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Sample records for betula platyphylla suk

  1. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  2. A New Monoterpene Glucoside from the Leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpene glucoside, (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-8-b-D-glucosyloxy-2,6-octadien- oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk. The structure was established by spectroscopic data.

  3. PLATYPHYLLIN A, A NOVEL COUMARONE FROM THE LEAVES OF BETULA PLATYPHYLLA SUK.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-JUAN WANG; YUE-HU PEI; HUI-MING HUA

    2001-01-01

    A novel coumarone, platyphyllin A (1), was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk..The structure elucidation was accomplished by the analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was identified as a new coumarone skeleton, which was first isolated from plants.

  4. Four novel cellulose synthase (CESA) genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) involved in primary and secondary cell Wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Qiuyu; Chen, Pengfei; Song, Funan; Guan, Minxiao; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Yucheng; Yang, Chuanping

    2012-09-25

    Cellulose synthase (CESA), which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, -4, -7 and -8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula.

  5. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

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    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, −4, −7 and −8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula.

  6. A phytosociological study on Betula Platyphylla forests in Daxing’an Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永富; 侯丽君; 魏占才; 宋关玲

    2000-01-01

    For the first time in this paper the forests of Betula platyphylla in Daxing’an Mountains are subdivided by phytosociological methods. Three community types of B. platyphylla forest have been differentiated, e.g., Rhododendron dahuricum-Betula platyphylla community, Corylus heterophylla-Betula platyphylla community and Artemisia stolonifera-Betula platyphylla community. The distributed elevation, stand height, differential species, major composition species of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer for each community were detail described

  7. Analysis on diameter structure of the mixed forest of Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.and Betula platyphylla Suk.in Mengluan Forestry Farm%河北省孟滦林场落叶松白桦混交林直径结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽红; 兰永生; 王丽华; 陈永军; 黄选瑞

    2012-01-01

    Stand diameter structure, as the most basic and important stand structure, means the distribution status of all kinds of trees with different diameters in a stand. The knowledge of the stand diameter structure is to clearly understand the results from single wood growth and stand competition. The research on the rules of dynamic changes of stand diameter structure will contribute more benefits to revealing the essence of stand development rule. The article investigates all the plants with>3 cm DBH in the mixed forest of Larix Principis-rupprechtii Mayr. and Betula platyphylla Suk. in the Mengluan Forestry Farm, Mulan Forestry Administration as research object by using sample plot method, and analyzes the distribution characteristics of diameter structure of main tree species with the statistical software Forstat2. 1. The statistic analysis shows the largest number of trees appears in the middle diameter class and the smaller number of trees in the small diameter class, with poor stand regeneration. Based on the integrated effect of normal distribution, gamma distribution, logarithmic normal distribution, binomial distribution and Poisson distribution, the forest diameter distribution law is supposed to be better reflected.%林分直径结构是林分内各种大小直径林木的分配状态,它是最基本也最重要的林分结构.了解林分的直径结构,也就对单木生长以及林分竞争所产生的结果有了清楚的认识;探讨林分直径结构动态变化规律更是有利于揭示林分发展规律的实质[1].本研究以木兰林管局孟滦林场华北落叶松白桦混交林为研究对象,采用标准地调查法对林内胸径大于3 cm的林木进行每木检尺,并使用Forstat2.1统计软件对主要树种直径结构分布规律进行研究,研究发现,各树种处于中间径阶的林木株数最多;小径阶林木较少,林分更新较差;综观拟合效果,正态分布、伽玛分布、对数正态分布、二项分布以

  8. Reproductive strategies and seeds behavior of Betula platyphylla Suk. population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By the methods of morphological anatomy and investigation in the sample fields, the main studies were carried out such as morphological anatomy of reproductive organs, birch population's reproductive ages, reproductive allotment value and seed behavior. The relationship between birch population and their surroundings was studied. The results showed that birch's flower organs and its seeds were suitable well for spreading by wind. The seeds by wind can fly far away in a short time. The quantity of seed spreading greatly varied with different communities. Birch's reproduction age can be changed in different ecological surroundings. The reproductive allotment value of birch was obviously different at different reproductive stages. In the mesic habitat, birch can grow well. The lowest reproductive age of them was 12, average age 15. In most cases the age of branches to bearing fruits was more than 18. The order of reproductive allotment values was as follows: a flowering phase > flower bud phase > fruit phase.

  9. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of developing xylem responding to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli in Betula platyphylla.

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    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Betula platyphylla Suk (birch is a fast-growing woody species that is important in pulp industries and the biofuels. However, as an important pulp species, few studies had been performed on its wood formation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular responses of birch xylem to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli. After trunks of birch trees were subjected to bending for 8 weeks, the cellulose content was significantly greater in tension wood (TW than in opposite wood (OW or normal wood (NW, whereas the lignin content in TW was significantly lower than that in OW and NW. In addition, TW grew more rapidly than OW and generated TW-specific fibers with an additional G-layer. Three transcriptome libraries were constructed from TW, OW and NW of B. platyphylla, respectively, after the plants were subjected to artificial bending. Overall, 80,909 nonredundant unigenes with a mean size of 768 nt were assembled. Expression profiles were generated, and 9,684 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the TW, OW and NW libraries. These included genes involved in secondary cell wall structure, wood composition, and cellulose or lignin biosynthesis. Our study showed that during TW formation, genes involved in cellulose synthesis were induced, while the expression of lignin synthesis-related genes decreased, resulting in increased cellulose content and decreased lignin levels in TW. In addition, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins play important role in TW formation. These findings may provide important insights into wood formation at the molecular level.

  10. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species.

  11. [Spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana - Betula platyphylla secondary forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang-Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Song, Si-Ming; Zhao, Yang

    2011-11-01

    This paper analyzed the spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana - Betula platyphylla secondary forest in a 4 hm2 plot of Mulan Paddock, based on the diameter distribution and the spatial structure parameters mingling degree, neighborhood comparison, and angle index. In the forest, the diameter distribution of the stands presented as an inverse 'J' curve, the average mingling degree was 0.4, with the individuals at weak and zero mingling degree reached 51.6%, and the average mingling degree of P. davidiana and B. platyphylla was 0.25 and 0.39, respectively. The neighborhood comparison based on the diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height was almost the same, suggesting that the P. davidiana and B. platyphylla were in the transition state from subdominant to middle. The horizontal distribution pattern had a close relation to the minimum measured DBH, being clustered when the DBH was > or = 1 cm and or = 6 cm.

  12. Construction and analysis of a subtracted cDNA library of Betula platyphylla female inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIJi-cheng; YANGChuan-ping; WANGChao; JIANGJing

    2005-01-01

    Female inflorescence of Betula platyphylla was sampled at an interval of each two days to analyze the background of gene expression in floral phase. On the basis of SMART strategy, the driver cDNA was obtained from total RNA of the last sample and the tester cDNA was from that of the others by RT-PCR which were subsequently used to construct a subtracted cDNA library. The result of the ESTs (expression sequence tags) blastX showed that the genes in the subtracted cDNA library could be mainly clustered into 5 groups related to metabolism, transportation and signal transduction, cell cycle, stress response, and regulation. The relationship between gene expression and development was also discussed.

  13. Shotgun Bisulfite Sequencing of the Betula platyphylla Genome Reveals the Tree’s DNA Methylation Patterning

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    Chang Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Most studies of DNA methylation have been performed in herbaceous plants, and little is known about the methylation patterns in tree genomes. In the present study, we generated a map of methylated cytosines at single base pair resolution for Betula platyphylla (white birch by bisulfite sequencing combined with transcriptomics to analyze DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression. We obtained a detailed view of the function of DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the genome of B. platyphylla. There are 34,460 genes in the whole genome of birch, and 31,297 genes are methylated. Conservatively, we estimated that 14.29% of genomic cytosines are methylcytosines in birch. Among the methylation sites, the CHH context accounts for 48.86%, and is the largest proportion. Combined transcriptome and methylation analysis showed that the genes with moderate methylation levels had higher expression levels than genes with high and low methylation. In addition, methylated genes are highly enriched for the GO subcategories of binding activities, catalytic activities, cellular processes, response to stimulus and cell death, suggesting that methylation mediates these pathways in birch trees.

  14. Progeny test of tetraploid Betula platyphylla and preliminary selection of hybrid parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanwen Xu; Yu Liu; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Xiyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Estimating genetic parameters of parental lines through progeny testing and choosing good hybrid parents are important for genetically improving seed orchard trees. In this study, 24 tetraploid progeny seedlings were used as experimental materials, which came from test cross design:six tetraploid Betula platyphylla lines (Q33, Q13, Q103, Q19, Q83 and Q14) as female parents and four individual B. platyphylla diploid lines (F3, F4, F9 and F11) as male parents were crossed. Variance analysis of height, diame-ter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance showed that the differences between hybrid combinations reached highly significant levels. Using multi-objective decisionmaking, we performed a comprehensive assess-ment of the various hybrid combinations. Using a selection rate of 20% of the standard, five hybrids were selected;their genetic gains in average height, diameter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance were 20.95, 6.07, 13.07 and 8.96%, respectively. We also analyzed the combining ability and genetic parameter effect values of parents and hybrid combinations. The combined analysis revealed that Q13, Q103, Q33 and Q83 were superior females; F3, F4, and F9 were superior males; and F3 9 Q13, F4 9 Q83 and F9 9 Q33 were superior hybrid combinations. The heights and diameters of these proge-nies were 22.49 and 11.48% greater than average, respectively.

  15. 白桦APETALA2( AP2)转录因子基因的分离及其表达%Isolation and Expression of APETALA2 Transcription Factor Gene in Betula platyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 刘瀛; 孙丰宾; 戴超; 刘雪梅

    2012-01-01

    AP2 gene is a key transcription factor involved in flower development in plants. The full cDNA of AP2 gene was isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk. by methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) . Results showed that AP2 gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) ,of 1554bp encoding 517 amino acids. Molecular weight of the deduced protein of BpAPl is 56.74kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point is 6. 34. The AP2 functional sites and characterized domains were confirmed in the sequence, so the isolated gene was named as BpAPl, and registered in Gen Bank with accession number JN247408. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 51%~77% of identity with other twelve plant species, the maximum identity with Arabidopsis thaliana (77% ) and minimum identity with Pinus thunbergii (51% ). A phylogenetic tree was constructed according to multiple sequences alignment of all the thirteen plant species. Transcription expression of BpAPl was analyzed by qRT-PCR in different tissues and periods in B. platyphylla. Results showed that BpAPl was more highly expressed in floral organs than in vegetative organs, expression quantity more highly in young tissues than in mature tissues. It inferred that BpAP2 transfactor involved in the regulation of development of floral organs and meristematic tissues in Betula. In addition, a natural male inflorescence- abnormal mutant of B. platyphylla was used for transcription analysis of BpAP2. Results showed that BpAPl gene is expressed up-regulatedly in female inflorescences, while down-regulation in male inflorescences, young leaves and young shoots, which predicted that BpAPl should be involved in regulation and expression of multiple genes, and not only be involved in the development of floral organs, but also play some roles in the development of vegetative tissues.

  16. Diarylheptanoids from leaves of Betula platyphylla%白桦叶中的二苯基庚烷类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素娟; 裴月湖

    2001-01-01

    目的对白桦叶的化学成分做系统研究,以更好的开发利用我国的植物资源。方法采用硅胶柱、凝胶柱及制备薄层色谱法进行分离,通过波谱技术(1HNMR,13CNMR,1H-1HCOSY,HMQC,HMBC,NOESY)进行结构鉴定。结果分离鉴定了4种二苯基庚烷类化合物,槭木素丁(Ⅰ),氧杂二苯庚烯(Ⅱ),17-甲基-15-甲氧基-7-氧代槭木素丁(Ⅲ),槭木素十一(Ⅳ)。结论化合物Ⅲ,Ⅳ均首次从本种植物中分离得到,并纠正了化合物Ⅲ的碳谱数据归属。%Object To study the chemical consti tuents of Betula platyphyllaSuk. for the better deve-lopmen t an d utilization of botanic resources of our country. Methods The constituents were isolated by column chromatography (silica gel and Sephadex LH 20) and preparative TLC, and identified by means of spectral data (1HNMR, 13CNMR, 1H-1HCOSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY). Resu lts 4 diarylheptanoids were obtained and elucidated as acerogenin E (Ⅰ ), (3R)-3, 5′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′, 4″-oxo-l, 7-diphenyl-l-hep te ne (Ⅱ), 15-methoxy-17-O-methyl-7-oxoacerogenin E (Ⅲ), ac erogenin K (Ⅳ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅲ and Ⅳ were isolated for the first time from this plant and the assignment of 13CNMR data o f compound Ⅲ was corrected.

  17. Rainfall redistribution of a virgin Pinus koraiensis forest and secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A virgin Pinus koraiensis forest in the Xiao-xing'an Mountains was selected to study its rainfall redistribution effect via 97 rainfall occurrences during a growing season.The following results were obtained:1) The canopy interception of the P.koraiensis virgin forest amounted to 98168 mm during a growing season (May to September),which was 19.6 per cent of the total rainfall and 1.3 times that of a secondary Betula platyphylla forest.Compared with other forest types in China (11.4%-36.5%),the ratio of the canopy interception in the virgin pine forest was at a medium level.2) The throughfall of the virgin pine forest was 395.77 mm,which accounted for 78.7% of total precipitation,and the stem-flow was 8.78 mm,accounting for 1.74% of total precipitation.Compared with the secondary birch forest,the virgin pine forest had lower throughfall but higher stem-flow.3) Cubic regression equations (p < 0.01)which describe the relation between throughfall,stem-flow and canopy interception in the virgin pine forest and rainfall in an open field were fitted.A linear regression equation (p < 0.01) was found to be a better fit for the relationship between throughfall of the secondary birch forest and rainfall outside the forest.Factors affecting throughfall and stem-flow were analyzed,with results providing a good reference to the study of rainfall redistribution in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests.

  18. Substrate Screening for Container Seedlings of Betula platyphylla%白桦容器育苗的适宜基质筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾斌英; 徐惠德; 刘桂丰; 李开隆; 孙志虎; 彭红梅; 滕文华

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to screen the suitable substrate for container seedling cultivation in the green house of the Intensive Breeding Base of Betula platyphylla in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province.The cultivation effects for different proportionings of peat, sand, and cultivated soil were analysed. Results showed that dif-ferent proportionings of peat, sand, and cultivated soil could significantly affect the relative content of chlorophyll, seedling height, basal diameter, and whole-plant biomass. As sand content was in the range of 0~20% , the chlorophyll content, seedling height, basal diameter, and whole-plant biomass reached their maximum values, while the above-mentioned indi-ces parabolically decreased with increasing percentage of sand. All the indices showed an increasing trend with increasing percentage of peat and a constant trend with increasing percentage of cultivated soil. Different proportionings of peat, sand, and cultivated soil could be classified into three groups according to the integrated analysis of relative chlorophyll content, basal diameter, seedling height, and whole-plant biomass. The optimum substrate proportion for cultivating con-tainer seedlings of B. platyphylla was screened out on the basis of economical and applicable principles, namely, the pro-portion of peat, sand, and cultivated soil was 2:1:7.%为了给东北地区白桦(Betula platyphylla Suk.)容器育苗提供适宜的基质配方,在东北林业大学白桦强化育种基地温室内,以河沙、草炭和耕作土为基质,对其18种配比的育苗结果进行了筛选.结果表明:3种基质的不同配比能够显著影响白桦苗木的SPAD值、苗高、地径和全株生物量.当河沙体积分数在0~20%的范围内,白桦苗木的SPAD值、苗高、地径和全株生物量处于最高值,随着基质中河沙比例的进一步增加,各指标呈抛物线下降;随着草炭比例的增加,各指标则呈现上升趋势;

  19. Development of SSR Markers and Genetic Diversity in White Birch (Betula platyphylla.

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    Wei Hao

    Full Text Available In order to study genetic diversity of white birch (Betula platyphylla, 544 primer pairs were designed based on the genome-wide Solexa sequences. Among them, 215 primer pairs showed polymorphism between five genotypes and 111 primer pairs that presented clear visible bands in genotyping 41 white birch plants that were collected from 6 different geographical regions. A total of 717 alleles were obtained at 111 loci with a range of 2 to 12 alleles per locus. The results of statistic analysis showed that polymorphic frequency of the alleles ranged from 17% to 100% with a mean of 55.85%; polymorphism information content (PIC of the loci was from 0.09 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.30; and gene diversity between the tested genotypes was from 0.01 to 0.66 with a mean of 0.36. The results also indicated that major allele frequency ranged from 0.39 to 1.00 with an mean of 0.75; expected heterozygosity from 0.22 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; observed heterozygosity from 0.02 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.26; Nei's index from 0.21 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; and Shannon's Information from 0.26 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.66. The 41 white birch genotypes at the 111 selected SSR loci showed low to moderate similarity (0.025-0.610, indicating complicated genetic diversity among the white birch collections. The UPGMA-based clustering analysis of the allelic constitution of 41 white birch genotypes at 111 SSR loci suggested that the six different geographical regions can be further separated into four clusters at a similarity coefficient of 0.22. Genotypes from Huanren and Liangshui provenances were grouped into Cluster I, genotypes from Xiaobeihu and Qingyuan provenances into Cluster II, genotypes from Finland provenance into Cluster III, and genotypes from Maoershan into Cluster IV. The information provided in this study could help for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation, evaluation and utilization in white birch tree breeding program.

  20. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

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    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  1. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106-a R2R3-MYB transcription factor-upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis.

  2. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

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    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  3. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening.

  4. Analysis of three types of triterpenoids in tetraploid white birches (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and selection of plus trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Wang; Hui Zhao; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Chuanping Yang

    2015-01-01

    Betulin, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids that have significant medicinal value. Considerable amounts of these triterpenoids are available in the outer bark of white birch. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract triterpenoids from birch bark rapidly and with high efficiency. Using high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC), three types of triterpenoids were separated and detected. We examined the differences among triterpenoids extracted from diploid versus tetra-ploid white birch. Then, we used factor analysis to screen out tetraploid white birches with comprehensively excel-lent performance. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction include the use of ethanol as an extraction solvent, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.1 g/10 ml, ultrasonic power set at 100 W, a temperature of 60 ?C and an extraction time of 15 min. A reversed-phase C18 col-umn (4.6 mm 9 250 mm 9 5 lm) with a column tem-perature of 30 ?C and the mobile phase composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min were used, and the detection wavelength was 195 nm. No significant difference was observed between diploid and tetraploid white birch in terms of the content of three types of triterpenoids (at a confidence level of 0.05). As triterpenoid content, height, and DBH (diameter at breast height) are strongly interre-lated, we used factor analysis to evaluate all individuals, and we screened out six plus trees with excellent com-prehensive characters.

  5. 华北落叶松-白桦凋落物混合分解研究%Mixed litter decomposition of Larix principis-rupprechtii and Betula platyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喆; 刘延文; 纪福利; 刘晓兰; 贾忠奎; 马履一

    2016-01-01

    采用凋落物袋法对华北落叶松 Larix gmelinii 和白桦 Betula platyphylla 叶凋落物以不同比例混合(PB、PL、8L:2B、7L:3B、6L:4B、5L:5B),研究凋落物混合分解的分解速率及养分动态变化。结果表明:不同比例华北落叶松—白桦凋落物混合分解均表现出了前期分解迅速,后期分解缓慢的特点。单独分解时,纯白桦的分解速率要高于纯华北落叶松的分解速率,混合凋落物对凋落物的分解有不同程度的促进作用,6L:4B 的凋落物残留量最小,分解最快。在分解前期,混合凋落物对分解速率并没有显著影响,但对分解过程中的养分动态有显著混合效应。混合分解促进了华北落叶松凋落物中 N、P 的富集,且随着白桦比例的增加凋落物中 N、P 的富集加剧,混合处理的 N、P 含量均高于纯华北落叶松处理,在分解后期,部分处理(6L:4B、5L:5B)N、P 含量甚至超过纯白桦。混合分解对 K 的释放无显著影响。混合分解降低了华北落叶松凋落物的 C/N 和 C/P。%Research the mixed litter decomposition rate and nutrient dynamic change of Larix principis-rupprechtii and Betula platyphylla leaf litter with different mixing ratio (PB、PL、8L:2B、7L:3B、6L:4B、5L:5B). This reserch use the litter bag method. Important findings: (1) Different proportion of Larix principis-rupprechtii and Betula platyphylla mixed litter showed early decompose rapidly, slow decomposition characteristics late. (2) Decomposition rate of pure Betula platyphylla was higher than that of pure Larix principis-rupprechtii when separate decomposition, mixed treatment on litter decomposition have different degrees of promoting function, 6L:4B had the highest decomposition rate. (3) Mixed litter decomposition had significant effect on nutrient dynamic in the process of decomposition. It promoted the enrichment of Larix principis-rupprechtii litter of N element

  6. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  7. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  8. Study on Precipitation Hydro-chemical Characteristic of Different Stages of Betula platyphylla Secondary Forest%不同林龄白桦次生林降雨水化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文影; 满秀玲; 张阳武

    2009-01-01

    This paper measured the precipitation, throughfall, stemflow and litter water in the Cl~- ,NH_4~+-N, Na~+ , NO_3~--N, TN, K~+ , Ca~(2+) ,Mg~(2+) of different stages of Betula platyphylla secondary forest . The paper studied the different properties of hydro-chemical between four different stages of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. The results showed: In precipitation the highest concentration was for Ca~(2+) and the lowest concentration was for Na~+. The average concentration of elements(in mg/L total) for the order Ca~(2+)>C1~-> K~+>N0_3~- —N>Mg~(2+)> Na~+ , the amount of each element was very various in terms of seasons alternate and in which the change of Cl~- was the smallest. NO_3~- - N and Ca~(2+) of throughfall was the lowest content in 25 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest, Cl~- and Mg~(2+)of throughfall was the lowest concentration in38 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest,Na~+ ,K~+ , Mg~(2+) of throughfall was the lowest concentration in 56 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. Cl~-, NO_3~--N, K~+ of stemflow was the lowest concentration in 38 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest, Na~+ , Ca~(2+) and Mg~(2+) of stemflow was the lowest concentration in 56 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. Cl~- , NH_4~- -N, Na~+and K~+ of litter wate was the lowest concentration in 25 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest,Mg~(2+) , Mn of litter wate was the lowest concentration in 38 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest. Ca~(2+) of litter water was the lowest concentration in 56 year-old of Betula platyphylla secondary forest.%通过对不同林龄白桦次生林林外降雨、穿透雨、树干茎流和枯透水中的Cl~-,NO_3~-N,Na~+,K~+,Ca2-,Mg~(2+)等进行测定,以研究4个林龄之间降水化学性质的差异.结果表明:林外降雨中Ca~(2+)的含量最高,Na~+含量最低,养分元素平均含量(以mg/L计)排列顺序为:Ca~(2+)>Cl~->K~+>NO_3~--N>Mg~(2+)>Na~+,各元素在

  9. 白桦天然次生林种群生态特征的研究%Study on Population Characteristic of Betula Platyphylla Natural Secondary Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫晶; 赵惠玲; 毕润成; 苗艳明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the field data about Betula platyphyUa population and the theory of survival analysis, the authors worked out a static life table of Betula platyphylla, drew the curves of mortality rate, survival rate, killing value, survival rate function, mortality density function, cumulative mortality rate and hazard rate function, and analyzed the life process of population. The analysis on the age structures of Betula platyphylla populations showed that the young and middle individuals were relatively rich and the number of old individuals is in short. The survival curves of Betula platyphylla populations belonged to the Deevey I[. The monotony of cumulative mortality rate increases, while that of survival function decreases. The change of increase and decrease is that the beginning is higher than the later. This shows that in the beginning the mortality rate is higher, while at the later stage the population is relatively stable. The number of old individuals would increases at the beginning and decreases finally in 20, 40, 60, 80years lately. It is difficult to maintain the population stability.%采用样地调查的方法,对太岳山七里峪白桦林种群进行了年龄结构分析、编制了静态生命表、绘制了存活曲线,并对该种群的四个函数(生存函数、积累死亡函数、死亡密度函数、危险率函数)进行数量分析,结果表明:①七里峪白桦种群龄级分布,不同环境下种群结构稍有差异:种群A、种群D为增长型种群,种群B、种群C、种群E趋向于稳定型.②白桦种群存活曲线接近于DeeveyⅡ型.③积累死亡率单调上升,生存率呈单调下降,上升或下降幅度前期大于后期,说明白桦种群在前期死亡率高,而种群后期则相对稳定.④在未来20年、40年、60年和80年中,白桦种群将呈现老龄级株数先增后减的趋势,种群稳定性长期维持较为困难.

  10. [Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

    2011-04-01

    By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8-3.9 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summer and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring = autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summer under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring = autumn under heavy fire disturbance. At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7%, 65.6% -95.8%, and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore, fire disturbance

  11. Isolation and Expression of Flowering Locus T (FT) Gene in Betula platyphylla%白桦开花位点Flowering Locus T(FT)基因的分离及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽丽; 邱丽丽; 付扬威; 荆瑞瑞; 刘雪梅

    2012-01-01

    FT及其同源基因在促进植物成花和发育阶段转变过程中起重要作用.应用RT-PCR和RACE技术分离了白桦FT基因的cDNA,全长为928 bp,其开放阅读框为525 bp,编码174个氨基酸.预测的蛋白质分子量为19.6kDa,理论等电点为7.73.该预测蛋白序列含有保守的PEBP蛋白结构域,命名为BplFT,并在GenBank注册,登录号为JQ409561.该基因序列同其它16种植物的相似性为74% ~ 93%,其中与无花果(Ficus carica)的相似度最高为93%,与拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)的相似度最低为74%,并构建了该基因序列的进化树.通过qRT-PCR的方法检测BplFT基因在白桦不同时期不同组织中的转录表达,在营养器官的表达高于花器官,成熟组织要高于幼嫩的组织,在成熟茎中的表达量最高,推测BplFT基因在成熟的营养器官发育中起重要作用,并可能参与调控次生细胞壁的形成.另外,选择了白桦雄花序突变体进行该基因的转录表达分析,该基因在突变体雌花序、雄花序、幼叶及幼茎中均为上调表达,预示着BplFT基因不仅仅参与营养组织发育,在花器官发育中也具有一定的作用.%Flowering Locus T ( FT) gene and its homologues play an important role in promotion flowering plants and changes in developmental stage. The full cDNA of FT gene was isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk. by methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) . Results showed that FT gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 525 bp encoding 174 amino acids. Molecular weight of the deduced protein of BplFT is 19. 6 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point is 7.73. The FT conserved protein domain of PEBP was confirmed in the sequence, so the isolated gene was named as BplFT, and registered in GenBank with accession number JQ409561. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 74% -93% of identity with other sixteen plant species, the maximum

  12. The effect of exogenous sugar solution and high concentration of CO2 on the contents of sugar and protein of Betula platyphylla leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYu-mei; YANGChuan-ping; WANGShu-juan; WUYue-liang; WANGWen-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The content of total sugar,sucrose,fructose and protein in the leaves of 3-yr.-old Betula platyphylla was measured after the treatment by three exogenous sugar solutions(sucrose,fructose,glucose) and three high concentrations of CO2(700,1400,2100μL·L-1) for about a month in 1998.The results showed that spraying three exogenous sugar solutions increased markedly the content of sugar and protein of leaves under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The effect of spraying exogenous sucrose solution was the best among the three exogenous sugars.The treatment of spraying exogenous sugar solution and 2100μL·L-1 CO2 constrained the accumulation of total sugar and protein of leaves.There was no difference in protein content of leaves when spraying glucose and fructose solutions under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The treatrnent of 2100μL·L-1 CO2 concentration significantly increased the contents of total sugar,sucrose,fructose,and protein of leaves compared with that of the 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2 except the plants spraying fructose solution.there was positive correlation between the content of sugar of leaves and CO2 concentration when spraying same exogenous sugar solution.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal Formation in Seedlings of B. platyphylla Suk.%白桦幼苗外生菌根的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂兰; 麻德业

    2002-01-01

    在温室花盆中播种白桦(B.platyphytla Suk.)种子获得白桦幼苗,并对幼苗接种外生茵根真菌进行菌根合成试验.所用的外生茵根真菌有:灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum Karat)、铆钉菇(Gomphidius viscidus)、厚环乳牛肝茵(Suillusgrevillei)、褐环乳牛肝茵(S.luteus)、彩色豆马勃(Pisolithus tinctorius)、美味牛肝茵(Boletusedulis)、赭丝膜茵(Cortinarius russus)、土生空团茵(Cenococcum geophilum).接种两个月后,在灵芝、铆钉菇、厚环乳牛肝茵、褐环乳牛肝茵、彩色马勃和美味牛肝茵接种的白桦幼苗上观察到了外生茵根,而赭丝膜茵和土生空团茵接种的白桦幼苗上未形成外生茵根.进一步对形成的外生茵根做组织切片观察,在细根皮层细胞间均形成明显的哈蒂氏网,证实了6种外生茵根真茵与白桦幼苗的共生关系.

  14. 白桦基因表达半定量RT-PCR中内参基因的选择%Selection of internal control genes in semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Betula platyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴超; 刘雪梅; 周菲

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for researching lignin synthetic regulation, taking Betula platyphylla as investigated object, expression stability of four housekeeping genes in different tissues and periods were analyzed, which were 18S rRNA, Actin, Ubiquitin and Tubulin, respectively. The results showed that the expression of 18S rRNA, Actin and Ubiquitin were stable, and they could be used as internal control genes to analyze expression level of target genes in B. platyphylla. Tubulin was less stable, and could't be used as internal control genes to analyze expression of target genes.%为给调节木质素合成研究的开展提供理论基础,以白桦为研究对象,应用半定量RT-PCR技术分析白桦持家基因18S rRNA、肌动蛋自基因Actin、泛素基因Ubiquitin和微管蛋白基因Tubulin在白桦不同时期及不同部位中的表达.结果表明,18S rRNA,Actin及Ubiquitin基因在各样本间的表达无显著差异,说明这3个基因可作为校正白桦目标基因表达量的参照基因,而Tubulin基因在所有样品中的表达稳定性较差,不适宜作为白桦基因表达研究中的内参基因.

  15. Effects of N exponential fertilization on nutrient loading and photosynthesis of Betula platyphylla seedlings%氮素指数施肥对白桦播种苗养分承载和光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝龙飞; 刘婷岩; 张连飞; 贾斌英; 李宁; 李开隆

    2014-01-01

    为改善白桦苗木质量,本文采用常规施肥( CF)、指数施肥( EF)、1/2指数施肥( HEF)、2倍指数施肥( DEF)以及对照( CK)处理,研究容器苗中不同N施肥处理对白桦1年生播种苗生物量分配、养分含量动态和养分承载以及苗木叶片光合能力的影响。结果表明:1)生长结束后,EF处理提高了苗木生物量,同时改善了苗木根系生物量所占比例。 EF处理苗木总生物量较CK提高23.87%(P0.05)。 EF处理苗木叶面积高于CF处理14.3%(PDEF>HEF>CF>CK。 EF处理有效促进了苗木生物量积累,提高了苗木养分承载,同时明显提高了苗木体内P、K的养分利用效率,因此EF处理为最佳施肥方式。%In order to improve Betula platyphylla seedling quality, the biomass allocation, nutrient ( N, P, K) content dynamics, nutrient loading and leaf photosynthesis of B. platyphylla container seedlings under constant ( CF) , exponential ( EF) , half exponential ( HEF) and doubled exponential fertilization ( DEF) regimes and control (CK) were studied in the first year growing. Results showed that:1) at the end of the growing season, EF treatment improved the biomass of seedlings and the biomass proportion of root. The total biomass of seedlings under EF treatment was greater than that under CK ( P 0. 05) respectively. Meanwhile, seedling leaf area under EF treatment was greater than that under CF treatment in 14. 3%. 4) The concentration of N, P and N, K nutrient under 5 fertilization treatments was linear correlation. Exponential fertilization improved the P, K uptake efficiency ( EF>DEF>HEF>CF>CK) in seedlings. EF reffectively promoted biomass accumulation and improved nutrient loading, meanwhile, significantly increased P, K utilization. EF is the best fertilization regime for B. platyphylla seedlings.

  16. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Individuals in Different Age-classes of Betula platyphylla in Huoshan Mountain of Shanxi Province%山西霍山白桦种群不同龄级立木的点格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳华; 闫明; 武丽君; 张直峰; 毕润成

    2011-01-01

    Betula platyphylla is a pioneer plant and is distributed intensively in Huoshan mountain. One 50 m x 50 m quadrat was established in Qiliyu from which we recorded the DBH of each individual and the spatial points of all individuals were mapped. The data were analyzed by point pattern analysis. All individuals were divided into four DBH classes; DBH I (DBH≤ 7 cm);DBH Ⅱ (7 cm 21 cm).The results of this study showed; (1) The densities of four age-classes varied in the order: age-class n >age-class Ⅲ >age-class Ⅰ>age-class Ⅳ. The middle age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ had many more individuals than age-classes I and Ⅳ, which indicated that the population was currently in decline. (2) The individuals of all age-classes focused on clumping distribution in space, except the age-class Ⅰ. The feature of clumping distribution became more significant with increasing age. (3) The relationships between individuals in different age-classes were significantly correlated with each other on a small scale,but became non-significant with increasing scale,except for age-classes I and n ,age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ,and age-classes n and Ⅳ.%以山西霍山地区的先锋树种之一白桦( Betula platyphylla)为研究对象,在霍山七里峪林场典型地段设置一个50 m×50 m的样方,应用点格局分析方法对其不同龄级(Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级和Ⅳ级)个体的分布格局及相互关系进行了研究.结果表明:(1)白桦种群不同龄级的个体间密度也不相同,中间龄级Ⅱ级(7 cm< DBH≤14 cm)和Ⅲ级(14 cm <DBH≤21 cm)的密度较大,幼龄和老龄个体密度小,年龄结构为衰退型;(2)除Ⅰ级(DBH≤7 cm)外,其余3个龄级集群分布特征比较明显,且随着龄级的增加,集群特征有更明显的趋势;(3)除Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅳ级(DBH >21 cm)之外,其余龄级间基本都是小尺度下负关联,并随尺度的增大关联性逐渐变得不显著.

  17. Construction and analysis of a subtracted cDNA library of Betula platyphylla female inflorescence%白桦雌花序cDNA消减文库的构建及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏继承; 杨传平; 王超; 姜静

    2005-01-01

    为研究白桦雌花序花期基因表达情况,以两天为间隔对其进行取样.基于SMART策略,通过RT-PCR,将源自最后时期样品的cDNA作为Driver cDNA,源自其他时期样品的cDNA作为Tester cDNA,构建抑制性消减文库.EST序列经blastX分析表明,该文库中的基因大致可以归为五类,分别同代谢、物质运输和信号转导、细胞周期、胁迫反应及调控相关.本文对基因表达同发育的关系做了探讨.%Female inflorescence of Betula platyphylla was sampled at an interval of each two days to analyze the background of gene expression in floral phase. On the basis of SMART strategy, the driver cDNA was obtained from total RNA of the last sample and the tester cDNA was from that of the others by RT-PCR which were subsequently used to construct a subtracted cDNA library. The result of the ESTs (expression sequence tags) blastX showed that the genes in the subtracted cDNA library could be mainly clustered into 5 groups related to metabolism, transportation and signal transduction, cell cycle, stress response, and regulation. The relationship between gene expression and development was also discussed.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization of Betula platyphylla Forest in Daxing ’ an Mountains%施氮量对大兴安岭白桦次生林土壤氮矿化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包翔; 包秀霞; 刘星岑

    2015-01-01

    以大兴安岭白桦天然次生林为研究对象,分析施氮量对土壤氮矿化的影响。结果表明,白桦次生林土壤中铵态氮、硝态氮和有效氮质量分数在生长季间存在显著差异。总体上,土壤中有效氮素质量分数在7月份最高,5月份最低。白桦次生林土壤中铵态氮、硝态氮和有效氮质量分数均随着氮沉降量的增加而增加;同时氮沉降也显著增加了土壤氨化速率、硝化速率和氮矿化速率,其中氨化速率的增幅大于硝化速率的增幅。不同施氮处理下,净矿化速率与土壤有机碳质量分数间的相关性比与全氮质量分数间更为密切。%In a natural secondary forest of Betula platyphylla in Daxing’ an Mountains, we studied the effects of nitrogen deposi-tion on soil nitrogen mineralization.The contents of NH4-N, NO3-N and available N were significant differences among the growing seasons.Available N content was the highest on July and the lowest on May.The contents of NH4-N, NO3-N, available N, soil ammonification rate, nitrification rate and nitrogen mineralization rate were significantly increased with the increasing of N deposition.The ammonification rate of increase was greater than the nitrification rate.Under different N contents, the correlation ratio between the soil organic carbon and total N net mineralization rate was higher than total N.

  19. 大兴安岭北部白桦次生林林内积雪及浅层土壤温度分布特征1)%Characteristics of Temperature in Snow-cover and Shallow-soil in Betula platyphylla Secondary Forests in the Northern Daxing’ an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宾宾; 满秀玲; 王树力; 俞正祥

    2015-01-01

    We studied the characteristics of temperature in snow-cover and shallow-soil by locating observation in Betula platyphylla secondary forest in the northern Daxing ’an Mountains.With the increasing of the snow depth , snow-cover had greater difference of temperature , when the snow depth was in 11.36-140.0 cm and air temperature was 13.10℃ , and the temperature diversity between snow-bottom and snow-surface was6 .89℃, however, when the depth of snow reached up to 275.-30 cm and the air temperature lowered to -30.20℃, then, the temperature diversity between snow-bottom and snow-surface got to 18.87℃.As air temperature cooled to 17.10℃, the snow-surface temperature cooled 17.31℃, snow-bottom temperature only cooled 5.34℃, which showed that certain thick snow had thermal effect on snow-bottom temperature , and the thicker the snow was , the greater insulated effect became .With the increasing of the snow depth , snow-cover had grea-ter difference of temperature-gradient, when the snow depth was 132.5 cm, the temperature-gradient diversity between the upper and lower was 0.17℃/cm, nevertheless, when the depth of snow reached up to 29.80 cm, the temperature-gradient difference soared to 0.65℃/cm, which showed that when cold air passed through the topsnow , and showed the cooling effect on subsnow .The snow-cover delayed the transmission of cold air to the subsoil , when the depth of snow was 11.36-14 cm, shallow-soil cooled 2.59℃on condition that air temperature cooled 6℃;when the depth of snow rose go up to 26.00-34.80 cm, shallow-soil merely cooled 2.63℃on condition that air temperature cooled 8℃.The thicker snow-cover was , the more obvious snow-cover sluggished the invasion of cold air to soil .Under 12.46 cm snow-cover , the temperature-gradient were 0.26℃/cm and 0.13℃/cm in soil-layers of 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm, respectively .When the snow depth was 30.22 cm, the temperature-gradients of 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm soil-layers were 0.31 and 0

  20. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  1. Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Casassa Vieira de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.

