bosques   mixtos de hayas (Fagus sylvativa) y abetos (Abies alba) con   extraordinario sotobosque de boj (Buxus sempervirens), pero   también fueron visitados abedulares (Betula sp.) y prados. ...

  1. Biomass functions for young scots pine-dominated forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund Ulvcrona, K. (Vindeln Experimental Forests, Svartberet Research Station, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Vindeln (Sweden)), e-mail: Kristina.ulvcrona@esf.slu.se; Nilsson, U. (Southern Swedish Forest Research centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Alnarp (Sweden)); Lundmark, T. (Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to develop predictive biomass functions for young stands of Scots pine-dominated forests in northern Sweden. Above ground biomass was destructively sampled, and biomass functions for all tree fractions (e.g. stem including bark, branch and foliage) were developed, based on independent variables. Functions to estimate dry weight of the whole tree were also developed. No significant regressions could be found for the dead branch fraction. DBH for sampled trees in this study was in the range of 11 - 136 mm (Pinus sylvestris), 10 - 121 mm (Picea abies L. Karst) and 9 - 113 mm (Betula spp.)

  2. The biochemical and histoanatomical response of some woody species to anthropic impact in Suceava County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Elena CIORNEA; Irina BOZ; IONEL, ELENA; COJOCARU, SABINA IOANA; DUMITRU, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The use of extractive mining technologies in various areas of Suceava, Romania (C?limani Mountains - sulfur, Tarni?a-Ostra - copper and barite, and Crucea-Botuşana - uranium) has resulted in the accumulation of surplus chemicals with direct action on the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible damage on some woody species (Picea abies L., Populus tremulaL., Salix alba L., Betula verrucosa Ehrh.,and Larix decidua Mill.) and their adaptive and phytoremediation capacity thro...

  3. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  4. PURIFICATION OF HARDWOOD-DERIVED AUTOHYDROLYSATES

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Tapani Lehto,; Raimo Juhani Alén

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter) obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes) of birch (Betula pendula) chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) could be removed, whereas in th...

  5. Effect of Tree Species and Mycorrhizal Colonization on the Archaeal Population of Boreal Forest Rhizospheres▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bomberg, Malin; Timonen, Sari

    2008-01-01

    Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota are the predominating archaeal group in acidic boreal forest soils. In this study, we show that the detection frequency of 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes in the rhizospheres of the boreal forest trees increased following colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. This effect was very clear in the fine roots of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula pendula, the most common forest trees in Finland. The nonmycorrhizal fine roots had a clearly ...

  6. Flora vascular acompañante en masas de monte bajo de castaño en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    García, Andrés; Díaz-, T.; Majada, Juan; Ciordia, Marta

    2014-01-01

    En Asturias, las zonas forestales ocupan un total de 762.329 hectáreas, es decir, el 72,2% de la superficie del Principado es monte. De éstas, 453.700 hectáreas son arboladas, siendo los bosques de caducifolios (hoja caduca) los más abundantes y que representan en torno al 20% de la superficie asturiana. En estos bosques encontramos, por ejemplo, especies arbóreas como el roble (Quercus spp.), el abedul (Betula celtiberica Rothm. & Vasc.) o el haya (Fagus sylv...

  7. Biomass distribution patterns of ecotones between forest and swamp in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studied the biomass distribution patterns of Larix olgensis/swamp ecotones and Betula platyphlla/swamp ecotones in Changbai Mountain so as to provide theory foundation for the management of these nature resources, by setting up sample belts, investigating initial data along the environmental gradients change, and establishing regression models. By means of regression models, the biomass of communities, layers, tree species and organs was calculated. In this system, it was found that the community biomass increased gradually along the environmental gradients change from swamp to forest in Changbai Mountain. Furthermore, the ecotoneal biomass distributed mainly over tree layer. The tree biomass distributed mainly in two or three dominate tree species.

  8. Fuelwood characteristics of selected indigenous tree species from central India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.K.; Singh, B. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    1999-06-01

    Thirty tree species indigenously growing in their natural habitat in subtropical forest of central India were collected and fuelwood properties viz, moisture, silica, ash, density, carbon, nitrogen, volatile matter, calorific value and fuel value index (FVI) calculated to screen desirable species for potential production of fuelwood in these areas. The present study revealed that Acer oblongum, Betula alonoides, Grevillea robusta, Limonia acidissima, Lyonia ovalifolia, Madhuca indica, Melia azedarch, Morinda tinctoria, Myrica sapida, Prunus cornuta, Pyrus pashia, Quercus langinosa, Rhamnus triqueter and Stereospermum xylocarpum possess excellent fuelwood qualities. (Author)

  9. Preliminary report on distribution of Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łakomy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study material consists of 165 H. annosum isolates from 25 different localities. Host species was Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula, Abies alba, Lnrix decidua, Pinus strobus, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra. Most of the H. annosum isolates belonged to the P group. This group was most common on pine and birch. The S group infected Norway spruce and European fir. The F group was recorded only in the south of Poland. Only three localities, where this intersterility group was present, were found in Poland.

  10. AGING AND DECISION MAKING AS MEASURED BY THE SWEDISH VERSION OF THE ADMC BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    jaafar hussein, amez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine age-related differences in decision-making competence. The study is a part of the ongoing Betula project (Nilsson et al., 1997; 2004), and the data included test results from (N, 364) corresponding to the questionnaires with complete responses (>80%) to the items addressed. The Swedish version of the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery was used. An exploratory factor analysis of the A-DMC data yielded a two-component solution: The A-DMC tas...

  11. Few long-term effects of simulated climate change on volatile organic compound emissions and leaf chemistry of three subarctic dwarf shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Rinnan, Åsmund; Faubert, Patrick;

    2011-01-01

    led to other chemical changes detected in the near-infrared reflectance spectra of the leaves. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the BVOC emissions per unit leaf mass measured by the dynamic enclosure method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Annual additions of NPK...... Betula nana L. had significant emissions of various reactive BVOCs, including monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The evergreen Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don emitted high amounts of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Due to chance, the temperature in the warming treatment (employing open-top plastic tents...

  12. Pollen record and environmental evolution of Caotanhu wetland in Xinjiang since 4550 cal. a BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; KONG ZhaoChen; NI Jian; YAN Shun; YANG ZhenJing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in Caotanhu wetland using pollen, phytolith and charcoal records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size analysis, and susceptibility. Results reveal that between 4550 and 2500 cal. a BP, a dry climatic condition was not favorable for the accumulation of peat. Since 2500 cal. a BP, the climate became humid and the wetland developed with abundant freshwater aquatic plants, which contributed to peat accumulation. Never-theless, alternate periods of rain and dry climate occurred during that period. Between 2500 and 1810 cal. a BP (550 BC-140 AD), the climate was more humid than at present. A lot of emerged plants, such as Phragmites, Typha and Sparganium, and freshwater green algae grew in the wetland which was sur-rounded by desert-steppe vegetation composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae, Arternisia, Compositae and Thalictrum. However, from 1810 to 1160 cal. a BP (140-790 AD), the water level started to decrease and hydrophyte species reduced greatly, but some Phragmites still grew in the wetland and around it was desert vegetation with high proportion of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia. Then from 1160 to 650 a BP (790-1300 AD), it entered a period of desert-steppe with abundant mesic and xerophytic plants. And a lot of aquatic plants prevailed in the wetland. Here, what is noticeable is that percentages of arboreal pollen, consisting mainly of Betula and Picea, increased greatly and reached a maximal value of 27.2%, in which, Betula percentages rose to 23.2%. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that Betula grew in the highland of the wetland, or Picea timberline shifted downward resulting in the increase of percentages of Betula and Picea pollen, which were transported into the wetland by flood or wind. But since 650 cal. a BP, desert vegetation prevailed around the wetland again with dominant Chenopodiaceae and Ar-temisia, and the climate was similar to modern one. Despite some aquatic

  13. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sz90 and Cs137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field-proven study of Sr90 and Cs137 absorption activity demonstrated by pinus silvestris l., piceae abies (l) roth, quercus rubra l., acer platanoides l., betula pendula roth., tilia cordata mill. under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. Differences relevant to these parameters could reach 15-fold value

  14. Application of calibration standardization method to the analysis of diuretic pharmaceutical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration standardization of X-ray fluorescence method was carried out for the determination of the anorganic contents in diuretic herbs as called Folia Betulae, Stylus Maydis, Flores Verbasci, Equisetum Arvense and Flos Helichrysi, growing in Turkey. These herbs are widely used in pharmacy and public health for kidney disease therapy. Herb samples were steeped in the water and mixed through the pure cellulose, then pelletized in the intermediate thickness. An annular source of 109Cd (3.7 MBq) was used for excitation of fluorescent K lines of elements lying between potassium and zirconium. Toxic elements in considerable amounts were not found. (author)

  15. Invertase and urease activities in the reclamated land of the western Donets basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research data on activities of invertase (as one of the most important enzymes for soil biological activity, humus content and soil fertility and urease (as an enzyme of nitrogen metabolism, which transforms the inorganic nitrogen compounds into the organic ones in soils of artificial afforestations of Robinia pseudoacacia L., Betula pendula Rosh., Quercus robur L. and Acer platanoides L. at the reclamated lands of the Western Donets Basin are presented. The seasonal dynamics of soil activity subject to the type of biogeocenosis is shown.

  16. Climate versus in-lake processes as controls on the development of community structure in a low-arctic lake (South-West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, N. John; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Ryves, David B.;

    2008-01-01

    variables (Holocene temperature, an isotope-inferred cooling period, and immigration of Betula nana into the catchment) were explored using redundancy analysis (RDA) independent of time. The main ecological trajectories in the lake biota were captured by ordination first axis sample scores (18-32% variance......-lived cooling period (identified by altered stable isotopes) early in the development of the lake when all proxies changed rapidly, although only chironomids had a unique component (8% in a partial-RDA) explained by the cooling event. Holocene climate explained less variance than either catchment changes...

  17. Incidental detection of a small solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas after a traffic accident in a 12-year-old girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Younglim Kim, Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, South KoreaAbstract: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare tumor of the pancreas that tends to grow silently in patients at a young age, to a large size and mass. We report here a case of a small-sized SPN detected incidentally in a 12-year-old girl following a traffic accident. The tumor was 3.5 cm in maximal diameter and was found to have hemorrhagic necrosis without a solid component. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed which cured the patient. SPN is generally accepted to be a low grade malignant tumor, but its clinical behavior is sometimes unpredictable. Tumor size and the proportion of solid portion of the tumor have both recently been identified as predictors of malignancy. Although the initial presentation in this case was that of the traffic accident, the subsequent detection of a small, totally cystic SPN, and then the complete eradication of the lesion, led to a favorable outcome for the patient. Long-term monitoring should prevent any chance of recurrence.Keywords: pancreatic neoplasm, children, distal pancreatectomy

  18. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  19. A kis országok világgazdasági alkalmazkodása

    OpenAIRE

    Csaba, László

    2000-01-01

    A cikk azt a kérdést vizsgálja, hogy a globalizálódás és a megafúziók világában életképesek lehetnek-e a kis országok, s ha igen, milyen feltételekkel. Az írás azt igyekszik igazolni, hogy a műszaki fejlődés új iránya és a nemzetközi pénzügyek formálódó reformja megnöveli az alkalmazkodásra kész kis nemzetgazdaságok életképességét. Ez a sikeres regionális integrálódásuk alapja, nem pedig fordítva. A globalizáció új esélyeket ad a kicsiknek.

  20. A gyógyszerkiadás és a betegek egészségi állapota a háziorvosi és szakorvosi kapcsolatok függvényében = Formal professional relations between general practitioners and specialists. Possible links with patient health and pharmacy cost

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Gábor; Keresztúri, Judit Lilla; Lublóy, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Arra a kérdésre keressük a választ, hogy a szoros háziorvosi-szakorvosi szakmai kapcsolatoknak van-e hatásuk a betegek gyógyszerkiadására, illetve egészségi állapotára. Az orvosok közötti szakmai kapcsolatok szorosságát a közösen gondozott betegek száma alapján határoztuk meg, míg a betegek egészségügyi állapotát a diagnosztizált és kezelt társbetegségek számával mértük. Hipotézisünk egyrészt az volt, hogy a hatékonyabb koordinációnak köszönhetően a szoros kapcsolatban kezelt betegek jobb egé...

  1. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines (OCs) in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: A human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timmer; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-15

    The present study was conducted to reveal the concentrations and patterns of organochlorines [i.e., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] in freshwater fish species collected from four ecologically important sites of the Indus River i.e., Taunsa (TAU), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Guddu (GUD) and Sukkur (SUK). In the fish muscle tissues, concentrations of 15 OCPs (∑15OCPs) and 29 PCBs (∑29PCBs) varied between 1.93-61.9 and 0.81-44.2 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Overall, the rank order of OCs was DDTs>PCBs>hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)>chlordanes (CHLs). The patterns of PCBs showed maximum contribution of tri-CBs (59%). Ratios of individual HCH and DDT analytes contributing to the summed values indicated both recent and past use of these chemicals in the region, depending upon fish species. To assess the associated health risks, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were calculated through hazard ratios (HRs). For carcinogenic risk, HR was >1 at both 50th and 95th percentile concentrations, suggesting that the daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk of 1 in a million. HR for non-cancerous risk was <1 at both the percentiles, signifying no adverse effect by OCs exposure in native population. PMID:26476063

  2. Interpolating the Coulomb Phase of Little String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity on the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. We also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.

  3. Fredkin Spin Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Salberger, Olof

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the CSWAP gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the work of Ramis Movassagh and Peter Shor. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half of a square lattice [Dyck walks]. Each Dyck path can be mapped to a wave function of the spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks [instead of Motzkin walks]. We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct the model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct SU(k) symmetric model [here k is the number of colors]. The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice ...

  4. The post 9/11 period in American literature: from fear and estrangement to interest and dialogue. Rugsėjo vienuoliktosios pasekmės amerikiečių literatūrai: nuo baimės ir susvetinėjimo iki susidomėjimo ir dialogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Žindžiuvienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje apžvelgiama tragiško įvykio JAV istorijoje (2001 m. rugsėjo vienuoliktosios įtaka amerikiečių literatūrai. Ši tragedija šalyje sukėlė ilgalaikį potrauminį efektą, paskatinusį amerikiečių rašytojus rinktis terorizmo apraiškų temas. Vienas jų, John Updike (g. 1932, priskiriamas prie amerikiečių rašytojų, analizuojančių individo būklę, moralinių vertybių paieškas. Savo romanuose John Updike aprašo šiuolaikinio gyvenimo ypatumus, psichologines traumas, žmonijos žiaurumą, brutalumą ir nesuvokiamą blogį. 2006 m. parašytame romane Terrorist („Teroristas“ rašytojas pateikia šiuolaikinės amerikiečių visuomenės, kurioje vyrauja baimė ir įtampa, analizę. Aprašydamas jauno teroristo gyvenimą, rašytojas pabrėžia amerikietiškos visuomenės ydas ir analizuoja šalies politinę situaciją.

  5. Whiteness and the Blackening of Italy: La guerra cafona, Extracommunitari and Provisional Street Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I briefly revisit the historical moment of Italian unification, drawing attention to its violent colonial dimensions and the twenty years of insurgent southern brigandage that erupted immediately after unification, in order to begin to trace the survival of this southern insurrectionary and anti-nationalist movement in the contemporary Italian context. In the process of focusing on the manner in which a statue of the Italian national poet, Dante, has been graffitied by southern youth in a square in Naples, I transpose the historical tradition of southern brigandage, returning the term back to its insurgent political roots, in order to begin to establish lines of connection between seemingly disparate politico-cultural practices and genealogies; in particular, I examine contemporary southern hip hop culture, including graffiti and rap, in relation to the history of southern anti-unification and counter-nationalist movements, marking the transmediterranean-atlantic politico-cultural flows that inscribe southern hip hop culture. I conclude by bringing into contemporary focus this northern history of anti-southern discrimination and exploitation by drawing attention to the plight of recent immigrants from the Global South that constitute the underbelly of contemporary Italy’s economic prosperity. My focus here is on mapping points of polico-cultural connection between immigrants of the Global South and meridionali through the instantiation of such tactical cultural practices as establishing suks and transitory markets in Italy’s civic squares.

  6. Robots could assist scientists working in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    GREENLAND—Tom Lane and Suk Joon Lee, recent graduates of Dartmouth University's Thayer School of Engineering, in Hanover, N. H., are standing outside in the frigid cold testing an autonomous robot that could help with scientific research and logistics in harsh polar environments. This summer, Lane, Lee, and others are at Summit Station, a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored scientific research station in Greenland, fine-tuning a battery-powered Yeti robot as part of a team working on the NSF-funded Cool Robot project. The station, also known as Summit Camp, is located on the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet (72°N, 38°W, 3200 meters above sea level) near the middle of the island. It is a proving ground this season for putting the approximately 68-kilogram, 1-cubic-meter robot through its paces, including improving Yeti's mobility capabilities and field-testing the robot. (See the electronic supplement to this Eos issue for a video of Yeti in action (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/).) During field-testing, plans call for the robot to collect data on elevation and snow surface characteristics, including accumulation. In addition, the robot will collect black carbon and elemental carbon particulate matter air samples around Summit Camp's power generator to help study carbon dispersion over snow.