  2. Biodegradation and detoxification of reactive textile dye by isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Dayanad C; Telke, Amar A; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2009-03-01

    An isolated bacterium from a textile disposal site, Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, has the ability to decolorize the reactive textile dyes and methyl orange. This bacterium showed the potential to decolorize the textile dye Reactive Blue 59 at a high concentration (5 g/L(-1)), which is frequently used in the textile industry of Solapur, India. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, azoreductase, and dichlorophenol indophenol reductase was observed during the decolorization of Methyl Orange and Reactive Blue 59. Methyl Orange (as model azo dye) was used to understand the mechanism of biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The final product was identified as 1,4-benzenediamine, N, N-dimethyl by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies revealed the nontoxic nature of the products of Reactive Blue 59.

  3. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  4. Biodegradation of reactive textile dye Red BLI by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, D C; Patil, P S; Jadhav, J P; Govindwar, S P

    2008-07-01

    A novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing reactive textile dye Red BLI is isolated from the soil sample collected from contaminated sites of textile industry from Solapur, India. The bacterial isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis. The Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 decolorized Red BLI (50 mg l(-1)) 99.28% within 1h under static anoxic condition at pH range from 6.5 to 7.0 and 30 degrees C. This strain has ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes. UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and TLC analysis of samples before and after dye decolorization in culture medium confirmed decolorization of Red BLI. A significant increase in the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and NADH-DCIP reductase in cells obtained after decolorization indicates involvement of these enzymes in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity testing with the seeds of Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo, showed more sensitivity towards the dye, while the products obtained after dye decolorization does not have any inhibitory effects.

  5. Gancidin W, a potential low-toxicity antimalarial agent isolated from an endophytic Streptomyces SUK10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Baba, Mohd Shukri; Zainal-Abidin, Abu Hassan; Latip, Jalifah; Mazlan, Noor Wini; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Streptomyces strains are potential sources for novel bioactive molecules. In this study, the diketopiperazine gancidin W (GW) was isolated from the endophytic actinobacterial genus Streptomyces, SUK10, obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, and it was tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100. GW exhibited an inhibition rate of nearly 80% at 6.25 and 3.125 μg kg−1 body weight on day four using the 4-day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice. Comparing GW at both concentrations with quinine hydrochloride and normal saline as positive and negative controls, respectively, 50% of the mice treated with 3.125 μg kg−1 body weight managed to survive for more than 11 months after infection, which almost reached the life span of normal mice. Biochemical tests of selected enzymes and proteins in blood samples of mice treated with GW were also within normal levels; in addition, no abnormalities or injuries were found on internal vital organs. These findings indicated that this isolated bioactive compound from Streptomyces SUK10 exhibits very low toxicity and is a good candidate for potential use as an antimalarial agent in an animal model. PMID:28223778

  6. Penerapan Strategi Pemasaran Pada UMKM Melalui Metode Analisis SWOT (Studi Pada Toko Pakaian Sukli Fashion di Pasar Petisah Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy

    2016-01-01

    Each business unit aims to maintain its viability and to develop, by maintaining and increasing the profit. These objectives can be achieved through marketing, by implementing marketing strategies by analyzing the internal and external factors of the company. The research was conducted at Sukli Fashion Clothing Store. Phenomenon is the slow progress of this shop business when business efforts have been made. The purpose of this study is to analyze the internal and external factors of comp...

  7. Sedimentology, Sequence Stratigraphy and Reservoir Characterization of Samana Suk Formation Exposed in Namal Gorge Section, Salt Range, Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Samana Suk Formation of Bathonian-callovain age, exposed in Nammal Gorge Salt Range, has been studied for microfacies and sequence stratigraphic investigation. The formation is mainly composed of limestone, with minor beds of sandstone and marl. The limestone is grey, yellowish and purple in color. Limestone is fine grained, thin to medium bedded and inter-bedded with algal laminations. The sandstone is light yellowish brown, brick red in color, calcareous and quartzose. Within Samana Suk Formation one 2ndorder sequence and two 3rdorder sequences have been identified. Their regional correlation through fine-tuned dating helped to develop basin fill model and to understand facies dynamics. A facie belt comprising a wide belt of carbonate facies characterized by Peloidal Packstone microfacies represents inner ramp setting and Pelletal/ Peloidal Wackstone, Mud-Wackstone and Mudstone microfacies represent the low energy lagoonal environment. The sandstone lithofacies represents high energy beach environment which indicates aggrading to pro-grading pattern. The porosity analysis has been done on different samples of limestone and sandstone. For the porosity analysis the Image J software is used. In limestone the porosity ranges up to 6% while in sandstone the porosity ranging up to 18%. From the field and porosity analysis it is concluded that Samana Suk Formation in study area is good reservoir.

  8. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

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    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  9. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Dhanve, R S; Jadhav, J P

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l(-1)), at temperature 30 degrees C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

  10. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyani, D.C.; Telke, A.A.; Dhanve, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Jadhav, J.P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)], E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l{sup -1}), at temperature 30 deg. C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24 h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

  11. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA.

  12. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del

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    Isma'il Shittu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300 mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

  13. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna M; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik M; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Zin, Noraziah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity). Aim This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol. Conclusion On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary

  14. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaibani MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhanna M Alshaibani,1 Juriyati Jalil,2 Nik M Sidik,3 Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel,4 Noraziah M Zin1 1Programme of Biomedical Science, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia; 4Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25 has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity. Aim: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic

  15. Optimization of CMCase production from sorghum straw by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 under solid substrate fermentation using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibin, El Mubarak Musa; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Naseer; Abuelhassan, Nawal Noureldaim; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2013-11-01

    The cellulase production using sorghum straw as substrate by fungal culture of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was investigated in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The optimum CMCase was achieved by testing most effective fermentation parameters which were: incubation temperature, pH and moisture content using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD). The carboxymethyl cellulase activity (CMCase) was measured as the defining factor. The results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the regression quadratic model was obtained. The model was found to be significant (p<0.05) and the effect of temperature (25-40°C) and pH (4-7) was found to be not significant on CMCase activity whereas the moisture content was significant in the SSF conditions employed. The high yield of predicted CMCase activity (0.2 U/ml) was obtained under the optimized conditions (temperature 40 □C, pH 5.4 and moisture content of 80%). The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and it was found that the model was valid.

  16. 白桦提取物对大鼠下丘脑组织中5-HT含量的影响*%Effect Betula HaatyphyHa suk(BPS) Extract on 5- HT Hypothalamus of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜旭; 刘璐; 薛欣

    2001-01-01

    目的研究白桦提取物对酵母致大鼠发热的影响及对下丘脑组织中5-HT含量的影响.为其解热降温机理作用提供依据.方法用荧光分光光度计在480nm/365nm处测定5-HT含量.单位以每mg鲜脑组织含5-HT的ng数表示.结果酵母模型组大鼠体温及下丘脑组织中5-HT含量均明显高于正常对照组,给药组大鼠给予白桦提取物后1h体温显著下降,下丘脑组织中5-HT含量亦明显降低.讨论本实验结果显示:白桦提取物对酵母致发热大鼠有明显的解热作用,其解热作用与影响体温调节中枢介质5-HT的含量有关.

  17. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane, U. V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

  18. Population structure of the hydrocoral Millepora platyphylla in habitats experiencing different flow regimes in Moorea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercière, Alexandre; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Planes, Serge

    2017-01-01

    While the fire coral Millepora platyphylla is an important component of Indo-Pacific reefs, where it thrives in a wide range of environments, the ecological and biological processes driving its distribution and population structure are not well understood. Here, we quantified this species’ population structure in five habitats with contrasting hydrodynamic regimes in Moorea, French Polynesia; two in the fore reef: mid and upper slopes, and three in the lagoon: back, fringing and patch reefs. A total of 3651 colonies of fire corals were mapped and measured over 45,000 m2 of surveyed reef. Due to the species’ sensitivity to fragmentation in response to strong water movement, hydrodynamic conditions (e.g. waves, pass and lagoonal circulation) corresponded to marked differences in colony size distributions, morphology and recruitment dynamics among habitats. The size structure varied among reef habitats with higher proportions of larger colonies in calm nearshore reefs (fringing and patch reefs), while populations were dominated by smaller colonies in the exposed fore reefs. The highest densities of fire corals were recorded in fore reef habitats (0.12–0.20 n.m-2) where the proportion of recruits and juveniles was higher at mid slope populations (49.3%) than on the upper slope near where waves break (29.0%). In the latter habitat, most colonies grew as vertical sheets on encrusting bases making them more vulnerable to colony fragmentation, whereas fire corals were encrusting or massive in all other habitats. The lowest densities of M. platyphylla occurred in lagoonal habitats (0.02–0.04 n.m-2) characterized by a combination of low water movement and other physical and biological stressors. This study reports the first evidence of population structure of fire corals in two common reef environments and illustrates the importance of water flow in driving population dynamic processes of these reef-building species. PMID:28273119

  19. The effect of fire disturbance on short-term soil respiration in typical forest of Greater Xing’an Range, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Sun; Tongxin Hu; Ji Hong Kim; Futao Guo; Hong Song; Xinshuang Lv; Haiqing Hu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire disturbance on short-term soil respiration in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) forests in Greater Xing’an range, northeastern China for further understanding of its effect on the carbon cycle in ecosystems. Our study show that post-fire soil respiration rates in B. platyphylla and L. gmelinii forests were reduced by 14%and 10%, respectively. In contrast, the soil heterotrophic respiration rates in the two types of forest were similar in post-fire and control plots. After fire, the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was dramatically reduced. Variation in soil respiration rates was explained by soil moisture (W) and soil tem-perature (T) at a depth of 5 cm. Exponential regression fitted T and W models explained Rs rates in B. platyphylla control and post-fire plots (83.1% and 86.2%) and L. gmelinii control and post-fire plots (83.7%and 88.7%). In addition, the short-term temperature coefficients in B.

  20. Cloning of BplAGL Related to Floral Development of Betula platyphylla%白桦中一花发育相关基因BplAGL的克隆及时序表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏继承; 任如意; 国会艳; 宗宪春; 郝爱平; 杨传平

    2010-01-01

    对白桦花序进行分期取材,CTAB法提取总RNA,基于SMART(Switching Mechanism At 5' end of RNA Transcript)策略进行cDNA合成,根据现有EST序列设计基因特异性引物,通过RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA end)手段克隆了一花发育相关基因--BplAGL,使用TreeTOP工具对其系统发生进行了评价.采用外标实时定量PCR分析其花期时序表达模式,认为BplAGL可能属于D功能基因.

  1. ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL GEOCHEMISTRY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN Betula ermanii FOREST IN CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on catalogue of biology and geochemistry of chemical elements, content characteristics and variation law of the large nutrient elements, the needful trace elements, the uncertain needful elements, the non-needful elements and the toxic elements in Betula ermanii trees are analyzed. The result shows that the content of the large nutrient elements in Betula ermanii trees is higher than that of other kinds of element; the contents of all kinds of elements in foliage with vigorous metabolism are higher than those in other parts; the content variations of the large nutrient elements and the needful trace elements with similar chemical property, geochemical property and biological function in different parts of Betula ermanii trees show the similar laws; but the other three kinds of elements variations are without laws. It is indicated that the variation of the needful elements in the plant follows a certain law, they are in relative equilibrium under undisturbed condition.

  2. Description of the immature stages of Kuwanina betula Wu & Liu, with a discussion of its placement in the Acanthococcidae family group (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San-An; Nan, Nan

    2015-03-09

    The immature stages of Kuwanina betula Wu & Liu are described and illustrated. Based on morphological and molecular data (18S and 28S rDNA), it is argued that K. betula is closer to Pseudochermes Nitsche than to Kuwanina Cockerell in Fernald and so this species is transferred to Pseudochermes as P. betula (Wu & Liu) comb. nov..

  3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL HAVING DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xue,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL panels made from poplar (Populus ussuriensis Kom. and birch (Betula platyphylla Suk. veneers were tested for mechanical properties. The effects of the assembly pattern on the modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR of the LVL with vertical load testing were investigated. Three analytical methods were used: composite material mechanics, computer simulation, and static testing. The reliability of the different LVL assembly patterns was assessed using the method of Monte-Carlo. The results showed that the theoretical and ANSYS analysis results of the LVL MOE and MOR were very close to those of the static test results, and the largest proportional error was not greater than 5%. The veneer amount was the same, but the strength and reliability of the LVL made of birch veneers on the top and bottom was much more than the LVL made of poplar veneers. Good assembly patterns can improve the utility value of wood.

  4. Dynamics of Betula ermanni population in subalpine vegetation in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chunjing; Han Shijie; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    Betula ermanni population was divided into three groups: the upper population (2 000~2 200 m), the middle population (1 700~2000 m), and the down population (1 400~1 700 m) in Changbai Mountain. The dynamics of Betula ermanni populations in subalpine vegetation are studied and the population life table,fecundity schedule, survival curves, age structure, and fecundity curves were established. The results showed that the middle population is obviously the transition from the upper population to the down population.

  5. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed.

  6. Comparative Carbon and Water Relations of Betula nana and Poa pratensis in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S. M. P.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Post, E.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs throughout much of the Arctic in recent decades is a common observation in response to climate change. However, we lack a complete understanding of how woody shrubs differ physiologically from neighboring species and how these differences may confer competitive advantages to woody shrubs as the climate continues to change. At a site in West Greenland, we combined detailed leaf physiological measurements with stable isotope analysis of plant leaf material, xylem water and soil water to elucidate the processes governing seasonal carbon (C) gain in the two dominant plant species at our study site: Betula nana and Poa pratensis. We hypothesized that cooler, drier soils beneath the Betula canopy would result in greater drought sensitivity during times of high atmospheric demand (i.e. greater water vapor pressure deficit; VPD), which would manifest in reduced leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and a negative relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in accordance with the dual-isotope conceptual model. Data collected over two consecutive growing seasons, however, revealed greater drought sensitivity in Poa, which displayed a dramatic reduction in Amax and gs during periods of high VPD, along with reduced leaf Δ13C. Additionally, leaf Δ13C and Δ18O were negatively correlated in Poa, suggesting strong stomatal influence on Δ13C. Conversely, we found no relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in Betula, indicating that seasonal variation in Δ13C may have been driven primarily by changes in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that, although Poa maintains greater average leaf-level photosynthesis, this species is more susceptible to drought than Betula. Meanwhile, it may be that Betula employs a strategy to avoid drought stress and maintain steady, yet conservative, C gain. This strategy may enable growth to continue during warm and dry conditions, conferring a competitive advantage for Betula in

  7. Shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra: Betula nana effects on above- and below-ground litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Jennie R; Buckeridge, Kate M; van de Weg, Martine J; Shaver, Gaius R; Schimel, Joshua P; Gough, Laura

    2017-03-06

    Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species. We conducted a two-year decomposition experiment in moist acidic tundra in northern Alaska, where we decomposed three tundra species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Rhododendron palustre, and Eriophorum vaginatum) alone and in combination with Betula litter. Decomposition patterns for leaf and root litter were determined using three different measures of decomposition (mass loss, respiration, extracellular enzyme activity). We report faster decomposition of Betula leaf litter compared to other species, with support for species differences coming from all three measures of decomposition. Mixing effects were less consistent among the measures, with negative mixing effects shown only for mass loss. In contrast, there were few species differences or mixing effects for root decomposition. Overall, we attribute longer-term litter mass loss patterns in to patterns created by early decomposition processes in the first winter. We note numerous differences for species patterns between leaf and root decomposition, indicating that conclusions from leaf litter experiments should not be extrapolated to below-ground decomposition. The high decomposition rates of Betula leaf litter aboveground, and relatively similar decomposition rates of multiple species below, suggest a potential for increases in turnover in the fast-decomposing carbon pool of leaves and fine roots as the dominance of deciduous shrubs in the Arctic increases, but this outcome may be tempered

  8. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  9. Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Thomson, Marian; Bodles, William J A; Crawford, Robert M M; Hunt, Harriet V; Featherstone, Alan Watson; Pellicer, Jaume; Buggs, Richard J A

    2013-06-01

    New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridization. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 66× short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) - a diploid that is the keystone woody species of subarctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present 100 bp PstI RAD markers for B. nana and closely related Betula tree species. Assembly of RAD markers in 15 individuals by alignment to the reference B. nana genome yielded 44-86k RAD loci per individual, whereas de novo RAD assembly yielded 64-121k loci per individual. Of the loci assembled by the de novo method, 3k homologous loci were found in all 15 individuals studied, and 35k in 10 or more individuals. Matching of RAD loci to RAD locus catalogues from the B. nana individual used for the reference genome showed similar numbers of matches from both methods of RAD locus assembly but indicated that the de novo RAD assembly method may overassemble some paralogous loci. In 12 individuals hetero-specific to B. nana 37-47k RAD loci matched a catalogue of RAD loci from the B. nana individual used for the reference genome, whereas 44-60k RAD loci aligned to the B. nana reference genome itself. We present a preliminary study of allele sharing among species, demonstrating the utility of the data for introgression studies and for the identification of species-specific alleles.

  10. Temporal and spatiotemporal autocorrelation of daily concentrations of Alnus, Betula, and Corylus pollen in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, J; Stach, A; Kasprzyk, I; Grewling, Ł; Latałowa, M; Puc, M; Myszkowska, D; Weryszko-Chmielewska, E; Piotrowska-Weryszko, K; Chłopek, K; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, B; Uruska, A

    The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of temporal and space-time autocorrelation of pollen counts of Alnus, Betula, and Corylus in the air of eight cities in Poland. Daily average pollen concentrations were monitored over 8 years (2001-2005 and 2009-2011) using Hirst-designed volumetric spore traps. The spatial and temporal coherence of data was investigated using the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions. The calculation and mathematical modelling of 61 correlograms were performed for up to 25 days back. The study revealed an association between temporal variations in Alnus, Betula, and Corylus pollen counts in Poland and three main groups of factors such as: (1) air mass exchange after the passage of a single weather front (30-40 % of pollen count variation); (2) long-lasting factors (50-60 %); and (3) random factors, including diurnal variations and measurements errors (10 %). These results can help to improve the quality of forecasting models.

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  12. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particle capture and BVOC emissions of Betula pendula and Betula pubescens at different wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Pasanen, Pertti; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2017-03-01

    Trees are known to affect air quality by capturing a remarkable amount of particles from the atmosphere. However, the significance of trees in removing very fine particles (diameter less than 0.5 μm) is not well understood. We determined particle capture efficiency (Cp) of two birch species: Betula pendula and Betula pubescens by using inert titanium dioxide fine particles (TiO2, geometric mean diameter 0.270 μm) at three wind speeds (1, 3 and 6 ms-1) in a wind tunnel. Capture efficiencies were determined by measuring densities of TiO2 particles on leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the particle intake into an inner structure of leaves was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of fine particle exposure and wind speed on emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured. Particles were captured (Cp) equally efficiently on foliage of B. pendula (0.0026 ± 0.0005) % and B. pubescens (0.0025 ± 0.0006) %. Increasing wind speed significantly decreased Cp. Increasing wind speed increased deposition velocity (Vg) on B. pendula but not on B. pubescens. Particles were deposited more efficiently on the underside of B. pendula leaves, whereas deposition was similar on the upper and under sides of B. pubescens leaves. TiO2 particles were found inside three of five B. pendula leaves exposed to particles at a wind speed of 1 ms-1 indicating that particles can penetrate into the plant structure. Emission rates of several mono-, homo- and sesquiterpenes were highest at a wind speed of 3 ms-1 in B. pendula. In B. pubescens, emission rates of a few monoterpenes and nonanal decreased linearly with wind speed, but emission rates of sesquiterpenes were lowest at 3 ms-1 and increased at 6 ms-1. Emission rates of a few green leaf volatile compounds increased with increasing wind speed in both species. The results of this study suggest that the surface structure of trees is less important for capturing particles with

  13. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz;

    2015-01-01

    of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates...

  14. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...

  15. Inter- and intra-specific variation in stem phloem phenolics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and European white birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, V L; Phelan, P L; Bonello, P; Herms, D A

    2011-11-01

    Outbreaks of bronze birch borer (BBB) (Agrilus anxius), a wood-boring beetle endemic to North America, have been associated with widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.). There is substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in birch resistance to BBB. Species endemic to North America, such as paper birch (B. papyrifera), have coevolved with BBB and are more resistant than European and Asian birch species, such as European white birch (B. pendula), which lack an evolutionary history with BBB. Borer larvae feed on stem phloem tissue. Therefore, in search of potential resistance mechanisms against BBB, we compared the constitutive phenolic profile of stem phloem tissue of paper birch with that of European white birch. We also analyzed intraspecific variation in phenolic composition among clones and/or half-siblings of both species. Three phenolics (coumaroylquinic acid, betuloside pentoside A, and a diarylheptanoid hexoside) were detected only in paper birch, and concentrations of six other phenolics were significantly higher in paper birch. These differences may contribute to the high resistance of paper birch to BBB relative to European white birch. There was significant intraspecific variation in four of 17 phenolics found in paper birch and in five of 14 found in European white birch, but clones and half-siblings within each species could not be distinguished by phenolic composition using multivariate analysis.

  16. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910–1930 to 1990–2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991–1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997–2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed ‘greening of the Arctic’ which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. PMID:25788025

  17. Nickel and Copper Toxicity and Plant Response Mechanisms in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Gabriel; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) are the most prevalent metals found in the soils in the Greater Sudbury Region (Canada) because of smelting emissions. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the toxicity of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) at different doses in Betula papyrifera (white birch), (2) Characterize nickel resistance mechanism, and (3) assess segregating patterns for Ni and Cu resistance in B. papyrifera populations. This study revealed that B. papyrifera is resistant to Ni and Cu concentrations equivalent to the levels reported in metal-contaminated stands in the GSR. Resistant genotypes (RG) accumulate Ni in roots but not in leaves. Moderately susceptible (MSG) and susceptible genotypes (SG) show a high level of Ni translocation to leaves. Gene expression analysis showed differential regulation of genes in RG compared to MSG and SG. Analysis of segregation patterns suggests that resistance to Ni and Cu is controlled by single recessive genes.

  18. Fruit wall anatomical structure of the genus Betula section Lenta (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Yatsenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of the Lentae are referred to lower syncarpous nuts. Unlike most birches, the three-lobed scales in section Lentae stay attached to the axis for a long time. The fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp (derivative of outer tissues of inferior ovary, the tissues of receptacular origin and the pericarp itself (mesocarp and the endocarp derivating from the ovary wall. The epicarp consists of two zones: epidermis and subepidermal zone. Two-four layers of larger sclerenchymatous cells represent the mesocarp. Several layers of parenchymatous cells, which are squeezed and partly obliterated by fruit maturity, compose endocarp. The morphogenetic type of fruit of the genus Betula section Lentae is the pyrenarium of the Olea-type.

  19. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea.

  20. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla.

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    Ji Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP, including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats.

  1. Forecasting model of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels using spatiotemporal correlation properties of pollen count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, Jakub; Stach, Alfred; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Puc, Małgorzata; Grewling, Łukasz; Pędziszewska, Anna; Uruska, Agnieszka; Myszkowska, Dorota; Chłopek, Kazimiera; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate models for predicting high levels of daily pollen concentration of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula using a spatiotemporal correlation of pollen count. For each taxon, a high pollen count level was established according to the first allergy symptoms during exposure. The dataset was divided into a training set and a test set, using a stratified random split. For each taxon and city, the model was built using a random forest method. Corylus models performed poorly. However, the study revealed the possibility of predicting with substantial accuracy the occurrence of days with high pollen concentrations of Alnus and Betula using past pollen count data from monitoring sites. These results can be used for building (1) simpler models, which require data only from aerobiological monitoring sites, and (2) combined meteorological and aerobiological models for predicting high levels of pollen concentration.

  2. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

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    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  3. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  4. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM UKRAINIAN BETULA VERRUCOSA EHRH. POLLEN AFTER MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of silver birch pollen from different habitat of Ukraine were investigated in order to estimate their contamination with the Enterobacteriaceae family, anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Also resistance of 108 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from seven samples of Ukrainian Betula verrucosa Ehrh. pollen against 5 antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, meropenem, ceftriaxone and ofloxacin were determined. Disc diffusion method was used for antibiotic suceptibility testing according to EUCAST 2012. It is established the concentrations of enterobacteria ranged from 0.00 to 4.16 log cfu/g, of anaerobic bacteria – 2.48 to 4.90 log cfu/g and concentration of fungi ranged from 2.48 to 4.14 log cfu/g. Degree of pollen contamination is different depending on the habitats. The resistance of E. coli isolates was determined against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, meropenem and ofloxacin. But intermediate resistance in the 33.3% of E. coli isolates and susceptibility in the 8.3% to ceftriaxone was found out. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated for all samples of pollen in whole.

  5. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

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    Elena A. Erofeeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013. Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  6. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose-response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  7. Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslippe, Julie R; Simard, Suzanne W

    2011-11-01

    • Shrubs are expanding in Arctic tundra, but the role of mycorrhizal fungi in this process is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that mycorrhizal networks are involved in interplant carbon (C) transfer within a tundra plant community. • Here, we installed below-ground treatments to control for C transfer pathways and conducted a (13)CO(2)-pulse-chase labelling experiment to examine C transfer among and within plant species. • We showed that mycorrhizal networks exist in tundra, and facilitate below-ground transfer of C among Betula nana individuals, but not between or within the other tundra species examined. Total C transfer among conspecific B. nana pairs was 10.7 ± 2.4% of photosynthesis, with the majority of C transferred through rhizomes or root grafts (5.2 ± 5.3%) and mycorrhizal network pathways (4.1 ± 3.3%) and very little through soil pathways (1.4 ± 0.35%). • Below-ground C transfer was of sufficient magnitude to potentially alter plant interactions in Arctic tundra, increasing the competitive ability and mono-dominance of B. nana. C transfer was significantly positively related to ambient temperatures, suggesting that it may act as a positive feedback to ecosystem change as climate warms.

  8. Foliar fungi of Betula pendula: impact of tree species mixtures and assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diem; Boberg, Johanna; Cleary, Michelle; Bruelheide, Helge; Hönig, Lydia; Koricheva, Julia; Stenlid, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Foliar fungi of silver birch (Betula pendula) in an experimental Finnish forest were investigated across a gradient of tree species richness using molecular high-throughput sequencing and visual macroscopic assessment. We hypothesized that the molecular approach detects more fungal taxa than visual assessment, and that there is a relationship among the most common fungal taxa detected by both techniques. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the fungal community composition, diversity, and distribution patterns are affected by changes in tree diversity. Sequencing revealed greater diversity of fungi on birch leaves than the visual assessment method. One species showed a linear relationship between the methods. Species-specific variation in fungal community composition could be partially explained by tree diversity, though overall fungal diversity was not affected by tree diversity. Analysis of specific fungal taxa indicated tree diversity effects at the local neighbourhood scale, where the proportion of birch among neighbouring trees varied, but not at the plot scale. In conclusion, both methods may be used to determine tree diversity effects on the foliar fungal community. However, high-throughput sequencing provided higher resolution of the fungal community, while the visual macroscopic assessment detected functionally active fungal species.

  9. Growth and nutrient efficiency of Betula alnoides clones in response to phosphorus supply

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    Lin Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As phosphorus deficiency limits the productivity of many plantation forests in Asia, there is considerable interest in developing phosphorus-efficient clones for the region through targeted breeding programs. Therefore, we determined growth, nutrient concentrations and nutrient absorption and utility efficiencies of four Betula alnoides clones (C5, C6, 1-202 and BY1 in response to six phosphorus levels of 0, 17, 52, 70, 140 and 209 mg P plant-1 coded as P1 to P6, respectively. Maximum growth occurred in the P4, P5 and P6 plants since they had the largest height, biomass, leaf area and branch number. Phosphorus application increased the phosphorus concentrations of all clones. Nutrient loading was achieved with the P6 treatment because growth and biomass were not significantly higher, but root, stem and leaf phosphorus concentrations were approximately twice those of P4 plants. Clone BY1 had the highest phosphorus-efficiency, and is recommended for field application due to its maximum root collar diameter, biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, nutrient absorption and utility efficiency among the four clones. The findings will help to improve the nutrient efficiency of this species in plantation forestry in Asia.

  10. Footprint areas of pollen from alder (Alnus and birch (Betula in the UK (Worcester and Poland (Wrocław during 2005–2014

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    Carsten Ambelas Skjøth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed daily pollen concentrations of Alnus spp. and Betula spp. from Worcester, UK and Wrocław, Poland. We analyzed seasonality, annual pollen index and footprint areas for the observed pollen concentrations by using the trajectory model hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT. We examined 10 years of data during the period 2005–2014 and found substantial differences in the seasonality, pollen indices and footprint areas. For both genera, concentrations in Wrocław are in general much higher, the seasons are shorter and therefore more intense than in Worcester. The reasons appear to be related to the differences in overall climate between the two sites and more abundant sources in Poland than in England. The footprint areas suggest that the source of the pollen grains are mainly local trees but appear to be augmented by remote sources, in particular for Betula spp. but only to a small degree for Alnus spp. For Betula spp., both sites appear to get contributions from areas in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, while known Betula spp. rich regions in Russia, Belarus and Scandinavia had a very limited impact on the pollen concentrations in Worcester and Wrocław. Substantial and systematic variations in pollen indices are seen for Betula spp. in Wrocław with high values every second year while a similar pattern is not observed for Worcester. This pattern was not reproduced for Alnus spp.

  11. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

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    O. M. Zubrovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B

  12. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  13. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  14. Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Zheng Zhi-hua; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Using plant community analysis methods, we analyzed the floristic characteristics, species composition, community structure, population structure, and spatial distribution patterns of a Betula dahurica forest on the "1238" mountain of Badaling in Beijing, China. The results show that: 1) There are 33 plant species in the B. dahurica community, including 18 woody plant species. The B. dahurica forest is a monodominant community with 75.9% dominance. 2) Based on diameter at breast height (DBH)size class distribution, the population structure of B. dahurica and Acer mono-two heliophyllous and pioneer tree species is cascade-type, with both in an increasing stage. The population structure of Tilia mandshurica and T. mongolica, two shade-tolerant tree species, is inverse-J type, and they have more young seedling individuals and regenerate more stably. They are associated species of the pioneer tree species. The population structure of Quercus mongolica, as the associated species of climax species in the community, is sporadic, and its regeneration is fluctuating and random. Fraxinus rhynchophylla is a shade-tolerant tree species which has a unibar population structure and climax characteristics of pioneer tree species. The relative frequency of young seedlings reached 0.4.3) The dominant species B. dahurica is still in an increasing stage, and the regeneration of other species is steady or partly influences the community, putting the community in the pioneer species stage. From the population structure and distribution frequency ofF. rhynchophylla, the B. dahurica forest will approach to a climax state in the future.

  15. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Vessel chronologies in ring-porous species have been successfully employed in the past to extract the climate signal from tree rings. Environmental signals recorded in vessels of ring-porous species have also been used in previous studies to reconstruct discrete events of drought, flooding and insect defoliation. However, very little is known about the ability of diffuse-porous species to record environmental signals in their xylem cells. Moreover, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response of diffuse-porous Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Betula pendula Roth to debris-flow-induced wounding. Tree microscopic response to wounding was assessed through the analysis of wood anatomical differences between injured rings formed in the debris-flow event year and uninjured rings formed in the previous year. The two ring types were examined close and opposite to the injury in order to determine whether wound effects on xylem cells decrease with increasing tangential distance from the injury. Image analysis was used to measure vessel parameters as well as fiber and parenchyma cell (FPC) parameters. The results of this study indicate that injured rings are characterized by smaller vessels as compared with uninjured rings. By contrast, FPC parameters were not found to significantly differ between injured and uninjured rings. Vessel and FPC parameters mainly remained constant with increasing tangential distance from the injury, except for a higher proportion of vessel lumen area opposite to the injury within A. incana. This study highlights the existence of anatomical tree-ring signatures-in the form of smaller vessels-related to past debris-flow activity and addresses a new methodological approach to date injuries inflicted on trees by geomorphic processes.

  16. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  17. EFFECT OF SIMULATED NITROGEN DEPOSITION ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN Betula Platyphylla FOREST IN SOUTH OF DAXING'ANLING MOUNTAINS IN CHINA%氮沉降对大兴安岭南段白桦林土壤呼吸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱睿; 魏江生; 周梅; 赵鹏武; 颜学佳; 刘星岑

    2015-01-01

    近年来随着人类活动导致全球范围内大气氮沉降量开始增加,竟而改变了陆地生态系统氮的输入,并影响到了土壤碳排放.为揭示氮沉降对土壤呼吸的影响,2013年5月至9月在大兴安岭南段的赛罕乌拉森林生态站白桦林内进行模拟氮沉降试验,使用便携式土壤CO2通量观测仪LI-8100测定不同人工添加氮浓度[CK(0)、LN(10kg·hm-2·a-1)、MN(25kg·hm-2·a-1)和HN(50kg·hm-2·a-1)]对土壤呼吸的影响.结果表明:①氮沉降处理未显著改变土壤呼吸速率的日变化和季节性变化规律;②氮沉降显著促进了白桦林土壤呼吸速率,与CK相比,HN、MN和LN处理分别使7月中旬土壤日平均呼吸速率提高了17.93%、11.67%和3.50%,使生长季土壤平均呼吸速率提高了42.48%、30.09%和16.52%;③土壤呼吸与温度呈极显著的指数相关(P<0.01),CK、HN、MN和LN处理下,土壤呼吸温度敏感系数Q1o分别为2.43、2.13、2.52和2.31.

  18. Nitrate reductase activity in some subarctic species and UV influence in the foliage of Betula pendula Roth. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywult, Marek; Turunen, Minna; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Derome, Kirsti; Norokorpi, Yrjö

    2002-02-04

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity was studied in the foliage of five subarctic species: mature trees of European white birch (Betula pubescens Erch. S.S.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), Ericaceous shrub bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), naturally growing in a forest, and seed-grown silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment at the Pallas-Ounastunturi National Park in Finnish Lapland (68 degrees N). Mean NR activity ranged from 0 in bilberry to 1477 (S.D. = 277.7) and 1910 (S.D. = 785.4) nmol g(-1) DW h(-1) in mature trees of European white birch and silver birch seedlings, respectively. Significant differences due to UV exclosure treatments were determined for the NR activity of silver birch seedlings (F = 3.62, P= 0.025*) after three growing seasons (191 days) of UV exclusion. The ambient and control silver birch seedlings had or tended to have higher NR activity than those grown under UV exclusion. No relationship was found between the foliage NR activity and total nitrogen content, which ranged from 0.61 to 1.35% per seedling. The present study suggests large differences in NR activity between the species and the induction of NR activity in silver birch seedlings due to ambient UV radiation.

  19. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association.

  20. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrovskaya O. M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B. pendula

  1. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...

  2. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingxi Li,; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Berendse, F.; Blok, D.; Maximov, T.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundrashrub
    dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region,
    mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch
    (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and
    used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship
    bet

  3. 红花尔基自然保护区天然樟子松林种内种间竞争分析%Analyses of intraspecific and interspecific competition of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica natural forest in Honghuaerji Nature Reserve of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛磊; 杨丹青; 王冬梅; 杨晓晖

    2008-01-01

    运用Hegyi单木竞争指数分析了内蒙古红花尔基自然保护区天然樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolicaLitv.)林内所有胸径大于2 cm的樟子松、山杨(Populus davidiana Dode.)、白桦(Betula platyphylla Suk.)和山荆子(Malus baccata L.)的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明,样地中主要的竞争木和对象木均为樟子松和白桦;樟子松的种内竞争强度(0.534)远大于种间竞争强度.随径级的增大,樟子松的种内竞争强度逐渐减小,且与胸径存在幂函数关系CI=A·D-B.胸径达到30 cm后,樟子松种内竞争强度变化不明显.作为竞争木,樟子松对其他树种产生了较大的竞争压力.

  4. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming.

  5. THE SOUTH KOREA'S RESEARCH ON LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF HUMAN EGGS FOR AFTER HWANG WOO-SUK'S CASE%"黄禹锡事件"后韩国研究用人类卵子的法律规制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬妍; 杨芳; 潘荣华

    2015-01-01

    人类卵子在医学研究领域具有独特的价值,鉴于人类卵子具有人身性和伦理性,国际社会颇为重视研究用卵子的规制. 韩国科学家黄禹锡领导的研究团队因忽视人类卵子的伦理问题,采用不正当手段收集和使用人类卵子进行科学研究,引发了举世关注的"卵子风波". 韩国以此为鉴,及时总结黄禹锡事件的教训,颁布实施《生命伦理与安全法》并多次修改,作为对黄禹锡事件的积极回应.2008年的修订稿对卵子捐赠与胚胎干细胞研究等相关内容进行完善,分析与总结韩国的法律应对经验对我国具有一定的借鉴意义.%Human eggs have unique value in the field of medical research. Owing to its personal and ethical nature, interna-tional community thinks highly of the rules and regulations of the egg for research. Ignoring the ethics of human eggs, the re-search team leaded by Korean scientist Hwang Woo-Suk collected and used human eggs for scientific research by illegal means, which caused the worldwide egg disturbance. Taking it as a mirror, South Korea learned lessons timely and enacted the Bioethics and Biosafety Act and modified repeatedly, as a positive response to Hwang's case. The revised version in 2008 per-fects relevant contents including egg donation and the research of embryonic stem cell. Analyzing and summarizing the South Korea's experience has certain significance for reference to our country.

  6. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jorgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz;

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betulanana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming...... of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates...

  7. Sphagnum peatlands as a unique habitat for the long-term survival of glacial relicts: a case study of Betula nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Slowinska, S.; Noryśkiewicz, A. M.; Lamentowicz, M.; Kołaczek, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are characterized by distinctive vegetation, hydrology and local climate. They are very important areas for flora and fauna. In the last decade, much effort was made at better understanding of microrefugia and their important role in post-glacial migration of various plant species. The aim of this study is to explain a long-term persistence of the glacial relict Betula nana in a Sphagnum peatland in northern Poland far from the southern range of its natural distribution. We suppose that the persistence of Betula nana is driven by a) the morphology and geology of the catchment, b) the maintenance of open vegetation on the peatland surface and c) exceptional microclimatic and hydrological conditions. A detailed research was carried out on the peat profile using pollen analysis, to reconstruct the presence of open habitat on the mire during the Holocene. Furthermore, detailed monitoring of local climate, hydrology of the peatland and the surrounding area was conducted. The pollen analysis revealed a continuous presence of Betula nana in the postglacial history of the peatland. The results of local climate monitoring indicated that the mire possesses a typical microclimate, with air temperature amplitude much higher in relation to the open area, in particular during the growing season. This, in combination with the hydrology, which depends on the geology of the surrounding area, affects Betula nana population. Linje mire is a unique microrefugium sustained by local factors such as microclimate, geology, local relief and hydrology. However, it is still challenging to explain the intriguing case why this species still occurs within the study site. This work was funded by the National Science Centre grant NN306060940 and Polish-Swiss Research Programme PSPB-013/2010. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association.