  7. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  8. Additional materials on the safety assessment for the 24 CANFLEX-NU bundle demonstration irradiation at Wolsong-1 generating station as the answers on the KINS's second questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the additional materials on the Safety Assessment for the 24 CANFLEX-NU Bundle Demonstration Irradiation at Wolsong-1 Generating Station, which is the answers on the KINS's first questions as a result of the review of the Safety Assessment report. The additional materials cover : 1) Subjects on CANFLEX-NU fuel channel and the selection criteria, 2) Subjects on the evaluation of the discharge fuel with respect to the purpose of the DI, 3) Subjects on the planning of report of the DI results, 4) Subjects on the integrity evaluation of the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles in the reactor, 5) Subjects on the thermal-hydraulic compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the existing 37-element bundles, 6) Subjects on the Input variables of CATHENA code used in the safety analyses, 7) Subjects on the loss of forced circulation, 8) Subjects on the CANFLEX-NU fuel element power under condition of non-LOCA, 9) Subjects on the loss of reactivity control, 10) Subjects on the LOCA. The additional materials are made on the basis of the Safety Assessment for the 24 CANFLEX-NU Bundle Demonstration Irradiation at Wolsong-1 Generating Station(H. C. Suk et. al, KAERI/TR-1864/2001, 2001.6) and Operational Procedure of the Wolsong-1 Generating Station, and so on

  9. [Fraudulent publication in medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; García-Gómez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Fraud can be present in some scientific medical publications; however, the magnitude of this situation is unknown. One of the associated factors for this transgression of the good practice of investigation is the need to publish and obtain recognition and benefits, regardless of the means. The deliberate fabrication and falsification of data, plagiarism and duplication of publications are some of the scientific misconducts. Many cases of fraud in publications are known, and they have reached public opinion and have been a matter of legal sanctions (the names of Woo Suk Hwang, Jon Sudbo, Joachim Blodt, Robert Slutsky, and William Summerlin reminds us a few known cases). In the last decades, national and international regulatory organisms have been created in order to intervene against this scientific misconduct. Currently, we can rely on several effective software programs, whose function is to detect plagiarism and falsification of data. The prevention of scientific misconduct through information and education of the investigators could lead to the decrease of the presence of this problem, which damages scientific credibility and put at risk the patient's safety.

  10. Славянофильский подтекст романа А. Платонова Чевенгур | Slavianofiliškos A. Platonovo romano “Čevenguras” potekstės

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Дырдин

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje nagrinėjamas filosofinis A. Platonovo romanas „Čevenguras“ ir analizuojama šio rašytojo kaip slavianofilų įpėdinio pozicija, kadangi slavianofiliškos pažiūros romane pateikiamos įvairiuose kontekstuose, kurių loginė jungtis skirtinga. Kaip ir slavianofilai, A. Platonovas siekia atskleisti objektyvią pasaulio esmę, apjungdamas prigimtį ir dvasingumą. Rašytojo pasaulėjauta susisiekia su slavianofiliškomis pažiūromis jo pastangoje išskirti rusišką liaudiško tiesos ieškotojo tipą, akumuliavusį savyje tikėjimą „kaip proto galią“ (A. Chomiakovas. Romane „Čevenguras“ A. Platonovas pavaizdavo įvairias nacionalinio charakterio apraiškas ir sukūrė apibendrintą ruso stačiatikio paveikslą. Straipsnio autorius daro prielaidą, kad unikalios dvasinės rusų liaudies ir kultūros misijos idėjos samprata galima apibūdinti, nors ir ne visai išsamiai, kūrybinę A. Platonovo filosofiją.

  11. Seasonal Abundance and Phenology of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Graminaceous Hosts in the Delta Region of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, G A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Bond, J

    2015-08-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a graminaceous feeder, and the most injurious insect pest of heading rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Rice growers are aware of the economic importance of host grasses in O. pugnax abundance. However, the need for increased knowledge of host sequence relative to O. pugnax abundance is vital. Densities of O. pugnax on 15 graminaceous hosts were evaluated in the central Mississippi Delta from April through August in 2011 and 2012. Two cultivated and 13 wild host grasses were sampled using a sweep net. Overall, populations of O. pugnax were lower in 2012 than in 2011. Italian ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lambert), was the main host that supported O. pugnax survival and reproduction from overwintering to early summer. Echinochloa spp., Digitaria spp., and Eriochloa spp. maintained greater populations of O. pugnax in the summer. Browntop millet, Urochloa ramosa (L.) Nguyen, and broadleaf signalgrass, U. platyphylla (Munro ex C. Wright) R. D. Webster, were important for populations of O. pugnax populations immediately prior to overwintering. Host switching was also an important factor that contributed to O. pugnax abundance. The evolution of Italian ryegrass resistance to the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate in the central Mississippi delta has become an important component of O. pugnax population dynamics because of its increased abundance in and around agricultural areas. Cultural control measures on host grasses before flowering could result in less use of insecticides, thereby reducing cost of rice production. PMID:26314038

  12. Chorologie, écologie et ethnobotanique de certains Ficus L. (Moraceae au Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diop, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorology, ecology and ethnobotanical fig trees in Senegal. Ficus (Moraceae is one of the most important genera of the tropical flora because of its high number of species. Among the ligneous plants, this genus is the most diversified within the Senegalese flora and accounts for more than 30 species. If the most known species are protected in various forms, the least known ones are frequently slashed to make place for cash crops. This study focused on distribution areas, ecology and uses of Ficus species in order to better valorise them. Interviews were carried out with local people and the results obtained were completed by literature research and information mentioned on herbarium sheets. The chorological and ecological study shows that all the species are African native plants and grow in various biotopes. In Senegal, they are mainly situated in the South with a Guinean and Soudano-Guinean climate. They are very frequent in the humid forests of the Casamance, the gallery forests and the humid valleys of Eastern Senegal. However, F. cordata, F. dicranostyla, F. glumosa, F. platyphylla and F. sycomorus are found in the hot and dry savanna of the Soudanean area, on rock, and lateritic sandy soils. This ethnobotanical study reports a wide range of uses for the Ficus species. Among the 19 native species used by the local populations, 7 type of use have been distinguished.

  13. Genotypic variation in yellow autumn leaf colours explains aphid load in silver birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Aki; Somerkoski, Eeva; Paaso, Ulla; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha

    2012-07-01

    • It has been suggested that autumn-migrating insects drive the evolution of autumn leaf colours. However, evidence of genetic variation in autumn leaf colours in natural tree populations and the link between the genetic variation and herbivore abundances has been lacking. • Here, we measured the size of the whole aphid community and the development of green-yellow leaf colours in six replicate trees of 19 silver birch (Betula pendula) genotypes at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of autumn colouration. We also calculated the difference between green leaf and leaf litter nitrogen (N) and estimated the changes in phloem sap N loading. • Autumn leaf colouration had significant genetic variation. During the last survey, genotypes that expressed the strongest leaf reflectance 2-4 wk earlier had an abundance of egg-laying Euceraphis betulae females. Surprisingly, the aphid community size during the first surveys explained N loss by the litter of different birch genotypes. • Our results are the first evidence at the tree intrapopulation genotypic level that autumn-migrating pests have the potential to drive the evolution of autumn leaf colours. They also stress the importance of recognizing the role of late-season tree-insect interactions in the evolution of herbivory resistance. PMID:22548444

  14. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun T; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J; Lee, Sang M; Lee, Sang S; Lee, Il D; Lee, Su K; Lee, Sung S

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (pPunica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  15. Holocene Vegetation Succession and Response to Climate Change on the South Bank of the Heilongjiang-Amur River, Mohe County, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen samples from peat sediments on the south bank of the Heilongjiang River in northern Northeast China (NE China were analyzed to reconstruct the historical response of vegetation to climate change since 7800 cal yr BP. Vegetation was found to have experienced five successions from cold-temperate mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest to forest-steppe, steppe-woodland, steppe, and finally meadow-woodland. From 7800 to 7300 cal yr BP, the study area was warmer than present, and Betula, Larix, and Picea-dominated mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests thrived. Two cooling events at 7300 cal yr BP and 4500 cal yr BP led to a decrease in Betula and other broadleaved forests, whereas herbs of Poaceae expanded, leading to forest-steppe and then steppe-woodland environments. After 2500 cal yr BP, reduced temperatures and a decrease in evaporation rates are likely to have resulted in permafrost expansion and surface ponding, with meadow and isolated coniferous forests developing a resistance to the cold-wet environment. The Holocene warm period in NE China (7800–7300 cal yr BP could have resulted in a strengthening of precipitation in northernmost NE China and encouraged the development of broadleaved forests.

  16. Pollen calendar of Lublin, 1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of pollen fall were carried out in Lublin in 1995 - 2000 years by the gravimetric method. The modified Durham sampler was applied, located at 9 m above ground level. On the base of results 6 year observations - the pollen calendar for Lublin was prepared. The following 15 plant taxa were taken under consideration: Alnus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula, Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. The anemophilous plants' pollen season in Lublin began in half of February and lasted till half of September. First appeared pollen grains of decidous tress' and shrubs, then the coniferous. High values of pollen fall of these plants were noted till the end of May. Start of grass pollen season was recorded from the half of May, and at the latter part of this month, also other herbaceous plants. The highest concentrations of pollen were found in April and May when trees and shrubs pollinated. The highest annual totals were marked for plants of the following taxa: Betula, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Alnus, Urtica.

  17. Pollen production in selected species of anemophilous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, structural features of flowers of the following allergenic plant species were analysed: Betula verrucosa, Secale cereale, Rumex acetosella, Plantago major and Artemisia vulgaris. Pollen production was established by calculating the number of pollen grains produced by the stamen, flower and inflorescence. The dates of occurrence and pollen grains concentration in the air of Lublin were determined. A positive correlation was found between the length of anthers and the number of pollen grains produced. The largest number of pollen grains per anther is produced by Secale cereale (22 360, whereas the smallest one by Plantago major (5 870. The other species produced intermediate numbers of pollen grains in the anther: Betula verrucosa - 11 160, Rumex acetosella - 10 850, Artemisia vulgaris - 9 580. The birch pollen season in Lublin lasts about a month, and pollen of this taxon reaches the highest airborne concentrations among the studied taxa. Low values of pollen concentrations are characteristic for rye and plantain, whereas slightly higher values are recorded for sorrel pollen. Mugwort pollen reaches high concentrations which are noted at the beginning of August.

  18. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

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    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  19. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  20. Fire drives transcontinental variation in tree birch defense against browsing by snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P; Swihart, Robert K; Landhäusser, Simon M; Stevens, Michael T; Hawkins, Christopher D B; Carrière, Suzanne; Kirilenko, Andrei P; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Cleland, David T; Williams, Joseph H; Jakubas, Walter J; Carlson, Michael R; Bodony, Karin Lehmkuhl; Cebrian, Merben; Paragi, Thomas F; Picone, Peter M; Moore, Jeffrey E; Packee, Edmond C; Malone, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Fire has been the dominant disturbance in boreal America since the Pleistocene, resulting in a spatial mosaic in which the most fire occurs in the continental northwest. Spatial variation in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) density reflects the fire mosaic. Because fire initiates secondary forest succession, a fire mosaic creates variation in the abundance of early successional plants that snowshoe hares eat in winter, leading to geographic variation in hare density. We hypothesize that fire is the template for a geographic mosaic of natural selection: where fire is greatest and hares are most abundant, hare browsing has most strongly selected juvenile-phase woody plants for defense. We tested the hypothesis at multiple spatial scales using Alaska birch (Betula neoalaskana) and white birch (Betula papyrifera). We also examined five alternative hypotheses for geographic variation in antibrowsing defense. The fire-hare-defense hypothesis was supported at transcontinental, regional, and local scales; alternative hypotheses were rejected. Our results link transcontinental variation in species interactions to an abiotic environmental driver, fire. Intakes of defense toxins by Alaskan hares exceed those by Wisconsin hares, suggesting that the proposed selection mosaic may coincide with a geographic mosaic of coevolution. PMID:19422319

  1. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  2. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  3. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  4. Vegetation Dynamics in the Kenai Lowlands, Alaska during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. C.; Peteet, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    The use of paleoinformation through ecosystem reconstruction can help us understand the behavior and sensitivity of the boreal forest as climate continues to change. A 2.5-meter sediment core extracted from Swanson Fen, a muskeg in the northern Kenai Lowlands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, provides a sensitive Holocene paleoenvironmental record that lies in an ecotone between interior boreal forest and maritime coastal forest today. The core was sampled at 2-cm intervals and processed for pollen and spores. Five intervals were dated using AMS radiocarbon dating, and the basal macrofossils produced an age of 12,245 ±45 radiocarbon years. The central Kenai Peninsula Lowlands underwent a number of marked vegetational and climatic changes since deglaciation. Four distinct vegetation zones reveal changes starting in the late Pleistocene. The pioneer vegetation includes a dominance of herbaceous ( Artemisia, Apiaceae, Asteroideae)and shrubby ( Betula) species. The second zone (beginning at 9890±45 radiocarbon years) and marking the Holocene boundary, shows a striking increase in Polypodiaceae (ferns) and Picea (spruce) and a decrease in shrubby species such as Betula, indicative of warming. The third zone indicates a decline in Polypodiaceae and a reemergence of Betula species, while the final most recent zone reveals a rapid resurgence in Picea and Tsuga mertensiana (Mountain hemlock) species. While a general warming trend occurred following deglaciation, vegetation patterns suggest extended periods of increased precipitation, for example in the early Holocene, as is evidenced by the plethora of Polypodiaceae. A movement and an intensification of the Aleutian Low could explain these periods of increased precipitation over the Kenai Peninsula. Alternatively, this spike in Polypodiaceae can be explained by increased disturbance. The presence of 10 % Picea pollen at the base of the core suggests that one of the Picea species may have survived the last glaciation in the

  5. A tree species inventory over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the

  6. Effect of hydroxyapatite-containing microspheres embedded into three-dimensional magnesium phosphate scaffolds on the controlled release of lysozyme and in vitro biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jongman Lee, Hui-suk YunPowder and Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The functionality of porous three-dimensional (3D magnesium phosphate (MgP scaffold was investigated for the development of a novel protein delivery system and biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold. This enhancement can be achieved by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA-containing polymeric microspheres (MSs into a bulk MgP matrix, and a paste-extruding deposition (PED system. In this work, the amount of MS and HA was precisely controlled when manufacturing MS-embedded MgP (MS/MgP composite scaffolds. The main influence was researched in terms of in vitro lysozyme-release, in vitro biodegradation, mechanical properties, and in vitro calcification. The controlled release of lysozyme was indicated, while showing graded release patterns according to HA content. The composite scaffolds degraded gradually with MS content and degradation time. Due to the effect of HA inclusion, the higher HA-containing MS/MgP scaffolds could, not only delay the biodegradation process but also, compensate for the possible loss of mechanical properties. In this regard, it is reasonable to confirm the inverse relationship between biodegradation and corresponding compressive properties. In order to encourage bioactivity and osteoconductivity, the MS/MgP composite scaffolds were subjected to simulated body fluid treatment. Calcium deposition was, in turn, improved with increasing MS and HA content over time. This quantitative result was also proved using morphological and elemental analysis. In summary, a significant transformation of a monolithic MgP scaffold was directed toward a multifunctional bone tissue engineering scaffold equipped with controlled protein delivery, biodegradability, and bioactivity.Keywords: protein delivery, bone tissue engineering

  7. Quantitative measurements of C-reactive protein using silicon nanowire arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Min-Ho Lee, Kuk-Nyung Lee, Suk-Won Jung, Won-Hyo Kim, Kyu-Sik Shin, Woo-Kyeong SeongKorea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi, KoreaAbstract: A silicon nanowire-based sensor for biological application showed highly desirable electrical responses to either pH changes or receptor-ligand interactions such as protein disease markers, viruses, and DNA hybridization. Furthermore, because the silicon nanowire can display results in real-time, it may possess superior characteristics for biosensing than those demonstrated in previously studied methods. However, despite its promising potential and advantages, certain process-related limitations of the device, due to its size and material characteristics, need to be addressed. In this article, we suggest possible solutions. We fabricated silicon nanowire using a top-down and low cost micromachining method, and evaluate the sensing of molecules after transfer and surface modifications. Our newly designed method can be used to attach highly ordered nanowires to various substrates, to form a nanowire array device, which needs to follow a series of repetitive steps in conventional fabrication technology based on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method. For evaluation, we demonstrated that our newly fabricated silicon nanowire arrays could detect pH changes as well as streptavidin-biotin binding events. As well as the initial proof-of-principle studies, C-reactive protein binding was measured: electrical signals were changed in a linear fashion with the concentration (1 fM to 1 nM in PBS containing 1.37 mM of salts. Finally, to address the effects of Debye length, silicon nanowires coupled with antigen proteins underwent electrical signal changes as the salt concentration changed.Keywords: silicon nanowire array, C-reactive protein, vapor-liquid-solid method

  8. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Asia and the Pacific. Workshop on training nuclear laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held to exchange information on existing facilities and programmes in Asia and the Pacific for training nuclear laboratory technicians, to identify future training needs and to assess the need for IAEA's involvement in this field. As the participants outlined the requirements for nuclear laboratory technician training and the facilities available in their respective countries, it became evident that, in addition to the training of radioisotope laboratory technicians, they also wished to review the need for technician training for the operation of nuclear power plants and industrial application of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the workshop were extended accordingly. The opening address by Chang Suk Lee, the Korean Vice Minister of Science and Technology, noted the valuable contribution to quality control and other industrial uses that nuclear techniques have made in his country. He also reviewed the application of nuclear techniques in Korean agriculture and medicine. The participants explored various forms of co-operation that could be established between countries of the region. Exchange programmes, not only for students but also for expert teachers, and the exchange or loan of equipment were suggested. It was felt that some generalized training courses could be organized on a regional basis, and two countries advocated the setting up of a regional training centre. One suggestion was to arrange regional training courses in special fields that would move from one country to another. The need was felt for periodic regional meetings on training methods, course content and other questions relating to training of laboratory technicians. The IAEA was requested to act as a clearinghouse for information on available training facilities in the region and to advise on the curricula for technician training courses. The Agency was also asked to organize short courses for the training of instructors of technicians in the various fields of atomic