  8. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure.

  9. The Effects of Surface Roughness on Adhesion Strength of Coated Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Birch (Betula L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina VITOSYTĖ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of surface roughness impact on adhesion properties, the samples of dried ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and birch (Betula L. wood were used. Before wood finishing, the surfaces of the samples were sanded. In order to get different surface roughness the abrasive material of P80, P120, P150, P180, P220 and P240 grit was used. The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax were measured in three directions: along the wood grain, across the grain and in the angle of 45º. Comparison of the results showed the non-linear dependency of roughness parameters. Afterwards the wood surface was coated with three different acrylic-polyurethane coating systems (1 layer of varnish without primer, 1 layer of primer and 1 layer of varnish, and 1 layer of primer and 2 layers of varnish. The adhesion strength was assessed using the pull-off method. Also the nature of the fracture was evaluated. It was determined that the peculiarities of surface roughness, coating system type and wood species signally results the values of the adhesion strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3094

  10. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells of chlorotic and prematurely yellowed leaves of Betula pendula Rothr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of chloroplasts was studied in mesophyll cells of the leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula showing interveinal chlorosis or premature yellowing, in comparison with leaves without symptoms or exhibiting symptoms of natural senescence. The leaves were collected between May 26 to June 7 and additionally in the September 10-12 from the upper part of the crown, from increments of the past four years. No major difference in ultrastructure of chloroplasts was found between spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. The following senescencerelated changes were observed in chloroplasts of prematurely yellowed leaves and showing inteveinal chlorosis: reduced chloroplast size, degeneration of the membrane systems of thylakoids and increased electron density of plastoglobuli. The most electron dark globules (lipid droplets were found together with starch grains in cells of spongy mesophyll of leaves showing interveinal chlorosis. Abnormal, spherical and rounded chloroplasts with electron-dark inside of thylakoids or the electron-dark stroma between thylakoids were found only in yellowed and chlorotic leaves in spring.

  11. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael den Herder

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer. 

  12. [Species composition and point pattern analysis of standing trees in secondary Betula albosinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yao-xin; Kang, Bing; Li, Gang; Wang, De-xiang; Yang, Gai-he; Wang, Da-wei

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species composition and population diameter-class structure of a typical secondary Betula albo-sinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains, and the spatial distribution pattern and interspecific correlations of the main populations were analyzed at multiple scales by the O-ring functions of single variable and double variables. In the test forest, B. albo-sinensis was obviously dominant, but from the analysis of DBH class distribution, the B. albo-sinensis seedlings were short of, and the natural regeneration was very poor. O the contrary, the regeneration of Abies fargesii and Populus davidianas was fine. B. albo-sinensis and Salix matsudana had a random distribution at almost all scales, while A. fargesii and P. davidianas were significantly clumped at small scale. B. albo-sinensis had positive correlations with A. fargesii and P. davidianas at medium scale, whereas S. matsudana had negative correlations with B. albo-sinensis, A. fargesii, and P. davidianas at small scale. No significant correlations were observed between other species. The findings suggested that the spatial distribution patterns of the tree species depended on their biological characteristics at small scale, but on the environmental heterogeneity at larger scales. In a period of future time, B. albo-sinensis would still be dominant, but from a long-term view, it was necessary to take some artificial measures to improve the regeneratio of B. albo-sinensis.

  13. Effect of air pollutant NO₂ on Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus pollen fertility and human allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuinica, Lázaro G; Abreu, Ilda; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim

    2014-03-01

    Pollen of Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to two levels of NO2 (about 0.034 and 0.067 ppm) - both below current atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in Europe (0.11 ppm for NO2). Experiments were performed under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity continuously monitored. The viability, germination and total soluble proteins of all the pollen samples exposed to NO2 decreased significantly when compared with the non-exposed. The polypeptide profiles of all the pollen samples showed bands between 15 and 70 kDa and the exposure to NO2 did not produce any detectable changes in these profiles. However, the immunodetection assays indicated higher IgE recognition by patient sera sensitized to the pollen extracts from all exposed samples in comparison to the non-exposed samples. The common reactive bands to the three pollen samples correspond to 58 and 17 kDa proteins.

  14. [Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on nutrient accumulation and allocation in Betula albo-sinensis seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Wang, Kai-yun; Zhang, Chao

    2008-01-01

    With enclosed chamber system, this paper studied the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 micromol x mol(-1), E(C)), temperature (ambient + 2 degrees C, E(T)), and their combination (E(CT)) on the nutrient accumulation and allocation in subalpine Betula albo-sinensis seedlings in western Sichuan Province. The results showed that after a growth season, the accumulation amount of N, P and K per plant increased by 44%, 45% and 11% under E(C) (P allocation to leaves reduced by 11.68% (P 0.05), but decreased by 0.69%, 10.35% and 0.05% under E(T) (P > 0.05), respectively. The N allocation pattern under E(CT) was similar to that under E(C). The allocation of P and K had greater differences under E(C), E(T) and E(CT). All of these suggested that elevated CO2 concentration and temperature could promote nutrient accumulation, and change its allocation pattern in plant organs.

  15. The prospects for the survival of the population of a boreal relict species, Betula humilis Schrk., in a small isolated peat bog in the Łęczna - Włodawa Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to identify the major risks to the population of Betula humilis Schrk. existing in a small isolated transitional peat bog near Lake Bikcze, in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. The biometric features of 40 Betula humilis individuals were measured as well as the growth of shoots, flowering and fruiting were observed. Habitat conditions were characterized by making measurements of selected abiotic and biocenotic environmental factors. The obtained results allowed us to identify two main threats to the proper functioning of the study population. The first one is the possible loss of genetic identity of the species as a result of probable ongoing introgression by the potential crossing of Betula humilis with other species of the genus Betula, which are numerous in the flora of the studied area. Another threat is a change in habitat conditions (mainly light and water conditions, which is due to the accelerated secondary succession manifested by the expansion of common species such as Salix cinerea, Betula pendula, and Phragmites australis.

  16. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  17. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  18. Ultraviolet-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in Betula pendula leaves is dependent upon nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Dong, Ju-Fang; Jin, Hai-Hong; Sun, Li-Na; Xu, Mao-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants. Nitric oxide generation and flavonoid accumulation are two early reactions of plants to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation. However, the source of UV-B-triggered NO generation and the role of NO in UV-B-induced flavonoid accumulation are not fully understood. In order to evaluate the origin of UV-B-triggered NO generation, we examined the responses of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and the expression levels of NIA1 and NIA2 genes in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings to UV-B irradiation. The data show that UV-B irradiation stimulates NR activity and induces up-regulation of NIA1 but does not affect NIA2 expression during UV-B-triggered NO generation. Pretreatment of the leaves with NR inhibitors tungstate (TUN) and glutamine (Gln) abolishes not only UV-B-triggered NR activities but also UV-B-induced NO generation. Furthermore, application of TUN and Gln suppresses UV-B-induced flavonoid production in the leaves and the suppression of NR inhibitors on UV-B-induced flavonoid production can be reversed by NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside. Together, the data indicate that NIA1 in the leaves of silver birch seedlings is sensitive to UV-B and the UV-B-induced up-regulation of NIA1 may lead to enhancement of NR activity. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that NR is involved in UV-B-triggered NO generation and NR-mediated NO generation is essential for UV-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in silver birch leaves.

  19. Temporal variation in epidermal flavonoids due to altered solar UV radiation is moderated by the leaf position in Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Luis O; Tegelberg, Riitta; Brosché, Mikael; Lindfors, Anders; Siipola, Sari; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2011-11-01

    The physiological mechanisms controlling plant responses to dynamic changes in ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are not fully understood: this information is important to further comprehend plant adaptation to their natural habitats. We used the fluorimeter Dualex to estimate in vivo the epidermal flavonoid contents by measuring epidermal UV absorbance (A(375) ) in Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) leaves of different ages under altered UV. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse for 15 days without UV and transferred outdoors under three UV treatments (UV-0, UV-A and UV-A+B) created by three types of plastic film. After 7 and 13 days, Dualex measurements were taken at adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the first three leaves (L1, L2 and L3) of the seedlings. After 14 days, some of the seedlings were reciprocally swapped amongst the treatments to study the accumulation of epidermal flavonoids in the youngest unfolded leaves (L3) during leaf expansion under changing solar UV environments. A(375) of the leaves responded differently to the UV treatment depending on their position. UV-B increased the A(375) in the leaves independently of leaf position. L3 quickly adjusted A(375) in their epidermis according to the UV they received and these adjustments were affected by previous UV exposure. The initial absence of UV-A+B or UV-A, followed by exposure to UV-A+B, particularly enhanced leaf A(375) . Silver birch leaves modulate their protective pigments in response to changes in the UV environment during their expansion, and their previous UV exposure history affects the epidermal-absorbance achieved during later UV exposure.

  20. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  1. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed.

  2. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  3. Phylogeny of chitinases and its implications for estimating horizontal gene transfer from chitinase-transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohtander, Katileena; Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Aalto, Markku K; Palva, Tapio; Pappinen, Ari; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2008-01-01

    Chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that have been employed in biotechnology in attempts to increase plants' resistance against fungal pathogens. Genetically modified plants have given rise to concerns of the spreading of transgenes into the environment through vertical or horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this study, chitinase-like sequences from silver birch (Betula pendula) EST-libraries were identified and their phylogenetic relationships to other chitinases were studied. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the frequency of historical gene transfer events of chitinase genes between plants and other organisms, and the usefulness of phylogenetic analyses as a source of information for the risk assessment of transgenic silver birch carrying a sugar beet chitinase IV gene was evaluated. Thirteen partial chitinase-like sequences, with an approximate length of 600 bp, were obtained from the EST-libraries. The sequences belonged to five chitinase classes. Some bacterial chitinases from Streptomyces and Burkholderia, as well as a chitinase from an oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, grouped together with the class IV chitinases of plants, supporting the hypothesis that some class IV chitinases in bacteria have evolved from eukaryotic chitinases via horizontal gene transfer. According to our analyses, HGT of a chitinase IV gene from eukaryotes to bacteria has presumably occurred only once. Based on this, the likelihood for the HGT of chitinase IV gene from transgenic birch to other organisms is extremely low. However, as risk is a function of both the likelihood and consequences of an event, the effects of rare HGT event(s) will finally determine the level of the risk.

  4. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincke, Alexandra J C; Broere, Tom; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Donders, Timme H; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1) the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2) the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch) over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400-450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data.

  5. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. L The flavonoids of B. pendula Roth. and B. obscura Kot. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betula pendula Roth. leaves were found to contain, beside the flavonoids detected earlier by other researchers, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside and quercetin 3-glycoside-7,4'-dimethyl ether. The investigated specimens of this species can be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence in them of 6-methoxykaempferide. Group I was characterized by larger leaf-blades containing this compound, whereas it was absent in group II with smaller leaves. The composition of the leaf flavonoids of B. obscura Kot. samples was identical with that of the specimens of the above-mentioned small leaved B. pendula.

  6. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This d...

  7. Protein-lipid composition of silver birch (Betula verrucosa pollen and its antioxidant activity depending on habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shevtsova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen has various effects on the human body. In order to study and compare the biological activity of the mature pollen grains of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. we investigated the protein-lipid composition and total antioxidant activity (TAA of 10 samples from different habitats in the territory of Ukraine and the Slovak Republic. The collection sites are near highways and apartment blocks, as well as a nature reserve, forest and botanical garden. The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. A chromatographic analysis of fatty acids from lipids was performed using a “Cvet 500” gas chromatograph, equipped with a flame-ionization detector in the isothermal mode. The bioactivity of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of pollen grains was evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl by means spectrophotometry in vitro. The protein content of the pollen of B. verrucosa ranged from 17.9% to 25.6%, depending on the habitat. Unsaturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids. The profile of fatty acids indicates a higher content of palmitic (33.9%, oleic (29.5% and linoleic (27.8% acids and a low content of arachidonic (0.4% and pentadecanoic (0.8% acids. We also established that silver birch pollen is characterized by high antioxidant activity. The measured value of TAA for aqueous pollen extracts was within 74.8–85.5%. For the ethanol extracts it was quantified within 60.3–95.0% and for the methanol extracts – 46.1–92.6%. The Tukey test was used to determine the differences between the means at a level of P < 0.05. A strong correlation coefficient (0.70 was defined between the protein content and the TAA of aqueous extracts. In general, the Ukrainian and Slovak samples of pollen differ in the fatty acid composition of lipids and aqueous and ethanol TAA extracts. Pollen of B. verrucosa should be used for diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic purposes as close

  8. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, J.M.; Slotboom, R.T.; van der Plicht, J.; Streurman, H.J.; Hoek, W.J.; Kuijper, W.J.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  9. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits : A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Jan M.; Slotboom, Ruud T.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Streurman, Harm Jan; Kuijper, Wim J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; de Graaff, Leo W. S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  10. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-Glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, J.M.; Slotboom, R.T.; van der Plicht, J.; Streurman, H.J.; Kuijper, W.J.; Hoek, W.Z.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  11. REE, Uranium (U) and Thorium (Th) contents in Betula pendula leaf growing around Komsomolsk gold concentration plant tailing (Kemerovo region, Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, D. V.; Karpenko, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the research findings of peculiarities of REE, Uranium and Thorium distribution in the territory surrounding the tailing of former Komsomolsk gold concentration plant according to the data from Betula pendula leaf testing. In the leaf element composition the slight deficiency of MREE and substantial excess of HREE are presented. In the nearest impacted area around the tailing, La, Yb, U and Th content, and Th/U ratio are lower than in the distant buffer area. It is shown, that value of Th/U ratio and REE can be an indicator for geochemical transformations of technogenic landscapes in mining districts. The results of the research can be used for biomonitoring of the territory around the tailing.

  12. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...... variables and local shrub dominance. We found that establishment of shrub ramets was positively related to summer precipitation, which implies that the current high dominance of B. nana at our study site could be related to high summer precipitation in the period from 1960 to 1990. The results confirmed...... that early summer temperature is most influential to annual growth rates of B. nana. In addition, summer precipitation stimulated shrub growth in years with warm summers, suggesting that B. nana growth may be co-limited by summer moisture supply. The dual controlling role of temperature and summer...

  13. Growth responses of Picea mongolica seedlings to defoliation rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chun-jing; HAN Shi-jie; QI Shu-yan; XU Wen-duo; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Picea mongolica W. D. Xu. is an endemic species in China. The spruce forest is only found in semi-arid habitat in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Based on the simulative defoliation experiment, it was proved that Picea mongolica seedlings had the compensatory and overcompensatory effects under the certain defoliation rate. The results of variance analysis on growth indexes showed that in PM Ⅰ (natural regeneration seedlings under Picea mongolica forest), the differences of H1 (height in June 23) and H2 (height in September 3) were extremely significant, and the difference of D(diameter at the breast height) were not significant. In PM Ⅱ (artificial regeneration seedlings under Betula platyphylla Suk. forest), the difference of H1 was significant, the difference of H2 was not significant, and the difference of D was extremely significant. The regression equations were established and the compensatory and overcompensatory points were obtained. In PM Ⅰ , the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D were 0.7628, 0.7436, 0.5725, and the overcompensatory points were 0.6056, 0.5802 and 0.2909 respectively. In PM Ⅱ, the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D are 0.5012, 0.3421, 0.2488, and the overcompensatory points are 0.4137, 0.2633 and 0.0747 respectively. These results suggested that the induction of compensatory growth mechanisms in spruce seedlings required a threshold level of defoliation, and the insects in Picea mongolica forest could be controlled in a certain degree.

  14. Comparative analyses of plastid and AFLP data suggest different colonization history and asymmetric hybridization between Betula pubescens and B. nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Alsos, Inger Greve; Brochmann, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Birches (Betula spp.) hybridize readily, confounding genetic signatures of refugial isolation and postglacial migration. We aimed to distinguish hybridization from range-shift processes in the two widespread and cold-adapted species B. nana and B. pubescens, previously shown to share a similarly east-west-structured variation in plastid DNA (pDNA). We sampled the two species throughout their ranges and included reference samples of five other Betula species and putative hybrids. We analysed 901 individual plants using mainly nuclear high-resolution markers (amplified fragment length polymorphisms; AFLPs); a subset of 64 plants was also sequenced for two pDNA regions. Whereas the pDNA variation as expected was largely shared between B. nana and B. pubescens, the two species were distinctly differentiated at AFLP loci. In B. nana, both the AFLP and pDNA results corroborated the former pDNA-based hypothesis that it expanded from at least two major refugia in Eurasia, one south of and one east of the North European ice sheets. In contrast, B. pubescens showed a striking lack of geographic structuring of its AFLP variation. We identified a weak but significant increase in nuclear (AFLP) gene flow from B. nana into B. pubescens with increasing latitude, suggesting hybridization has been most frequent at the postglacial expansion front of B. pubescens and that hybrids mainly backcrossed to B. pubescens. Incongruence between pDNA and AFLP variation in B. pubescens can be explained by efficient expansion from a single large refugium combined with leading-edge hybridization and plastid capture from B. nana during colonization of new territory already occupied by this more cold-tolerant species.

  15. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, C.; Palmé, A. E.; Felber, François

    2008-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flo...

  16. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris and birch (Betula pubescens leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Collen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1 and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1. Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams. Keywords: leaf processing, pine needles, shredders, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Scotland.

  17. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States)], E-mail: jndarbah@mtu.edu; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil [USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Oksanen, Elina [University of Joensuu, Kuopio (Finland); Vapaavuori, Elina [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki (Finland); Karnosky, David F. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States)

    2008-10-15

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O{sub 3} also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO{sub 2} + O{sub 3}) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO{sub 2} may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O{sub 3} will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances and elevated O{sub 3} decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth.

  18. Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Luis O; Tegelberg, Riitta; Brosché, Mikael; Keinänen, Markku; Lindfors, Anders; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2010-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities; however, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Here, we report differential effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and phenolic accumulation in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings grown outdoors. Plants were exposed for 30 days to six UV treatments created using three types of plastic film. Epidermal flavonoids measured in vivo decreased when UV-B was excluded. In addition, the concentrations of six flavonoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry declined linearly with UV-B exclusion, and transcripts of PAL and HYH measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were expressed at lower levels. UV-A linearly regulated the accumulation of quercetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-arabinopyranoside and had a quadratic effect on HYH expression. Furthermore, there were strong positive correlations between PAL expression and accumulation of four flavonols under the UV treatments. Our findings in silver birch contribute to a more detailed understanding of plant responses to solar UV radiation at both molecular and metabolite levels.

  19. Root produced DHZR-, ZR- and IPA-like cytokinins in xylem sap in relation to coppice shoot initiation and growth in cloned trees of Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, P; Saarelainen, A

    1994-10-01

    Six-year-old cloned Betula pubescens Ehrh. trees, grown outdoors at 65 degrees 01' N, were cut on six dates during the growing season to study coppice shoot development in relation to root-produced cytokinin-like compounds. Bleeding sap was collected over timed intervals for two days after cutting, and endogenous cytokinin-like compounds were measured by ELISA assay in HPLC-purified fractions of xylem sap. Initiation and development of coppice shoots on the clonally propagated plants were comparable to those in seedlings. Coppice shoot initiation was affected by the time of cutting, diminishing significantly after June. Of the cytokinin-like compounds detected in the xylem sap, zeatin riboside-like (ZR) compounds were present in the highest concentrations, and the concentrations of dihydrozeatin riboside-like (DHZR) and isopentenyladenoside-like (IPA) compounds were approximately one third and one eighth of the ZR concentrations, respectively. The concentration of cytokinin-like compounds was positively correlated with xylem sap flow rate. The export of cytokinin-like compounds, especially DHZR- and ZR-types, was positively correlated with the initiation and elongation rate of coppice shoots, the number of lateral branches, and the radial growth of the more slowly growing coppice shoots. The export of cytokinin-like compounds collected immediately after cutting may represent the basal value for each tree. This value is probably affected by the size and activity of the root system and may be a relevant estimate for predicting the success of coppicing.

  20. Contribution of Root Respiration to Total Soil Respiration in a Betula ermanii-Dark Coniferous Forest Ecotone of the Changbai Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; HAN Shi-Jie; ZHOU Yu-Mei; ZHANG Jun-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Total and root-severed soil respiration rates for five plots set up 50 m apart in a Betula ermanii Cham.-dark coniferous forest ecotone on a north-facing slope of the Changbai Mountains, China, were measured to evaluate the seasonal variations of soil respiration, to assess the effect of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration, and to estimate the relative contributions of root respiration to the total soil respiration. PVC cylinders in each of 5 forest types of a B. ermanii-dark coniferous forest ecotone were used to measure soil respirations both inside and outside of the cylinders. The contribution of roots to the total soil respiration rates ranged from 12.5% to 54.6%. The mean contribution of roots for the different plots varied with the season, increasing from 32.5% on June 26 to 36.6% on August 3 and to 41.8% on October 14.In addition, there existed a significant (P < 0.01) logarithmic relationship between total soil respiration rate and soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth. Also, a similar trend was observed for the soil respiration and soil water content at the surface (0-5 cm) during the same period of time.

  1. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples collected under plant saplings, using atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization. A number of relations concerning the occurrence of Al and Ca in soils and plant parts of B. pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, and leaves) were observed. Based on the research findings, the mechanism of Al migration from soil to the leaves of B. pendula can be presented. It was found that aluminum uptake may be limited in roots by high calcium concentration. The application of a new procedure based on the simple sequential extraction of water-soluble fractions (the most available and exchangeable fractions of Al) can be used as an effective tool for the estimation of aluminum toxicity in soils and plants.

  2. Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} during leaf maturation and senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontunen-Soppela, Sari, E-mail: sari.kontunen-soppela@joensuu.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Parviainen, Juha [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Ruhanen, Hanna [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); Brosche, Mikael [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Keinaenen, Markku [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Thakur, Ramesh C. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kolehmainen, Mikko [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kangasjaervi, Jaakko [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Oksanen, Elina [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Vapaavuori, Elina [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} were studied with microarray analyses from three time points during the summer of 2004 at Aspen FACE. Microarray data were analyzed with clustering techniques, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and Sammon's mappings, to detect similar gene expression patterns within sampling times and treatments. Most of the alterations in gene expression were caused by O{sub 3}, alone or in combination with CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} induced defensive reactions to oxidative stress and earlier leaf senescence, seen as decreased expression of photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes, and increased expression of senescence-associated genes. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} reflected surplus of carbon that was directed to synthesis of secondary compounds. The combined CO{sub 2} + O{sub 3} treatment resulted in differential gene expression than with individual gas treatments or in changes similar to O{sub 3} treatment, indicating that CO{sub 2} cannot totally alleviate the harmful effects of O{sub 3}. - Clustering analysis of birch leaf gene expression data reveals differential responses to O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  3. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  4. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  5. Effects of soil type, fertilization and drought on carbon allocation to root growth and partitioning between secondary metabolism and ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczewski, Nathan M; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2010-07-01

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse in either subsoil or topsoil in factorial combination with two fertilization and drought regimes to investigate how different soil environments and nutrient availability drive belowground partitioning between growth, secondary metabolism and ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations, and impact drought tolerance of paper birch. Root and total seedling dry biomass, starch, soluble sugars, soluble phenolics, lignin and EM abundance were quantified. In unfertilized topsoil, total plant biomass and root biomass were approximately nine times higher than in unfertilized subsoil, but the root weight ratios did not differ between soils. Root soluble phenolics and lignin were higher in unfertilized subsoil than in unfertilized topsoil, whereas EM abundance was significantly higher in unfertilized topsoil than in unfertilized subsoil. In topsoil, fertilization decreased root biomass and EM abundance and increased root phenolics and lignin. In contrast, fertilization of subsoil increased root biomass but decreased root phenolics and lignin, while EM abundance was unaffected. In both soil types, fertilization reduced root weight ratios. Across soil types, EM abundance was negatively correlated with root soluble sugars, root phenolics and lignin, but this was driven mainly by the responses in the topsoil treatment. Our results show that soil fertility mediates carbon tradeoffs among defense, growth and EM associations.

  6. Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermnak, Usuma; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Tsuyuki, Rie; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2012-02-15

    Methyl syringate was isolated from the essential oil of Betula alba as an aflatoxin production inhibitor. It inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus with IC(50) values of 0.9 and 0.8 mM, respectively, without significantly inhibiting fungal growth. Methyl syringate reduced mRNA levels of genes (aflR, pksA, and omtB) [corrected] encoding proteins required for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Methyl gallate, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, and methyl 3-O-methylgallate inhibited both aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. However, their acids and syringic acid did not inhibit aflatoxin production and growth of A. parasiticus significantly, although gallic acid inhibited aflatoxin production of A. flavus with selectivity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of methyl syringate was much weaker than that of gallic acid. These results showed that methyl syringate has a unique inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production with a different mode of action from that of gallic acid.

  7. 长白山突变型林线岳桦对气候变化的响应%Climatic Response of Betula ermanii from Closed Treeline in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 刘惠清

    2011-01-01

    在长白山北坡局地突变型林线内选取10个样方,采用实测法测量岳桦两种生活型(灌木状和乔木状)的树高、径级,采用年轮法测定岳桦的树龄,计算分析长白山北坡2000m处48 a(1953-2000年)的积温变化.对获得的数据采用回归模型、小波分析、相关分析建立树高、径级与积温变化的关系.结果显示:对应长白山48年来积温变化的几个高温期(1960年代初、1980年代、1990年代后期),岳桦树高生长对气候变化有显著响应.灌木状岳桦在径级1~7、7 ~13、13~19和>19 cm阶段树高生长分为适应期,弱胁迫期和胁迫期.乔木状岳桦在径级13 cm和5 cm出现增长受限和适宜生长两个拐点.高温期对应岳桦树高的快速生长,岳桦树高增长的年际变化是对气温变化的积极响应.%On the north slope of Changbai Mountain 10 quadrats were selected in local closed treeline. The tree height and size class of shrub and single tree Betula ermanii were obtained from field measured, and the tree age was determined by standard dendrochronological techniques. The relationship between the tree height and size class was established by means of the regression model against the collected data. The variation tendency of accumulated temperature in the past 48 years on the 2 000 m high of the northern slope on Changbai Mountains was also calculated through the wavelet analysis method. The relationship between the tree height and accumulated temperature was established by means of multiple correlation analysis against the collected data. The results show that the tree height and size class have significant response against the high temperature period in the past 48 years on Changbai Mountains, including the beginning of 1960s, and late 1980s and 1990s. The tree height growth for shrub Betula ermanii is divided into adaptive phase, low stress phase and high stress phase according to its size class of 1 ~ 7, 7 -13, 13 ~ 19 and larger than

  8. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  9. Density and composition of an insect population in a field trial of chitinase transgenic and wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula) clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihervuori, Liisa; Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi

    2008-12-01

    Fifteen silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines carrying a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and eight wild-type birch clones were grown in a field trial. The composition and density of the insect population and the leaf damage caused by insects were monitored and compared between transgenic and wild-type trees. The most abundant insect group in all trees was aphids, and the variation in total insect densities was mainly explained by the variation in aphid densities. Insect densities were generally higher in the transgenic than in the control trees, indicating that the expression of the sugar beet chitinase IV gene had an influence on the suitability of birch leaves to aphids. The level of leaf damage was higher among transgenic than among control trees. Chewing damage was the most common type of leaf damage in all trees. The number of different damage types was higher among the wild-type clones than among the transgenic lines or their controls. The results indicate that the chitinase transgenic trees are more susceptible to aphids and suffer higher levels of leaf damage than the control trees. In the composition of the damage types, the control trees were more similar to the transgenic than to other wild-type trees, indicating that the composition was mostly linked to the genotype of the tree and not to the expression of the transgene. This study provides important information on the ecological interactions of chitinase transgenic trees in the field trial. No clear harmful effects of transgenic chitinase on the biodiversity of insect population were detected.

  10. Study on Growth Volume of Different Provenances of Betula alnoides Plantation%不同种源西南桦人工林生长量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莲珍; 史富强; 许林红; 刘际梅

    2012-01-01

    Using Excel and DPS data software Duncan multiple comparisons, the DBH, tree height and volume of 25 provenances of Betula alnoides in Puwen Experimental Farm were analyzed, results showed that: DBH, tree height and growth volume of five years different provenances Belula alnoides had the remarkable difference, the growth curve of two years tended to be linear, growth curve of four years and five years tended to be waveform: Provenance E (Tianyang of Guangxi province) had the largest growth volume, the next is provenance K (Lancang of Yunnan) : and in the four years, the smallest is the provenance A ( Linyun of Cuangxi) : in the five years, the smallest is the provenance J ( Mojiang of Yunnan).%对普文试验林场的25个不同种源西南桦子测林测定胸径、树高、材积等生长性状,利用Excel和DPS数据软件Duncan进行数据分析.结果表明:不同种源西南桦5a生时胸径、树高和材积存在着显著差异,生长曲线在2 a生时近趋于直线;在4 a生和5 a生时生长曲线呈波形;生长量最大的是种源E(广西田阳),其次是种源K(云南澜沧);4 a生时生长量最小的是种源A(广西凌云),5a生时生长量最小的是种源J(云南墨江).

  11. 高温热处理对西南桦材色的影响%Impact of Heat Treatment on Color of Betula alnodies Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太安; 王昌命; 曾金水; 汉丽辉; 付成方

    2012-01-01

    Taking mass loss as the intensity damage indictor after the heat treatment was applied to the wood, the impact of heat treatment on the color of Betula alnodies wood was studied, and the correlation analysis between the mass loss and color change was conducted. It was showed that the lightness of the wood was decreased, whereas the color difference was increased along with the increment of treating temperature and treating time duration. There was no distinct rule for the change of the color parameters L * , a * , and b * determined by the CIELAB method. The mass loss was increased with prolonging of the heat treatment, which might be applied as a right index to indicate the lightness change and color difference before and after the heat treatment.%以失重率作为木材高温处理的强度损失因子,研究热处理对西南桦材色的影响,并对失重率与材色变化进行关联分析.结果表明:西南桦木材的明度、色差随处理温度的上升和处理时间的延长而下降、增加,红绿度和黄蓝度变化规律不明显;失重率随处理温度的上升和处理时间的延长而增加,以其为处理强度损失因子对明度变化和处理前后试材色差具有良好的指示性.

  12. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Öberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  13. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  14. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  15. [Expression analysis of miR164 and its target gene NAC1 in response to low nitrate availability in Betula luminifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Wu; Junhong, Zhang; Menghui, Huang; Minhui, Zhu; Zaikang, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen, an essential macronutrient for the growth and development of plants, affects above- ground biomass accumulation dramatically. Thus, it is very important to reveal the molecular mechanisms of how plants resist or adapt to low nitrogen availability. The NAC1(NAM, ATAF, CUC 1) gene, located in the upstream regulatory network, has been reported to resist low nitrogen by regulating expression of key downstream genes and thus root growth in (Populus tremula × alba).In this study, we detected the responses of miR164 and its target gene NAC1 under nitrate-starvation condition using the Betula luminifera somaclones G49-3 as material. The NAC1 gene which contains 1497 bp sequence, encodes 358 amino acids and contains a highly conserved NAM domain at N terminal was cloned by the RACE method. The NAC1 was then validated to be the target gene of miR164 via 5'-RACE, and the cleavage site was between the 10(th) and 11(th) base. The expression patterns of miR164 and its target gene NAC1 were further detected under nitrate-starvation condition through qRT-PCR analysis. The results showed that miR164 expression was repressed by nitrate-starvation at the beginning of the treatment (4 d) and then ascended. However, the expression pattern of miR164 in roots was different from that in shoots and leaves. Moreover, the expression levels of target gene NAC1 and miR164 were negatively correlated. The expression level of miR164 in root was increased while that of NAC1 was decreased under Re treatment, which indicated that miR164 and its target gene NAC1 play a regulatory role in response to low nitrate availability. The findings of our study may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR164 regulates target gene NAC1 at post-transcriptional level, and provide valuable information for further study of the regulatory roles of miR164-NAC1 under nitrate-starvation condition.

  16. N2 fixation and cycling in Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica woodland exposed to free air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Jonathan; Godbold, Douglas; Smith, Andrew R; Grant, Helen

    2012-06-01

    We measured the effect of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) fixation in the tree species Alnus glutinosa growing in monoculture or in mixture with the non-N(2)-fixing tree species Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. We addressed the hypotheses that (1) N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa will increase in response to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, when growing in monoculture, (2) the impact of elevated CO(2) on N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa is the same in mixture and in monoculture and (3) the impacts of elevated CO(2) on N cycling will be evident by a decrease in leaf δ(15)N and by the soil-leaf enrichment factor (EF), and that these impacts will not differ between mixed and single species stands. Trees were grown in a forest plantation on former agricultural fields for four growing seasons, after which the trees were on average 3.8 m tall and canopy closure had occurred. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations were maintained at either ambient or elevated (by 200 ppm) concentrations using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system. Leaf δ(15)N was measured and used to estimate the amount (N(dfa)) and proportion (%N(dfa)) of N derived from atmospheric fixation. On average, 62% of the N in A. glutinosa leaves was from fixation. The %N(dfa) and N(dfa) for A. glutinosa trees in monoculture did not increase under elevated CO(2), despite higher growth rates. However, N(2) fixation did increase for trees growing in mixture, despite the absence of significant growth stimulation. There was evidence that fixed N(2) was transferred from A. glutinosa to F. sylvatica and B. pendula, but no evidence that this affected their CO(2) response. The results of this study show that N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa may be higher in a future elevated CO(2) world, but that this effect will only occur where the trees are growing in mixed species stands.

  17. Soil Seed Bank Characteristics Preliminary Comparison between Plantation and Natural Forest of Betula alnoides%西南桦人工林与天然林土壤种子库特征初步比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 刘海姣; 张劲峰; 耿云芬

    2013-01-01

    以西南桦人工林与天然林的土壤种子库为研究对象,采用室内萌发法对云南热区的西南桦人工林与天然林下0 ~10 cm深度的土壤种子库的种子储量及其垂直分布进行了研究.研究结果表明:①西南桦人工林有活力种子储量为2 027粒/m2,天然林有活力种子储量为3 043粒/m2;②西南桦人工林土壤种子库由21科38属的42种植物组成,其中乔木4种,占全部种类的0.69%;灌木16种,占7.70%;多年生草本10种,占14.90%;1 a生草本9种,占73.36%;藤本3种,占3.35%.西南桦天然林土壤种子库由24科43属的49种植物组成,其中乔木6种,占全部种类的10.56%;灌木15种,占18.31%;多年生草本14种,占4.38%;1 a生草本10种,占65.06%;藤本4种,占1.69%;③乔木、灌木的植物数量占总数的比例为天然林>人工林,而草本和藤本为天然林<人工林;④西南桦人工林与天然林土壤种子库有活力种子密度自上而下都呈现下降趋势,0~5 cm种子数量较5 ~ 10 cm多.%Taking soil seed bank of Betula alnoides plantation and Betula alnoides natural forest as the object, seeds storage and vertical distribution of soil seed bank under depth of 0 ~ 10cm were studied in Yunnan hot zone by using indoor germination method. The results showed that; (1)Vigor seed reserves of Betula alnoides plantation was 2027 seeds/ m2, and natural forest was 3043 seeds/ m2; (2) Soil seed bank of Betula alnoides plantation was consisted of 42 plant species belonging to 21 family and 38 genus, including 4 kinds of Arbor species, accounting for 0. 69% of all species; 16 kinds of shrubs, accounting for 7. 70% ; 10 kinds of perennial herbs, accounting for 14. 90% ; 9 kinds of annual herb, accounting for 73. 36% ; 3 kinds of Fujimoto, accounting for 3. 35% . Soil bank of Betula alnoides natural forest was consisted of 49 plant species belonging to 24 family and 43 genus, including 6 kinds of trees, accounting for

  18. The Analysis of the Growing Process of Choerospondias Axillaris,Alnus and Betula Luminifera%南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦生长发育进程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文鸿

    2015-01-01

    对腾冲县苏江林场于2012年春季在杉木采伐迹地上采用南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦与萌生杉木营造混交林,3年生时进行了调查并分析。结果表明:造林3年后3个树种的幼林保存率均达到92%,南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦阔叶树种的早期生长均表现了较强的速生性,各树种平均树高和胸径依次为南酸枣6.0m 和6.5cm ,桤木5.8m和6.2cm ;光皮桦4.8m和4.4cm。南酸枣更适宜作为腾冲杉木采伐迹地的更新树种,营造速生丰产的工业原料林。%A mixed forest w hich contains Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus ,Betula luminifera and the coppice of Chinese fir was built on the cutover land of Chinese fir in Sujiang Forestry Centre in the spring of 2012 .The article conducts an investigation and analysis of the mixed forest after years .The results indicate that three years after the afforestation ,the preservation rate of the three species'young forest reaches 92% and the ear‐ly growth of the Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus and Betula luminifera shows stronger fast -growing .The average height and DBH of Choerospondias axillaris is 6 .0m and 6 .5cm .That of Alnus 5 .8m and 6 .2cm and that of Betula luminifera is 4 .8m and 4 .4cm .Therefore ,Choerospondias axillaris is more suitable being the regenerated species on the Chinese fir cutover land in Tengchong ,which aims to create fast -growing and high yield industrial raw material forest .

  19. Population dynamics of Betula ermanii associated with soil change on treeline of northern slope of Changbai Mountains%长白山北坡林线岳桦种群与土壤关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 刘惠清

    2011-01-01

    以长白山北坡林线为研究区,选择4块样地(83个样方)进行岳桦种群径级结构与土壤理化性质关系的研究.采用单因子方差等方法分析土壤理化性质(有机质、全氮、全磷、砾石含量)和岳桦种群(灌丛和乔木)径级结构的关系,采用相关分析法做岳桦种群与土壤性质的动态变化分析.结果表明土壤因子对岳桦种群的扩张有一定的制约作用,但不足以决定林线的进退,岳桦通过不断调整生活型克服土壤约束以应对气候变化.%This paper, taking the treeline of northern slope of Changbai Mountains as the research object, selected 4 plots (83 quadrats) to study diameter-class structure of Betula ermanii population and soil physical and chemical properties. Four indices of soil properties (SOM, TN, AN and gravel contents) and diameter-class structure of two life forms (shrub and single-trunk) were analyzed by ANOVA, correlation analysis and other statistical analysis. The relationships between population dynamics and soil change were investigated by correlation analyses. The results showed soil physical and chemical properties on different quadrats had obvious difference with different expansion of Betula ermanii population. Soil factor had a certain restrictive effect on population dynamics. However,soil factor did not play a crucial role in treeline shifts and population expansion. The gradual weakening of soil properties has an effect on treeline shifts with the passage of time.The Betula ermanii population tended to continuously adjust its life forms to adapt air temperature change in order to overcome soil restrictions.