  9. Preparation of polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib and their antitumor activity against brain tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tae-Ho Kim1*, Young-Il Jeong2*, Shu-Guang Jin2, Jian Pei2, Tae-Young Jung1, Kyung-Sub Moon1, In-Young Kim1, Sam-Suk Kang1, Shin Jung1,21Department of Neurosurgery, 2Brain Tumor Research Laboratory, Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Science, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work. Background: Celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor, has been reported to mediate growth inhibitory effects and to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we examined the potential effects of celecoxib on glioma cell proliferation, migration, and inhibition of COX-2 expression in vitro. Methods: Celecoxib was incorporated into poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles for antitumor drug delivery. Results: PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib had spherical shapes and their particle sizes were in the range of 50–200 nm. Drug-loading efficiency was not significantly changed according to the solvent used, except for acetone. Celecoxib was released from the PLGA nanoparticles for more than 2 days, and the higher the drug content, the longer the duration of drug release. PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib showed cytotoxicity against U87MG tumor cells similar to that of celecoxib administered alone. Furthermore, celecoxib did not affect the degree of migration of U87MG cells. PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity similar to that of celecoxib alone in C6 rat glioma cells. Western blot assay of the C6 cells showed that neither celecoxib alone nor PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib affected COX-2 expression. Conclusion: PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib had antitumor activity similar to that of celecoxib alone, even though these particles did not affect the degree of migration or COX-2 expression in the tumor cells. Keywords: celecoxib, cyclo

  10. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  11. Early visual processing for low spatial frequency fearful face is correlated with cortical volume in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jung Suk Lee,1 Gewnhi Park,2 Myeong Ju Song,3 Kee-Hong Choi,4 Seung-Hwan Lee5,6 1Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychology, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA, USA; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, 4Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Patients with schizophrenia present with dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway, which might impair their early visual processing. We explored the relationship between functional abnormality of early visual processing and brain volumetric changes in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients and 16 healthy controls underwent electroencephalographic recordings and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. During electroencephalographic recordings, participants passively viewed neutral or fearful faces with broad, high, or low spatial frequency characteristics. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate brain volume correlates of visual processing deficits. Event related potential analysis suggested that patients with schizophrenia had relatively impaired P100 processing of low spatial frequency fearful face stimuli compared with healthy controls; patients’ gray-matter volumes in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices positively correlated with this amplitude. In addition, patients’ gray-matter volume in the right cuneus positively correlated with the P100 amplitude in the left hemisphere for the high spatial frequency neutral face condition and that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex negatively correlated with the negative score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No significant correlations were observed in healthy controls. This study suggests that

  12. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  13. Lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with lnterbody fusion cage and posteriotaterior lumbar bone graft%椎间融合器联合后外侧植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永栋; 蒋卫平; 韦冰丹; 杨晓明; 甘坤宁; 周竖平; 刘剑伟; 黄家志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the Affiliated to clinical outcome of lumbar spondylolisthesis using hiterbody fusion cage and posteriolalerion lumbar bone graft. Methods From January 2007 to January 2011,32 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis were treated with lnterbody fusion cages and posteriolaterion lumbar bone graft. Results ['oilowed—up for 12 to 38 months.averaged 3.6 months, the fusion rate was 100%. According lo evaluation standard of ZOU De-wei;19 cases achieved excellent outcomes.good 10 and 3 fair,the clinical satisfaction rate of 90,62%, Conclusions The lnterbody fusion cages and posteriolaterion lumbar bone graft is a effective method for keeping spinal stability and restoring inlerverlebral height and improving the bony fusion rale.%目的 探讨椎间融合器联合后外侧植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱的术后效果.方法 2007-01-2011-01 采用椎间植骨联合后外侧植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱患者32 例.结果 随访12~38 月,平均16 个月,根据Suk 方法判定术后骨融合情况,骨融合率为100%.根据邹德威等临床功能评价标准评分:优19 例,良10 例,可3 例,优良率90.62%.结论 椎间融合器联合后外侧植骨融合术治疗腰椎滑脱是一种较理想的手术方法,能维持脊柱稳定性,恢复椎间隙高度和提高植骨融合率.

  14. Multi-instanton calculus and the AdS/CFT correspondence in N = 4 superconformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a self-contained study of ADHM multi-instantons in SU(N) gauge theory, especially the novel interplay with supersymmetry and the large-N limit. We give both field- and string-theoretic derivations of the N = 4 supersymmetric multi-instanton action and collective coordinate integration measure. As a central application, we focus on certain n-point functions Gn, n = 16, 8 or 4, in N = 4 SU(N) gauge theory at the conformal point (as well as on related higher-partial-wave correlators); these are correlators in which the 16 exact supersymmetric and superconformal fermion zero-modes are saturated. In the large-N limit, for the first time in any four-dimensional theory, we are able to evaluate all leading-order multi-instanton contributions exactly. We find compelling evidence for Maldacena's conjecture: (1) The large = N k-instanton collective coordinate space has the geometry of a single copy of AdS5 x S5. (2) The integration measure on this space includes the partition function of ten-dimensional N = 1 SU(k) gauge theory dimensionally reduced to zero dimensions, matching the description of D-instantons in Type IIB string theory. (3) In exact agreement with Type IIB string calculations, at the k-instantonlevel, Gn = √N g8 kn-((7)/(2))e2πikτΣd/k d-2 · Fn(x1, ..., xn), where Fn is identical to a convolution of n bulk-to-boundary supergravity propagators

  15. The Research on the Pollen Viability of Rosa chinensis Varieties and Rosa multiflora with Different Methods%多个月季品种与蔷薇的花粉生活力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨攀; 王升; 郭风民; 李永华

    2015-01-01

    With a total of 30 Rosa chinensis varieties and Rosa multiflora as test materials,the pollen viability was measured by staining and germination,and the varieties was graded according to the pollen germination. The result showed as follows. The germination was suitable for detecting pollen viability,the measurement with 10%sucrose concentration was suitable for the Rosa chinensis and Rosa multiflora varieties pollen germination.‘Rosa multiflora Thunb.var.platyphylla Thory’‘Darthuizer Orang Fire’‘Rosa cymos’and‘Fen He’had the higher pollen germination rate than other varieties,and the rates respectively were 84.20%,71.60%,59.20%and 54.00%,the pollen viability gradually reduced as the extension of storage time. With the pollen germination as the judgment ,Rosa chinensis and Rosa multiflora varieties were classified three grades:the pollen germination of the first grade was more than 50%,‘Rosa multiflora Thunb.var.platyphylla Thory’‘Darthuizer Orang Fire’;the second grade was between 10% and 50%‘,Pink Peace‘’Monica’;the third grade was less than 10%‘,Spectra‘’ Golden Showers’.%以30个月季品种及蔷薇属植物为试验材料,采用沙尔达考夫染色法、悬滴液发芽法测定其花粉生活力,并根据花粉萌发率对品种进行分级.结果表明:1)悬滴液发芽法更适合花粉生活力的测定,10%蔗糖浓度下适宜月季品种及蔷薇属植物的花粉萌发;2)30个月季品种和蔷薇中,花粉萌发率较高的是‘十姊妹’‘、橘红火焰’‘、小果蔷薇’和‘粉荷’,分别为84.20%、71.60%、59.20%和54.00%,花粉生活力随着时间的延长而降低;3)以花粉萌发率为判断标准,月季品种及蔷薇分为三个等级,一级品种:‘十姊妹’、‘橘红火焰’,萌发率高于50%;二级品种:‘粉和平’、‘摩尼卡’,萌发率在10%~50%;三级品种:‘光谱’、‘金阵雨’,萌发率低于10%.

  16. Radial variation in sap flow in five laurel forest tree species in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M. Soledad; Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermák, Jan; Morales, Domingo

    2000-11-01

    Variations in radial patterns of xylem water content and sap flow rate were measured in five laurel forest tree species (Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Persea indica (L.) Spreng., Myrica faya Ait., Erica arborea L. and Ilex perado Ait. ssp. platyphylla (Webb & Berth.) Tutin) growing in an experimental plot at Agua García, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Measurements were performed around midday during warm and sunny days by the heat field deformation method. In all species, water content was almost constant (around 35% by volume) over the whole xylem cross-sectional area. There were no differences in wood color over the whole cross-sectional area of the stem in most species with the exception of E. arborea, whose wood became darker in the inner layers. Radial patterns of sap flow were highly variable and did not show clear relationships with tree diameter or species. Sap flow occurred over the whole xylem cross-sectional area in some species, whereas it was limited to the outer xylem layers in others. Sap flow rate was either similar along the xylem radius or exhibited a peak in the outer part of the xylem area. Low sap flow rates with little variation in radial pattern were typical for shaded suppressed trees, whereas dominant trees exhibited high sap flow rates with a peak in the radial pattern. Stem damage resulted in a significant decrease in sap flow rate in the outer xylem layers. The outer xylem is more important for whole tree water supply than the inner xylem because of its larger size. We conclude that measurement of radial flow pattern provides a reliable method of integrating sap flow from individual measuring points to the whole tree.

  17. Effects of the inhaled treatment of liriope radix on an asthmatic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Suk; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Yang, Hea Jung; Choi, Eun-Kyeong; Shin, Min Hee; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Ha, In Jin; Na, Yun-Cheol; Um, Jae Young; Chung, Won Seok; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jung, Sung-Ki; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a treatment for allergic asthma, inhaled treatments such as bronchodilators that contain β2-agonists have an immediate effect, which attenuates airway obstructions and decreases airway hypersensitivity. However, bronchodilators only perform on a one off basis, but not consistently. Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways accompanying the overproduction of mucus, airway wall remodeling, bronchial hyperreactivity and airway obstruction. Liriope platyphylla radix extract (LPP), a traditional Korean medicine, has been thoroughly studied and found to be an effective anti-inflammatory medicine. Here, we demonstrate that an inhaled treatment of LPP can attenuate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mouse model, compared to the saline-treated group (p < 0.01). Moreover, LPP decreases inflammatory cytokine levels, such as eotaxin (p < 0.05), IL-5 (p < 0.05), IL-13 (p < 0.001), RANTES (p < 0.01), and TNF-α (p < 0.05) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of asthmatic mice. A histopathological study was carried out to determine the effects of LPP inhalation on mice lung tissue. We performed UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS, LC/MS, and GC/MS analyses to analyze the chemical constituents of LPP, finding that these are ophiopogonin D, spicatoside A, spicatoside B, benzyl alcohol, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. This study demonstrates the effect of an inhaled LPP treatment both on airway AHR and on the inflammatory response in an asthmatic mouse model. Hence, LPP holds significant promise as a nasal inhalant for the treatment of asthmatic airway disease. PMID:25967662

  18. Central nervous system activities of two diterpenes isolated from Aloysia virgata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Cristina; Marder, Mariel

    2011-03-15

    Using the guide of a competitive assay for the benzodiazepine binding site in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)), two active diterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu var. platyphylla (Briquet) Moldenke. These compounds, identified as (16R)-16,17,18-trihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (1) and (16R)-16,17-dihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (2) on the basis of spectral data, competitively inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-FNZ to the benzodiazepine binding site with K(i)±S.E.M. values of 56±19 μM and 111±13 μM, respectively. The behavioral actions of these diterpenes, intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in mice, were examined in the plus-maze, holeboard, locomotor activity and light/dark tests. Compound 1 exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice evidenced by a significant increase of the parameters measured in the holeboard test (the number of head dips at 0.3 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, the rears at 1 mg/kg and the time spent head-dipping at 3 mg/kg), in the plus-maze assay (the percentage of open arm entries at 1 mg/kg) and in the light/dark test (the time in light and the number of transitions at 1 mg/kg). Compound 2 augmented the number of rearings in the holeboard apparatus (at 0.3 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) and the locomotor activity (at 1 mg/kg). These results reveal the presence of neuroactive compounds in Aloysia virgata. PMID:21036579

  19. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    ) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9–10 years and occasionally (50–150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show......The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens...... that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake...

  20. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  1. Effect of different steam explosion conditions on methane potential and enzymatic saccharification of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Olsen, Elisabeth F; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2013-01-01

    Birch (Betula pubescens) was steam exploded at 13 different conditions with temperatures ranging from 170 to 230 °C and residence times ranging from 5 to 15 min. Increasing severity in the pretreatment led to degradation of xylan and formation of pseudo-lignin. The effect of the pretreatments was evaluated by running enzymatic saccharification and anaerobic digestion followed by analysis of sugar and methane yields, respectively. Enzymatically released glucose increased with pretreatment severity up to 220 °C for 10 min and levels of solubilized glucose reached 97% of the theoretical maximum. The highest methane yield (369 mL gVS(-1)) was obtained at a severity factor of 4.5 and this yield was 1.8 times higher than the yield from untreated birch. Enzymatic glucose yields and methane yields were generally correlated. The results indicate that steam-exploded birch can be effectively converted to either glucose or methane.

  2. Nutrient fluxes from insect herbivory increase during ecosystem retrogression in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Daniel B; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Kumordzi, Bright B; Wardle, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological theory, developed largely from ungulates and grassland systems, predicts that herbivory accelerates nutrient cycling more in productive than unproductive systems. This prediction may be important for understanding patterns of ecosystem change over time and space, but its applicability to other ecosystems and types of herbivore remain uncertain. We estimated fluxes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from herbivory of a common tree species (Betula pubescens) by a common species of herbivorous insect along a -5000-yr boreal chronosequence. Contrary to established theory, fluxes of N and P via herbivory increased along the chronosequence despite a decline in plant productivity. The herbivore-mediated N and P fluxes to the soil are comparable to the main alternative pathway for these nutrients via tree leaf litterfall. We conclude that insect herbivores can make large contributions to nutrient cycling even in unproductive systems, and influence the rate and pattern of ecosystem development, particularly in systems with low external nutrient inputs.

  3. Biochemical and molecular genetic approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Sung, Woo Kyung; Piao, Wen Hua [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. About 100 medicinal plants were purchased and methanol extract samples were prepared. Radio-protective and radio-sensitizing activities of these samples were screened. Seven samples showed above 20% radio-protective activities: Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, Alpiniae officinari rhizoma, Meliae fructus, Alpiniae katsumadaii semen, Betulae cortex. Acanthopanax sessiliflous showed the highest radio-sensitizing effect and 10 other samples revealed moderate activities: Melia japonica, Agastache rugosa, Platycodon gradiflorum, Broussonetia bazinoki, Angelica gigas, Inula helenium, Chelidonium majus, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Dioscorea batatas. (author). 49 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Determination of de novo and pool emissions of terpenes from four common boreal/alpine trees by 13CO2 labelling and PTR-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Koch, Kristine; Taipale, Risto; Zimmer, Ina; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Rinne, Janne

    2010-05-01

    Boreal forests emit a large amount of monoterpenes into the atmosphere. Traditionally these emissions are assumed to originate as evaporation from large storage pools. Thus, their diurnal cycle would depend mostly on temperature. However, there is indication that a significant part of the monoterpene emission would originate directly from de novo synthesis. By applying 13CO2 fumigation and analyzing the isotope fractions with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and classical GC-MS, we determined the fractions of monoterpene emissions originating from de novo biosynthesis in Pinus sylvestris (58%), Picea abies (33.5%), Larix decidua (9.8%) and Betula pendula (100%). Application of the observed split between de novo and pool emissions from P. sylvestris in a hybrid emission algorithm resulted in a better description of ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest stand. PMID:20040067

  5. Paper birch: Sentinels of climate change in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.

    2011-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in the northern Great Plains supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Localized summer microclimates have likely facilitated the persistence of birch populations in a region otherwise unsuitable for the species. Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. Changes in spring weather patterns may be causing rootlet injury so that trees die in spite of the still-cool summer microclimates. Current weather patterns, combined with little evidence of recruitment of young birch and great geographic distances from potential immigrant sources, make the future persistence of birch in the Niobrara River Valley stands uncertain.

  6. Значение бонитета условий местопроизрастания березы в экологии Inonotus obliquus (Pers. ) Pil

    OpenAIRE

    Баландайкин, Михаил

    2012-01-01

    Устанавливается специфика влияние классов бонитета Betula pendula Roth. на степень встречаемости в формируемых ею насаждениях патологического агента Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil.

  7. ВЛИЯНИЕ ВЕРТИКАЛЬНОЙ СТРУКТУРЫ БЕРЕЗОВЫХ НАСАЖДЕНИЙ НА РАСПРОСТРАНЕННОСТЬ INONOTUS OBLIQUUS (PERS.) PIL

    OpenAIRE

    Баландайкин, М.

    2013-01-01

    В настоящей работе речь идет о нативной согласованности дисперсии Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. и формы древостоя Betula pendula Roth. Также рассматриваются некоторые соподчиненные закономерности.

  8. Variations of population structure and important value of the main edificators along the elevation gradient on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGPing; YEJi; DENGHong-bing; CUIGUO-fa

    2003-01-01

    From 700 m to 1900 m on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, 13 plots with an interval of 100 m in elevation were investigated to study the variations of population structure and important value of the main edificators along the elevation gradient. In their core distribution areas, most of the edificators had healthy population structure and could regenerate smoothly except Larix olgensis, but important value of Larix olgensis had no obvious variations with elevation changes, which showed that Larix olgensis had its own particularity and strong adaptability. At high elevation above 1800 m, Betula ermanfi was the only species that could form a mono-dominant community. Important values of Pinus koraiensis and Acer mono had similar changing trends, and they had the similar ecological adaptabilities.

  9. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  10. Characterisation of Holocene plant macrofossils from North Spanish ombrotrophic mires: vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Souto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods and criteria that were used to identify plant macrofossils from four ombrotrophic mires in northern Spain are presented. Twelve monocotyledon and ten dicotyledon species were recorded. Some were identified from vegetative or reproductive macroremains (Eriophorum angustifolium, Molinia caerulea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica mackaiana, Erica tetralix, Potentilla erecta, while others were recognised only by their fruits (Rhynchospora alba, Carex durieui, Carex echinata, Carex binervis, Carex demissa, Betula alba, seeds (Juncus squarrosus, Juncus bulbosus, Luzula multiflora, Narthecium ossifragum, Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera intermedia, Caltha palustris, Daboecia cantabrica, rhizome fragments with remains of leaves (Agrostis curtisii, or twigs with buds and leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus. Descriptions of the specific distinctive characters for the plant macrofossils that were recorded are accompanied by illustrations that facilitate their interpretation. Dichotomous identification keys are also provided.