  20. 基质施肥对西南桦苗木生长的影响%Effects of Fertilizers on Seedling Growth of Betula alnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海娇; 王智斌; 庞岳燕; 李莲芳; 段安安; 王慷林

    2013-01-01

      The L16(45)orthogonal design was applied to implement 2 factors with each including 4 levels of organ⁃ic fertilizer and compound fertilizer. The purpose was to understand the influences of fertilizations on seedling growth of Betula alnoides. The results showed that:(1)There were significantly different effects of organic fertiliz⁃er,compound fertilizer and their interaction on seedling growth of basal diameter and heights for 150 and 210 days’old seedlings. the base diameter (BD)and heights of seedlings had a active response to. Organic fertilizer and their interaction were significantly presented a negative effects on the seedling growth,which indicated that Only compound fertilizer could promoted the seedling growth;(2)Among 16 treated combination,the sole fertiliza⁃tion of 50g/m2 compound fertilizer had basal diameter of 0.96mm (210d)and the heights of 6.7 and 9.8cm for 150 and 210 days’old seedlings,which were extremely larger than other treated combinations;(3)The optimal fer⁃tilizer combination was A1B2(organic fertilizer: 0kg/m2 with compound fertilizer 50g/m2),in terms of only com⁃pound fertilizer of 50g/m2 could promote seedling growth of B. alnoides. The optimal treated combination in theo⁃ry and practice was the consistent in the experiment.%  采用L16(45)正交试验设计进行有机肥和复合肥2因素各含4个水平的试验,了解其对西南桦苗木生长的影响。结果表明:(1)苗龄150d和210d时,有机肥、复合肥和二者的交互作用均极显著地影响西南桦苗木地径和苗高的生长。有机肥和二者的交互作用对苗木生长呈现极显著的负效应,单施复合肥即可达到促进西南桦苗木生长的目的;(2)有机肥和复合肥的16种配施中,单施复合肥50g/m2的平均地径和苗高在2个苗龄时均极显著地较其他配施的大,分别为0.96mm(210d)和6.7、9.8cm;(3)影响苗木生长的最佳配施为A1B2(有机肥0kg/m2

  1. 青海省湟水流域红桦林的分布规律%Distribution Law of Betula albo-sinensis Qinghai Huangshui River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生华

    2012-01-01

    通过二类资源调查数据总结了青海湟水流域的红桦林的分布及生境、组成与结构、林型、生长规律及更新与演替。调查结果表明:红桦林分布地区气候干湿季分明,分布区海拔2300—2900m;林分结构和组成不稳定且复杂;林型同龄单层纯林居多,主要有为苔草红桦林和灌木红桦林2种,相林不整齐,生长缓慢,树干分叉多枝,干形弯曲,尖削度较大,立木多呈团状分布。林分分层明显,可分为乔木层、下木层、草被层、苔藓层等四个层次;20龄后开始结实,40年后进入盛期,非常有利于天然更新。现有红桦林绝大部分是云杉林被破坏后而形成的次生林,红桦幼树随着年龄的增大,需光量也随之增加,常因不能忍受林内较弱的光照而逐渐衰弱和死亡。属云杉林演替过程中的一个过渡阶段。%Through Two types of resources survey data the paper summarize distribution and habitat, the composition and structure of forest types, growth regulation, and update and succession of Betula albo-sinensis Huangshui valley Qinghai. The survey results show that:distribution of regional climate wet and dry season clearly, the distribution of district elevation 2300-2900 ; stand structure and composition of the instability and complexity; forest types have monolayer pure forest, and shrub birch, forest irregular, slow growth, trunk forked branch, trunk-shaped bend, taper, stump mostly slug distribution. The obvious stand stratification, can be divid- ed into four levels of the tree layer,the understory layer,grass layer, moss layer; strong after 20 age ,40 years after the peak, is very conducive to natural regeneration. Existing birch, most of the spruce forest is destroyed after the formation of secondary forest, with age increases, the required amount of light also increases, often because they can not put up with weak light in the forest and gradually weakened and death

  2. Benefits in Mixed Forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera%杉木光皮桦混交林效益的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承标; 邓绍林; 农必昌

    2001-01-01

    对桂西北杉木光皮桦混交林和杉木纯林的对比研究表明,35年生杉桦混交林的立木蓄积量为441.087 m3*hm-2,比杉木纯林高3.6%。混交林枯枝落叶层现存量及其N,P,K,Ca,Mg等元素的质量浓度分别为13.18 t*hm-2,158.3,6.1,16.5,86.3和32.3 kg*hm-2,分别比杉木纯林高9.7%,76.7%,69.4%,96.4%,83.2%,17.0%。混交林地(0~100 cm)土壤容重为0.81~1.22 g*hm-3,比杉木纯林低1.0%~8.0%,而土壤孔隙度,通气度和持水量分别比杉木纯林高2.0%~3.9%。土壤有机质、全氮、水解氮、有效磷和速效钾分别比杉木纯林高5.5%~49.8%。%Comparative studies were conducted on mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera and pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in westren of Guangxi.The result showed that the growing stocks in stands of 35-year-old mixed forest was 441.087 m3*hm-2,which was by 3.6% higher than those of the same years old forests of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata.The mean standing crop of litteron forest floor in mixed forest was 13.18 t*hm-2 and the mass concentration of N,P,K,Ca,Mg were 158.3,6.1,16.5,86.3,32.3 kg*hm-2,respectively.Being by 9.7%,76.7%,69.4%,96.4%,83.2%,17.0% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest,respectively.In mixed forest,the soil volume weight (0~100 cm) were 0.81~1.22 g*cm-3,were 1.0%~8.0% lower than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,but it total poresity aeration porosity and moisture capacty were 2.0%~3.9% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,respectively.The nutrientconcentration of organic matter,TN,hydrolazable N,available P and repidly available K in the soil,being by 5.5%~49.8% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,respectively.

  3. STUDY ON THOUSAND-SEED WEIGHT,LONGEVITY AND VITALITY OF SEEDS OF BETULA LUMINIFERA%光皮桦种子千粒重、寿命及生命力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝小科; 朱守谦

    2003-01-01

    The thousand-seed weight, germination rate and vitality of seeds for Betula luminifera were studied. The results showed that the thousand-seed weight was different in various habitats, and varied with the age and the part of crown and fruit. The seed had a longevity of 32—37 days in general and with a characteristic of the rapid germination. The seed had a high germination rate during the early stage or perk stage of seed dispersal, and a lower germination rate during the end stage. The germination rate and vitality of mature seed reduced with the increase of the storing time, the change in seed ger-mination was significantly different at the various ages and habitats.

  4. 长白山北坡岳桦林线变动的水热条件分析%Water and Heat Changes of Betula ermanii Treeline on Northern Slope of Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 刘惠清

    2011-01-01

    近50年来长白山北坡林线种群呈现明显的扩张态势.为揭示林线变动机制,本文以长白山天池气象站的气象数据(1953-2007年)为基础,结合野外的气温观测,以温暖指数(WI)及湿润指数(WI)为生态气候指标,以16℃·月和68.8mm/℃·月为阈值,通过数据保证率的计算推测55年来长白山北坡岳桦林线的水热条件变化.结果表明:以WI和HI指标确定的林线位置分别在1975~2460 m和1584~2231m.WI与HI变化对林线高度变动影响的交互作用不显著(P>0.05),WI与HI变化呈显著负相关(P<0.01),两种林线变化也呈负相关(r=0.11<0),交互作用和相关分析结果显示水热条件的不同步变化使岳桦林线上侵不能达到各自的潜在高度,林线位置波动在1975~2231m.林线上缘波动的复杂程度高于下缘,波动幅度与胁迫力的大小呈正相关.%The treeline of Betula ermanii population had an obviously expanding trend on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains in recent 50 years. In order to examine the changing mechanism of treeline, in this study, based on the data from Tianchi meteorological station (2624 m altitude) regarded as a referencing site (1953-2007) and the air temperature field measurement, using two eco-climatic preferences which were warmth index (WI) and humid index (HI), the ecotone boundary between Betula ermanii and tundra on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains was determined by assurance ratio. The results were calculated by using the thresholds at 16 ℃· month and 68.8 mm/℃·month, and they showed that the two treelines were at 1975-2460 m and 1584-2231 m respectively. The interaction influence of WI and HI changes on treeline was not significant (p>0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between WI and HI change (p<0.01). In addition, there was a negative correlation between two treelines changes (r =-0.11<0). The results of correlation and interaction analysis indicated that the

  5. Cloning and Analysis of Decay-related Genes of lrpex lacteus%白囊耙齿菌腐朽木材相关cDNA片段的序列克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡娟; 刘欣; 闫绍鹏; 王秋玉

    2011-01-01

    为了解白囊耙齿菌腐朽木材的分子机制,利用基因差异显示技术(Differential display reverse transcriptase,PCRDDRT-PCR)研究了白囊耙齿菌腐朽白桦木材前后基因表达的差异.共分离出5个腐朽后在菌丝体中特异表达的cDNA片段,分别命名为A2、A7、C6、B8和B3.序列同源性比对发现:片段A2、A7和C6分别与编码漆酶(Laccase)、纤维素酶A(Cellulase A)和麦芽糊精磷酸化酶(Maltodextrin phosphorylase)等3个基因具有高度同源性;B8与一个编码响应调节蛋白的基因具有高度同源性.研究结果显示,所筛选的差异表达基因A2、A7和C6等与木材降解有密切关系.%In order to know molecular mechanism of wood decayed by Irpex lacteus, the expression of the decay-related genes of /. Lacteus were analyzed after inoculated with Betula platyphylla Suk wood, by the method of differential display reverse transcriptase PCR (DDRT-PCR). Five special expressed Cdna segments of the mycelium of I. Lacteus were obtained from the decayed wood, which were named as A2, A7, C6, B8 and B3. Among them, A2, A7 and C6 were highly homologous to known genes including laccase, cellulase A and maltodextrin phosphorylase, respectively. B8 was highly homologous to responding regulated protein. This study suggested that A2, A7 and C6 had a close relationship with wood decay. Fig 2, Tab 2, Ref 22

  6. Characteristics of nutrient contents and storages i n Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides%红椎和西南桦营养元素的含量与储量特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玲; 何友均; 覃林; 陈绍志

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient elements in different organs of the plant and different contents or storages of nutrient elements in the same organs,not only reflect the plant’s own biological characteristics,but also reflect the plant under certain habitats capacity to absorb and accumulation of mineral from soil.To illustrate the characteristics of nutrient element contents and storages of different valuable local forestation hardwood species in the southern subtropical area of Chi-na,we studied the contents and storages of five nutrient elements (N,P,K,Ca and Mg)in Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides from the Experimental Centre of Tropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of Forestry located in Pingx-iang,Guangxi.We have got some meaningful results from collecting plant samples,laboratory test and statistical a-nalysis method.The total contents of these five nutrient elements in different organs of Castanopsis hystrix and Bet-ula alnoides were in the order of leaf>fine root>twig>medium root>thick root>bark>root tip>stem.The con-tents of N and K were the highest among the five elements,followed by Ca and Mg,while P was the lowest in various organs of the two trees.The contents of N and P in leaf were significantly higher than those in other organs for Cas-tanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides (Ptwig>bark>leaf>thick root>fine root>medium root.The nutrient utilization effi-ciency of Castanopsis hystrix was slightly higher than that of Betula alnoides.The study revealed that the nutritional requirements of Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides would provide theoretical basis for adj usting and improving the two trees growing environment,as well as making forest land nutrient management strategies.%营养元素在植物不同器官及不同营养元素在同一器官中的含量与储量特征,不仅反映植物自身的生物学特性,而且还反映了植物在一定的生境下从土壤中吸收和蓄积矿质养分的能力.为了阐明我国南亚热带不同珍优乡土阔叶造

  7. The Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR in Betula luminifera%光皮桦实时荧光定量PCR内参基因的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文哲; 牛明月; 李秀云; 林二培; 黄华宏; 童再康

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]Real-time quantitative PCR ( RT-qPCR) has become the preferred approach to the quantification of gene expression. Besides its simplicity and efficiency,this method requires suitable reference genes to guarantee the accuracy of the quantification. Betula luminifera is not only a high-quality timber species with excellent wood properties, but also an ideal species for genetic study. Stability of candidate reference genes in different tissues was investigated using RT-qPCR and expression analysis software to select suitable reference genes,the reliability of the reference genes was further verified through expression analysis of two functional genes in different tissues. [Method]16 housekeeping genes were chosen as candidate reference genes,and specificity of the primers was investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve of target amplified fragments. The software of geNorm,NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to analyze expression stability of reference genes in 16 different tissues. Furthermore,two functional genes were selected to verify the reliability of the suitable reference genes. [Result]Electrophoresis results showed distinct PCR products with the expected size,and the single-peak melting curves further indicated the specificity of the selected primers. Except 18S,the Ct values of the candidate genes were all between 25 to 30 ,indicating the expressions of these candidate genes were quite stable in different tissues. EF1α was characterized as the most stable gene based on NormFinder and BestKeeper analysis, while TATA was ranked in the first place according to geNorm. UBi-lp showed the most unstable expression. Furthermore, three top-stable genes ( EF1α,TATA and UBi4 ) and the unstable gene UBi-lp were chosen to verify the reliability of the reference genes. As results,the two target genes showed consistent expression profiles when normalized by the three top-ranked reference genes,and UBi-lp failed to standardize the expression

  8. Population Structure Dynamics of Betula luminifera Secondary Forest in Jixi County of Anhu i Province, China%绩溪光皮桦次生林的种群动态1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 程国源; 丁强强; 方乐金

    2014-01-01

    对绩溪光皮桦次生林种群进行了调查,以种群生命表及生存分析理论为基础,以林木径级结构代表龄级结构,编制了绩溪光皮桦种群静态生命表,分析绩溪光皮桦次生林种群结构的动态变化特点。结果表明:光皮桦种群结构呈纺锤型,幼龄个体数量偏少,中龄个体数居多,而老龄个体则相对数量较少,说明种群有衰退的趋势;在第Ⅴ龄级时该种群出现死亡高峰,其种群存活曲线属 Deevey-Ⅱ型;绩溪光皮桦次生林种群具有前期种群数量少,中期稳定,末期衰退的特点。%The experiment was conducted to determine population structure dynamic and quantitative statistics of Betula luminif-era in a secondary forest of Jixi county, Anhui Province.By the population life table and survival analysis, the life table of Betula luminifera population was constructed and age classes were replaced with size-classes, therefore, the population structure dynamic of B.luminifera was explored.The results of the population structure illustrates a spindle type with a gradually decline in population.The individual plants of class I and class II are not enough.The survival curve in the pop-ulation is a Deevey-Ⅱtype with a peak of mortality in size class V.The population size ofB .luminifera declines sharply in early stage, stabilizes in middle stage and falls rapidly in last stage.

  9. Study on Anatomy and Physiology of Graft Healing Process in‘P .armeniaeae f olia/P .betulae f olia’%‘杏叶梨/杜梨’嫁接愈合过程的解剖学与生理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曼娜; 孙华丽; 宋健坤; 杨英杰; 王然

    2014-01-01

    针对‘杏叶梨(Pyrus armeniacaefolia/杜梨(Pyrus betulifolia)’嫁接组合出现的“小脚”现象,以杜梨自体嫁接(杜梨/杜梨)为对照,进行了愈合过程解剖结构观察及生理变化分析,以探讨梨嫁接亲和性机理。结果表明:杏叶梨的材皮比显著小于杜梨;砧穗嫁接愈合过程解剖学观测可大致分为4个阶段,分别为隔离层形成、愈伤组织形成、砧穗愈伤组织相互接触及分化和新输导组织形成;‘杏叶梨/杜梨’嫁接口愈合速度滞后‘杜梨/杜梨’6d;与‘杜梨/杜梨’自体嫁接对照相比,‘杏叶梨/杜梨’嫁接口处多酚氧化酶(PPO )与苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PA L )活性变化幅度较大,除个别观测点(嫁接后18d)外,PPO活性大部分时期高于‘杜梨/杜梨’;木质素含量在两种嫁接组合的愈合后期均表现增加趋势,但‘杜梨/杜梨’增加趋势更明显;‘杜梨/杜梨’可溶性糖含量高峰早于‘杏叶梨/杜梨’;两种嫁接组合可溶性蛋白含量变化趋势相近,但‘杜梨/杜梨’嫁接口可溶性蛋白含量显著高于‘杏叶梨/杜梨’。%On the scion overgrowing phenomenon of ‘P . armeniaeae f olia/P .betulae f olia’ in field ,the P .betuli f olia antilogous grafting was taken as contrast and the mechanism of graft compatibility was dis-cussed by observing the effects of cicatrization on the anatomical structures and analyzing the physiological change of graft union .The results revealed that the ratio of wood and bark of P .armeniaeaefolia was sig-nificant less than P .betulae f olia .Observing the anatomical structures of graft union ,we found that the graft healing process was approximately divided into 4 stages ,which were the insulating layer forming , callus forming ,connecting and differentiating of callus of the scion and stock ,and the conducting tissue forming respectively .On the rate of cicatrization of graft union ,

  10. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization.

  11. Accumulative response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to heavy metals enhanced by Pb-Zn ore mining and processing plants: Explicitly spatial considerations of ordinary kriging based on a GIS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-02-01

    Plants have an accumulative response to heavy metals present in soils or deposited from airborne sources of emissions. Therefore, their tissues are very often used in studies of heavy metal contamination originating from different sources as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr in washed and unwashed needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) growing in a contaminated area. We collected needles of Scots pine and leaves of silver birch in an area around a sedimentation pond and metallurgic plant processing Pb and Zn ores near Olkusz, Poland. Concentrations of heavy metals, which have been linked with exposure to emissions, were determined from foliar samples collected at 33 sites. These sites were established at various distances (0.5-3.6 km) from the pond and metallurgic plant so as to identify the predominant accumulative response of plants. Spatial gradients for Pb and Zn were calculated using an ordinary kriging interpolation algorithm. A spatial pattern was identified by a GIS method to visualize maps over the Pb-Zn ore mining area. The accumulation of Zn (R(2) = 0.74, p < 0.05) and Pb (R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.01) in plant tissues correlated with soil concentrations. This tendency was not found in the case of Cu, Cd and Cr.

  12. Genetic diversity of F1 and F2 interspecific hybrids between dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) and Himalayan birch (B. utilis var. jacquemontii (Spach) Winkl. 'Doorenbos') using RAPD-PCR markers and ploidy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Małgorzata; Pławiak, Jarosław; Muras, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Crosses between Betula nana and B. utilis 'Doorenbos' were undertaken in order to obtain interspecific hybrids which could be characterized by wide spreading stems, strong branching habit, decorative clear white bark and an interesting shape of purple leaves. The research purpose was to examine genetic diversity of the 16 F1 and F2 putative progenies by using the RAPD-PCR method and the ploidy analysis. A total of 242 RAPD markers were scored with 24 primers and 220 (90.9%) polymorphic bands were found. In the NJ dendrogram, cluster I consisted of the female parent--B. nana and 12 hybrids and cluster II grouped the male parent--B. utilis 'Doorenbos' with 4 hybrids (F2/2, F1/8, F1/7 and F2/1). The 2-D scaling by PCoA was in agreement with the similarity index, i.e. two hybrids (F1/8, F2/2) grouped with the male parent while others with female parent. Classification of the hybrid plants by chromosome counting demonstrated that 13 hybrids were confirmed with accurate chromosome counts as being diploid (2n=2x=28) and 3 plants (F1/7, F1/8, F2/2) as triploid with 42 chromosomes.

  13. 修枝高度对西南桦人工幼林生长的影响%Effects of pruning height on growth performance of young plantations of Betula alnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春胜; 吴龙敦; 赵志刚; 林天龙; 郭俊杰; 沙二; 曾杰

    2012-01-01

    A pruning trail was conducted with series of pruning heights in five-year-old plantations of Betula alnoides, so as to assess the effect of pruning heights on growth performances of Betula alnoide and determine the optimal pruning height. Diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and height of the lowest living branch were investigated in three years after pruning, and the volume was calculated by stem form factor at breast height. The results indicate that the increment of tree height and volume did not vary significantly under different treatments of pruning heights in three years after pruning. While DBH growth decreased apparently with increasement of pruning height and significant difference was seen between the control and other pruning treatments late in the first year after pruning, and there was no remarkable difference between them in the third year. Taking growth process and operational feasibility of pruning into consideration, the optimal pruning height was 6 meters for trees with height above 9.5 meters, and 5 meters for height above 8.0 meters, in other words, the pruning intensity was about 30%~40%. It not only had a weak effect on tree growth but also increased the production rate of high quality timber. The findings can provide scientific evidences for large-size knot-free timber production of B. alnoides.%以5年生西南桦人工林为研究对象,设置系列高度处理开展修枝试验,调查不同修枝处理当年及3年生西南桦的生长表现,从而探讨西南桦人工幼林的最佳修枝高度.研究结果显示:各修枝处理间西南桦树高及材积增长量在修枝后3年内均无显著差异,而修枝对西南桦当年的胸径生长有显著抑制作用,且随着修枝高度的增加而胸径增长量逐渐降低,而修枝后第3年各处理间胸径增长量差异不显著.综合考虑西南桦生长规律及修枝操作上的可行性,确定5年生时树高大于9.5 m的西南桦林木,其合适的修枝高度为6m

  14. Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riikonen, J. [Kuopio Univ., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Kets, K.; Sober, A. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Botany and Ecology; Darbah, J.; Karnosky, D.F. [Michigan Technical Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science; Oksanen, E. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Biosciences; Vapaavuori, E. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Inst.; Kubiske, M.E.; Nelson, N. [USDA Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Forestry Sciences Laboratory

    2008-02-15

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhances photosynthesis by increasing carboxylation rates and decreasing the rate of photorespiration. While elevated CO{sub 2} has the potential to increase frost hardiness in trees by increasing bud size and concentrations of cryoprotective soluble sugars in overwintering organs, little is known about the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on late-season photosynthesis. This study examined 3 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones and 3 paper birch (Betula papyrifera) grown at a site with elevated CO{sub 2} and ozone (O{sub 3}) applied singly and in combination. Gas exchange was studied throughout the eighth growing season. The study also examined specific leaf area and size in September and final size, carbohydrate, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water concentrations in November. The timing of leaf abscission was also studied, as well as bud burst and the development of leaf area index the following Spring. Results of the study showed that net photosynthesis was enhanced by between 49 and 73 per cent with elevated levels of CO{sub 2}, and decreased by between 13 and 30 per cent with elevated O{sub 3}. Elevated CO{sub 2} delayed leaf abscission and increased the ratio of monosaccharides in aspen buds. Total carbon concentrations in overwintering buds were unaffected by the treatments. It was concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} ameliorated the effects of elevated O{sub 2}, but had the potential to alter C metabolism of overwintering buds. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Effects of root medium pH on root water transport and apoplastic pH in red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Zwiazek, J J

    2016-11-01

    Soil pH is a major factor affecting plant growth. Plant responses to pH conditions widely vary between different species of plants. However, the exact mechanisms of high pH tolerance of plants are largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the pH responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings, a relatively sensitive species to high soil pH, with red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), reported to be relatively tolerant of high pH conditions. We examined the hypotheses that tolerance of plants to high root zone pH is linked to effective control of root apoplastic pH to facilitate nutrient and water transport processes In the study, we exposed paper birch and red-osier dogwood seedlings for six weeks to pH 5, 7 and 9 under controlled-environment conditions in hydroponic culture. Then, we measured biomass, gas exchange, root hydraulic conductivity, ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity, xylem sap pH and the relative abundance of major elements in leaf protoplasts and apoplasts. The study sheds new light on the rarely studied high pH tolerance mechanisms in plants. We found that compared with paper birch, red-osier dogwood showed greater growth, higher gas exchange, and maintained higher root hydraulic conductivity as well as lower xylem sap pH under high pH conditions. The results suggest that the relatively high pH tolerance of dogwood is associated with greater water uptake ability and maintenance of low apoplastic pH. These traits may have a significant impact on the uptake of Fe and Mn by leaf cells.

  16. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU: results of a 3-year experiment in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Kristian R; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Arndal, Marie F; Boesgaard, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders; Bruhn, Dan; Schmidt, Niels M

    2012-07-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV-B transparent filter control (Teflon), UV-B-absorbing filter (Mylar) and UV-AB-absorbing filter (Lexan). Ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical normally used to protect plants against ozone injury, was sprayed on the leaves both in the field and in an additional laboratory study to investigate if EDU mitigated the effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TR(o) /ABS = F(v) /F(m)), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PI(ABS)), despite improved leaf screening against UV-B with higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds and a lower specific leaf area. EDU application counteracted the negative impact of UV-B on TR(o) /ABS, RC/ABS and PI(ABS) . This indicates that the mechanisms behind UV-B and ozone damage share some common features. The midday depression was present in all treatments, but TR(o) /ABS and PI(ABS) were persistently lower in near-ambient UV-B compared to UV-B reduction. The recovery phase was particularly impaired in near-ambient UV-B and interactive effects between treatment × hour raised TR(o) /ABS, RC/ABS and PI(ABS) higher in reduced UV-B compared to near-ambient UV-B. This demonstrates current solar UV-B to reduce the PSII performance both on a daily as well as a seasonal basis in this High Arctic species.

  17. Effects of Drought Stress on Photosynthesis & Content of Osmoregulation Substance for Betula maximowicziana%干旱胁迫对真桦光合特性及渗透调节物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓冬; 李蕴峰; 刘宇明

    2012-01-01

    Using potted seedlings of Betula maximowicziana as material,an experiment was conducted to study the effects of drought stress on photosynthesis content of osmoregulation substance.Result shows that: net photosynthetic rate(P_n),transpiration rate,stomatal conductance(G_s) in seedlings of B.maximowicziana were significantly decreased by drought stress;decreased range increase with the increased levels of stress.At initial stage of the stress,G_s intercellular CO_2 content(C_i) decrease with the decrease of the P_n in group of slight or medium drought stress;photosynthesis reduction is mainly due to stomatal factor;for the metaphase or late stage,a decreasing P_n with higher C_i indicated that non-stomatal factor is the leading limitation.Soluble sugar in seedlings of B.maximowicziana increased under soil moisture stress,but non-significant change in soluble protein;soluble sugar is the main osmoregulation substance.%以真桦盆栽幼苗为试材,研究干旱胁迫对真桦叶片光合作用和渗透调节物质含量的影响。结果表明:干旱胁迫使真桦幼苗净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度显著降低,降低幅度随胁迫程度的加剧而加大。胁迫初期,轻度和中度干旱胁迫组真桦幼苗净光合速率降低的同时气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度同时降低,光合速率降低的主要原因是气孔因素;胁迫中期和后期,各干旱处理组光合速率降低的同时胞间CO2浓度均显著升高,非气孔限制是净光合速率降低的主要原因。真桦在干旱胁迫过程中,可溶性蛋白变化不显著,可溶性糖含量增加,为主要的渗透调节物质。

  18. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic ions in plant parts of Betula pendula from two different types of ecosystems (Wielkopolski National Park and Chemical Plant in Luboń, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The results of inorganic and organic anion concentrations in samples of soils and plant parts of Betula pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, leaves), in the bioavailable fraction, are presented in this study. An ion chromatography method was applied for the first time in the simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions, as an effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples with different matrix. A linear gradient elution with potassium hydroxide allowed for the separation of both inorganic and organic ions such as: F(-), CH3COO(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2 (-), Br(-) and NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), CH2(COO)2 (2-), C2O4 (2-), PO4 (3-) and C3H5O(COO)3 (3-). The samples of soils and plant parts of B. pendula from the area of the Wielkopolski National Park (WNP) and the Chemical Plant in Luboń (LU; protected vs. contaminated area) were selected for the study. The obtained results indicated that such inorganic ions as: F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) are quite easily transported from soil to leaves. In contrast, the mechanism of migration could not be clearly defined for SO4 (2-) because the ion was retained in roots of many of the analysed samples. Significantly higher bioavailability of inorganic ions was observed for samples collected from the area of the WNP. Phosphates were the only ions which showed no variation in their concentrations between the two sampling sites, both for soils and plant parts of B. pendula. None of the organic anions was detected in soil samples. The acetate, formate, malonate, oxalate and citrate ions were detected in all leaf samples. The statistical analysis allowed the author to determine the mechanism of ion migration and accumulation in leaves and, additionally, determine the variation in the occurrence of inorganic and organic ions depending on the sampling site (WNP vs. LU). The results of the statistical analysis were confirmed by the bioacumulation (BF) and translocation (TF) factors.

  19. The Dynamics Response of Betula ermanii Population and Climate Change on Different Slopes Aspect of North Slope,Changbai Mountains%长白山北坡林线岳桦种群动态对气候变化响应的坡向分异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 刘惠清

    2012-01-01

    To discover the relation between Betula ermanii population dynamics and climate change on treeline ecotone of Changbai Mountains,53 plots were selected on three different slope aspects(northeast,southeast,east slopes) through treeline ecotone on north slope of Changbai Mountains.Distributing character of the diameter-class(diameter at breast height(DBH)) structure of shrub and single-trunk forms were described by four aggregation indices.Trend analysis of distributing character was carried through by unitary linearity equations.Different reflection of the dynamics response of Betula ermanii population to climate change on different slope aspects was analyzed by stepwise regression and correlation analysis.The results are as follows:the results of trend analysis of the diameter-class distributing(slopes of equations are negative) shows the capacity expansion rate of shrub form is east slopes〉southeast slopes〉northeast slopes and that of single trunk form is northeast slopes〉east slopes〉southeast slopes.The population expansion is leapfrog and pulsatile from low to high(p〉0.01).The result of One-way ANOVA displays that daily mean temperature on three slopes are significant differences(p〈0.05) and the temperature change has synchronism.The results of correlation analysis between annual stem recruitment of Betula ermanii population and 14 ecological preferences of air temperature(1953-2008) show that the different response of population dynamics to climate change caused by different temperature on three slopes.The difference of climate change lead to different expansion of Betula ermanii population on different positions.%选取长白山北坡岳桦(Betula ermanii)苔原交错带3个不同坡向(东北坡、东南坡、东坡)的岳桦径级结构为研究对象,分析坡向在岳桦种群动态与气候变化之间关系的异同。结果表明:三坡向的岳桦种群扩张和气温高低存在明显差异。14个

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of seed rain in natural forest of Betula alnoides in Jingxi County,Guangxi, China%广西靖西西南桦天然林种子雨的时空动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊杰; 赵志刚; 欧景莉; 沙二; 林开勤; 曾杰; 徐大平

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to study spatiotemporal dynamics of seed dispersal of Betula alnoides and analyze its correlation with wind speed and wind direction at community and individual levels. Methods Seed dispersal was investigated for a natural forest and an isolated tree of B. alnoides. We set seven sample lines 100 to 355 m long in or around the natural forest. One seed trap was placed every 5 m, and seeds were collected every two days. We set eight sample lines (east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest, north, northeast) around the isolated tree. Three seed traps were placed every 5 m from 0 to 50 m and every 10 m from 60 to 150 m, and seeds were collected each day. Wind speed and wind directions were measured at two sites. Seed rain density was calculated. Important findings The seed rain lasted 83 and 60 days at the community and individual levels, respectively. The starting, fastigium and subsiding stages of seed dispersal lasted 11,32 and 40 days for the community and 9, 25 and 26 days for the isolated individual. Seeds dispersed at the fastigium stage accounted for 83.1% and 68.7% of all seeds collected at the community and individual levels, respectively. Seed rain density was higher during the day than at night, and the highest seed rain density by day occurred at 12:00-16:00. At the individual level, seed rain density decreased with increasing distance from the maternal tree, and 79.6% of seeds were collected in the area of 0-30 m around the maternal tree. Seed rain density at the community level also decreased with longer distance from the forest edge, and 79.6% of seeds were collected in the area of 0-45 m around the forest edge. The seed rain density was significantly different among directions (p < 0.01), which was affected by wind direction. Seed rain density was also positively affected by wind speed (p < 0.05).%以一片西南桦(Betula alnoides)天然林和一个西南桦独立单株为研究对象,通过收集散种期内与林分或

  1. Comparison on soil microbial activities and bacterial diversity between Betula alnoides and Pinus massoniana plantations in red soil region, China%南方红壤区西南桦和马尾松人工林土壤微生物活性及细菌多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尚东; 吴俊; 谭宏伟; 刘永贤; 熊柳梅; 周柳强; 谢如林; 黄国勤; 赵其国

    2014-01-01

    目前,西南桦(Betula alnoides)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana)均是广西红壤区大规模种植的人工林树种。为了分析和评价这两个树种对土壤肥力和生态质量的影响,本文采用了稀释平板法和氯仿熏蒸提取法等传统方法分析了两种人工林土壤可培养微生物数量、微生物量碳、微生物量氮、涉及土壤碳、氮、磷循环相关酶活性等表征微生物活性的指标。同时,采用聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术分析了两种人工林土壤细菌多样性。结果表明,西南桦人工林土壤中可培养真菌数量与马尾松人工林虽无明显差异,但可培养细菌和放线菌数量均明显高于相应的马尾松人工林。土壤中β-葡萄糖苷酶、磷酸酶和蛋白酶活性在两种人工林之间虽无明显差异,但西南桦人工林各土层土壤的微生物生物量碳、氮指标均优于对应的马尾松林,表现出比马尾松更优的生态效果。此外,西南桦人工林土壤中各土层细菌多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener index)均高于相应的马尾松人工林土层。综上,比马尾松相比,西南桦是更有利于提高红壤区土壤肥力和维持林地土壤生态质量的造林树种。%In recent years, Betula alnoides and Pinus massoniana has been planted on large scale in red soil region of Guangxi Province. To clarify their influences on soil fertility and ecological quality in plantations, a comparative study was conducted to analyze the spatial variability of soil fertility and biological properties using the methods of dilution-plates and chloroform fumigation extraction. Meanwhile, the soil bacterial diversity in plantations was also analyzed by the method of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that the numbers of culturable bacteria and antinomycetes in the Betula alnoides plantation were significantly higher than

  2. Tissue Culture of Endangered Plant Betula microphylla var.paludosa and Its Pilotscale Experiment in Shanghai Area%濒危植物沼泽小叶桦组织培养技术及其在上海地区的中试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群

    2012-01-01

    为快速获得大量沼泽小叶桦苗,通过对茎尖进行丛生芽诱导、生根、移栽,成功获得了沼泽小叶桦组培苗.研究了沼泽小叶桦外植体不同灭菌方法、培养基等因素对沼泽小叶桦组培的影响.结果表明,10%次氯酸钠作为外植体消毒剂优于0.1%升汞,适宜的丛生芽诱导增殖培养基为MS+0.6 mg/L 6-BA+3%蔗糖+O.7%琼脂,最佳生根培养基为MS+3%蔗糖+0.7%琼脂.无菌苗移栽在蛭石∶珍珠岩∶草炭=3∶3∶4的介质中,成活率达100%,生长良好.%A large number of seedlings of Betula microphylla var. Paludosa was achieved by inducing adventitious buds, rooting and transferring. The effects of different disinfection methods, culture medium and proportions of transferring media on explants Betula microphylla var. Paludosa were investigated. The result showed that the disinfection effect of 10% sodium hypochlorite was better than 0.1% mercuric chloride. The appropriate culture medium for adventitious bud inducing proliferation was MS + 0. 6 mg/L 6-BA + 30 g/L sucrose + 7 g/L agar. The optimized rooting medium was MS + 30 g/L sucrose + 7 g/ L agar. The most effective medium for livability of asepsis sprout transferring of Betula microphylla var. Paludosa was vermiculite : per lite : peat = 3 : 3 : 4, and its surviving rate reached 100%. Tissue culture seedlings grew well in Shanghai area.

  3. 光皮桦茎叶cDNA文库构建及部分EST序列SSR分析%Library construction of cDNA and SSR analysis of partial ESTs for stem and leaf of Betula luminifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 黄华宏; 林二培; 周厚君; 王亚辉; 童再康

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA library of stem and leaf from Betula luminifera was constructed.The primary titer of cDNA library was about 1.5×106 pfu/mL,its recombinant efficiency reached 97.3%,and the size of insert DNA fragments ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 kb,with an average of 1.3 kb.The results indicated that it was a higher-quality cDNA library,and could be used in gene cloning and gene expression profile analysis.Distribution and frequency of SSRs were analyzed in 224 non-redundant ESTs from B.luminifera cDNA library,using online searching software.The results showed that 60 SSRs distributed in 47 EST sequences,accounting for 26.80% of all ESTs.Dinucleotide would be the major repeat types,accounting for 70.00% of the total number of acquired SSRs.The tri-nucleotide and tetra-nucleotide repeats accounted for 28.30% and 1.70% respectively.This research might lay the foundation for designing the targeted EST-SSR primers and genetic diversity analysis by mining the information of EST-SSR loci in B.luminifera EST sequence data.%以光皮桦茎叶组织为材料,构建了cDNA文库。初级文库滴度为1.5×106pfu/mL,重组率达97.3%,插入片段大小在0.5~3.0kb之间,平均长度约为1.3kb,表明所构建的文库质量较高,可用于后续基因克隆及基因表达谱的研究。利用微卫星查找软件对获得的224条EST序列进行微卫星位点搜寻及其丰度、分布比较,发现47条序列含微卫星位点60个,占全部EST序列的26.80%;在所有SSRs中二碱基重复最多,为42个,占总数的70.00%,含三、四碱基重复分别占总数的28.30%和1.70%。通过对光皮桦EST序列中微卫星位点信息的发掘分析,为有针对性地设计EST-SSR引物、进行遗传多样性分析奠定了基础。

  4. ALLOZYME DIVERSITY IN NATURAL POPULATIONS OF BETULA ALNOIDES FROM GUANGXI, CHINA%广西区西南桦天然居群遗传多样性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杰; 王中仁; 周世良; 郑海水; 白嘉雨

    2003-01-01

    以采自广西区11个西南桦(Betula alnoides)天然居群的种子培育出的幼苗为材料,取其嫩叶开展21种酶系统的水平切片淀粉凝胶电泳实验,运用作者改进的Tris-马来酸提取缓冲液 (含30%PVP 40 000和1%2-巯基乙醇),筛选出AMP(氨基肽酶Aminopeptidase)、FBA(果糖二磷酸酶Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase)、GDH(谷氨酸脱氢酶Glutamate dehydrogenase)、G6PD(6-磷酸葡萄糖脱氢酶Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase)、IDH(异柠檬酸脱氢酶Isocitrate dehydrogenase)、MDH(苹果酸脱氢酶Malate dehydrogenase)、PGD(6-磷酸葡萄糖酸脱氢酶Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase)、PGI(磷酸葡萄糖异构酶Phosphoglucoisomerase)、PGM(磷酸葡萄糖变位酶Phosphoglucomutase)和SKD(莽草酸脱氢酶Shikimate dehydrogenase)等10种酶,获得了清晰且可重复的酶谱.通过谱带遗传分析确定了15个位点,其中有6个单态位点,9个多态位点 (0.95标准),具40个等位基因.在居群水平上,西南桦的多态位点百分数 (P) 为55.2%,平均每个位点的等位基因数 (A) 为2.00,平均预期杂合度 (He) 为0.204.均超过Hamrick (1992)等提出的远交风媒木本植物的平均值(53.0%,1.84%和0.154),表明西南桦的遗传变异水平高.在11个西南桦居群内,实际杂合度 (Ho)均高于预期杂合度,出现杂合子过量,可能存在利于杂合子的自然选择.西南桦遗传多样性与地理位置相关不显著.居群2 (靖西地州)、5 (平果海城)、9 (田林者苗) 包含绝大部分的等位基因,而且具较高的遗传多样性,应加以保护和管理,作为其基因资源就地保存的基地.本研究解决了以西南桦嫩叶为材料进行等位酶分析的关键技术,为进一步开展西南桦乃至桦木属树种的遗传结构和遗传多样性等提供了技术基础;同时掌握了西南桦天然居群的遗传多样性现状,为其有效保护和合理经营以及西南桦的遗传改良提供了理论依据.

  5. Historiografia e identidade urbana no suk de Santa Catarina (décade de 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorval do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work isto reflect the relations of the historiographywith the official memoryand the urban identity, taking ascenter of the analysis a set of workmanshipsproduced in the South ofSanta Catarina in the 1970 decade.This period is considered basic inthe process of identity transformationsin which the cities of thecarboniferous region were goingthrough. In a certain way there is anintention to consider the inflectionsof the local historiography in theurban identity.

  6. [Soil enzyme activities under two forest types as affected by different levels of nitrogen deposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-tao; Li, Xue-feng; Han, Shi-jie; Hu, Yan-ling

    2008-12-01

    A simulation test was conducted to study the change trends of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and sucrase activities under natural broadleaf-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and secondary poplar (Populus davidiana) -birch (Betula platyphylla) mixed forests as affected by 0, 25, and 50 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) of N deposition. The results showed that the effects of elevated N deposition on test enzyme activities varied with forest type, and short-term nitrogen addition could significantly affect the test enzyme activities. High N deposition decreased soil polyphyneol oxidase activity, and correspondingly, soil cellulase and sucrase activities also had a trend of decrease.

  7. Relationship Between Climate and Tree-ring Chronology of Betula ermanii on Tree-line in North Slope of the Changbai Mountains%长白山北坡林线处岳桦年轮年表及其与气候的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 赵秀海; 高露双; 姜庆彪

    2012-01-01

    运用相关函数及响应分析等树木年轮气候学方法,研究了长白山北坡林线处岳桦(Betula ermanii径向生长及其与气候的关系.结果表明,林线处岳桦年轮宽度年表具有较强的气候敏感性.其径向生长与上年7月和当年3月的温度显著负相关(P<0.05),与上年9月和当年7月的温度显著正相关;同时与上年6月降水量显著正相关.与季节性气候因子的响应分析表明,岳桦径向生长与当年春季(1~3月)和当年生长季前(4、5月)的平均温度呈显著负相关,与当年生长季前的平均最高温度显著正相关,与降水量的相关关系不显著.利用多元逐步回归方法模拟了岳桦年轮宽度指数与气候因子间的关系,并据此预测在温度和降水增加的背景下,林线处岳桦径向生长将降低14.8%.%The tree-ring width chronologies were developed in north slope of the Changbai Mountains to analyze the Betula ermanii radial growth-climate relationships through dendrochronological methods including correlation and response analysis. The results showed that the radial growth of Betula ermanii exhibited a significantly nagative correlation with monthly temperature of both previous July and current March (P < 0.05), a significantly positive correlation with monthly temperature of previous September and current July, and a significantly positive correlation with monthly total precipitation of previous June. Besides, the analysis of response toseasonally climatic factors showed that the tree-ring growth of B. Ermanii had a significantly negative correlation with mean temperature of current spring (January to March), a significantly negative correlation with mean temperature of the period before current growth season (April and May), and a significantly positive correlation with mean maximum temperature of the period before current growth season. But it showed no significant correlation with seasonally precipitation. Furthermore, the

  8. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  9. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  10. 粤北西南桦种源试验林星天牛危害分析与早期综合评价%Hazard Analysis of Anoplophora chinensis and Early Comprehensive Selection of Betula alnoides Provenances in Northern Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 张朝斌; 丘英华; 郭俊杰; 何永佳; 翁启杰; 曾杰

    2011-01-01

    Betula alnoides Buch. -Ham. Ex D. Don is a fast-growing and precious tree species in tropical and warm subtropical regions. The wood borer damage has recently been one of key factors limiting the large-scale expansion of B. Alnoides plantations. A trial including 26 provenances and 322 families were established at Shaoguan State-owned Forest Farm in northern Guangdong Province, which were suffered from heavy damage of wood borers within two years after planted. The growth performance and resistances to wood borers of B. Alnoides were investigated for the purpose of early selection of germplasm. The results showed that there were significant differences among prove-nances in height and base diameter (P 0. 05) , and the mean attack rates for one-year-old and two-year-old B. Alnoides trees were 48. 21% and 36. 27% , respectively. Early selection of B. Alnoides provenance was carried out based on its growth performance and the attack rate by the wood borers. These findings could be contributive to understand the occurrence of A. Chinensis, protect from its damage, and provide evidences to select germplsm of B. Alnoides with good growth performance and strong resistance to A. Chinensis in northern Guangdong and surrounding areas with similar environment.%西南桦(Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham.Ex D.Don)是我国热带南亚热带地区的一个优良乡土阔叶树种[1-2],在云南、广西、广东等地被广泛应用于珍贵用材林基地建设,是该区域造林面积最大的乡土阔叶树种之一[2].西南桦木材可用于制作木地板、高档家具以及室内装饰等[3],而且人工林具维持生物多样性、涵养水源、保持地力以及较高的固碳能力等优良生态特性[2],在用材林、生态公益林等建设中具有重要的地位和发展潜力.经过二十多年的研究,西南桦的良种选育和栽培技术已取得显著成果,促进了人工林的发展,但在西南桦推广种植过程中,尤其是近几年来,蛀干害虫的

  11. 华西雨屏区亮叶桦凋落叶分解对模拟氮沉降的响应%Response of Betula luminifera leaf litter decomposition to simulated nitrogen deposition in the Rainy Area of West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂利华; 胡红玲; 胡庭兴; 张健; 雒守华; 戴洪忠

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to determine the effect of simulated increased nitrogen (N) deposition on decomposition of Betula luminifera leaf litter, under a high wet-nitrogen deposition background.Methods From January 2008 to February 2009, a field experiment of simulated N deposition was conducted in a B. Luminifera plantation in the Rainy Area of West China. The levels of nitrogen deposition were control (CK), low, medium and high N (0, 5, 15 and 30 g Nm-2·a-1, respectively). A field experiment using the litterbag method was conducted on the decomposition of leaf litter of B. Luminifera. In the end of each month, NH4NO3 was added into N-treated plots.Important findings Despite the high background N deposition, there were significant effects of simulated increased N deposition on B. Luminifera leaf litter. N treatments significantly slowed the decomposition of B. Luminifera leaf litter through inhibiting the decay of lignin and cellulose. The time of 95% mass loss (r95%) of B. Luminifera leaf litter was increased by 1.14-1.96 a from 2.65 a (T95o/o of CK) caused by simulated N deposition. Simulated N deposition significantly increased the remaining amount of carbon, N, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium after one year of decomposition. However, calcium release rate was stimulated by simulated N deposition in all three N treatments. The initial chemical characteristics of litter determined the response direction of litter decomposition to simulated N deposition, as well as the nutrient release pattern during litter decomposition.%从2008年1月至2009年2月,对华西雨屏区亮叶桦(Betula luminifera)人工林进行了模拟氮(N)沉降试验,N沉降水平分别为对照(CK,0gN·m-2·a-1)、低N(5 gN·m-2·a-1)、中N(15 g N·m-2·a-1)和高N(30g N·m-2·a-1).利用凋落袋法对亮叶桦凋落叶进行原位分解试验,并在每月下旬定量地对各处理施N (NH4NO3).结果表明,虽然华西雨屏区大气N沉降量较高,但模拟N沉降试验表明:在N

  12. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  13. Direct Emission of Methyvinylketone from Birch (\\textit{betula pendula})

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, A.; Koppmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2002-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of central importance for the chemistry of the troposphere. They have a significant impact on photochemical processes that lead to the formation of ozone and other photooxidants in the planetary boundary layer. With estimated global emission rates of 520 Tg yr {-1} [Guenther \\textit{et al.} 1995], biogenic emissions of short chained oxygenated VOCs (SOVOCs) like methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone cannot be neglected for atmospheric chemistry. In addition to the direct emission by plants SOVOCs are produced by chemical reactions of VOCs in the atmosphere. For some SOVOCs such as methanol, acetone, or leaf alcohols it is known that they have a large biogenic source strength. Other SOVOCs are believed to be only produced by atmospheric processes. For example methacrolein, and methylvinylketone (MVK) are believed to be exclusively produced during atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Thus, up to now the only known source of MVK in the atmosphere is the oxidation of VOCs like isoprene. We analysed SOVOC emissions from different plant species under well defined conditions in our plant chambers and determined the temperature- and light intensity dependence of their emission rates. During these measurements we also observed a direct MVK emission from birch. The emission rates exhibit a temperature and light intensity dependence. Artificial MVK formation was excluded by a series of experiments. Due to the direct emission of MVK probably also from other plant species than birch, measurements of ambient concentrations of this compound have to be carefully investigated. The fact that there may be a primary source for MVK has to be considered in model calculations concerning the photochemistry and the concentrations of OH radicals in the lower troposphere. \\begin{thebibliography}{} \\bibitem[Guenther \\textit{et al.} 1995]{Guenther1995} Guenther, A., Hewitt, C. N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T., Harley, P., Klinger, L., Lerdau, M., McKay, W. A., Pierce, T., Scholes, B., Steinbrecher, R., Tallamraju, R., Taylor, J., and Zimmerman, P. (1995), \

  14. Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan%川西亚高山森林凋落物分解初期土壤动物对红桦凋落叶质量损失的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏磊; 吴福忠; 杨万勤; 谭波

    2012-01-01

    2010年10月26日-2011年4月18日在川西亚高山地区季节性冻融期间,选择典型的红桦-岷江冷杉林,采用凋落物分解袋法调查了不同网孔(0.02、0.125、1和3 mm)凋落物分解袋内的凋落物质量损失,分析微型、中型和大型土壤动物对红桦凋落叶分解的贡献.结果表明:在季节性冻融期间,0.02、0.125、1和3 mm分解袋内的红桦凋落叶质量损失率分别为11.8%、13.2%、15.4%和19.5%,不同体径土壤动物对红桦凋落叶质量损失的贡献率为39.5%;不同孔径凋落物袋内土壤动物的类群和个体相对密度与凋落叶的质量损失率的变化趋势相对一致.在季节性冻融的初期、深冻期和融化期,不同土壤动物对红桦凋落叶质量损失的贡献率为大型土壤动物(22.7%)>中型土壤动物(11.9%)>微型土壤动物(7.9%).季节性冻融期间土壤动物活动是影响川西亚高山森林凋落物分解的重要因素之一.%In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125 , 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11. 8% , 13. 2% , 15. 4% and 19. 5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0. 02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the

  15. 不同盐梯度处理下沼泽小叶桦的生理特征及叶片结构%Photosynthetic Performance and Variation in Leaf Anatomic Structure of Betula microphylla var.paludosa under Different Saline Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 巨波; 赵慧娟; 张群; 朱义; 崔心红

    2011-01-01

    设计盐梯度(0,2‰,4‰,6‰,8‰盐溶液的质量比为NaCl∶ Na2SO4∶ NaHCO3=75%∶15%∶10%)试验分析沼泽小叶桦生理表现和叶片解剖结构.结果显示:在低于4‰盐度时沼泽小叶桦能正常生长,6%‰盐度时沼泽小叶桦生长发育不良,当盐度8‰时沼泽小叶桦只能存活30天左右;在低盐度处理下沼泽小叶桦光合生理表现和叶片解剖结构正常;随着盐度增加,其叶片净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率、叶绿素含量等指标均下降,而叶片中可溶性糖含量、脯氨酸含量、蛋白质含量升高;当盐度≥0.4%时,沼泽小叶桦叶片栅栏细胞逐渐纵向伸长且排列更紧密,叶绿体从椭圆形变成球形,叶绿体中出现粗大的淀粉粒和脂质球,表明其对滨海盐土具有一定的适应能力.%Betula microphylla var. Paludosa is a salt tolerant plant and naturally grows in inland. In order to explore possibility in transplanting the species to marine salina, we investigated photosynthetic performance and leaf anatomic structure of B. Microphylla , grown under control (nutrient soil) or salt-stress conditions (nutrient soil containing different salinity; 2‰, 4‰, 6‰, 8‰ of the solution for 60 days. The species had normal photosynthetic performance and leaf anatomic structure under lower salinity conditions. When soil salinity increased (≥0. 4%) , the net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, internal CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll content in leaves all decreased, whereas the soluble sugar, proline and protein contents of leaf increased. Accordingly, cells of the palisade tissue in B. Microphylla var. Paludosa leaf elongated and piled closely, in comparison with that under lower salinity conditions, and the chloroplasts changed from elliptical shape to round shape and in which many 1 ipid droplets and starch grains occurred in it. These results indicated that B. Microphylla var

  16. 拉萨-林芝植被样带不同群落类型的细根生物量%Biomass of Fine Root in Different Community Type on the Tibetan Vegetation Transect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永涛; 石培礼; 徐玲玲

    2009-01-01

    Fine root biomass was measured by soil core sampler in four community type on Tibetan Plateau, of which include two coppice of Betida platyphylla and Quercus aquifolioides , one shrub of Salix oritrepha, and one coniferous woodland of Pinus densata. The fine root density were Betida platyphylla of (785.9±290.4) g·m~(-2), Quercus aquifolioides of (801.0±279.5) g·m~(-2) , Salix oritrepha of (376.0±146.0) g·m~(-2) and Pinus densata of (431.2 ±171.1) g·m~(-2) . Result showed that the fine root density of two coppices was significantly higher than that of shrub and coniferous woodland. Dead fine root was 16.2% of the total fine root in Betula platyphylla, and the percentage were about 25% in other three type of forest. Distribution of fine root had the same pattern that high density of fine root appeared at 0~10 cm soil depth.%@@ 细根通常是指植被地下根系中直径小于2 nun的根,其生产和周转直接影响着整个生态系统的碳平衡和养分循环.在森林生态系统中约3%~84%(大部分为10%-60%)的净初级生产力被用于细根的生产(张小全等,2001);而细根的周转则是森林土壤C累积的最大输入量,如果忽略细根的生产、死亡和分解,土壤有机物质和养分元素的周转将被低估20%-80%(Vogt et al.,1986;1996).

  17. Genetic relationship of interspecies for eight birch species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic relationships of eight species of genus Betula were evaluatedusing ISSR marks. A total of 236 loci were generated from 17 ISSR primers. Perce ntage of polymorphic bands (PPB) varied from 5.93 to 19.92. The highest and the lowest level of genetic differentiation were detected in B. Ovalifolia and B. Ma ximowicziana Regel respectively. In these eight species, genetic diversity of bi rch (HT) was 24.38 %, and the genetic variation (GST ) interspecies was accounti ng for 79.36% of total genetic variation. According to the cluster results of ge netic distance, the eight species were classified into three groups as B. Davur ica, B. Ovalifolia, B. Platyphylla and B. Pendula for one group;B. Schmidtii, B . Costata and B. Ermanii Cham. Var. Communis for one group, and B. Maximowiczian a Regel for another group. The result of cluster is consistent with traditional morphological classification.

  18. Xylem Characteristics of Tension Wood and Endogenous Hormones Distributions during Its Early Formation Period in Betula luminifera%光皮桦应拉木的显微特征及其形成早期内源激素分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何辉; 楼雄珍; 林二培; 俞友明; 童再康; 黄华宏

    2016-01-01

    【目的】分析光皮桦应拉木的显微结构、理化特性及其形成早期的内源激素分布,以期为揭示应拉木形成机制提供理论依据。【方法】以无性系1V25-2为材料,通过人工拉弯诱导形成应拉木,测定其主要显微特征和物理化学特性,并应用 ELISA分析其形成早期阶段主要内源激素的分布规律。【结果】经12个月的拉弯处理,应拉区木质部的细胞壁明显增厚,纤维平均双壁厚是对应木的1.8倍,形成明显的胶质纤维层。应拉木的平均纤维长度、纤维素含量均明显大于对应木,而木质素含量则相反。拉弯处理的早期阶段,不同木质部类型中的4种激素含量呈现不同的分布特征。应拉区木质部中 IAA含量均小于对应区,但仅处理7天的木质部样品两区块间差异达到显著水平。GAs(GA1+GA3)也表现出与 IAA类似的变化规律。除拉弯处理6 h的样品外,应拉区木质部 BR 含量均显著小于对应区和对照,且随着处理时间延长对应区木质部 BR含量呈递增趋势。ZR含量在应拉区和对应区木质部间皆无明显差异,但表现出随处理时间延长而增加的趋势,处理7天时2区块的 ZR 含量均显著高于对照。【结论】经12个月的拉弯处理,光皮桦应拉区木质部的细胞壁明显增厚,出现明显的胶质纤维层;平均纤维长度、纤维素含量增加,表现出特有的理化特征。在拉弯处理早期阶段,4种内源激素在木质部中的含量呈现出不同的分布变化,推测这些激素的重新分布可能与光皮桦应拉木的形成有一定关系。%Objective]Reaction wood is one of the limiting factors for efficient cultivation and wood utilization of fast-growing timber species. There are various types of tension woods ( TWs) in Betula luminifera plantation,but the research on their characteristics and forming causes is absent. In this study,microscopic structure

  19. Structure changes and succession dynamic of the natural secondary forest after severe fire interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin-fan; LIU Guang-ju; WANG Zhi-cheng

    2009-01-01

    The structure and dynamic succession law of natural secondary forest after severe fire interference in recent 20 years were studied by adopting the method of deducing time series from the spatial sequence of vegetation in Heihe region, Heilongjiang, China. Two typical and widely distributed forest types in the study area, namely forest type A and forest type B, were selected as study subjects. Forest type A is pure broadleaf forest or broadleaf mixed forest mainly composing of superior Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana in the area with gradient 25°. Species richness, vegetation coverage, important value, and similarity index of community in different layers (Herb, shrub, small tree, and arbor layers) were investigated and analyzed for the two typical forests. The results show that after fire interference, the species richness and coverage in each layer in forest type A were higher than that in forest type B. Both for forest type A and B, with elapse of post-fire years, the species richness and coverage of herbs and shrubs showed a decline tendency, while those of arbor layer present a rising tendency. Through comparison of the important values of species in each layer and analysis of community structure changes, the dynamic process of post-fire vegetation succession for forest type A and B was separately determined. Post-fire 80 years' succession tendency of forest type A is B. platyphylla and Larix gmelinii mixed forest. Its shrub layer is mainly composed of Corylus heterophylla and Vaccinium uliginosum, and herb layer is dominated by Carex tristachya, Athyrium multidentatum, and Pyrola incarnate; whereas, the post-fire 80 years' succession of forest type B is Q. mongolica and B. davurica mixed forest. Its shrub layer is mainly composed of lespedeza bicolar and corylus heterophylla and herb layer is dominated by Carex tristachya, Asparagus densiflorus, and Hemerocallis minor.

  20. Spatial Pattern for Fraxinus mandshurica Population in Second Growth Forest of Maoershan Mountains%帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳种群格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文娟; 王庆成; 许丽娟

    2013-01-01

    采用点格局分析法研究帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳( Fraxinus mandshurica)不同龄级的种群空间分布格局及水曲柳与五角槭( Acer mono)、春榆( Ulmus propinqua)和白桦(Betula platyphylla )种群的空间关联性。结果表明:水曲柳龄级I林木个体在1~50 m尺度上呈现聚集分布;龄级II与龄级III的聚集程度较龄级I缓和;水曲柳龄级III与龄级I、龄级II林木个体在所有尺度上都表现为显著负相关或有负相关趋势。林分内主要树种种群有不同的空间格局分布,其中水曲柳在小尺度(10~22 m)上表现聚集分布,在大尺度则呈随机分布;五角槭、春榆和白桦在各个尺度下均呈聚集分布。种间关联性分析表明:水曲柳与五角槭、白桦和春榆在空间关联上都呈现正相关或有正相关趋势。水曲柳种群与群落内其它优势树种形成的斑块在群落中镶嵌分布,具有较高的群落稳定性;但水曲柳幼树在大树聚集的斑块不易存活,影响了水曲柳种群发展。%We analyzed spatial pattern distributions for different age classes of Fraxinus mandshurica and spatial associations be-tween Fraxinus mandshurica and other dominant species ( Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla) for second growth forest in Maoershan Mountains .Individuals in age class I of Fraxinus mandshurica show clumped distribution at scales from 1 m to 50 m.Individuals of age class II and age class III show weaker clumped distribution than those of age class I.Age class III shows negative correlation with age class I at most scales, and it also exhibits negative association with age class II.Fraxinus mandshurica population shows clumped distribution at small-scale (10-22 m) and random dis-tribution at large-scale (23-50 m).The spatial pattern distributions of Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla show clumped distribution.With the association analysis, they have

  1. The effect of meteorological factors on airborne Betula pollen concentrations in Lublin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Krystyna; Kubik-Komar, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of the birch atmospheric pollen seasons in Lublin in the period 2001-2010. Pollen monitoring was conducted using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 sampler. The atmospheric pollen seasons were determined with the 98% method. Regression analysis was used to determine correlations between meteorological conditions and the pattern of the birch pollen season. On average, the birch pollen season started on 12 April, ended on 13 May, and lasted 32 days. The peak value and the Seasonal Pollen Index showed the greatest variation in particular years. All the seasons were right-skewed. During the study years, a trend was found towards earlier occurrence of the seasonal peak. Regression equations were developed for the following parameters of the atmospheric pollen season: start, duration, peak value and average pollen concentration during the season. The obtained model fit was at a level of 64-81%. Statistical analysis shows that minimum temperature of February and March and total rainfall in June in the year preceding pollen release have the greatest effect on the birch atmospheric pollen season in Lublin. Low temperatures in February promote the occurrence of high pollen concentrations.

  2. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  3. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolibowska Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharides, polyphenols or terpenes. These fungi are commonly found in Poland and may superbly compete with Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lentinula edodes (Shitake used in Asia for medicinal purposes.

  4. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  5. Field performance of chitinase transgenic silver birches (Betula pendula): resistance to fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasonen, H-L; Seppänen, S-K; Degefu, Y; Rytkönen, A; von Weissenberg, K; Pappinen, A

    2004-08-01

    A field trial of 15 transgenic birch lines expressing a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and the corresponding controls was established in southern Finland to study the effects of the level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression on birch resistance to fungal diseases. The symptoms caused by natural infections of two fungal pathogens, Pyrenopeziza betulicola (leaf spot disease) and Melampsoridium betulinum (birch rust), were analysed in the field during a period of 3 years. The lines that had shown a high level of sugar beet chitinase IV mRNA accumulation in the greenhouse also showed high sugar beet chitinase IV expression after 3 years in the field. The level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression did not significantly improve the resistance of transgenic birches to leaf spot disease. Instead, some transgenic lines were significantly more susceptible to leaf spot than the controls. The level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression did have an improving effect on most parameters of birch rust; the groups of lines showing high or intermediate transgene expression were more resistant to birch rust than those showing low expression. This result indicates that the tested transformation may provide a tool for increasing the resistance of silver birch to birch rust.

  6. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  7. Proteomic profiling of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen extracts from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Anja; Hawranek, Thomas; Krückemeier, Leif; Asam, Claudia; Egger, Matthias; Ferreira, Fátima; Briza, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Pollen of the European white birch is a major source of spring pollinosis in Europe. Pollen-allergy diagnosis and treatment by specific immunotherapy commonly rely on extracts of natural origin. To gain insight into the protein content and its variability, we evaluated the profile of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in extracts of pollen from different origins by MS-based proteomics. Aqueous extracts prepared from commercially available Swedish birch pollen, pollen collected from Austrian trees and a commercial skin prick extract were analyzed by 1-DE, 2-DE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, resulting in a complete inventory of extractable, disease-relevant pollen proteins. A main focus of this study was on the isoform distribution of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. Using a combination of intact mass determination and peptide sequencing, five isoforms (a, b, d, f and j) were unequivocally identified in Swedish and Austrian birch pollen extracts, while the skin prick extract contained only isoforms a, b and d. Using the same methods as for Bet v 1, divergencies in the sequence of birch profilin (Bet v 2), a plant panallergen, were solved. The molecular characterization of pollen extracts is relevant for standardization and development of new reagents for specific immunotherapy.

  8. Rhododenol and raspberry ketone impair the normal proliferation of melanocytes through reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of GADD45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Baek, Heung Soo; Lee, Miri; Park, Hyeonji; Shin, Song Seok; Choi, Dal Woong; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-04-01

    Rhododenol or rhododendrol (RD, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol) occurs naturally in many plants along with raspberry ketone (RK, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone), a ketone derivative, which include Nikko maple tree (Acer nikoense) and white birch (Betula platyphylla). De-pigmenting activity of RD was discovered and it was used as a brightening ingredient for the skin whitening cosmetics. Recently, cosmetics containing RD were withdrawn from the market because a number of consumers developed leukoderma, inflammation and erythema on their face, neck and hands. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying the toxicity of RD and RK against melanocytes using B16F10 murine melanoma cells and human primary epidermal melanocytes. Treatment with RD or RK resulted in the decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner which appeared from cell growth arrest. Consistently, ROS generation was significantly increased by RD or RK as determined by DCF-enhanced fluorescence. An antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase was depleted as well. In line with ROS generation, oxidative damages and the arrest of normal cell proliferation, GADD genes (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage) that include GADD45 and GADD153, were significantly up-regulated. Prevention of ROS generation with an anti-oxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly rescued RD and RK-suppressed melanocyte proliferation. Consistently, up-regulation of GADD45 and GADD153 was significantly attenuated by NAC, suggesting that increased ROS and the resultant growth arrest of melanocytes may contribute to RD and RK-induced leukoderma.

  9. Linking belowground and aboveground phenology in two boreal forests in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-11-01

    The functional equilibrium between roots and shoots suggests an intrinsic linkage between belowground and aboveground phenology. However, much less understanding of belowground phenology hinders integrating belowground and aboveground phenology. We measured root respiration (Ra) as a surrogate for root phenology and integrated it with observed leaf phenology and radial growth in a birch (Betula platyphylla)-aspen (Populus davidiana) forest and an adjacent larch (Larix gmelinii) forest in Northeast China. A log-normal model successfully described the seasonal variations of Ra and indicated the initiation, termination and peak date of root phenology. Both root phenology and leaf phenology were highly specific, with a later onset, earlier termination, and shorter period of growing season for the pioneer tree species (birch and aspen) than the dominant tree species (larch). Root phenology showed later initiation, later peak and later termination dates than leaf phenology. An asynchronous correlation of Ra and radial growth was identified with a time lag of approximately 1 month, indicating aprioritization of shoot growth. Furthermore, we found that Ra was strongly correlated with soil temperature and air temperature, while radial growth was only significantly correlated with air temperature, implying a down-regulating effect of temperature. Our results indicate different phenologies between pioneer and dominant species and support a down-regulation hypothesis of plant phenology which can be helpful in understanding forest dynamics in the context of climate change.

  10. Annual and Monthly Variations in Litter Macronutrients of Three Subalpine Forests in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wan-Qin; WANG Kai-Yun; S.KELLOM(A)KI; ZHANG Jian

    2006-01-01

    Macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in litter of three primarily spruce (Picea purpurea Masters) (SF), fir (Abies faxoniana Rehder & E. H. Wilson) (FF), and birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) (BF) subalpine forests in western China were measured to understand the monthly variations in litter nutrient concentrations and annual and monthly nutrient returns via litterfall. Nutrient concentration in litter showed the rank order of Ca > N > Mg > K > S > P. Monthly variations in nutrient concentrations were greater in leaf litter (LL) than other litter components. The highest and lowest concentrations of N, P, K, and S in LL were found in the growing season and the nongrowing season, respectively, but Ca and Mg were the opposite. Nutrient returns via litterfall showed a marked monthly pattern with a major peak in October and one or two small peaks in February and/or May, varying with the element and stand type, but no marked monthly variations in nutrient returns via woody litter, reproductive litter, except in May for the BF, and moss litter. Not only litter production but also nutrient concentration controlled the annual nutrient return and the monthly nutrient return pattern. The monthly patterns of the nutrient concentration and return were of ecological importance for nutrient cycling and plant growth in the subalpine forest ecosystems.

  11. Analysis of organic acids in selected forest litters of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJin-feng; CUIXiao-yang

    2003-01-01

    Larch (Larix olgensis), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and White birch (Betula platyphylla) are the major planting species in northeast China. The samples of forest litters were collected from the stands of the above 4 species in Laoyeling and Jianlagou experiment stations of Maorshan Exp. Forest Farm (45°12′-45°30′N,127°30′-127°48′E), Northeast Forestry University, in early October 2002. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis were carried out on the organic acids existing in freshly fallen litters (L layer) and hemi-decomposed litters (F layer) of the four forest species by using Gas Chromatogram system. A wide variety of organic acids were identified, including oxalic, malonic, fumaric,succinic, maleic, malic, citric, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0 acids. In respect of L litters of all samples, the oxalic acid content (over 30 mg/g) was the highest of the seven low-molecular-weight organic acids identified, while the content of oleic or linoleic (above 40 mg/g) was found to be highest among the six high aliphatic acids identified. As to F litters, oxalic acid content was also the highest, followed by linoleic and oleic. For the same tree species or the same forest, the kinds and contents of organic acids in L litters were more abundant than that in F litters.

  12. Growth responses of gypsy moth larvae to elevated CO2:the influence of methods of insect rearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhu Ji; Lin-Li An; Xiao-Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on foliar chemistry of two tree species (Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag.and Betula platyphylla) and on growth of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae were examined.Furthermore,we focused on the comparison of results on the growth responses of larvae obtained from two methods of insect rearing,the nochoice feeding trial performed in the laboratory or in situ in open-top chambers.On the whole,both primary and secondary metabolites in the leaves of the two tree species were significantly affected by main effects of time (sampling date),CO2 and species.Elevated CO2 significantly increased the C:N ratio and concentrations of the soluble sugar,starch,total nonstructural carbohydrates,total phenolics and condensed tannins,but significantly decreased the concentration of nitrogen.Higher contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins were detected in the frass of larvae reared in elevated CO2 treatments.Overall,the growth of gypsy moth larvae were significantly inhibited by elevated CO2 and CO2induced changes in leaf quality.Our study did not indicate the two methods of insect rearing could influence the direction of effects of elevated CO2 on the growth of individual insects; however,the magnitude of negative effects of elevated CO2 on larval growth did differ between the two insect rearing methods,and it seems that the response magnitude was also mediated by larval age and host plant species.

  13. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  14. Scale correlation between vegetation and soil in larch forest, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After the analysis on the linages of species, the fractal dimensions of vegetation and soil in a managed larch(Larix gmelini) forest in Daxingan Mountains, NE China were estimated separately, and their scale correlation was discussed. (1) The dominant species of the larch forest, larch and the important accompany species, birch(Betula platyphylla) were homogeneously distributed along the transect. The other species were heterogeneous, and can be divided into three groups located on the right , left and central parts of th transect respectively. The transect can be separated into two parts at the position for the 29th quadrat(580m). (2) The fractal dimension in the large scale range from 200 to 400m was lower than that in the small scale range from 0 to 200m in the forest, indicating the different variation regularities of spatial heterogeneity in different scale ranges. The inflection point at 200m was one of the key scales of spatial hierarchy of the larch forest. (3) The scale variation of the forest was correlated with that of soil pH on large scales, which reflected the indirect control of the dominant species to the spatial pattern and species distribution of understories by changing soil acidity in the forest and the indirect effects of forest management.

  15. [Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Chen; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuo-Qiang; Xing, Ding-Liang; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Xu-gao

    2013-02-01

    Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBHDBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.

  16. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

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    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  17. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

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    Fansuo Zeng

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5 sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374 were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  18. Study on the Relationship between Forest Fire and Forest Types in Saihanba Forest Center%塞罕坝机械林场森林类型与林火关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于士涛

    2014-01-01

    该文通过对塞罕坝机械林场野外调查获取实地数据来分析林场的林型特征与火灾的关系,得出结论如下:樟子松纯林属于极易燃类型;白桦林属于中等易燃类型;蒙古栎林属较易燃类型;落叶松和白桦的混交林内属于较难燃类型;落叶松、樟子松和云杉的混交林内属于较易燃类型。%In this dissertation datum gotten by some field investigation was also used to analyze the rela⁃tion between forest fire and the character of forest. The main conclusions as follows:Forest of L. gmelinii is difficult to burn;forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv is very inflammable;forest of Betula platy⁃phylla Suk is mid-inflammable;forest of Quercus mongolica Fisch is correspondingly inflammable. Mixed for⁃est of L. gmelinii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica Litv is uninflammable;mixed forest of L. gmelinii,P. syl⁃vestris var. mongolica Litv and Picea asperata Mast is correspondingly inflammable.

  19. Oversight framework over oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer: comparative analysis of the Hwang Woo Suk case under South Korean bioethics law and U.S. guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the current regulatory regime instituted in South Korea and the United States would have prevented Hwang's potential transgressions in oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we compare the general aspects and oversight framework of the Bioethics and Biosafety Act in South Korea and the US National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and apply the relevant provisions and recommendations to each transgression. We conclude that the Act would institute centralized oversight under governmental auspices while the Guidelines recommend politically-independent, decentralized oversight bodies including a special review body for human embryonic stem cell research at an institutional level and that the Guidelines would have provided more vigorous protection for the women who had undergone oocyte procurement for Hwang's research than the Act. We also suggest additional regulations to protect those who provide oocytes for research in South Korea.

  20. Flavonoids in the leaves of Polish species of the genus Betula L. IV. The flavonoids of Betula pubescens Ehrh., B. carpatica Waldst., B. tortuosa Ledeb., and B. nana L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the flavonoids detected earlier, the leaves of purebred B. pubescens specimens were found to contain quercetin 3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, luteolin 4'-glucoside, isoquercitrin, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside, whereas B. nana exhibited a low content of myricetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside, and also possibly quercetin 7-rhamnoside. The qualitative composition of the flavonoids of desiccated B. tortuosa leaves seems to point to the validity of the assumption that this birch is of hybrid origin. The set of flavonoids in B. carpatica was almost identical with that in B. tortuosa.

  1. 东北百里香化感作用%Allelopathy of Thymus mandschuricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 马喜娟; 张秀珍

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathy of Thymus mandschurricus Ronn. on Jive receptor plants, namely Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Larix gmelini, Betula platyphylla, Tagetes erecla and Petunia hybrid by the method of biological test. Results showed that stem-leaf and root extracts of T. mandschuricus had some inhibitory effects on seed germination of B. platyphylla and P. hyhrida, and the inhibitory effects weakened with decreasing extract concentration. Lower concentration of extract had a stimulative effect on seed germination of P. sylvestris var. mongolica to a certain degree. Stem-leaf and root extracts of T. mandschuricus had no harmful effect on the seedling growth of T. erecla and P. hybrida. Extract with a volume ratio of 1 : 1 had certain inhibitory effect on seeding growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica and L gmelini. The allelopathy effect of stem-leaf extract was stronger than that of root extract. Root length of the receptor plants received a stronger allelopathy effect than seedling height.%通过生物测定法研究了东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对樟子松、兴安落叶松、白桦、万寿菊、矮牵牛的种子萌发及幼苗生长的化感作用.结果表明,东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对白桦、矮牵牛的种子萌发有一定抑制作用,抑制效应随水浸液母液与水的体积比降低而减弱;母液与水的体积比低的水浸液对樟子松的种子萌发有一定促进作用.东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对万寿菊和矮牵牛幼苗生长无明显不良影响,V(母液)∶V(水)=1∶1的水浸液对樟子松、兴安落叶松的幼苗生长有一定抑制作用.东北百里香茎叶水浸液对受体植物的化感作用强于根水浸液.受体植物幼苗的根长受到的化感作用强于苗高.

  2. Quantification of overnight movement of birch (Betula pendula branches and foliage with short interval terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eetu ePuttonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (Petula Bendula branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. The study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in Finland and in Austria. Both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. Experiments consisted of 14 (Finland and 77 (Austria individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. The resulting point clouds were used in creating a time series of branch movements. In the Finnish data, the vertical movement of the whole tree crown was monitored due to low volumetric point density. In the Austrian data, movements of manually selected representative points on branches were monitored. The movements were monitored from dusk until morning hours in order to avoid daytime wind effects. The results indicated that height deciles of the Finnish birch crown had vertical movements between -10.0 and 5.0 cm compared to the situation at sunset. In the Austrian data, the maximum detected representative point movement was 10.0 cm. The temporal development of the movements followed a highly similar pattern in both experiments, with the maximum movements occurring about an hour and a half before (Austria or around (Finland sunrise. The results demonstrate the potential of terrestrial laser scanning measurements in support of chronobiology.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

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    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  4. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

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    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  5. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed.

  6. Effects of long-term elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegelberg, R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Joensuu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland); Aphalo, P. J. [Joensuu Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Joensuu (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The effects of long-term ultraviolet-B radiation on the concentrations of secondary metabolites such as phenolics and terpenoids in the bark of silver birch saplings were studied. The effects of ultraviolet-B on the concentrations of the main soluble sugars such as sucrose, raffinose, and glucose in silver birch stem were also investigated, given that they are involved in the transpiration and allocation of assimilated carbon, and UV-B-induced changes may affect tree growth. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were found to be higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term exposure to elevated UV radiation. Saplings in elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and UV-A radiation control treatment had shown significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics compared with saplings in ambient radiation. No effect of radiation treatment was observed on non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids. These observations led to the conclusion that plant parts accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. The accumulation of sugars in the stems of silver birch saplings in response to UV radiation is believed to affect tree growth, possibly because of a reduction of alpha-cellulose content and consequent reduction in cell wall production. 36 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of amino acids from birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves and their liquid chromatographic determination with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, Borivoj; Lojková, Lea; Kula, Emanuel; Buchta, Ivan; Hrdlicka, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2008-05-01

    A method for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of amino acids was adapted and optimal experimental conditions were selected for a matrix consisting of dry leaves. The matrix-dependent SFE method uses a mixture of MeOH-H(2)O-acetonitrile (10:10:1 v/v/v) as a modifier (0.5 mL in situ, 300 muL on-line) at 70 degrees C and 40 MPa and no HCl is needed as an entrainer. The amino acids were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC/FLD) after gradient elution on Zorbax Eclipse AAA columns (4.6x150 mm, 3.5 mum) with aqueous Na(2)HPO(4 )buffer of pH 7.8 and ACN-MeOH-water as a mobile phase. In comparison with Soxhlet extraction, SFE gave higher recovery and selectivity, but it required longer extraction time (90 min) and it was more labor-intensive (clean-up step after the pre-concentration). Both methods should be used separately or in combination according to the matrix, number of samples, and levels of ballast compounds.