  11. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  12. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  13. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196

  14. A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record of paleoecologic environment evolution in the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuli; FANG Xiaomin; MA Yuzhen; AN Zhisheng; LI Jijun

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record was obtained from a continuous loess-paleosol sequence at Chaona in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. It shows that (1) arid herbs of largely Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae and arbors of mainly Pinus, Betula and Quercus dominate loess and paleosol, respectively, reflecting cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid conditions of glaciation and interglaciation; (2) that similar vegetation pattern and cold-dry condition were found in times of unusual thick and coarse loesses L9 and L15, which have been regarded as two extremely cold and dry times as indicated by inorganic climatic proxies; and (3) that shifts of vegetations from earlier forest-steppe to open-forest and steppe and then to steppe were found at 0.95 and 0.5 Ma, implying a stepwise of drying of the Loess Plateau in the Quaternary.

  15. 东北长白山垂直林带下现代表土花粉与植被关系%Pollen Record of Surface Sediments from Vertical Forest Zones of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China and Their Relations to the Modern Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湘君; 罗运利; 田军; 吴玉书

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-nine surface samples (mosses) from five vertical distribution vegetation zones inChangbai Mountain, Northeast China have been palynologically analyzed and the results were tested bycorrespondence analysis. The results show that, except a few samples, arboreal pollen is predominant inalmost all pollen assemblages; Pinus and Betula are the main pollen types in quantities and they are foundin all vegetation zones of Changbai Mountain. The highest pollen proportion of Pinus occurs in the mixedconifer and broadleaved forest where Pinus koraiensis is the main component; Betula pollen is found inhigh percentage in both subalpine B. ermanii forest and broadleaved deciduous forest predominated byBetula and Quercus; in the former Betula pollen is accompanied by cold-tolerant shrub such as Rhodo-dendron; whereas in the latter it appears a large amount of fern spores. Pollen assemblage of broadleaveddeciduous forests is marked by high diversity and proportions of deciduous trees and a large number of fernspores. Subalpine conifer forest is distinguished by high percentage of Picea pollen. Although tree pollenis slightly dominated, very few or absent of fern spores and increasing of herb and small shrub pollenproportions, particularly predominance of Rhododendron in herbaceous pollen and occurrence of tundraindicator type-Dryas pollen distinguish pollen assemblages of alpine tundra.%在长白山北坡5个垂直植被带的林下采集29个表土(苔藓)样品进行孢粉分析,同时将其结果作对应分析.结果表明,除个别样品,在长白山垂直植被带的孢粉组合中乔木花粉占优势,其中以松属和桦木属最多,在各植被带均有分布.松属花粉最高含量出现在以红松为主的针阔混交林带的孢粉组合中;桦木属花粉则大量见于亚高山岳桦林带和以栎桦为主的阔叶落叶林带,但前者伴有耐寒、早的小灌丛杜鹃花属花粉,而在后者中则见有大量蕨类孢子.阔叶落叶林带的孢粉组

  16. Short communication. A review on the efficacy tests and risk analyses conducted on Chondrostereum purpureum, a potential biocontrol agent, in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantula, J.; Hamberg, L.; Vartiamaki, H.; Korhonen, K.; Uotila, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hardwood sprouting is a problem in forest regeneration areas, under electric lines, on roadsides and railways. In Finland, isolates of Chondrostereum purpureum were screened by field experiments for their efficiency to control sprouting. The proportion of dead stumps with the best isolates exceeded 80% on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), and C. purpureum was also found to affect the sprouting of aspen (Populus tremula) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The risks of C. purpureum based biocontrol were evaluated by population genetic analysis. It showed that C. purpureum is a geographically undifferentiated species that does not reproduce clonally. The risk of infection of non-target trees was found to be highest in early spring. These findings suggest that the risks of using C. purpureum in biocontrol are small. (Author) 36 refs.

  17. Properties of Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive for Plywood Panels Manufactured from High Moisture Content Veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Bekhta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of bonding high moisture content (15 % birch veneers (Betula pubescens Ehrh. with the use of modifi ed phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin. Wheat starch, rye flour, resorcinol and phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin were chosen as modifying agents. Dynamic viscosity, hydrogen ions concentration, solid content, curing time, pot life of developed adhesive compositions and shear strength of plywood samples were evaluated. ANOVA analysis has shown that type, mixture and content of modifying agents affect significantly the mechanical performance of plywood panels. The obtained results of shear strength values were above the standard requirements (1 N/mm2, and the properties of samples met the European standard EN 314-2 for gluing quality of class 3 and such plywood panels can be used in exterior conditions.

  18. Effect of Tree Species on Enzyme Secretion by the Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We compared cold and hot wood extracts of 3 endemic Siberian trees-namely, Prunus padus (bird cherry), Populus tremula (aspen), and Betula sp. (birch)-on biomass production and laccase and peroxidase secretion in submerged cultures by the medicinal mushroom Lentinus edodes. Of the conditions tested, only hot Prunus extracts stimulated biomass production, whereas all extracts stimulated laccase and peroxidase secretion, albeit to different extents. A large, differential stimulation of manganese peroxidase was observed by hot Prunus extracts. The results highlight important differences between tree species in the stimulation of biomass and enzyme production by L. edodes and point to potentially interesting stimulatory factors present in hot Prunus extracts. These findings are of relevance in the use of L. edodes for medicinal or biotechnological applications. PMID:27649732

  19. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  20. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  1. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert;

    2006-01-01

    the response in EM fungal abundance to long-term warming and fertilization in two arctic ecosystems with contrasting responses of the EM shrub Betula nana. •  Ergosterol was used as a biomarker for living fungal biomass in roots and organic soil and ingrowth bags were used to estimate EM mycelial production......•  Shrub abundance is expected to increase with enhanced temperature and nutrient availability in the Arctic, and associated changes in abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi could be a key link between plant responses and longer-term changes in soil organic matter storage. This study quantifies....... We measured 15N and 13C natural abundance to identify the EM-saprotrophic divide in fungal sporocarps and to validate the EM origin of mycelia in the ingrowth bags. •  Fungal biomass in soil and EM mycelial production increased with fertilization at both tundra sites, and with warming at one site...

  2. Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiang Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

  3. Palynological investigation of a Holocene profile section from the Palaeo-Gaxun-Nur-Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Demske; S. Mischke

    2003-01-01

    Palynological investigations on lacustrine sediment samples revealed ageneral dominance of open Artemisia-Chenopodiaceae vegetation in the Palaeo-Gaxun- Nur-Basin (Inner Mongolia) between 5250 and 3500 cal. aBP. Riverside woods (Hippophae, Populus) developed between 3500-3250 cal. aBP and reflect moister growing conditions. During the following moist-dry transition pronounced cooling occurred around 3000 cal. aBP, in upper elevations favouring the spread of montanewoods (Picea, Betula). Aridity strongly increased from 2900 to 2700 cal. aBP. The recorded vegetational and environmental changes after 3500 cal. aBP can be correlated with glacier advances in the mountains and with a humid phase in the Tengger Shamo followed by desertification.

  4. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes;

    2010-01-01

    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might......-generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  5. Human-ecosystem interactions in relation to Holocene environmental change in Port Joli Harbour, southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Karen; Gajewski, Konrad; Betts, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Path Lake in Port Joli Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada, provides a paleo-ecological perspective on Holocene climate and vegetation variability within the context of local archaeological research. Pollen assemblages in the early Holocene reflect a post-glacial forest dominated by Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Quercus. During this time, a lower frequency of radiocarbon dated cultural material suggests lower human settlement intensity. Shallow water aquatic (Isoetes) and wetland (Alnus, Sphagnum) taxa increased after 3400 cal yr BP in response to a transition towards wetter climatic conditions. Culturally significant periods, where settlement intensity increased in the Maritimes and Maine, coincide with maximum values of reconstructed total annual precipitation, suggesting that environmental conditions may have influenced prehistoric human activity. European settlement, after 350 cal yr BP, was marked by a rise in Ambrosia. The impact of anthropogenic fire disturbances on the landscape was evidenced by peak charcoal accumulations after European settlement.

  6. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  7. Aeropalynologic analysis of Timisoara (Romania during 2006 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a one year qualitative-quantitative study of airborne pollen. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the daily presence and distribution of pollen and to identify the pollen types that are abundantly represented in the atmosphere of the city of Timisoara. A continuous aeropalynologic survey was accomplished between 1 mai 2006 and 8 octombrie 2006. Plants with anemophilous pollination were the best represented: Pinaceae, Poaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Ambrosia, Fraxinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Quercus, Juglans, Platanus, Morus, Tilia. The total pollen spectrum was represented by 17 pollen types. Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen types was dominant. The highest level of pollen emission was recorded during August-September.

  8. Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

  9. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  10. PURIFICATION OF HARDWOOD-DERIVED AUTOHYDROLYSATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Tapani Lehto,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes of birch (Betula pendula chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed, whereas in the latter case, the corresponding amounts were about 30% and 50 to 90%, respectively. A partial recovery of various unsaturated impurities is of importance, because they may act as inhibitors when biochemically converting carbohydrates in hydrolysates into value-added products.