  8. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. III. The flavonoids of B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves were found to contain compounds characteristic of B. "nova" i.e. myricitrin, isoquercitrin and probably also kaempferol 3-rhamno-7-glucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and quercetin 7,3',4'-trimethyl ether. They also contain compounds which occur in B. pendula Roth. (kaempferol 3-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-glactoside, 6-methoxykaempferide, acacetin 7-glucoside, and probably scutellarein 7-glycoside. These biochemical traits bring out still better the hybrid origin of B. oycoviensis.

  9. Unravelling the distinct crystallinity and thermal properties of suberin compounds from Quercus suber and Betula pendula outer barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia F; Gandini, Alessandro; Caetano, Ana; Maria, Teresa M R; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of suberin (a naturally occurring aromatic-aliphatic polyester ubiquitous to the vegetable realm) as a renewable source of chemicals and, in particular, to assess their physical properties. A comparison between cork and birch suberin fragments obtained by conventional depolymerisation processes (hydrolysis or methanolysis) is provided, focusing essentially on their thermal and crystallinity properties. It was found that suberin fragments obtained by the hydrolysis depolymerisation of birch had a high degree of crystallinity, as indicated by their thermal analysis and corroborated by the corresponding XRD diffractions, as opposed to hydrolysis-depolymerised cork suberin counterparts, which were essentially amorphous.

  10. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive.

  11. 我国东北4种常见阔叶乔木物候对气候变化的响应%Response of 4 Common Broad-Leaved Arbors Phenology to Climate Change in the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴顺祥; 郭泉水; 辛学兵; 刘玮; 洪明

    2011-01-01

    物候现象是指示气候及自然环境变化的重要指标(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001;Moresette et al.,2009).自然物候记录可以提供全球环境变化最直接和最有效的证据.已有研究结果表明,受全球气候变化影响,1952-2000年地中海地区(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001)、1851-1994年匈牙利(Walkovszky,1998)、1936-1998年美国Wisconsin地区(Bradley et al.,1999)和1970-1999年美国华盛顿地区(Abu-Asab et al.,2001)的许多植物花期提前了1个星期左右;中国北纬33°左右地区植物的早春物候每10年提前1.1 ~4.3天,晚春物候提前1.4~5.4天(Zheng et al.,2006).%In order to reveal the response of four broad - leaved arbors to climate change, we studied relationships between interannual variations of air temperature and various phenophases (I.e., seasonal biological events) of broad-leaved arbors species ( Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila and Morus alba ) in the Harbin, based on meteorological data from 1951 -2008 and phenological data from 1963 -2008. Results showed that the air temperature in Harbin had an increasing trend from 1951 to 2008, especially after 1978. The increase of the annual minimum temperature was greater than that of the annual maximum temperature and annual mean temperature. Annual precipitation slightly increased, but not significantly. In the period of 1963 -2008, bud burst, beginning of leaf expansion and first flowering of the 4 species all shifted to 5. 7 d, 10. 2 d and 7. 9 d earlier, respectively, and end of leaf - falling was delayed for 7. 5 d. The pattern of phenological change was consistent with that of air temperature change. The phenophases earlier or later was mainly subjected to air temperature, especially the mean temperature of the same month and previous month when phenophase began. The phenophase had little correlation with the precipitation. When the mean temperature in March rose up by 1 ℃ , Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila

  12. Natural Regeneration Pattern of Urban Forests in Harbin%哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅琳琳; 冯树丹; 达良俊; 宋坤; 王冰; 关兵兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen the urban protects of the variety of vegetation biodiversity and reasonable utilization, to perfect the system of ecology theory about the urban vegetation, the author did a lot of research about Haerbin urban forest natural succession pattern. The author decided to adopt the vegetation sociology research combine with every wood investigation research, researching 11 kinds of urban forest natural regeneration pattern in Harbin. The results showed that the difference kinds and quantities of composition about the woody plants under the forest different types of urban forest in maintaining woody plant diversity were quite different. Based on frequency distribution of DBH, population structure of each tree species fell into 3 types: unimodal type, L type and sporadic type. In the case, 4 representative species belonged to unimodal type: Populus berolinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolic; 4 L-types were: Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Ulmus pumila; 3 sporadic types were: Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Picea koraiensis. It was suggested that the habitat, the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of urban forests.%为了加强城市植被生物多样性的保护与合理利用,完善城市植被生态学研究的理论体系,对哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局进行研究.采用植被社会学调查与每木调查相结合的方法,对哈尔滨11种城市森林类型进行天然更新格局研究.结果表明,林下木本植物的种类和数量组成有所差异,不同城市森林类型在维持木本植物多样性方面存在较大差异.根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将各树种的种群结构归纳为3种类型:种群结构单峰型的为中东杨(Populus berolinensis)、黑皮油松(Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelini)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var

  13. Species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve,Beijing%北京百花山自然保护区树附生苔藓植物物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 李俊清; 石爱平; 于建军; 王文和

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing in 2004-2010. A total of 495 specimens were recorded, belonging to 34 species, 21 genera, and 13 families, among which, Pottiaceae, Leskeaceae, Entodontaceae, Orthotrichaceae, and Hypnaceae were the dominant families, and Lindbergia sinensis, Pylaisiella polyantha, L. brachyptera, and Frullania musicicola were the dominant species. There were three peaks of the vertical distribution of the epiphytic bryophytes, i. e. , altitude 1700 m (10 species) , and only 5 species were distributed at altitude 1200-1300 m. Shannon index was the highest for Betula platyphylla ( 1. 816) and the smallest for Juglans mandshurica (1. 500) , Pielou evenness index was the highest for Populus davidiaria (0. 910) and the smallest for Q. liaotungensis (0.591) , Simpson index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (0.335) and the smallest for P. davidiana (0. 181) , and Patrick index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (13) and the smallest for P. davidiana and J. mandshurica (7). The species diversity indices of the epiphytic bryophytes were related to habitat, bark crack, and water availability.%北京百花山保护区树附生苔藓植物共有13科21属34种,其中优势科有丛藓科(Pottiaceae)、薄罗藓科(Leskeaceae)、绢藓科(Entodontaceae)、木灵藓科(Orthotrichaceae)和灰藓科(Hypnaceae),优势种有中华细枝藓(Lindbergia sinensis)、金灰藓(Pylaisiella polyantha)、细枝藓(L.brachyptera)、盔瓣耳叶苔(Frullania musicicola)等.海拔1200 m以下地带(14种)、海拔1400 ~ 1500 m地带(11种)以及海拔1700 m以上地带(10种)是百花山树附生苔藓植物垂直分布的3个高峰.海拔1200 ~ 1300 m为低谷(5种).树附生植物物种Shannon指数最大的是白桦(Betula platyphylla)(1.816),最小的是核桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)(1.500);山杨(Populus davidiana)树附生植物的Pielou均匀度指数最高(0

  14. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  15. The predictive performance and stability of six species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yan Duan

    Full Text Available Predicting species' potential geographical range by species distribution models (SDMs is central to understand their ecological requirements. However, the effects of using different modeling techniques need further investigation. In order to improve the prediction effect, we need to assess the predictive performance and stability of different SDMs.We collected the distribution data of five common tree species (Pinus massoniana, Betula platyphylla, Quercus wutaishanica, Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis and simulated their potential distribution area using 13 environmental variables and six widely used SDMs: BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM. Each model run was repeated 100 times (trials. We compared the predictive performance by testing the consistency between observations and simulated distributions and assessed the stability by the standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and the 99% confidence interval of Kappa and AUC values.The mean values of AUC and Kappa from MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM trials were similar and significantly higher than those from BIOCLIM and DOMAIN trials (p<0.05, while the associated standard deviations and coefficients of variation were larger for BIOCLIM and DOMAIN trials (p<0.05, and the 99% confidence intervals for AUC and Kappa values were narrower for MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM. Compared to BIOCLIM and DOMAIN, other SDMs (MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM had higher prediction accuracy, smaller confidence intervals, and were more stable and less affected by the random variable (randomly selected pseudo-absence points.According to the prediction performance and stability of SDMs, we can divide these six SDMs into two categories: a high performance and stability group including MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM, and a low performance and stability group consisting of BIOCLIM, and DOMAIN. We highlight that choosing appropriate SDMs to address a specific problem is an important part of the modeling process.

  16. Landscape patterns of overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes in a cool-temperate forest watershed in northern Hokkaido,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2007-01-01

    Within a forested watershed at the Uryu Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Hokkaido, overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes were measured at different landscape zones over two years. The wetland zone covered with Picea glehnii pure stand. The riparian zone was deciduous broad-leaved stand dominated by Alnus hirsuta and Salix spp., while the mixture of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen conifer dominated by Betula platyphylla, Quercus crispula and Abies sachalinensis distributed on the upland zone.Annual litterfall averaged 1444, 5122, and 4123 kg·hm-2·a-1 in the wetland, riparian and upland zones, respectively. Litterfall production peaked in September-ctober,and foliage litter contributed the greatest amount (73.4%-87.6 %) of the annual total litterfall. Concentrations of nutrients analyzed in foliage litter of the dominant species showed a similar seasonal variation over the year except for N in P. Glehnii and A. Hirsuta. The nutrient fluxes for all elements analyzed were greatest on riparian zone and lowest in wetland zone. Nutrient fluxes via lit terfall followed the decreasing sequence: N (11-129 kg·hm-2·a-1) > Ca (9-69) > K (5-20) > Mg (3-15) > P (0.4-4.7) for all stands. Significant differences were found in litterfall production and nutrient fluxes among the different landscape components. There existed significantdif ferences in soil chemistry between the different landscape zones. The consistently low soil C:N ratios at the riparian zone might be due to the higher-quality litter inputs (largely N-fixing alder).

  17. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt., Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG JingYun; LIU GuoHua; ZHU Biao; WANG XiaoKe; LIU ShaoHui

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as significant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respiration were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  18. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt.,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as signifi-cant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respira-tion were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  19. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.

  20. Assessment of the effect of a fully closed hillside afforestation mode on the natural Pinus tabulaeformis forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Huanglong Mountain forest zone is one of the major natural secondary forest zones in the southern Loess Plateau in Shaanxi Province,China.Since 1950,a mode of fully closed hillside afforestation (FHA) has been applied in the forest.On some special sites,the forest age exceeds 80 years.Pinus tabulaeformis forests form the most important vegetation cover in the warm temperate regions of China.Similarly,populations of P.tabulaeformis are dominant in existing forest ecosystems.Quercus liaotungensis,Syringa oblata,Populus davidiana,Prunus davidiana,Betula platyphylla and Toxicodendron vernicifluum can be occasionally found in the tree layer and shrub species are abundant.Based on the data collected from 31 plots and 93 soil samples,the state of health of the forest ecosystem is discussed and the appropriate FHA age has been determined.Twelve indices representing vegetation and soil properties in natural,secondary P.tabulaeformis forest ecosystems were generated by sensitivity analysis and an assessment index system for the FHA mode was established.According to the equal distance method,a clustering technique and five grades of an integrated index for evaluating the FHA mode were compartmentalized.The effect of the FHA mode on natural secondary P.tabulaeformis forests was evaluated by an integrated index method with the aid of an analytical hierarchy process (AHP).The results are as follows:values of the integrated index in the FHA mode of 16,25,30,45,60 and 75 year old stands were 7.25,6.88,7.82,5.51,4.78 and 2.79 respectively.With an increase over age of the FHA stands,the effect of the FHA mode deteriorated.We conclude that natural forests should not be protected in the FHA way after 45 years.At that stage,mixing suitable tree species,selection cutting and other silvicultural and management measures should be adopted.

  1. 吉林省几种常见生物质颗粒燃料的性能%Fuel Performances of Several Common Biomass Pellets in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启昌; 张英楠; 王峰洁; 孙国文; 颜科

    2009-01-01

    对吉林省几种常见树种颗粒燃料的性能指标进行了测定分析.结果表明,7种颗粒燃料以玉米秸秆颗粒的灰分质量分数最大(11.90%),沙松去皮颗粒的灰分质量分数最低(0.37%);杨木颗粒的去灰分热值最大(20.896kJ/g),其次是椴桦混颗粒(20.885kJ/g),白桦去皮颗粒的去灰分热值大于白桦未去皮颗粒,木质颗粒大于秸秆颗粒.木质颗粒燃料以杂木颗粒燃料的轴向抗压性最强,其轴向载荷值为0.2355kN,其次为沙松去皮颗粒,其轴向载荷值为0.2149kN,白桦未去皮颗粒要强于去皮颗粒;白桦未去皮颗粒燃料的径向抗压性最强,其径向载荷值为0.6402kN,其次为杂木颗粒,其径向载荷值为0.6242kN,白桦未去皮颗粒要强于去皮颗粒.从抗压性角度分析宜选用杂木颗粒.杨木颗粒和杂木颗粒的质量损失率相对于其他4种颗粒较低,分别为0.1316%和0.1438%.椴桦混颗粒燃料的渗水率最大(10.235%),其次为白桦去皮颗粒(10.233%),白桦未去皮颗粒的抗渗水性要强于去皮颗粒.通过不同时间抗渗水性能测试,20h后,6种木质颗粒都呈完全剥落状,但杂木颗粒状态要稍好一些,外型仍呈颗粒状.不同颗粒燃料的去灰分热值、轴向载荷和抗渗水率具有显著差异(t检验,p<0.05).%A study was conducted to determine the fuel performances of seven common biomass pellets in Jilin Province. Results showed that the highest ash content was 11.90% for corn straw, and the lowest was 0. 37% for Abies holophylla pellet. It was also found that Populus simonii pellet had the largest ash-free caloric value (20.896 kJ) , then followed by the mixture of Tilia amurensis, Tilia mandshurica and Betula platyphylla pellet (20. 885 kj) , and the largest ash-free caloric value of wood pellet was larger than that of straw pellet. Ash-free calorific value for peeled B. platyphylla pellet was larger than that for the unpeeled, and the same result was also found in axial load

  2. Relationship between tensile properties and microstructures of three different broadleaf tree roots in North China%华北护坡阔叶树种根系抗拉性能与其微观结构的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋坤云; 陈丽华; 盖小刚; 杨苑君

    2013-01-01

    Forest vegetation is known to increase slope stability by reinforcing soil shear resistance, and root tensile properties are important factors to consider when choosing suitable species for reinforcing soil on an unstable slope. The macroscopic properties are determined by the microscopic structure; as a result, the microscopic structure of roots needs to be further observed to help us understand the relationship between the soil’s mechanical properties and the microstructure of roots. We chose three common broadleaf species (Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Ulmus pumila) in North China and carried out several experiments, including single-root tensile tests, root anatomical-structure tests, and wood-fiber segregation experiments. To analyze data from those experiments, we used multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in order to determine the relationship between root tensile properties and selected anatomical structure. Results showed that in all species a significant power relationship existed between tensile properties and root diameter (R2>0.8). The root tensile force increased with increasing root diameter, but root tensile strength increased with decreasing root diameter. According to the results of root tensile tests, we found that Ulmus pumila was the most resistant to failure, followed by Betula platyphylla and Quercus mongolica. Through the observation of microscopic sections, the root anatomical features of three kinds of broadleaf species were the same as those of their trunk, and wood fiber was the main anatomical feature in the root. According to the multiple regression models, the area percentage of wood fiber in the root cross-section (short for the area percentage of wood fiber), the area percentage of phloem in root cross section (short for the area percentage of phloem), and fiber dimensions affected single roots’tensile properties. The percentage of wood fiber area was the most important impact factor on root tensile force

  3. Practical Implementation of New Particle Tracking Method to the Real Field of Groundwater Flow and Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2012-01-01

    In articles published in 2009 and 2010, Suk and Yeh reported the development of an accurate and efficient particle tracking algorithm for simulating a path line under complicated unsteady flow conditions, using a range of elements within finite elements in multidimensions. Here two examples, an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) example and a landfill leachate migration example, are examined to enhance the practical implementation of the proposed particle tracking method, known as Suk's method, to a real field of groundwater flow and transport. Results obtained by Suk's method are compared with those obtained by Pollock's method. Suk's method produces superior tracking accuracy, which suggests that Suk's method can describe more accurately various advection-dominated transport problems in a real field than existing popular particle tracking methods, such as Pollock's method. To illustrate the wide and practical applicability of Suk's method to random-walk particle tracking (RWPT), the original RWPT has been modified to incorporate Suk's method. Performance of the modified RWPT using Suk's method is compared with the original RWPT scheme by examining the concentration distributions obtained by the modified RWPT and the original RWPT under complicated transient flow systems.

  4. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens) leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, P.; Keay, E. J.; Morrison, B. R. S.

    Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1) and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1). Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams.

  5. 紫叶白桦组培快繁技术研究%Research on Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation in Betula ‘Royal Frost’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梦姝

    2016-01-01

    [目的]建立“紫叶白桦”组培快繁体系.[方法]选取当年生半木质化枝条的顶芽和侧芽为外植体进行芽直接增生途径再生研究.[结果]获取最佳外植体诱导培养基、最佳增殖培养基和最佳生根培养基,最佳移栽基质为蛭石+草炭(1∶1).[结论]为建立“紫叶白桦”组培快繁体系提供依据.

  6. Dehydrins in cold-acclimated apices of birch (Betula pubescens Ehr.) : production, localization and potential role in rescuing enzyme function during dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, P.L.H.; Kaikuranta, P.L.M.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Schoot, van der C.

    1999-01-01

    Dehydrins accumulate in various plant tissues during dehydration. Their physiological role is not well understood, but it is commonly assumed that they assist cells in tolerating dehydration. Since in perennials the ability of the shoot apex to withstand dehydration is pivotal for survival through w

  7. Population Characteristics of Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum) in Wandashan Mountain%完达山地区槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长宝; 徐增奇; 岳仁杰

    2013-01-01

    Population characteristics of mistletoe in seven types of host trees of six communities in Laopinggang forest farm were studied from April to November 2012.Results showed that:As a whole,the ultimate distribution pattern of mistletoe was determined by the host trees.However,the distribution pattern of mistletoe on individual host trees was aggregated.In terms of quantitative characteristics,the numbers of mistletoe in host trees was Populus davidiana > Betula platyphylla > Alnus sibirica > B.dahurica > Tilia amurensis var.tricuspidata =Acer tegmentosum >A.mono,and the mean number of fruit in a mistletoe was P.davidiana > B.platyphylla > A.sibirica > A.tegmentosum > T.amurensis var.tricuspidata > A.mono > B.dahurica.Red fruit and yellow fruit mistletoe were found on the same host species and the ratio of these two types was one to one.Genetically,the seeds of mistletoe showed excess propagation and their dispersal process had a close relationship with Bombycilla garrulus.Among these seeds,82% were found on fallen leaves,15% on shrubs and 3% on the trunk of host trees.It was concluded that the distribution pattern of host trees,composition and development degree of communities,living habit of seed dispersers and reproductive strategy of mistletoe itself played major roles in the development of the population.%于2012年4-11月对老平岗林场6个群落中7种寄主上的槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群进行了研究,结果表明:以寄主为单位,槲寄生的最终分布格局取决于寄主的格局;而在每个寄主上则呈聚集性分布.从数量上看,寄生强度为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>黑桦>紫椴=青楷槭>色木槭;各寄主上单株槲寄生平均结果量为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>青楷槭>紫椴>色木槭>黑桦;红黄两种果实型植株的比例近于1∶1.从遗传上看,槲寄生表现出过量繁殖特征;其种子传播与太平鸟存在密切联系,

  8. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  9. Tree Productivity and Water Potential Productivity in Returning Farmland to Forest Project in Datong County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jing; Liu Chenfeng; Zhao Wanqi; He Kangning

    2004-01-01

    From 2002 to 2003, based on the investigation of sample plots and stem analysis of remained plantation communities in the areas of returning farmland to forest in the 1980s in Datong County, Qinghai Province, this paper studies tree productivity and moisture potential productivity of six types of plantations on the land of returning farmland to forest, such as green poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch (Betula platyphylla) and China spruce (Picea asperata) mixed forest, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) pure forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest and so on. The results show that: in sub-humid region of Loess Plateau, 3 000 trees per hm2 is a proper standard of planting density. Under current condition, the productivity index of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch pure forest, China spruce pure forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest with the density of 2 100-3 333 trees per hm2 can serve as potential productivity standard of actual biomass of arbor established forest. In sub-humid area, Thornthwaite Model is adopted to estimate plant climate potential productivity, which is about 8 462 kg·hm-2·a-1. The actual potential water productive efficiency of Purplecone spruce (Picea purpurea) and Asia white birch pure established forest are 17.22 and 22.14 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively, and that of green poplar and shrub mixed established forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed established forest are 21.14 and 19.09 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively. The potential productivity of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest which have grown into forest with the density of 3 000 trees per hm2 have attained or been close to that of local climax community, which is local maximum tree productivity at present. These types of forestation models are the developing

  10. Antitumor activity and immunoregulatory effect of triterpenes isolated from betulaplatyphylla%白桦三萜类物质的抗肿瘤作用及其对免疫功能的增强效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 李岩; 金雄杰

    2000-01-01

    To study the antitumor activity and immunoregulatory effect of Triterpenes isolated from Betula Platyphylla (TBP)Methods: Inhihition rate (IR) on tumor growth was determined by the mice with transplantable tumors (melanoma B16, Sarcoma 180, Lewislung carcinoma and Ehrlich ascites cancer), splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA was measured by H-TdR incorporation; cytotoxicity ofmacrophage was observed by 3H-TdR release; activity of TNF and NK cell was determined by dye (natural red)release. Results: IR of 0.80 g/kg and 1.20 g/kg TBP on all of above tumor strains were greater than30% in vivo. TBPdoes not show significant effect of splenocyte Prolifera-tion and NK cell activity, but significantly promoted the activity of TNF producted by macroghage and splenocyte. TBP also increase the cyto-toxicity of macrophage. Conclusion:TBP shows potent antitumor effect in vivo. Promoting nonspecific immunoactivity is one of the antitumormechanism of TBP.%目的:研究白桦三萜类物质(TBP)体内抗肿瘤作用及其对荷瘤小鼠免疫功能的影响。方法:利用小鼠体内移植瘤模型,测定TBP对小鼠黑色素瘤B16、肉瘤S180、Lewis肺癌和艾氏腹水癌等肿瘤的抑瘤率。采用放射性掺入法检测ConA诱导的脾细胞增殖反应;放射性释放法检测巨噬细胞细胞毒活性;中性红释放法检测TNF和NK细胞活性。结果:TBP对各瘤株的抑瘤率均达到30%以上,对黑色素瘤B16的效果最好,抑瘤率为51.4%。TBP对ConA诱导的增殖反应和NK细胞活性无明显影响,但可促进巨噬细胞和脾细胞分泌TNF,增加巨噬细胞的细胞毒活性。结论:TBP具有良好的抗肿瘤作用,增强机体的非特异性免疫功能是其抗肿瘤机制之一。

  11. Temporal dynamics and influencing factors of leaf respiration for three temperate tree species%三种温带树种叶片呼吸的时间动态及其影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆国; 王传宽

    2013-01-01

    为认知叶片呼吸(RL)的季节变化格局及其影响因子,以东北东部山区3个主要树种(红松Pinus koraiensis、樟子松P.sylvestris var.mongolica和白桦Betula platyphylla)为对象,采用红外气体分析法在2011年生长季(常绿树4月至10月;落叶树6月至9月)测定了自然条件下叶片气体交换及其相关生理特征的季节变化,探索了RL与空气温度(Tair)和相关叶片特征之间的关系.结果表明:红松和樟子松基于叶面积的RL(RL-area)表现为生长季初期和末期较大,而白桦RL-area则随生长季进程而逐渐减小.在生长季中,RL-area与叶片总光合之比的时间动态明显.红松、樟子松RL-area与Tair关系显著,而白桦RL-area与Tair关系不显著;但3种树种基于叶质量的RL(RL-mass)与Tair均呈显著的指数函数关系.叶片特征(包括可溶性糖、淀粉、氮、比叶面积等参数)也有明显的季节变化.影响RL的叶片特征参数因树种而异,其中可溶性糖浓度对3种树种的RL均有显著影响.可见,RL的季节变化格局受树木的生长节律、温度和叶片特征的联合控制.

  12. Fundamentalismi ja tehnoloogia võitlus / Ülo Niinemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niinemets, Ülo, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Autori sõnul eelistatakse Eestis fundamentaaluuringutele rakendusuuringuid. Poliitilise tahte puudumine on pannud meie teaduse Euroopa kontekstis täbarasse olukorda, leiab ta ning pakub olukorrast väljapääsuks integreerumist Euroopa teadusinstituutidega

  13. Tennisemusketärid / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Treener Cyril Suk vormib mitmekordsest Eesti tennisemeistrist Jürgen Zoppist Praha tenniseakadeemias maailmaklassimängijat. Kommenteerib Eesti tennisekoondise peatreener Peeter Lamp. Vt. samas ka lühivestlust Jürgen Zoppiga

  14. 75 FR 69160 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Kington Kin Bong Hui Kwok-Kit Hui Man Yan Mark Hui Ng Suk Ha Hung Janet Yi Kui Hung San-Hsiung Husain Syed... Dalina Abdul Sarmiento Sonia Satrap Alireza Saumweber Helena Maria Schatz John Barkley Scherer...

  15. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Organic Carbon in Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir in North China%密云水库上游流域土壤有机碳特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 王效科; 欧阳志云

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool constitutes an important portion of the global carbon pool and has significant impacts on land productivity and global climate change. The study on soil organic carbon has been one of the hot issues of the world. However, related research of the filed in the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the largest reservoir in North China, is relatively rare. The distribution characteristics and influencing factors (such as climate, topography and soil characteristics) of soil organic carbon in seven kinds of typical land use types of the Upstream Watershed of Miyun Reservoir were analyzed in the study, and the results showed as follows. 1) In the target domain, soil organic carbon contents in natural secondary forests and grasslands were much higher than those in shrubs and artificial forests, while that in croplands was the lowest. In the whole soil profile (0 - 40 cm), the average soil organic carbon content was in order of natural secondary Populus davidiana Dode-Belula platyphylla Suk. Mixed forest > grassland > natural secondary Quercus wutaishanica Blume forest > shrub > artificial Larix principis-rupprechlii Mayr. Forest>artificial Pinus labulaeformis Carr. Forest>cropland. 2) Soil organic carbon contents in the top soil layer (0 - 10 cm) were the highest and decreased rapidly with the increase depth in the six kinds of land use types except grassland, which showed a slight increase from 0 to 20 cm and a small drop from 20 to 40 cm in depth. 3) Soil organic carbon content in each layer was significantly positively correlated with altitude, soil water content and nitrogen content (p0.05). Further partial correlation analysis indicated that the most principal factors influencing soil organic carbon content varied with soil depth, and they were soil nitrogen content, bulk density and pH in the 0 - 10 cm layer, soil nitrogen content, bulk density and slop in the 10-20 cm layer, soil nitrogen content and annual precipitation in the 20

  16. 侧柏与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对养分释放的影响%IMPACTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF MIXTURE OF LEAF LITTERS FROM PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS AND OTHER TREES ON NUTRIENT RELEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓曦; 刘增文; 祝振华; 杜良贞

    2013-01-01

    constant temperature and humidity for 345 days on end.The litters were analyzed for quality and nutrient contents before and after the incubation.Results show that 1) among the nutrients released during decompostion of the leaf litters,K was the most active and easy to get released,while P was generally dull and difficult to get released,and C and N was moderate and often synchronous in releasing,and the recycle period of these nutrients was 1 ~ 2 a; 2) leaf litter of Ulmus pumila in the mixture acted positively,while that of Amorpha fruticosa,Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis negatively on C release ; leaf litter of Populus simonii did positively,while that of B.platyphylla,Q.liaotungensis and A.fruticosa negatively on N release; litters of P.simonii and U.pumila did positively,while litters from all the other trees negatively on P release; and litter of U.pumila did positively,while that of A.fruticosa did negatively on K release;3) the Principal Component Analysis of comprehensive effects of decomposition of various mixtures of leaf litters on releasing of C,N,P and K revealed that leaf letter of U.Pumila and P.simonii in the mixture was the most significant in promoting nutrient release,and litters from Caragana microphylla and Q.liaotungensis followed,Litter from A.fruticosa,followed by litter from B.platyphylla,H.rhamnoides and R.Pseudoacacia,showed obvious inhibitive effects on nutrient release.

  17. 西南桦苗木生长对微波辐射和IBA浸种的响应%Growth Response of Betula alnoides Seedlings to Microwave Radiation and IBA Soaking Seeds Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海娇; 王智斌; 庞岳燕; 李莲芳; 段安安; 王慷林

    2013-01-01

    采用裂区试验设计,分别以有无微波辐射和IBA浸种为主区和副区进行西南桦苗木培育试验.结果表明:西南桦苗木的地径和苗高生长对微波、IBA及其二者间的交互作用都具有积极的响应.苗龄120天时,苗木平均地径在有和无微波前提下,均以IBA浓度250 mg/L溶液浸种最大(分别为0.60、0.78 mm);150天时,微波辐射、无IBA溶液浸种平均地径最大,达1.19 mm;而2个苗期的苗木平均高均以微波辐射、不采用IBA浸种的最高,分别为12.39、16.10 cm; 150天时,微波辐射的平均地径(0.70 mm)较无微波辐射的地径(0.41mm)大;120时,微波辐射的苗平均高(6.58 cm)的大于无微波(4.98 cm)的平均苗高;150天,微波辐射的平均苗高(8.16 cm)的大于无微波(5.78 cm)的平均苗高.

  18. 欧洲白桦无性系苗期光合特性的比较%Studies on photosynthetic characteristics of Betula pendula×B.pendula var.carelica Sok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 柴永江; 杨敏生

    2006-01-01

    对2种栽培条件下欧洲白桦优良无性系1/86、2/86和本地白桦的净光合速率、蒸腾速率及相关生理指标进行了测定.结果表明:在净光合速率方面,田间栽培和盆栽方式下的本地白桦明显高于1/86、2/86,而 1/86、2/86之间则没有明显差异;田间栽培下的3种白桦相应高于盆栽条件下的净光合速率.在蒸腾速率方面,田间栽培条件下的3个白桦品种之间没有明显差异;盆栽条件下的本地白桦显著高于1/86、2/86, 而1/86、2/86之间则没有差异;田间栽培下的1/86、2/86明显高于盆栽的蒸腾速率,而本地白桦在2种栽培方式下没有差异.

  19. Stem-cell spin: Covering the Hwang-affair in Science and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the South Korean cloning expert Woo Suk Hwang was found guilty of fraud and scientific misconduct. The scandal was reaching far beyond Hwang’s own laboratory encompassing national pride, geopolitics and regional discussions of stem-cell research. But the HIn 2006 the South Korean cloning...... expert Woo Suk Hwang was found guilty of fraud and scientific misconduct. The scandal reached far beyond Hwang’s own laboratory, encompassing national pride, geopolitics and global discussions of stem-cell research. But the Hwang affair was also a case of fierce competition between two of the world...

  20. 北京百花山自然保护区不同植被地面生苔藓植物物种多样性%Species Diversity of Floor Bryophytes in Different Vegetations in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 王文和; 颜亭玉; 李俊清

    2013-01-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index,the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophytes in the Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve in Beijing were studied.The results showed that there were 65 floor species (including subspecies and varieties) belonging to 31 genera of 13 families.Species composition,dominant families and dominant species were different in 8 kinds of vegetation,Pottiaceae and Bryaceae were the absolutefamilies in meadow and shrub,but the Entodontaceae was the most common family in forest vegetation.The species similarity between Pinus tabulaeformis forest and deciduous broadleaved forest was the highest (0.516 3),but meadow and Vitex negundo shrub between mostly forest vegetation were zero.The growth base was the most important environment factor related to the distribution of floor bryophytes,and the humidity,herbage coverage,litter coverage were also related to the distribution of the bryophytes on floor.Betula platyphylla forest and deciduous broadleaved forest were the center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for the bryophyte diversity conversation.%采用相似性系数和物种多样性指数对北京百花山自然保护区8种植被内地面生苔藓植物的物种多样性进行了研究,得知8种植被中地面生苔藓植物有13科31属65种(含种以下的单位),优势科6科,优势种12种.不同植被中苔藓植物的物种组成、优势科和优势种不同,丛藓科和真藓科植物在草甸和灌丛内占绝对优势,而森林植被内的绢藓科为绝对优势科;油松林和落叶阔叶混交林的物种相似性最高为51.63,草甸和荆条灌丛与大部分植被的物种相似为0.地面生苔藓植物的分布与其生长的基质相关性最大,另外水分条件、小生境、草本层盖度和凋落物盖度等也影响地面生苔藓植物的分布.白桦林和落叶阔叶混交林应成为生物多样性保护的重点植被类型.

  1. Larval instar impact on host selection suitability of asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM).%亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫寄主选择与龄期关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏靖; 骆有庆; 石娟; 王德鹏; 沈绍伟

    2012-01-01

    The Asian gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM) is one of three gypsy found in Asia. European gypsy moth was introduced to USA which caused a great damage moth subspecies that is . Former study showed Asia gypsy moth could harm more kinds of trees than European gypsy moth. In this experiment, we choose 16 kinds of tree species to test host selection suitability which are common in USA or China. Statistics mortality rate, developmental duration and pupae weight to analyze the host impact on Asia gypsy moth. The result showed the larve of AGM feed on Acer saccharum, Betula platyphylla, Populus canadensi could complete life cycle. Larvae feed on Juniperus rigida, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus megistophylla, Picea koraiensis, Albizia julibrissin, Lirioden- dron chinense × tulipifera, Pinus bungeana, Pinus massoniana and Pinus thunbergii all died before 2nd instar. Larvae feed on P. tabulaeformis, P. strobus and Diospyros kaki after 4th instar, mortality is lower than 2nd instar. Once the larve develop after 4th instar, host range is wider than 1 st and 2nd instar.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性的害虫,常被分为欧洲型和亚洲型2种类型,欧洲型舞毒蛾在传入美国之后造成了巨大危害。之前报道指出亚洲型舞毒蛾的寄主范围比欧洲型舞毒蛾的广,故造成的危害和损失更大,北美植物保护组织据此对中国的高风险港口实施了船舶特别检疫措施,对我国的进出口贸易产生了巨大影响。鉴于此,本实验以16种北美和中国常见的行道树种和绿化树种作为供试树种,分析了不同寄主植物对亚洲型舞毒蛾生长发育指标的影响规律。结果表明:饲喂白桦、加杨和糖槭的幼虫可以完成生活周期。饲喂杜松、女贞、大叶黄杨、红皮云杉、合欢、杂交鹅掌楸、马尾松、黑松和白皮松的幼虫在2龄以前全部死亡。虽然2龄以前幼虫饲喂北美乔松、油松和柿树后死亡率较高,但

  2. Impacts of extreme rainfall on soil erosion and- tree-falling in secondary forest ecosystems in mountainous regions of eastern Liaoning Province,Northeast China%极端降雨对辽东山区次生林土壤侵蚀与树木倒伏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天乐; 朱教君; 于立忠; 孙一荣; 苗杰

    2011-01-01

    为了解次生林生态系统在极端降雨后的受灾情况,于2010年7-8月极端降雨后,对中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所清原森林生态实验站内、不同立地次生林生态系统及无林地进行了全面调查与分析.结果表明:极端降雨对次生生态系统土壤产生了强烈的侵蚀,并造成树木的大量倒伏,同时诱发多处坡面型泥石流;受灾严重区多分布于坡度陡、高差大的林分;侵蚀沟和泥石流的数量与灌木盖度呈显著负相关;凋落物层对土壤侵蚀具有一定的抑制作用;不同树种倒木数量表现不同,其中水曲柳、桦树和落叶松的倒木数量较多;与有林地相比,无林地受灾程度更为严重.基于上述结果,讨论了极端降雨干扰对次生林生态系统结构、立地条件及演替模式等可能造成的影响.%In order to make clear the damage in secondary forest ecosystems after extreme rainfall, a comprehensive investigation was conducted on the disturbances induced by ertreme rainfall in july-August, 2010 in the secondary forest ecosystems with different forest types and sites at the Qingyuan Experimental Station of Forest Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology of Chinese Academy of Sciences in a mountainous region of eastern Liaoning province, China. Extreme rainfall induced serious soil erosion and a great deal of fallen trees, and produced slope debris flow in many places. The seriously damaged areas were those with steeper slopes and higher height differences. There was a negative correlation between the quantities of erosion gully and debris flow, and the shrub coverage. Litter layer had definite inhibitory effect on soil erosion. The number of fallen trees varied with tree species, among which, Fraxinus mandshurica, Larix olgensis , and Betula platyphylla had larger number of fallen trees than the other tree species. Compared with forest lands, non-forest land was more seriously damaged. Based on these results, the likely

  3. 多伦县沙地云杉混交林物种多样性研究%Species Diversity of Picea mongolica Mixed Forest in Duolun County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付彩虹; 李钢铁; 胡小龙; 余伟莅

    2012-01-01

    Based on the community survey data of three standards sites in Duolun County, the species composition has been studied, and the species diversity of the three typical communities of Picea mongolia mixed forest has been analyzed and compared. The results show that the plant species of Picea mongolia mixed forest is very rich in Dualun County, which there are 71 kinds of plants in tree layer, shrub layer and herbaceous layer, and the community vertical stratification structure is obvious. The species diversity of mixed forest of Picea mongolia and Betula platyphylla in Duolun County is rich, for the gradient in the community, the community I is 52 species, community II is 45 species and community III is 47 species. The order of species richness index is community I 〉 community III〉 community II. The changing law of species richness index in the community is roughly ceous layer 〉 shrub layer 〉 tree layer. The changing law of species evenness index of three same, that is herbatypical community is roughly same, that is tree layer 〉 shrub layer 〉 herbaceous layer. The study on the species diversity of Picea mongolia mixed forest in Duolun County can provide the theoretical basis for strengthening the protection and management of the biodiversity of Picea mongolia.%以多伦县沙地云杉林3条样带的群落调查数据为基础,研究了沙地云杉混交林的物种组成结构,分析了3个典型群落乔木层、灌木层、草本层的物种多样性。结果表明:沙地云杉混交林植物种类丰富,乔木层、灌木层、草本层共有植物71种,群落垂直结构分层明显;多伦县沙地云杉与白桦混交林物种多样性较丰富,在群落梯度上,群落Ⅰ为52种,群落Ⅱ为45种,群落Ⅲ为47种,物种丰富度指数大小顺序为群落Ⅰ〉群落Ⅲ〉群落Ⅱ;群落的物种多样性指数变化规律大致相同,均为草本层〉灌木层〉乔木层;3个典型群落的物种均匀度指数变化规律基本一致,为

  4. 白桦BpUVR8基因的序列与表达模式分析%The sequence and expression analysis ofBpUVR8 gene in birch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓一; 詹亚光; 娄晓瑞; 曾凡锁

    2016-01-01

    As a photoreceptor speciifcally for UV-B light,BpUVR8 gene plays an important role in the photo-morphogenesis and growing development in plants. We cloned theUVR8 gene in birch, and named it as BpU-VR8 (GeneBank ID: AHY02156). The bioinformatics analysis shows that this sequence consists of 1326 bp with a complete open reading frame, and encodes 441 amino acids. Furthermore, it is a stable hydrophobic pro-tein. This protein may not contain signal peptide but have the transmembrane ability. The protein has two trans-membrane domains. According to the tertiary structure prediction, the protein is constituted by a seven-bladedβ-propeller, which has a high structural homology with AtUVR8 inArabidopsis thaliana. The expression analy-sis ofBpUVR8 indicates that this gene expressed in various tissues, and the expression level in leaves is higher than others. The expression ofBpUVR8 in August is highest. Besides, this gene is not sensitive to the induction of UV-B signal. Abiotic stress can induce the expression ofBpUVR8gene. This paper can provide a reference for the study of gene function in response to the UV-B signals.%本研究克隆了白桦(Betula platyphylla)UVR8基因,命名为BpUVR8(GenBank: AHY02156)。生物信息学分析表明该基因全长1326 bp,编码441个氨基酸,为稳定性蛋白,不存在信号肽,具有2个跨膜区。二级结构分析表明该蛋白属于混合型。三级结构预测结果显示, BpUVR8与AtUVR8蛋白结构具有较高相似性,均由7个β螺旋组成片层结构。BpUVR8表达模式分析表明,其主要在白桦叶片中表达,且8月份表达量最高;紫外诱导6 h,其转录表达水平上调约2倍;同时,非生物胁迫以及信号诱导在一定时间内也能影响该基因的转录表达。本文为研究白桦对UV-B信号的响应以及对UVR8功能的深入研究提供参考。

  5. Characteristics of soil fauna community in forest floor at different climate zone, China%我国重要森林群落凋落物层土壤动物群落生态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英华; 孙家宝; 张夫道

    2009-01-01

    2001年9月~2002年9月,采用凋落袋分解法对我国不同气候带的8种重要森林群落,即黑龙江帽儿山的红松林(Pinus koraiensis)与针阔混交林(落叶松(Larix gmelinii)、白桦(Betula Platyphylla))、北京九龙山辽东栎林(Quercus liaotungensis)与针阔混交林(辽东栎、油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)),江西大岗山杉木林(Cunninghamia lanceolata)与针阔混交林(杉木、鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense))林以及广东鼎湖山常绿阔叶林(荷木(Schima superba)-厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis))与针阔混交林(马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、荷木)凋落物层土壤动物群落进行研究.全年74次共采集森林凋落层土壤动物个体29123只,其中大型土壤动物4492只、中小型土壤动物24631只,隶属4门14纲30目,蜱螨类、弹尾类为凋落层的优势群落.非参数Kruskal-Wallis 方差分析表明,8种森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落组成差异性显著 (x2(7)=18.867, P<0.01),且帽儿山、九龙山与鼎湖山之间以及大岗山与鼎湖山阔叶林之间凋落层土壤动物群落组成存在显著性差异(P<0.001).研究时段内,大型土壤动物月均数量和类群数量随着纬度升高而呈现明显的递减趋势;中小型土壤动物月均数量随纬度升高而基本呈升高的趋势.凋落层土壤动物月均数量、多样性、均匀性均差别显著(X2(66)=37.95、X2(66) = 26.38、X2(66) = 328.97, P<0.001).多样性分析显示,鼎湖山凋落层土壤动物分布最丰富、分布最均匀;大岗山与鼎湖山典型森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落相似性最高,帽儿山与鼎湖山典型森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落相似性最低.灰色综合关联度分析表明,年均温度对土壤动物影响最大,有机质(表土)次之,土壤pH次于前两者,年均相对湿度影响最小,环境因子对主要土壤动物群落产生不同的影响.

  6. 黄土高原油松与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对土壤性质的影响%EFFECTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF LEAF LITTERS FROM PINUS TABULAEFORMIS AND OTHER TREES ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 刘增文; 米彩红; 杜良贞

    2012-01-01

    An indoor experiment was carried out of having leaf litters from Pinus tabulaeformis and from other 10 species of trees decomposed, separately or mixedly to explore effects of the decomposition on soil properties and any synergic or offsetting actions between the two in mixture. It was found that decomposition of the leaf litters separately significantly increased the activities of soil enzymes, like urease, dehydrogenase and phosphatase, and contents of organic matter and available N, but varied sharply in the effect on available P and CEC in the soil. The decomposition of leaf litter from P. tabulaeformis mixed with that from Platycladus orientalis, Populus simonii, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila, separately showed obvious synergic effects on total soil microbe. In decomposition, its mixture with that from Hippophae rham-noides affected activity of the soil enzyme of phosphatase, synergically, but its mixture with the leaf letter from P. orientalis , Betula platyphylla or U. pumila, separately, did reversely. Its mixture with leaf litters from most of the trees, separately, showed a synergic effect on soil available K content, but, reversely on soil available P content. Its mixture with that from P. simonii,H. rhamnoides or Amorpha fruticosa, separately, displayed a synergic effect on soil organic matter content. In terms of soil properties as a whole in their effects, its mixture with leaf litter from H. rhamnoides, R. pseudoacacia, P. simonii or A. fruticosa, separately, all acted synergically, whereas its mixture with that from P. orientalis, Quercus liao-tungensis,B. platyphylla,Larix principis-rupprechtii, or Caragana microphylla,separately,did reversely.%通过油松及其他10个树种枯落叶单独和混合分解试验,探讨了油松与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对土壤性质的影响及在对土壤性质影响中是否存在相互促进或抑制作用.结果表明:11种枯落叶单独分解均明显提高了土壤脲酶、脱氢酶、

  7. AcEST: DK945237 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ope platyphylla GN=matK P... 30 4.9 sp|Q9TNB1|MATK_CONMJ Maturase K OS=Convallaria majali...FLYPLLFQEYIYALAHNHGL---NGSIFYEPVEVFGYDNKSSLVLVKRLITRIYQQNFLI 74 >sp|Q9TNB1|MATK_CONMJ Maturase K OS=Convallaria majali

  8. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: The three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspiration to evaluate Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia taxa with three pinnate inflorescences for the Peruvian flora. Tillandsia extensa characteristics are clarified, confirming its distribution for northeastern Peru, and recognizing a specimen, previously considered being the second record for this species, as T. platyphylla.

  9. On some Balanids living in Corals, collected by the Snellius Expedition in 1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolosváry, G.

    1950-01-01

    Prof. H. Boschma, director of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, sent me some Balanids associated with Millepora platyphylla Hemprich & Ehrenberg, partly preserved in formalin, partly in a dry state. The material was collected by the Snellius Expedition in 1930, the data concerning the presen

  10. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.G. van der Heyden; T.D. van de Ven; T. Opthof

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and. fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fr

  11. From Hero to‘Goat'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The spectacular fall of South Korea's best-known scientist Hwang Woo Suk for falsifying his embryonic stem cell research has shocked his own country and once again highlighted the importance of scientists' integrity and ethical standards. Hwang, 52, a professor at Seoul National University before he

  12. Kunst rahvani ehk Kwangju biennaal / Siram

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siram, pseud., 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Biennaal "Tolmutera, veetilk" Lõuna-Koreas, avatud kuni 13. XI 2004. Kuraatorid Yongwoo Lee (New York, Soul), Kerry Brougher (Washington-distrikt), Suk-won Chang (Kwangju). City Light Award - Watercio Caldas (Brasiilia), Korea fondi preemia - Jennifer Allora ja Guillermo Calzadilla (Kuuba) jt. Johann Köleri nim. Positivistlik Kunsttööstuskool osales biennaali performance'iprogrammis

  13. Med Kingo på dybt vand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Lars Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Tag med digteren Thomas Kingo ud på dybt vand i selskab med lektor og mag.art. Lars Arndal, der kaster nye perspektiver på Kingos forlisdigt Hierte-Suk. Arndal kommer hermed også med et bud på, hvordan man som lærer kan invitere eleverne med på opdagelse i digtet...

  14. Biomonitoring: Guide for the Use of Biological Endpoints in Monitoring Species, Habitats, and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Disruptors . Pages 369-430 in: R. Kendall, R. Dickerson, J. Geisy, and W. Suk, eds., Principles and Processes for Evaluating Endocrine Disruptors ...Olympia, WA. Sheffield, S.R., J.M. Matter, B.A. Rattner, and P.D. Guiney 1998. Fish and Wildlife Species as Sentinels of Environmental Endocrine

  15. Why Stochastic Modeling is Essential in Analyzing Interdicted Transportation Network Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Guro -Gu, Si-Heung 1 Dong, HanYang Apt. 5-1107 Seoul, Korea 11. CPT. Kim, Suk Hwan SMC 2318 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, alifornia 93943-5000 12. Library 130-02 Korea Military Academy Gong-Reung Dong, 556-21 Seoul, Korea 61

  16. Kloonimiskuningas osutus tüssajaks / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Lõuna-Korea teadlane Hwang Woo-Suk astus möödunud aasta lõpus pettuses süüdistatuna tagasi Souli ülikooli professori kohalt, olles varem alusetult väitnud, et on saavutanud läbimurde geenitehnoloogias ning suudab tõhusalt tüvirakke luua

  17. BasicS oli Physicochemical Properties and Soil Fungal Diversti y under Different Forest Ty pes of Urban Forest%城市森林不同林型下土壤基本理化特性及土壤真菌多样性1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高微微; 康颖; 卢宏; 王秋玉

    2016-01-01

    .mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis, Picea koraiensis, and forest edge grassland as control to de-termine the main soil physicochemical properties including soil pH , relative water content and electrical conductivity , and detected the soil fungal metagenomics diversity .There were significant variation among different soil samples in three soil basic properties, such as 4.597-7.393 for pH value,4.11%-10.90%for relative water content, 953.000-3 443.333μs· cm-1 for soil electrical conductivity .The pH value and soil electrical conductivity were highest for soil of Juglans mandshu-rica plantation, and the lowest for Larix gmelinii plantation.There were great difference in soil fungal metagenomics among eight soil samples.Total of 362 species, 211 genera, 124 families, 63 orders and 24 classes, 8 eumycota were in all soil samples.There were clear changes in the level of Eumycophyta and Eumycetes , including Ascomycota , Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota , Zygomycota , and Glomeromycota .An ancient mycorrhizal fungi of Ascomycota newly discovered in recent years was found in the forest soil of Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, while Agaricostibomycete fungi of pucciniomycoti-na, Basidiomycota were detected in the control samples and Glomeromycota fungi in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica and Fraxinus mandshurica, Exobasidiomycete fungi of Ustilaginomycotina Basidiomycota were only detected in the forest soil of Picea koraiensis and control. The dominant species were the fungi of Ascomycota phylum in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica, and Basidiomycota fungi in the forest soil of Betula platyphylla, Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, Picea koraiensis in Eumycophyta level .The dominate spe-cies in Eumycetes level were mainly Agaricomycetes fungi , in which sordariomycetes fungi of Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota as the dominate species were only found in the soil sample of Fraxinus mandshurica.

  18. 转基因白桦杂种T1代的生长发育及AP1基因的遗传分析%Growth and developmental analysis of T1 generation from BpAP1 transgenic birch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朔; 黄海娇; 杨光; 姜静; 刘桂丰

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants are characterized by long developing period and high heterozygosity. It is important to shorten the life cycle of trees in tree breeding. APETALA1 (AP1) is a member of MADS-box gene family involved in flower development in plants. Overexpression of AP1 genes induces early flowering in transgenic plants. In order to investigate the genetic stability and regularity of foreign BpAP1 gene in BpAP1 transgenic birch, we generated T1 generation seedlings using three 35S BpAP1 transgenic plants and one wild-type plant as male parents, and three wild-type birch, Betula platyphylla í Betula pendula, as female parents. The growth, development and flowering characteristics of the T1 generation seedlings were analyzed. The results indicated that the foreign BpAP1 slightly influenced the pollen vitality of transgenic plants. About 36% -58% of T1 generation inherited the foreign BpAP1 gene from their parents. Chi-square test of BpAP1 gene segregation ratios revealed that BpAP1 was inherited in accordance with Mendelian inheritance. T1 generation seedlings carrying BpAP1 gene inherited the characteristics of early flowering and dwarfism from their male parent. The average heights of 1-and 2-year-old T1 generation seedlings carrying BpAP1 gene were significantly shorter than the progeny from hybridization of wild-type birch with the percentages of 44. 19% and 18. 92%, respectively. The phenotypes of T1 generation birch carrying foreign BpAP1 gene were quite different from the ones that were lack of foreign BpAP1 gene. According to the different phenotypes, we can infer whether the T1 generation seedlings carry BpAP1 gene or not. Our study proved that the exogenous AP1 gene can be stably inherited by sexual reproduction, and the acquired transgenic birch lines exhibited accelerated flowering time and a shortened juvenile phase, indicating that it can be used as parent materials for genetic studies on birch traits.%本文以3株野生型白桦为母本、3株35S

  19. Leaf Litter Decomposition and Its Relationship with Soil Properties in Betula alnoides and Eucalyptus urophylla ×E.grandis%西南桦和尾巨桉凋落叶分解及其与土壤性质的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建; 莫慧华; 黄弼昌; 周燕萍; 蔡道雄

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the E.urophylla ×E.grandis stand,the B.alnoides had significantly higher contents of soil or-ganic carbon (SOC),total N,total P,total K as well as higher N /P ratio in 0 -1 0 and 1 0 -20 cm soil depth. However,the litter decomposition had no significant effects on SOC,total K,pH,C /N ratio and N /P ratio in 20-30 cm soil depth.The correlation analysis revealed that the organic C of leaf litter was significantly related to SOC,total N,total P,total K and N /P ratio,whereas the total N of leaf litter was significantly related to soil total N,pH and C /N ratio.[Conclusion]The nutrient contents of leaf litter were found to be significantly correlated with the soil nutrient condition.Compared with the E.urophylla ×E.grandis,the nutrient contents of leaf litter were significantly higher in B.alnoides,and subsequently,faster decomposition rate of leaf litter resulted in high-er soil nutrient contents.%[目的]探讨南亚热带西南桦和尾巨桉人工纯林的凋落叶分解动态及其与土壤化学性质之间的相关关系。[方法]采用原位分解袋法研究凋落叶的分解过程。[结果]表明:西南桦、尾巨桉人工林凋落叶分解系数分别为0.96 a -1和0.88 a -1。在为期12个月的分解试验中,2种凋落叶有机 C 含量在整个分解过程中呈逐渐下降趋势;全K 含量和 C /N 比在分解前期迅速下降,之后趋于平缓;全 N 含量和全 P 含量在整个分解过程中呈逐渐上升趋势;2种凋落叶 N /P 比则呈先升高后下降的趋势。无论是分解前期还是分解后期,凋落叶质量损失与 N 含量均呈显著正相关(前期 R =0.877;后期 R =0.855),与 C /N 均呈显著负相关(前期 R =-0.735;后期 R =-0.697)。与尾巨桉林地土壤性质相比,西南桦凋落叶分解提高了林地010、1020 cm 土壤的有机 C、全 N、全 P、全 K、N /P,对2030 cm 土壤有机 C、全 K、pH 值、C /N、N /P 则未产生显著影响。相关分析表明:凋落叶初始有机 C 含量与土壤有机C、全 N、全 P、全 K、N /P 显著相关;凋落叶初始全 N 含量与土壤全 N、pH 值、C /N 显著相关。[结论]凋落叶的养分含量与土壤养分的关系紧密;与尾巨桉相比,西南桦凋落叶的养分含量明显较高,分解速率更快,释放到土壤中的养分也更多。

  20. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M A G; van de Ven, T; Opthof, T

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fraud case' and raise some ethical concerns about the issue. Finally, we pay attention to plagiarism, autoplagiarism and double publications. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:25-9.).

  1. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. I...

  2. Trans World Tidal Gravity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    America Curitiba (BraziZ) This station, situated at the Universidade Federal do Parana, in the Instituto de Ciencias Geod6sicas under Professor C...SUL COMPOSANTE VEPTICALE ERESIL 29 40 17S 53 49 22W H 700M P 2M 0 330KM DEPOTS SEDIMENTAIRES SUk BASALTE DEPT* DE INGENIERIA RURAL-UNIV. FED. DE SANTA...PRECAMBRIENIGNEISS * UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE - DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA TRANS WORLD TIDAL GRAVITY PROFILES P. MELCHIOR CENTRO POLITECNICO

  3. Childhood neuroblastoma masquerading as pheochromocytoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moon SB

    2016-01-01

    Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South KoreaAbstract: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Mild hypertension is a frequent symptom, presumably an effect of catecholamines that tumors release. Reported herein is the rare occurrence of severe hypertension and subsequent heart failure attributable to adrenal gland neuroblastoma. A 3-year-old boy p...

  4. Communal action of microbial cultures for Red HE3B degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, P S; Phugare, S S; Jadhav, S B; Jadhav, J P

    2010-09-15

    The consortium PMB11 consisting of three bacterial species, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil was identified as Bacillus odysseyi SUK3, Morganella morganii SUK5 and Proteus sp. SUK7. The consortium possessed the ability to decolorize various textile dyes as well as mixtures of dyes. PMB11 could decolorize Red HE3B (50 mg l(-1)) with 99% of decolorization within 12 h in nutrient broth, while in mineral medium it could decolorize up to 97% within 24h. Induction in the activities of various oxidative and reductive enzymes indicates the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization. Biodegradation of the dye was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC and FTIR analysis. The Red HE3B degradation pathway was proposed by GC-MS analysis. Various metabolites formed after the degradation were identified as 2,5-diaminobenzene 6-aminotriazine, aniline 2-sulfate, aniline 3-sulfate, 2-amino 5-chlorotriazine and naphthalene. Phytotoxicity studies revealed that metabolites formed after degradation were significantly less toxic in nature.

  5. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  6. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens) fo...

  7. Phylogeographic patterns in Leccinum sect. Scabra and the status of the arctic/alpine species L. rotundifoliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships in the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus Leccinum section Scabra. Species of this section are exclusively associated with Betula and occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of arctic, alpine,

  8. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    tuberculatus WM Amorpha A. fruiticosa WMS Betula B. nigra FF, LF Bidens B. cernua, B. frondosa SMA Carex C. spp.1 SM Carya C. cordiformis, C. illinoensis LF...include pecan ( Carya ), hickory ( Carya ), river birch (Betula), sycamore (Platanus), and red/black oak (Quercus). This general class is most com- mon...near the edge of the floodplain, or out of the floodplain. This general class typi- cally consists of red or white oak (Quercus), hickory ( Carya

  9. 刺槐与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对微量元素释放的影响%Influences of mixed leaf litter decomposition of Robinia pseudoacacia with other trees on microelements release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜良贞; 刘增文; 祝振华; 李茜

    2012-01-01

    whole Loess Plateau, through collecting leaf litter of R. pseudoacacia and other 10 trees at the end of autumn,cutting the leaf to some fragments (a=l cm) or 1 cm needles,and gathering humus soil (0-20 cm) of no forested land as medium,the incubation of mixed leaf litter decomposition had been carried out for 345 d with the method of nylon mesh bag buried with soil in the same condition of tem- perature and moisture. Then,the microelements (Cu,Zn,Ni,Cd) contents before and after leaf litter de-composition were determinated with the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS)method. [Result] The re- lease rates of Cu,Zn,Ni and Cd during unique leaf litter decomposition of Populus simonii ,Hippophae rh- amnoides ,Platycladus orientalis and Quercus liaotungensis are all the fastest and the turnover period is 1 year or a little more. Mixing litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with P. simonii,Ulmus pumila, H. rh- amnoides separately would produce promoted actions on release of the microelements, whereas mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, P. orientalis, Betula platyphylla and Caragana microphylla separately would produce inhibitory actions on release of the 4 microelements. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus tabulaeformis and Larix principis-rupprechtii separately would promote release of Cu, but inhibit releases of Zn, Ni and Cd. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Q. liaotungensis would promote releases of Zn and Cd,but inhibit releases of Cu and Ni. [Conclusion] Mixed forestation of R. pseudoacacia with other trees which promote release of microele- ments after mixed litter decomposition would be helpful for the microelement cycling and utilization in for- estland.

  10. 青海不同林分类型土壤养分与微生物功能多样性%Soil Nutrients and Microbial Functional Diversity of Different Stand Types in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向泽宇; 张莉; 张全发; 刘伟; 王根绪; 王长庭; 胡雷

    2014-01-01

    available phosphorus content was Xunhua,Jianzha,Huangzhong > Datong 1 #,Datong 2 #,Ledu > Minhe,and the available potassium content was Datong 2 #,Minhe > Ledu > Datong 1 #,Huangzhong,Xunhua,Jianzha. The total potassium content of each stand type was not significantly different. The accumulation of overall soil nutrients in different stand types was in turn Datong 1#,Jianzha > Huangzhong > Xunhua > Datong 2# > Ledu > Minhe. Effects of four tree species on the distribution and improvement of soil nutrients were in sequence of Picea asperata > Betula platyphylla> Populus davidiana > Larix gmelinii. The soil microbial community functional diversity index in the various stand types was Ledu,Minhe > Datong 1 #,Datong 2 #,Huangzhong,> Xunhua,Jianzha. The principal component analysis of carbon source utilization of the soil microbial community in different stand types showed that carbohydrates and amino acids were the main carbon source. RDA of each stand type soil nutrient content and microbial community functional diversity indicated that soil nutrient factors well explained the variation of the microbial community functional diversity. Soil nutrient had important influence on microbial community functional diversity. The organic matter, nitrogen and available phosphorus were the main factors influencing the metabolism of soil microbial communities.

  11. 长白山不同演替阶段针阔混交林群落物种多度分布格局%Species-abundance distribution patterns at different successional stages of conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest communities in Changbai Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琰; 张春雨; 赵秀海

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to explain processes that dominate species-abundance distribution pattern and mechanism of community assembly in temperate forests. Methods We used three 5.2-hm2 permanent plots established in secondary Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla forest, secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest and Titia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest in Changbai Mountains. Within each plot, we randomly selected 500 subplots within 260 m x 200 m at the scales of 10 m × 10 m, 30 m × 30 m, 60 m × 60 m and 90 m × 90 m. We calculated the mean value of species-abundance distributions taken from the 500 subplots as the observed species-abundance distribution. We estimated the fitted species-abundance distributions by neutral, log-normal, Zipf, broken stick and niche preemption models at different scales. Simulation effects were tested by Chi-square test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). For the neutral model, we first estimated two parameters 6 and m and then simulated 600 species-abundance distributions. The average of these 600 species-abundance distributions was the best-fit result of the neutral model. We employed the 95% confidence envelopes that were approximated by the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of the abundances of species of rank / = 1 to S over the 600 simulations to test goodness-of-fit for the neutral model. All of the computations were conducted in R 2.14.1 with UNTB and VAGEN packages. Important findings The neutral model fit species-abundance distribution at different successional stages of conifer and broad-leaved mixed temperate forest communities. All five models fit the observed value at the 10 m x 10 m sampling scale, and the goodness of fit of the log-normal, Zipf, broken stick and niche preemption models were better than that of the neutral model. That means at small sampling scale the species-abundance distribution is dominated by neutral process and niche process; however, the niche process is

  12. 红松阔叶混交林中坑和丘的微立地特征及其对植被更新的影响%Microsite characteristics of pit and mound and their effects on the vegetation regeneration in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珊; 段文标; 王丽霞; 陈立新; 魏全帅; 李猛; 王利冬

    2013-01-01

    the highest relative air humidity (75.9% ) but mound top had the lowest one (68.0% ).The frequency of forming pit/ mound complex by the tree species was decreased in the order of Pinus koraiensis (42.9% ) >Picea asperata (31.0%) > Betula platyphylla (16.1%) > Abies fabri (7.1%) > Prunus padus (2.4% ).Among the 42 treefalls, two-thirds of them were in northwest direction.The treefalls volume had significant positive correlations with pit depth, pit length, mound height, and mound width, but negative correlation with mound thickness.The treefall mean diameter at breast height had significant positive correlations with pit width (r = 0.328, P=0.017) and pit length (r=0.527, P = 0).The tree species richness at the microsites decreased in the order of intact forest floor > pit > mound, and the tree species coverage was in the sequence of intact forest floor > pit > mound.

  13. Biophysical feedbacks between the Pleistocene megafauna extinction and climate: The first human-induced global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Field, Christopher B.

    2010-08-01

    A large increase in Betula during a narrow 1000 year window, ˜13,800 years before present (YBP) in Alaska and Yukon corresponded in time with the extinction of mammoths and the arrival of humans. Pollen data indicate the increase in Betula during this time was widespread across Siberia and Beringia. We hypothesize that Betula increased due to a combination of a warming climate and reduced herbivory following the extinction of the Pleistocene mega herbivores. The rapid increase in Betula modified land surface albedo which climate-model simulations indicate would cause an average net warming of ˜0.021°C per percent increase in high latitude (53-73°N) Betula cover. We hypothesize that the extinction of mammoths increased Betula cover, which would have warmed Siberia and Beringia by on average 0.2°C, but regionally by up to 1°C. If humans were partially responsible for the extinction of the mammoths, then human influences on global climate predate the origin of agriculture.

  14. Clone and Analysiso f ReverseT ran script ase of Ty1-copia-like Retrotransposon s in Betula platyphly la under Sodi-um Nitroprusside (SNP) and Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Treatment%硝普钠(SNP)和茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)诱导的白桦Ty1-copia类逆转座子的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁楠松; 曾凡锁; 李博; 郭梁; 詹亚光

    2013-01-01

    We designed the primers of reverse transcriptase according to the conserved domains of the Ty1-copia retrotransposons reverse transcriptase.We obtained several fragments of reverse transcriptase from callus of birch by using improved RT-PCR.Eleven and nine fragments were amplified from callus of birch treated by sodium nitroprusside ( SNP) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively.The length of 21 reverse transcriptase sequences (named Bprt 1-21) is from 205 to 290 bp, with the consistency of 71.93%, the heterogeneity of from 1.1% to 50.9% and the heterogeneity of amino acid se-quences of from 0.0% to 57.1%.The sequences from birch treated by SNP or MeJA are clustered, respectively.The transcription of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons can be activated by different signals.The analysis of the phylogenetic tree of reverse transcriptase of Ty1-coip a-like retrotransposons between birch and apple revealed each of the reverse transcripta-ses are clustered together, but the evolutional relationship between Bprt9, Bprt11 and DQ410750 are closer.Bprt15, Bprt19, DQ410751 and DQ410753 are clustered together.Therefore, the horizontal transmission can exist in retrotrans-posons.%利用 Tyl-copia类逆转座子逆转录酶( RT)的保守区域设计引物,优化了扩增条件后利用RT-PCR从白桦愈伤组织中得到了1条逆转录酶序列。利用硝普钠( SNP)和茉莉酸甲酯( MeJA)诱导后分别扩增克隆了11条和9条逆转录酶序列。这21条逆转录酶序列(命名Bprt1-21)变化范围为205~290 bp,一致性为71.93%,异质性为11.%~50.9%,翻译成氨基酸的异质性为0~57.1%。经SNP和MeJA处理的样品中,获得的逆转录酶序列基本是分别聚类,初步证明不同的Ty1-copia类逆转座子能够分别响应不同的信号而被转录激活。分析所获得的21逆转录酶序列和苹果中19条逆转录转座子序列( DQ410748~DQ410766)进化关系发现,逆转录酶基本各自聚类,但是Bprt9、Bprt11和DQ410750进化关系比较接近,Bprt15、Bprt19、DQ410751和DQ410753聚为一类,证明逆转座子存在水平传递。

  15. REEVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE EXTINCIÓN DE CINCO ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO POLIANTHES L. (AGAVACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo; Eloy Solano; Abisaí García-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Con base en el método de evaluación del riesgo de extinción de las especies silvestres en México (MER), se redefinió el de Polianthes densiflora, P. howardii, P. longiflora, P. palustris y P. platyphylla. Estas cinco plantas se encuentran listadas en la categoría de protección especial en la Norma Oficial Mexicana y fueron catalogadas como raras por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). El criterio A del MER (amplitud de la distribución geográfica) se estimó med...

  16. Maximizing Spatial Reuse in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Leon Gu, Fan Guo, Dongsu Han, Favonia Hou , Glenn Judd, Kaushik Lakshminarayanan, Lei Li, Nan Li, Liu Liu, Amy Lu, George Nychis, Jeff Pang, Amar...pages 293–304, 2010. 7.3 [64] Tae-Suk Kim, Jennifer C. Hou , and Hyuk Lim. Improving spatial reuse through tuning transmit power, carrier sense...reuse using direc- tional access points and clients. In MobiCom, 2010. 1, 1.1, 2.2.3, 5 [77] Xin Liu, Edwin K. P. Chong , and Ness B. Shroff

  17. New scandals – time to rethink the rules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The scandal of the “biotechnology evangelist” erupted in Korea at the beginning of the new year: a commission from Seoul National University announced that it had proof that Dr Woo Suk Hwang, considered one of the world’s foremost experts on cloning by nucleus transfer, had manipulated the data concerning experiments in human cell cloning and the creation of eleven lines of stem cells from human embryos published in two different articles in the journal Science in 2004 and 2005.

  18. New scandals – time to rethink the rules? (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The scandal of the “biotechnology evangelist” erupted in Korea at the beginning of the new year: a commission from Seoul National University announced that it had proof that Dr Woo Suk Hwang, considered one of the world’s foremost experts on cloning by nucleus transfer, had manipulated the data concerning experiments in human cell cloning and the creation of eleven lines of stem cells from human embryos published in two different articles in the journal Science in 2004 and 2005.

  19. ŠIAULIŲ UNIVERSITETO ANTRO KURSO STUDENTŲ GYVENSENOS ASPEKTAI

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bakalauro darbe nagrinėjami akademinio jaunimo gyvensenos aspektai. Sveikos gyvensenos elementai yra sveika mityba, grūdinimąsis, fizinis aktyvumas, tinkamas poilsis, žalingų įpročių atsisakymas ir kita. Šiame darbe nagrinėjami keli, didžiausią Lietuvos ir užsienio mokslininkų susidomėjimą sukėlę, gyvensenos aspektai. Suformuluota hipotezė, kad akademinis jaunimas nėra pati sveikiausia visuomenės dalis. Gyvensenos analizė turėtų patvirtinti jaunimo sveikatos problemas, susijusias su žali...

  20. Bagatellid : maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld, Ivo Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2011-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: 14. Tšaikovski nimelisest konkursist. Daniel Barenboim tõstetakse rüütliseisusesse. Orkestrist I, Culture Orchestra. Charles Dutoit plaanib luua Lõuna- ja Põhja-Koread ühendava orkestri. Lahkus Josef Suk. Seiji Ozawa pälvis Praemium Imperiale auhinna. Cardiffi lauljate konkursi võitis Valentina Nafornita. Lahkus Nikolai Petrov. Venetsueelas lööb laineid noor dirigent Jose Omar Davila. "Jazzkaare" täht Brass Jaw sai Suurbritannias suure tunnustuse osaliseks. Põhjamaade Nõukogu muusikaauhinna teenis Mats Gustafsson. Black Eyed Peas paneb pillid kotti. Kuuba kitarrist Manuel Galban surnud. Eesti on Tšehhi jazziraadio fookuses

  1. Warrant Officer Senior Course WOSC Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    2 Masterworks of English Literature 2 All classes observed were well conducted. Instructors displayed adequate preparation, competence, and interest...Tax Accounting I 1 Visual Arts 1 Masturworks of English Literature 2 Policy & Decision Making 1 Cor-p-)ration Finance I imf). r if Students Enrolled...the problem situations. H-17 i’EST OUTLINE P(1[ TRAINING TESI ITEM SUkBJECT: COtIltII:Vd and Staff rIME NUMBERS NR, ESIRED 1EARN IN , HOURS TEST FORM

  2. WebBee: A Platform for Secure Coordination and Communication in Crisis Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-16

    07) 0.42 Patrick Turley (1/28/07 - 5/31/08) 0.50 John Umbaugh (9/30/07 - 6/30/08) 0.25 Krian Upatkoon (9/1/05 - 12/21/06) 1.00 Byung Suk Yang (7/1...graduated during this period: 5.00...... Names of Personnel receiving masters degrees NAME Mathew England John Umbaugh Todd Hopfinger Jeffrey Powers...4Total Number: Names of other research staff PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME Melinda Larocca (10/23/06 - 12/31/07) 0.10 No Beverly Monaghan (9/19/05 - 9/30/06

  3. Evaporation of a Thickened Agent Simulant from Oak and Hickory Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    330M0 2.53934 .404272 3.697723 .59573 2.45098 .394869 .3793 1.34055 360.0 2.33976 .376951 3.86T303 . 62305 2.25244 .362883 .4138 1.46242 390.0 2.19000...RSTE 09’ 2 MH OR9PS DEPO-31’W ON LERF SURFACE FOR 3 HR AT 561 .6 F AND 42% RH APPENDIX IK 3S56 K ESTIMATE, OF AVERAC!.,’ El.,’ iECS ANt SUk oJP SQUARES

  4. Research Misconduct—Definitions, Manifestations and Extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.

  5. Marginalijos Žibunto Mikšio Šiaulių universiteto bibliotekai dovanotose knygose

    OpenAIRE

    Markulytė, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Marginalijos – svarbus, informatyvus knygos elementas, atskleidžiantis ne tik marginalijų ypatybes, sukūrimo laiką, vietą, bet ir jų kūrėjo visai kitą asmenybės pusę. Bakalauro darbe aptariama marginalijų samprata, tyrimų kryptys ir vienas iš sudėtingiausių aspektų – marginalijų klasifikacija. Darbe analizuojamos Ž. Mikšio ŠU bibliotekai dovanotų knygų marginalijos, kurios sudaro tokias grupes: paprastosios arba bendrosios marginalijos, taisančiosios marginalijos ir papildoma informac...

  6. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS KUWANINA FROM CHINA(HEMIPTERA,COCCOIDEA, ERIOCOCCIDAE)%中国隙毡蚧属一新种(半翅目,蚧总科,毡蚧科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安; 刘锦

    2009-01-01

    A new species of genus Kuwanina K.beula sp, nov., collected on Betula ablo-sinensis from Henan Province of China, is described and illustrated. A key to species of the world is provided. Type specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, Beijing Forestry University.%记述采自我国河南省嵩县白云山红桦 Betula ablosinensis上的隙毡蚧属1新种:红桦隙毡蚧Kuwanina betula sp.nov..同时给出了该属分种检索表.模式标本保存在北京林业大学昆虫标本室.

  7. Effects of landuse change on the hydrologic regime of the Mae Chaem river basin, NW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapakpawin, P.; Richey, J.; Thomas, D.; Rodda, S.; Campbell, B.; Logsdon, M.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryConflicts between upland shifting cultivation, upland commercial crops, and lowland irrigated agriculture cause water resource tension in the Mae Chaem watershed in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In this paper, we assess hydrologic regimes of the Mae Chaem River with landuse change. Three plausible future forest-to-crop expansion scenarios and a scenario of crop-to-forest reversal were developed based on the landcover transition from 1989 to 2000, with emphasis on influences of elevation bands and irrigation diversion. Basin hydrologic responses were simulated using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Meteorological data from six weather stations inside and adjacent to the Mae Chaem watershed during the period 1993-2000 were the climate inputs. Computed stream flow was compared to observed discharge at Ban Mae Mu gauge on Mae Mu river, Ban Mae Suk gauge on Mae Suk river, and at Kaeng Ob Luang, located downstream from the district town in Mae Chaem. With current assumptions, expansion of highland crop fields led to slightly higher regulated annual and wet-season water yields compared to similar expansion in the lowland-midland zone. Actual downstream water availability was sensitive to irrigation diversion. This modeling approach can be a useful tool for water allocation for small watersheds undergoing rapid commercialization, because it alerts land managers to the potential range of water supply in wet and dry seasons, and provides information on spatial distribution of basin hydrologic components.

  8. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Satarupa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gramnegative (58% bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130 showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2-8 mM when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92 tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6-17.8 mM, the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate.

  9. Rigid Holography and Six-Dimensional N=(2,0) Theories on AdS_5 times S^1

    CERN Document Server

    Aharony, Ofer; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Field theories on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space can be studied by realizing them as low-energy limits of AdS vacua of string/M theory. In an appropriate limit, the field theories decouple from the rest of string/M theory. Since these vacua are dual to conformal field theories (CFTs), this relates some of the observables of these field theories on AdS to a subsector of the dual CFTs. We exemplify this `rigid holography' by studying in detail the 6d N=(2,0) A_{K-1} superconformal field theory (SCFT) on AdS_5xS^1, with equal radii for AdS_5 and for S^1. We choose specific boundary conditions preserving sixteen supercharges that arise when this theory is embedded into Type IIB string theory on AdS_5xS^5/Z_K. On R^{4,1}xS^1, this 6d theory has a 5(K-1)-dimensional moduli space, with unbroken 5d SU(K) gauge symmetry at (and only at) the origin. On AdS_5xS^1, the theory has a 2(K-1)-dimensional `moduli space' of supersymmetric configurations. We argue that in this case the SU(K) gauge symmetry is unbroken everywhere in...

  10. Environ: E00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00796 Birch Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Salicy...late, Tannin, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] Betula pendula [TAX:3505] Betulaceae Birch leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Betulaceae (birch famly) E00796 Birch ...

  11. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Günther; Konieczyński, Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (complexation.

  12. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cut grass), Acorus americanus (sweetflag), Carex aquatilis (leafy tussock sedge ), and Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac). FACW (Facultative Wetland...where water saturates the soils or floods the soil surface at least seasonally. Examples include Carex scoparia (broom sedge ), Aconitum columbianum...Ambrosia artemisifolia (annual ragweed), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Carex eburnea (bristle-leaf sedge ), Carya ovata (shag-bark hickory), Elymus

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1683 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence. 44 0.16 2 CD269836 |CD269836.1 T143A02135F (FHIG:A) Ectomycorrhiza plate...70770.1 T143A01691F (FHIG:A) Ectomycorrhiza plate culture Betula pendula/Paxillus involutus mixed EST librar

  14. How to measure distinct components of visual attention fast and reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Habekost, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    for the Swedish Betula-project, a longitudinal study investigating changes in cognitive functions over the adult life span (Nilsson et al., 2004). The test consists of a computer-based letter recognition task with stimulus displays of varied durations followed by pattern masks or a blank screen. The temporal...