  11. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  12. Betulin Complex in γ-Cyclodextrin Derivatives: Properties and Antineoplasic Activities in In Vitro and In Vivo Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bojin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the present high incidence of melanoma and skin cancer, interest in potential drugs of plant origin has increased significantly. Pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes are widely distributed in plants, offering numerous pharmacological benefits. Betulin is an important compound in the bark of Betula pendula Roth and has important therapeutic properties, including antitumor activities. Its biological effect is limited by its poor water solubility, which can be improved by cyclodextrin complexation. The best results have been obtained by using a novel cyclodextrin derivative, octakis-[6-deoxy-6-(2-sulfanyl ethanesulfonate]-γ-CD. The complexes between betulin and the previously mentioned cyclodextrin were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEMand differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and pharmacologically evaluated in vitro (MTT and immunocytochemistry tests and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice. The solubility of betulin is improved by cyclodextrin complexation, which creates a stable complex that improves the in vitro and in vivo properties of the active compound.

  13. Enzymological study of the evolution of the technogenic soil submitted to biological recultivation in Bozanta Mare (Maramures county, north-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Felix BLIDAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our research work regarding the dynamics of vegetation growth of miscellaneous species of trees planted and monitored in the particular environment of the tailing pond in Bozanta Mare (Maramures County. The structure of soil bearing high content of heavy metals and cyanides considerably impacts the ecologic conditions of tailing ponds. Aspects related to soil characteristics (such as structure, size of particles, porosity, texture, chemical composition are included. In the framework of our experiment we have planted seedlings belonging to four species of trees: Quercus petraea, Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, Salix caprea. Our aim was to study the evolution of enzyme activities. Our contribution, based on the outcomes of our research, consists in the formulation of functional correlations spotted between cormophites and enzyme activities, between the species of trees and their environmental underlying conditions, with the overarching goal to optimize the activities undertaken in order to alleviate the tailing ponds inherent to mining activities.

  14. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Petrice, Toby R.; Gates, Michael W.; Bauer, Leah S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobius agrili Zhang & Huang and Oobius longoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobius minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilus subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilus egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobius whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilus anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  15. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. Triapitsyn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera. Two species, O. agrili Zhang & Huang and O. longoi (Siscaro, were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae are described and illustrated from the USA: O. minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan, an egg parasitoid of both A. subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp. and A. egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. trees, and O. whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania, an egg parasitoid of A. anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth. A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included.

  16. VOC emissions from beech, birch, and oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, J.; Folkers, A.; Koch, N.; Kleist, E.

    2003-04-01

    VOC emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula pendula), and oak (Quercus robur) were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors. Oak emitted nearly exclusively isoprene. The dependence of these isoprene emissions on temperature and photosynthetic radiation (PAR) could quite well be described with existing algorithms and the emission factors were fairly constant. Beech and birch emitted mainly short chained oxygenated VOC and monoterpenes. Temperature and PAR dependence of monoterpene emissions were superimposed by a slow frequency modulation. Hence, descriptions of these emissions with existing algorithms were not successful. Moreover, in some cases the emission pattern switched drastically. For birch it was observed that the plant switched from a sesquiterpene emitter to a monoterpene emitter. emission pattern plants. Emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and methanol were not affected by PAR. Here, the emission factors are determined by other factors not included in existing algorithms.

  17. Is the Growth of Birch at the UPPER Timberline in the Himalayas Limited By Moisture or By Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, E.; Dawadi, B.; Pederson, N.; Eckstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Birch (Betula) trees and forests are found across much of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, despite being an ecologically-significant genus, it is much less-well studied compared to common genera like Pinus, Picea, Juniperus, Quercus, and Fagus. In the Himalayas, Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) is a widespread, important broadleaf timberline species that survives in mountain rain shadows via access to water from snowmelt. Because precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas decreases with increasing elevation, we hypothesized that the growth of birch at the upper timberlines between 3,900 and 4,150 m a.s.l. is primarily limited by moisture availability rather than by low temperature. To verify this assumption, a total of 292 increment cores were extracted from 211 birch trees at nine timberline sites. The synchronous occurrence of narrow rings and high inter-series correlations within and among sites evidenced a reliable cross-dating and a common climatic signal in the tree-ring widths variations. From March-May, all nine tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strongly positive response to total precipitation and a less strongly negative response to temperature. During the instrumental meteorological record (after 1960), years with a high percentage of missing rings coincided with pre-monsoon drought events. Periods of below-average growth are in phase with well-known drought events all over monsoon Asia, showing additional evidence that Himalayan birch growth at the upper timberlines is persistently limited by moisture availability. Our study describes the rare case of a drought-induced altitudinal timberline that is composed by a broadleaf tree species.

  18. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials and methods. The concentration of pollen was monitored by a Burkard volumetric pollen trap. At the same time, 198 pollen allergic patients were testing to determine the values of sIgE antibodies against selected pollen allergens; a panel of 8 purified allergens was used. Results. The highest percentages of sensitization were detected for Poaceae and [i]Ambrosia[/i] pollen allergens. The most abundant airborne pollen types were Urticaceae, [i]Betula[/i], [i]Populus[/i], Fraxinus, Pinus and Poaceae. The length of the pollen season varied. The longest pollen season was that of the [i]Plantago[/i] – 105 days, and the shortest, [i]Corylus[/i] – 20 days. A significant correlation was found between annual total pollen quantity and median sIgE values, especially in 2002. Conclusions. A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding [i]Betula[/i], and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  19. Late Quaternary Stratigraphy, Glacial Limits, and Paleoenvironments of the Marresale Area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Gataullin, Valery; Manley, William; Lokrantz, Hanna

    2002-05-01

    Stratigraphic records from coastal cliff sections near the Marresale Station on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, yield new insight on ice-sheet dynamics and paleoenvironments for northern Eurasia. Field studies identify nine informal stratigraphic units from oldest to youngest (the Marresale formation, Labsuyakha sand, Kara diamicton, Varjakha peat and silt, Oleny sand, Baidarata sand, Betula horizon, Nenets peat, and Chum sand) that show a single glaciation and a varied terrestrial environment during the late Pleistocene. The Kara diamicton reflects regional glaciation and is associated with glaciotectonic deformation from the southwest of the underlying Labsuyakha sand and Marresale formation. Finite radiocarbon and luminescence ages of ca. 35,000 to 45,000 yr from Varjakha peat and silt that immediately overlies Kara diamicton place the glaciation >40,000 yr ago. Eolian and fluvial deposition ensued with concomitant cryogenesis between ca. 35,000 and 12,000 cal yr B.P. associated with the Oleny and the Baidarata sands. There is no geomorphic or stratigraphic evidence of coverage or proximity of the Yamal Peninsula to a Late Weichselian ice sheet. The Nenets peat accumulated over the Baidarata sand during much of the past 10,000 yr, with local additions of the eolian Chum sand starting ca. 1000 yr ago. A prominent Betula horizon at the base of the Nenets peat contains rooted birch trees ca. 10,000 to 9000 cal yr old and indicates a >200-km shift northward of the treeline from the present limits, corresponding to a 2° to 4°C summer warming across northern Eurasia.

  20. PALYNOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE BOREHOLE ZKA4 AT DAQIAO TOWN, JIANGDU CITY, JIANGSU PROVINCE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL MEANINGS%江苏省江都市大桥镇ZKA4钻孔第四纪孢粉组合及其环境变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗言; 于俊杰; 蒋仁; 韩芳; 柯学; 徐亚东; 何卫红

    2014-01-01

    本文依据江苏省江都市大桥镇第四系钻孔(ZKA4)中孢粉的分布,自下至上划分了11个孢粉组合:1.Betula-Ulmus-Artemisia,2.Ulmus-Chenopodiaceae-Quercus,3.ArtemisiaGramineae-Quercus,4.Liquidambar-Polypodiaceae-Ulmus,5.Pinus-Quercus-Betula-Juglans,6.Quercus-Juglans-Artemisia,7.Quercus-Polygonum-Juglans-Carya,8.Betula-Gramineae-Artemisia,9.Quercus-Polypodiaceae,10.Podocarpus-Triorites-Polypodiaceae,11.Pinus-Podocarpus-Juglans-Pterocarya.依据孢粉组合,识别出更新世以来七个气候冷暖变化阶段.孢粉组合1为常绿落叶针阔叶混交林,气候以冷干为主,向上气候回暖;孢粉组合2为高寒灌丛—落叶针阔叶混交林,以冷干为主;孢粉组合3为草本—落叶针阔叶混交林,较前一阶段气候变暖,偏暖干;孢粉组合4-5以落叶阔叶为主,整体上以变暖为主;孢粉组合6-7为落叶针阔叶混交林,整体气候为暖湿,早期略干;孢粉组合8-9为以针叶为主的针阔叶混交林,气候温凉偏湿;孢粉组合10-11为常绿落叶阔叶混交林,气候以湿暖为主.