  15. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  16. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassen, H.B.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Limpens, J.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2. Th

  17. AcEST: DK963239 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 328 2e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...SGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQV 177 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=

  18. AcEST: DK957328 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 332 2e-89 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN...TGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVST 179 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  19. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Esselink, G.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa) is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a

  20. Mechanisms to Detoxify Selected Organic Contaminants in Higher Plants and Microbes, and Their Potential Use in Landscape Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    intracellular spaces → cell walls of cortical cells → endodermis → diffusion through the casparian strip ( suberized barrier) → xylem. If organic compounds...Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) River bitch (Betula nigra) Cherry-bark oak ( Quercus falcata) Bentazon Live oak ( Quercus viginiaga) Plants

  1. The influence of hybridization on epidermal properties of birch species and the consequences for palaeoclimatic interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Kürschner, W.M.; Neuvonen, S.; Visscher, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Fennoscandian birch population primarily consists of Betula nana, B. pendula and B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, the Mountain birch. Frequent hybridization between the Mountain birch and B. nana generates a wide range of genotypic and phenotypic plasticity in the subarctic birch zone of Fennosca

  2. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.;

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration of two heterogeneous broadleaved woodlands in southern England was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. Grimsbury Wood, which had a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (Quercus robur L.) and birch (Betula pubescens L.) and had a cont...

  3. COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF PINE AND BIRCH SPECIES WITH DIFFERENT SCHEME OF COMBINATION Сравнительная характеристика сосново-березовых культур с различной схемой смешения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiryan K. G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of condition and growth of Pinus sylvestris and Betula Pendula in their cohabitation in poor sand soils (A2 in the condition of some forest enterprises of Voronezh region; the most effective way of combination of this species is revealed

  4. Wood-inhabiting dematiaceous Hyphomycetes in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of investigations of wood-inhabiting fungal communities in several forest associations arę presented. The populations of these fungi on the wood of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur, Betula verrucosa, Tilia cordata and Pinus sylvestris are also analyzed.

  5. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  6. Books received by the Rijksherbarium library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1992-01-01

    The fifth issue of this series comprises extended keys for the determination of 148 species of Ectomycorrhizae (Abies 1, Betula 17, Carpinus 1, Fagus 31, Larix 10, Picea 51, Pinus 33, Pseudotsuga 4, and Quercus 2). The glossary, synoptic tables, literature as well as proposals for the arrangement of

  7. Cottonwoods of the Midwest: A Community Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis X X Pignut hickory Carya glabra X Pecan Carya illinoensis X Shellbark hickory Carya lacinios X Shagbark...rugosa X Pawpaw Asimina triloba X River birch Betula nigra X American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana X Water hickory Carya aquatica X...hickory Carya ovata X Mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa X Sugarberry Celtis laevigata X Hackberry Celtis occidentalis X X Eastern redbud

  8. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    hickory Carya illinoensis pecan Carya spp. hickory Celtis laevigata sugarberry Celtis occidentalis hackberry Cephalanthus occidentalis...abundance were deciduous holly and red maple. Matos and Rudolph (1985) recorded overcup oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, black gum, water hickory ( Carya ...switchcane Berchemia scandens supplejack Betula nigra river birch Campsis radicans trumpet creeper Carpinus caroliniana ironwood Carya aquatica water

  9. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  10. Predicting tree pollen season start dates using thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conditions at the beginning of the year determine the timing of pollen seasons of early flowering trees. The aims of this study were to quantify the relationship between the tree pollen season start dates and the thermal conditions just before the beginning of the season and to construct models predicting the start of the pollen season in a given year. The study was performed in Krakow (Southern Poland); the pollen data of Alnus, Corylus and Betula were obtained in 1991-2012 using a volumetric method. The relationship between the tree pollen season start, calculated by the cumulated pollen grain sum method, and a 5-day running means of maximum (for Alnus and Corylus) and mean (for Betula) daily temperature was found and used in the logistic regression models. The estimation of model parameters indicated their statistically significance for all studied taxa; the odds ratio was higher in models for Betula, comparing to Alnus and Corylus. The proposed model makes the accuracy of prediction in 83.58 % of cases for Alnus, in 84.29 % of cases for Corylus and in 90.41 % of cases for Betula. In years of model verification (2011 and 2012), the season start of Alnus and Corylus was predicted more precisely in 2011, while in case of Betula, the model predictions achieved 100 % of accuracy in both years. The correctness of prediction indicated that the data used for the model arrangement fitted the models well and stressed the high efficacy of model prediction estimated using the pollen data in 1991-2010.

  11. Estimation of Provincial Spatial Distribution Information of Forest Tree Species ( Group) Composition Using Multi-Sources Data%基于多源数据的省级树种(组)成数空间分布信息估测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇佳; 陈尔学; 李世明

    2016-01-01

    the forest plot data of 9 counties collected by the forest resources inventory in second level and the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference.[Result]7 tree species ( group) composition numbers including Quercus mongolica,Betula platyphylla,Tilia amurensis, Ulmus davidiana,Populus,Juglans mandshurica and Larix olgensis were extracted and the corresponding distribution maps were produced. The results showed a good consistency with the fixed plots in field. Taking county as statistic unit,the following quantitative technical targets have been achieved: the coefficient of determination ( R2 ) was 0. 83,and the RMSE was 0. 34. Specifically,the accuracy has been further validated by dividing the whole coverage of Jilin Province into grids of 20 km × 20 km,30 km × 30 km,40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km,taking the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference and the grid as statistic unit. Better results could be achieved at the scale of 40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km. The RMSE of Ulmus davidiana composition number was 0. 35 and the RMSE of Quercus mongolica composition number was 0. 65. The optimal k-value could be determined for the phenomenon that the RMSE firstly reduced and then tended steady with the rising k-value. In addition,the estimation accuracy of the two-layer stratification estimation method was higher than that of the direct estimation method. The results showed that: the average RMSE of estimating tree species ( group) composition using two-layer stratification estimation method was 0. 1 less than that using direct estimation method.[Conclusion]The proposed method for estimating the provincial spatial distribution information of forest tree species (group) composition using multi-sources data has proved to be an effective method to estimate forest parameters. Based on this method,the distribution map of forest tree species ( group) composition numbers was successfully produced with high accuracy. The results indicated that the value

  12. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  13. Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B

    2016-02-26

    Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality.

  14. Denotation and connotation in public representation: Semantic network analysis of Hwang supporters' internet dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo

    2013-04-01

    This article analyzes the internet discourses of Korean people who supported Hwang Woo Suk despite the disclosure of his scientific misconduct. During the controversial period, those who supported Hwang constructed a narrative of a fallen hero trapped by jealous rivals and an "unjust" society. The supporters' dramatized discourses compete with expert opinions of Seoul National University's Audit Board and prosecutors that investigated the scientific fraud. By introducing and applying an innovative method of semantic network analysis, this study explores how the supporters represent their personal concerns in daily life and latent social problems in South Korea, as well as the failure of science communication. In short, the supporters' internet representations connote concerns in daily life that motivated their sympathy and activism for Hwang.

  15. SUSY WT identity in a lattice formulation of 2D N=(2,2) SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoh, Daisuke, E-mail: kadoh@riken.j [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 2-1, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi, E-mail: hsuzuki@riken.j [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 2-1, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-01-04

    We address some issues relating to a supersymmetric (SUSY) Ward-Takahashi (WT) identity in Sugino's lattice formulation of two-dimensional (2D) N=(2,2)SU(k) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM). A perturbative argument shows that the SUSY WT identity in the continuum theory is reproduced in the continuum limit without any operator renormalization/mixing and tuning of lattice parameters. As application of the lattice SUSY WT identity, we show that a prescription for the Hamiltonian density in this lattice formulation, proposed by Kanamori, Sugino and Suzuki, is justified also from a perspective of an operator algebra among correctly-normalized supercurrents. We explicitly confirm the SUSY WT identity in the continuum limit to the first nontrivial order in a semi-perturbative expansion.

  16. The 10000th Domestic Volvo Excavators%沃尔沃中国产第一万台挖掘机"特写"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛学伟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 5月6日,沃尔沃建筑设备(VOLVOCE)在华发展的又一里程碑--中国本土生产的第-万台挖掘机正式下线.沃尔沃建筑设备全球总裁Olof Persson.亚太区总裁Eberhard Wedekind,亚太运营总裁Suk wisoo和中国市场总裁罗东先生与中国员工代表.来自全国工程机械行业媒体记者一同见证了这个隆重的时刻.沃尔沃在中国第-万台挖掘机顺利下线,标志着沃尔沃建筑设备在华发展已达到一个新的高度,进入快速增长的通道.

  17. Journal Of The Korean Hydrogen Energy Society 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    This book is the Journal of the Korean hydrogen energy society, which includes study on the improvement of the electrochemical characteristics of surface-modified V-Ti-Cr alloy by Ball-milling by Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Ho; Lee, Paul S. and Lee, Jai Young, hydrogen generation from water using cds-zns photocatalysts by Heo, Gwi Suk, characteristics of Y-Hx Film by Cho, Young Sin; Kim, Sun Hee, and effect of Cu powder as a compacting material on the discharge characteristics of the negative electrode of Ni-MH battery by Jung, J. H.; Han, Y. S.; Yu, J. S.; Jang, K. J.; Lee, J. Y.

  18. Genetic diversity and differentiation in reef-building Millepora species, as revealed by cross-species amplification of fifteen novel microsatellite loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planes, Serge; Zhou, Yuxiang; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Boissin, Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the genetic diversity in natural populations is crucial to address ecological and evolutionary questions. Despite recent advances in whole-genome sequencing, microsatellite markers have remained one of the most powerful tools for a myriad of population genetic approaches. Here, we used the 454 sequencing technique to develop microsatellite loci in the fire coral Millepora platyphylla, an important reef-builder of Indo-Pacific reefs. We tested the cross-species amplification of these loci in five other species of the genus Millepora and analysed its success in correlation with the genetic distances between species using mitochondrial 16S sequences. We succeeded in discovering fifteen microsatellite loci in our target species M. platyphylla, among which twelve were polymorphic with 2–13 alleles and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.411. Cross-species amplification in the five other Millepora species revealed a high probability of amplification success (71%) and polymorphism (59%) of the loci. Our results show no evidence of decreased heterozygosity with increasing genetic distance. However, only one locus enabled measures of genetic diversity in the Caribbean species M. complanata due to high proportions of null alleles for most of the microsatellites. This result indicates that our novel markers may only be useful for the Indo-Pacific species of Millepora. Measures of genetic diversity revealed significant linkage disequilibrium, moderate levels of observed heterozygosity (0.323–0.496) and heterozygote deficiencies for the Indo-Pacific species. The accessibility to new polymorphic microsatellite markers for hydrozoan Millepora species creates new opportunities for future research on processes driving the complexity of their colonisation success on many Indo-Pacific reefs. PMID:28243525

  19. Generalized semi-analytical solutions to multispecies transport equation coupled with sequential first-order reaction network with spatially or temporally variable transport and decay coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients involving distinct retardation factors. This proposed approach was developed to overcome the limitation reported by Suk (2013) regarding the identical retardation values for all reactive species, while maintaining the extensive capability of the previous Suk method involving spatially variable or temporally variable coefficients of transport, general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retardation values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in three verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.

  20. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  1. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  2. Vegetation and environmental responses to climate forcing during the Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E. K.; Veres, D.; Wennrich, V.; Wagner, B.; Braun, M.; Jakab, G.; Karátson, D.; Pál, Z.; Ferenczy, Gy; St-Onge, G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Francois, J.-P.; von Reumont, F.; Schäbitz, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated Lateglacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is very limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó) to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (with Pinus, Betula, Salix, Populus and Picea) in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ˜22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstrate xerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ˜19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l.) establishment of Betula nana and Betula pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore support population genetic inferences regarding the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior). Our sedimentological data also demonstrate intensified aeolian dust accumulation between 26,000 and 20,000 cal yr BP.

  3. 16 Pollen Allergens Differ From Nonallergenic Pollen Proteins by Their Lower Extent of Evolutionary Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Radauer, Christian; Guhslc, Eva; Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2012-01-01

    Background Pollen contains hundreds of different proteins. However, only a small fraction of them have been identified to be allergenic. We aimed to test the hypothesis that most pollen proteins are non-allergenic due to their high extent of sequence conservation among non-related species. Methods Data on the composition of pollen proteomes of birch (Betula pendula), pellitory (Parientaria judaica) and timothy grass (Phleum pratense) were obtained from the literature. Sequences were downloade...

  4. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    determined photocolorimetrically using vanillin reagent, on ethanol extracts of bark which were cleaned up on polyamide. The highest catechin content...Jul 84) 39 Artificial Graphite, Production and Properties (A.’ D. Kokurin; ZHURNAL PRIKLADNOY KHIMII, No 9, Sep 84) 40 Step-Wise Extraction ...Birch Wood (L. K. Molotkov; KHIMIYA DREVESINY, No 5, Sep-Oct 84).... 109 Catechin Content of Birth (Betula Pendula Roth.) Bark in Relation to Climatic

  5. Phase 2 Site Investigations Report. Volume 1 of 3: General Annex-Wide Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rose Rosa mudiflora Northern Arrowwood Viburnum recognitum Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra Orchard Grass Dactylis glomerata Panic Grass Panicum sp...Paper Birch Betula papyrifera Partridge-Berry Mitchela repens Pink Ladyslipper Cypripedium Poison Ivy Toxicodendron radicans Poverty Grass Danthonia ...mixture of white pine and oak is the predominant forest type in the northern portion (Figure 2-5). Open areas vegetated with grasses , forbs, and

  6. Remedial Investigations Report for Fort Devens Subbury Training Annex, Maynard, Massachusetts, Sites P11/P13 and Sites A12/P36/P37, Phase 2. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Poverty grass Danthonia spicata X Panic grass Panicum sp. X Common Milkweed Ascelpias syriaca X X Indian Pipe Monotropa uniflora X Pink Ladyslipper...Viburnum recognitum Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra Orchard Grass Dactylis glomerata Panic Grass Panicum sp. Paper Birch Betula papyrifera Partridge-Berry...Mitchella repens Pink Ladyslipper Cypripedium Poison Ivy Toxicodendron radicans Poverty Grass Danthonia spicata Privet Ligustrum vulgare Queen Anne’s

  7. AcEST: DK955920 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 296 7e-79 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso... Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 296 bits (757), Expect = 7e-79 Ident...RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV 519 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV 141 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI

  8. AcEST: DK956633 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 350 5e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson... Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLS 190 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length

  9. AcEST: DK961804 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 292 1e-77 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...TGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVY 172 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 L

  10. AcEST: DK963606 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available W7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 333 5e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson..._9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 333 bits (854), Expect = 5e-90

  11. AcEST: DK952919 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 358 1e-97 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...LSTHS 658 VVEPYNSVLSTHS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHS 193 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  12. AcEST: DK954281 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-92 tr|B7TIW7|B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 341 3e-92 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso...>tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 341 bits (874

  13. AcEST: DK958049 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 346 8e-94 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 346 bits (887), Expect =

  14. AcEST: DK948361 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 400 e-110 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...STHSLLEHTDVAVLLDNEAIYDICR 214 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Leng

  15. AcEST: DK954985 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 339 7e-92 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TU...KKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 Query: 633 V 635 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  16. AcEST: DK963473 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 325 1e-87 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P...RKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYP 173 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wil...sonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 325 bits (833), Expect = 1e-87 Identit

  17. AcEST: DK955655 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 259 4e-68 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P....A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 45

  18. AcEST: DK956379 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 350 3e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...ALNVDVTEFQTN 258 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1

  19. AcEST: DK949329 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 335 2e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...637 V 639 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Lengt

  20. AcEST: DK959840 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7TIW7|B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 333 6e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 333 bits (854), Exp

  1. AcEST: DK951921 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 329 7e-89 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...GSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSP 175 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1

  2. AcEST: DK959506 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 374 e-102 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson... 201 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 374 bits

  3. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  4. Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Different Forests in Burned Area of Daxing’ an Mountains after Vegeta-tion Restoration%大兴安岭火烧迹地植被恢复后土壤理化性质1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛颖; 赵雨森; 陈强

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the soil physical and chemical properties of four forest types in serious burned area of Daxing’ an Mountains.Soil pH of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica plantation increased, but that of Larix gmelini plantation, Betula platyphlla natural forest and Pobulus davidiana natural forest decreased.The soil organic matter, total N, hydrolyzable N, total P and available P of Larix gmelini plantation, Betula platyphlla natural forest and Pobulus davidi-ana natural forest increased in different degree.The soilbulk density of Larix gmelini plantation, Betula platyphlla natural forest decreased, but that of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica plantation and Pobulus davidiana natural forest increased.The soil porosity of Betula platyplh la natural forest was the best.Therefore, after vegetation restoration, Larix gmelini planta-tion, Betula platyphlla natural forest and Pobulus davidiana natural forest can improve the soil.%以大兴安岭重度火烧迹地经过植被恢复后形成的4种林分类型为研究对象,研究重度火烧迹地在经过植被恢复后,不同林分类型土壤理化学性质的变化。研究结果表明:与对照样地相比,樟子松林土壤pH值升高,兴安落叶松林、白桦林和山杨林土壤pH值均降低。兴安落叶松林、白桦林和山杨林土壤有机质、全N、水解N、全P、有效P质量分数均有不同程度的升高。兴安落叶松林和白桦林土壤密度降低,樟子松林和山杨林的土壤密度升高。白桦林土壤孔隙度最好。综合比较可以看出,大兴安岭重度火烧迹地经过植被恢复后,兴安落叶松林、白桦林和山杨林均在一定程度上改良了土壤。

  5. Anatomía floral comparativa del género Polianthes (Agavaceae Comparative floral anatomy of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Serrano-Casas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio anatómico de las flores de algunas especies en los subgéneros Polianthes y Bravoa del género Polianthes L. (Agavaceae, con el propósito de investigar si la actual clasificación subgenérica es adecuada. Los taxa analizados del subgénero Polianthes fueron P. densiflora, P. nelsonii y P. platyphylla, y del subgénero Bravoa, P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii y P. multicolor. Las características anatómicas florales entre las especies son similares y comparten con otros miembros de la familia Agavaceae los nectarios septales y los óvulos anátropos, bitégmicos y crasinucelados. En los taxa del subgénero Bravoa, los filamentos se originan en la base del tubo floral, mientras que en el subgénero Polianthes se originan por debajo de los tépalos internos del perianto. Anteriormente, sin considerar la anatomía de las flores, se planteaba que los filamentos se originaban en ambos subgéneros desde la base del tubo del perianto y que éstos permanecían adnados al mismo, separándose a diferentes niveles. En el nivel interespecífico, P. howardii presenta nectarios de mayor longitud que los lóculos, en relación con los de las otras especies estudiadas.An anatomical floral study of some species of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae, of both subgenus Polianthes and subgenus Bravoa (Agavaceae was carried out, with the aim of testing the adequacy of the present subgeneric classification. The taxa studied of subgenus Polianthes were P. densiflora, P. nelsonii and P. platyphylla; and P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii and P. multicolor of subgenus Bravoa. The anatomical characters between these species are similar, sharing with other members of the Agavaceae family the septal nectaries and the anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellated ovules. In the taxa of subgenus Bravoa, the filaments originate from the floral tube base, while in subgenus Polianthes they originate near the base of the internal tepals

  6. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos

  7. Soil Warming and Fertilization Effects on Growth Ring Widths of Arctic Shrubs - Application of a Novel Dendroecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate Garcia, M.; Heijmans, M.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Niklaus, P. A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is suggested as the main driver of shrub expansion in arctic tundra regions. Shrub expansion may have consequences on biodiversity and climate, especially through its feedbacks with the energy budget. A better understanding of shrub expansion mechanisms, including growth rate patterns and stem anatomy changes, and their sensitivity to climate is needed in order to quantify related feedbacks. We present a novel dendroecological approach to determine the response of three arctic shrub species to increased soil temperature and nutrients. A full factorial block-design experiment was run for four years with a total of thirty plots. Six individuals of each species were sampled from each plot to test for treatment effects on growth rate and stem anatomy. We compared the ring width of the four years of experiment with the one of the four previous years. The preliminary results for Betula nana and Salix pulchra suggest a significant effect of the treatments on the growth ring width. The response is stronger in Salix pulchra than in Betula nana individuals. And, while Salix pulchra is more sensitive to the combined soil warming and fertilization treatment, Betula nana is to the fertilization treatment. We could not observe an effect of treatment on the stem anatomy, likely because bark thickness co-varies with age. We found significant positive correlations of cork, cortex and phloem thickness with xylem thickness (used as a proxy of age), and a significant difference in stem anatomy between species. The results suggest species-specific growth sensitivity to soil warming and nutrient enhancement. The use of experimental dendroecology by manipulating environmental conditions according to future climate scenarios and testing effects on shrub anatomy and annual growth will increase our understanding on shrub expansion mechanisms. Ongoing plant trait analysis and consecutive application in a 3D radiative transfer model will allow to quantify the feedback of

  8. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  9. Twenty-two years of warming, fertilisation and shading of subarctic heath shrubs promote secondary growth and plasticity but not primary growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Campioli

    Full Text Available Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses, fertilisation (nutrients addition and shading (hessian fabric, and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth and cambial growth (secondary growth, and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such

  10. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  11. Biomass distribution patterns of ecotones between forest and swamp in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studied the biomass distribution patterns of Larix olgensis/swamp ecotones and Betula platyphlla/swamp ecotones in Changbai Mountain so as to provide theory foundation for the management of these nature resources, by setting up sample belts, investigating initial data along the environmental gradients change, and establishing regression models. By means of regression models, the biomass of communities, layers, tree species and organs was calculated. In this system, it was found that the community biomass increased gradually along the environmental gradients change from swamp to forest in Changbai Mountain. Furthermore, the ecotoneal biomass distributed mainly over tree layer. The tree biomass distributed mainly in two or three dominate tree species.

  12. Characterization of Hardwood Soda-AQ Lignins Precipitated from Black Liquor through Selective Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo; Sahoo, Gokarneswar

    2016-01-01

    In the development of integrated biorefinery process alternatives to produce value-added by-products, various black liquors from sulfur-free pulping processes offer potential feedstocks for recovering their main chemical constituents, lignin and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In this study, lignin fractions were obtained from silver birch (Betula pendula) soda-anthraquinone black liquor by carbonation (pH to about 8.5) or by acidification (pH to about 2) with H2SO4 after carbonation or directly....

  13. Molecular responses of plants to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Suárez, Luis Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) were assessed at different molecular levels using Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) as model species in outdoor experiments to assess the possibly interacting roles of the UV-B and UV-A wavebands in acclimation to sunlight. Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance was attenuated with plastic films. Both solar UV-B and UV-A promoted the acclimation of silver birch and Arabido...

  14. AcEST: DK948735 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTD 199 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1...E Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 369 e-101 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wils...onii GN=TUA1 P... 369 e-101 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin OS=Gossypium hirsu

  15. 4 种新烟碱类内吸性杀虫剂对光肩星天牛毒力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤乐

    2007-01-01

    @@ 光肩星天牛(Anoplophora glabripennis)不仅严重为害中国西北地区杨树等树木,而且它也威胁美国城市树木、森林及木材等相关工业.该虫为害的主要树种有槭树(Acer spp.)、桦树(Betula spp.)、杨树(Populus spp.)、榆树(Ulmus spp.)、柳树(Salix spp.)等,在中国还发现沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifolia)也是成虫的适宜寄主.

  16. Pollen record and environmental evolution of Caotanhu wetland in Xinjiang since 4550 cal. a BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; KONG ZhaoChen; NI Jian; YAN Shun; YANG ZhenJing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in Caotanhu wetland using pollen, phytolith and charcoal records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size analysis, and susceptibility. Results reveal that between 4550 and 2500 cal. a BP, a dry climatic condition was not favorable for the accumulation of peat. Since 2500 cal. a BP, the climate became humid and the wetland developed with abundant freshwater aquatic plants, which contributed to peat accumulation. Never-theless, alternate periods of rain and dry climate occurred during that period. Between 2500 and 1810 cal. a BP (550 BC-140 AD), the climate was more humid than at present. A lot of emerged plants, such as Phragmites, Typha and Sparganium, and freshwater green algae grew in the wetland which was sur-rounded by desert-steppe vegetation composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae, Arternisia, Compositae and Thalictrum. However, from 1810 to 1160 cal. a BP (140-790 AD), the water level started to decrease and hydrophyte species reduced greatly, but some Phragmites still grew in the wetland and around it was desert vegetation with high proportion of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia. Then from 1160 to 650 a BP (790-1300 AD), it entered a period of desert-steppe with abundant mesic and xerophytic plants. And a lot of aquatic plants prevailed in the wetland. Here, what is noticeable is that percentages of arboreal pollen, consisting mainly of Betula and Picea, increased greatly and reached a maximal value of 27.2%, in which, Betula percentages rose to 23.2%. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that Betula grew in the highland of the wetland, or Picea timberline shifted downward resulting in the increase of percentages of Betula and Picea pollen, which were transported into the wetland by flood or wind. But since 650 cal. a BP, desert vegetation prevailed around the wetland again with dominant Chenopodiaceae and Ar-temisia, and the climate was similar to modern one. Despite some aquatic

  17. Biomass functions for young scots pine-dominated forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund Ulvcrona, K. (Vindeln Experimental Forests, Svartberet Research Station, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Vindeln (Sweden)), e-mail: Kristina.ulvcrona@esf.slu.se; Nilsson, U. (Southern Swedish Forest Research centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Alnarp (Sweden)); Lundmark, T. (Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to develop predictive biomass functions for young stands of Scots pine-dominated forests in northern Sweden. Above ground biomass was destructively sampled, and biomass functions for all tree fractions (e.g. stem including bark, branch and foliage) were developed, based on independent variables. Functions to estimate dry weight of the whole tree were also developed. No significant regressions could be found for the dead branch fraction. DBH for sampled trees in this study was in the range of 11 - 136 mm (Pinus sylvestris), 10 - 121 mm (Picea abies L. Karst) and 9 - 113 mm (Betula spp.)

  18. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    transported a high proportion of 15N to aboveground parts, whereas the dwarf shrubs allocated most 15N to underground storage. Enhanced 13C in Betula nana roots represents the first field evidence of uptake of intact glycine by this important circumpolar plant. Plant and microbial uptake of label...... was complementary as plants took up more inorganic than organic N, while microbes preferred organic N. Microbes initially took up a large part of the added label, but over the following four weeks microbial 15N decreased by 50% and most 15N was recovered in soil organic matter, while a smaller but slowly increasing...

  19. Airborne Pollen Grains in Zonguldak,Turkey,2001-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayse KAPLAN

    2004-01-01

    The variation in airborne pollen concentration of the Zonguldak region, Turkey was studied for two consecutive years 2001-2002 using a Durham sampler. During this period, a total of 61 304 pollen grains belonging to 43 taxa were recorded. Of these 43 taxa, 26 belonged to arboreal and 17 to nonarboreal plants. The main pollen types were Pinaceae, Populus, Carpinus, Betula, Corylus, Fagus orientalis,Castanea sativa, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus, Cupressaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae, representing 96.7% of the pollen spectrum. Pollen concentration reached the highest level in March.

  20. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents.

  1. Interpolating the Coulomb Phase of Little String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity on the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. We also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.

  2. A one-loop test for construction of 4D N=4 SYM from 2D SYM via fuzzy sphere geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, So

    2015-01-01

    As a perturbative check of the construction of four-dimensional (4D) ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM) from mass deformed ${\\cal N}=(8,8)$ SYM on the two-dimensional (2D) lattice, the one-loop effective action for scalar kinetic terms is computed in ${\\cal N}=4$ $U(k)$ SYM on ${\\mathbb R}^2 \\times$ (fuzzy $S^2$), which is obtained by expanding 2D ${\\cal N}=(8,8)$ $U(N)$ SYM with mass deformation around its fuzzy sphere classical solution. The radius of the fuzzy sphere is proportional to the inverse of the mass. We consider the two successive limits; (1) decompactify the fuzzy sphere to a noncommutative (Moyal) plane and (2) turn off the noncommutativity of the Moyal plane. It is clear at the classical level to obtain the ordinary ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM on ${\\mathbb R}^4$ in the limits, while it is nontrivial at the quantum level. The one-loop effective action for $SU(k)$ sector of the gauge group $U(k)$ coincides with that of the ordinary 4D ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM in the above limits. Although "noncomm...

  3. Major changes and improvements of dialysis therapy in Korea: review of end-stage renal disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong Chan

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) launched a nationwide end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient registry in 1985 called the Insan Prof. Byung-Suk Min Memorial ESRD Patient Registry. KSN members voluntarily participate in this registry, which has been collecting data through the Internet since 2000. The KSN ESRD patient registry data were reviewed to elucidate the major changes and improvements in dialysis therapy in Korea. The data review revealed: a rapid increase in the number of patients with ESRD; an increase in the number of patients with diabetic nephropathy; a decrease in the proportion of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis; an increase in the role of private dialysis clinics; an increase in the number of elderly patients undergoing dialysis and the number of patients undergoing long-term dialysis; a decrease in mean blood pressure and an increase in pulse pressure; improvement in anemia treatment; improvement in dialysis adequacy; and improvement in the survival of patients undergoing dialysis. In conclusion, improvements have been made in blood pressure control, anemia treatment, and dialysis adequacy despite increases in the number of elderly patients, diabetic patients, and patients on long-term dialysis during the last two decades in Korea.

  4. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  5. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-07-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0-1 V and 0-2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg-1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg-1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC.

  6. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  7. Славянофильский подтекст романа А. Платонова Чевенгур | Slavianofiliškos A. Platonovo romano “Čevenguras” potekstės

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Дырдин

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje nagrinėjamas filosofinis A. Platonovo romanas „Čevenguras“ ir analizuojama šio rašytojo kaip slavianofilų įpėdinio pozicija, kadangi slavianofiliškos pažiūros romane pateikiamos įvairiuose kontekstuose, kurių loginė jungtis skirtinga. Kaip ir slavianofilai, A. Platonovas siekia atskleisti objektyvią pasaulio esmę, apjungdamas prigimtį ir dvasingumą. Rašytojo pasaulėjauta susisiekia su slavianofiliškomis pažiūromis jo pastangoje išskirti rusišką liaudiško tiesos ieškotojo tipą, akumuliavusį savyje tikėjimą „kaip proto galią“ (A. Chomiakovas. Romane „Čevenguras“ A. Platonovas pavaizdavo įvairias nacionalinio charakterio apraiškas ir sukūrė apibendrintą ruso stačiatikio paveikslą. Straipsnio autorius daro prielaidą, kad unikalios dvasinės rusų liaudies ir kultūros misijos idėjos samprata galima apibūdinti, nors ir ne visai išsamiai, kūrybinę A. Platonovo filosofiją.

  8. Fredkin Spin Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Salberger, Olof

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the CSWAP gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the work of Ramis Movassagh and Peter Shor. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half of a square lattice [Dyck walks]. Each Dyck path can be mapped to a wave function of the spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks [instead of Motzkin walks]. We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct the model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct SU(k) symmetric model [here k is the number of colors]. The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice ...

  9. Новая искренность советской поэтессы: «Последние стихи» Елены Ширман | Sovietinės poetės naujasis nuoširdumas: Jelenos Širman „Paskutinės eilės“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Таисия Лаукконен

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 1941 metais sovietinė poetė Jelena Širman (1908–1942 sukūrė neįprasto likimo eilėraštį „Paskutinės eilės“. Širman dienoraštį, kuriame jis buvo užrašytas, žuvus šeimininkei išsaugojo vienas iš jos nužudymo liudytojų. Pirmą sykį eilėraštis publikuotas atlydžio laikais. III tūkstantmečio pradžioje eilėraštį „atrado“ filologas ir poetas Danila Davydovas, perspausdino ir aptarė naujojo nuoširdumo poezijos kontekste. Po kiek laiko eilėraštis sparčiai paplito internete ir susilaukė tiek „nesuinteresuotų“ skaitytojų, tiek literatūros veikėjų dėmesio. Straipsnyje aptariami eilėraščio kūrimo, publikacijos ir republikacijos kontekstai, siekiant pademonstruoti, kaip keitėsi jo suvokimas bei kokias reikšmes jam primeta naujojo nuoširdumo kontekstas.

  10. The post 9/11 period in American literature: from fear and estrangement to interest and dialogue. Rugsėjo vienuoliktosios pasekmės amerikiečių literatūrai: nuo baimės ir susvetinėjimo iki susidomėjimo ir dialogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Žindžiuvienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje apžvelgiama tragiško įvykio JAV istorijoje (2001 m. rugsėjo vienuoliktosios įtaka amerikiečių literatūrai. Ši tragedija šalyje sukėlė ilgalaikį potrauminį efektą, paskatinusį amerikiečių rašytojus rinktis terorizmo apraiškų temas. Vienas jų, John Updike (g. 1932, priskiriamas prie amerikiečių rašytojų, analizuojančių individo būklę, moralinių vertybių paieškas. Savo romanuose John Updike aprašo šiuolaikinio gyvenimo ypatumus, psichologines traumas, žmonijos žiaurumą, brutalumą ir nesuvokiamą blogį. 2006 m. parašytame romane Terrorist („Teroristas“ rašytojas pateikia šiuolaikinės amerikiečių visuomenės, kurioje vyrauja baimė ir įtampa, analizę. Aprašydamas jauno teroristo gyvenimą, rašytojas pabrėžia amerikietiškos visuomenės ydas ir analizuoja šalies politinę situaciją.

  11. Whiteness and the Blackening of Italy: La guerra cafona, Extracommunitari and Provisional Street Justice

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    Joseph Pugliese

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I briefly revisit the historical moment of Italian unification, drawing attention to its violent colonial dimensions and the twenty years of insurgent southern brigandage that erupted immediately after unification, in order to begin to trace the survival of this southern insurrectionary and anti-nationalist movement in the contemporary Italian context. In the process of focusing on the manner in which a statue of the Italian national poet, Dante, has been graffitied by southern youth in a square in Naples, I transpose the historical tradition of southern brigandage, returning the term back to its insurgent political roots, in order to begin to establish lines of connection between seemingly disparate politico-cultural practices and genealogies; in particular, I examine contemporary southern hip hop culture, including graffiti and rap, in relation to the history of southern anti-unification and counter-nationalist movements, marking the transmediterranean-atlantic politico-cultural flows that inscribe southern hip hop culture. I conclude by bringing into contemporary focus this northern history of anti-southern discrimination and exploitation by drawing attention to the plight of recent immigrants from the Global South that constitute the underbelly of contemporary Italy’s economic prosperity. My focus here is on mapping points of polico-cultural connection between immigrants of the Global South and meridionali through the instantiation of such tactical cultural practices as establishing suks and transitory markets in Italy’s civic squares.

  12. [Fraudulent publication in medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; García-Gómez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Fraud can be present in some scientific medical publications; however, the magnitude of this situation is unknown. One of the associated factors for this transgression of the good practice of investigation is the need to publish and obtain recognition and benefits, regardless of the means. The deliberate fabrication and falsification of data, plagiarism and duplication of publications are some of the scientific misconducts. Many cases of fraud in publications are known, and they have reached public opinion and have been a matter of legal sanctions (the names of Woo Suk Hwang, Jon Sudbo, Joachim Blodt, Robert Slutsky, and William Summerlin reminds us a few known cases). In the last decades, national and international regulatory organisms have been created in order to intervene against this scientific misconduct. Currently, we can rely on several effective software programs, whose function is to detect plagiarism and falsification of data. The prevention of scientific misconduct through information and education of the investigators could lead to the decrease of the presence of this problem, which damages scientific credibility and put at risk the patient's safety.

  13. The pollen season dynamics and the relationship among some season parameters (start, end, annual total, season phases) in Kraków, Poland, 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowska, D; Jenner, B; Stępalska, D; Czarnobilska, E

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of 15 taxa pollen seasons in Kraków, in 1991-2008 was monitored using a Burkard volumetric spore trap of the Hirst design. The highest daily pollen concentrations were achieved in the first half of May, and they were caused mainly by Betula and Pinus pollen. The second period of the high concentrations took place from the middle of July to the end of August (mainly Urtica pollen). Tree pollen seasons were shorter (18-24 days) in comparison with the most herbaceous pollen seasons (73-89 days), except at Artemisia and Ambrosia seasons (30 and 24 days, respectively). The season phases (percentyles) of the spring and late-summer taxa were the most variable in the consecutive years. The highest annual sums were noted for Urtica, Poaceae (herbaceous pollen seasons) and for Betula, Pinus, Alnus (tree pollen seasons), and the highest variability of annual totals was stated for Urtica, Populus, Fraxinus and the lowest for Ambrosia, Corylus, Poaceae. For the plants that pollinate in the middle of the pollen season (Quercus, Pinus and Rumex), the date of the season start seems not to be related to the season end, while for late pollen seasons, especially for Ambrosia and Artemisia, the statistically negative correlation between the start and the end season dates was found. Additionally, for the most studied taxa, the increase in annual pollen totals was observed. The presented results could be useful for the allergological practice and general botanical knowledge.

  14. Palynological records of environmental changes in the middle part of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Peijun; SONG Changqing

    2003-01-01

    A 2.4-m-long core was extracted from Diaojiao Lake (41°18′N, 112°21′E) at the foot of the northern part of Daqingshan Mts. High-resolution pollen analysis results of two sites showed 10 arboreal genera, including Pinus, Betula, Picea, Abies, Carpinus, Quercus, Ulmus and more than 20 non-arboreal genera, mainly of Artemisia, Labiatae, Nitraria, Polygonaceae, Ranunculus, Thalictrum, Umbelliferae, Caryophyllaceae and Cyperaceae dominating the record. Fern spores, aquatic pollen and algae were also observed in some sections of the cores. The sequence was divided stratigraphically into six pollen assemblage zones by a stratigraphically-constrained cluster analysis using an incremental sum of squares method. The vegetation underwent the following stage changes: steppe with sparsetrees, steppe, forest, and steppe. During the middle Holocene, a mixed forest of Pinus, Betula and Quercus occurred on the mountainous areas, and Pinus forestdominated the frontal plains. Six climatic stages were inferred from total pollen flux and pollen percentage from the two sites using a transfer function: humid-cool (10000-7800 aBP), arid-cold (9200-7800 aBP), arid-warm (7800-7100 aBP), humid-warm (7100-4400 aBP), arid-warm (4400-3000 aBP), arid-cold (3000-2100 aBP) phases were identified.

  15. Pollen seasons of selected tree and shrub taxa in Kraków and its neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the dynamics of pollen seasons of selected tree and shrub taxa among measurement sites in Kraków and its neighbourhood. The study was performed in Kraków and Piotrkowice Małe in 2002, as well as in Kraków and Giebułtów in 2006. During the study the volumetric method was applied and pollen grains were counted along four horizontal lines. The lowest percentage of Corylus pollen and the highest percentage of Betula pollen were found in the analysed sites. The differences among start dates in various measurement sites in a given year were inconsiderable. Statistically signifi cant differences of SPI values for the majority of taxa were found between measurement sites and between seasons for Kraków. The pollen season dynamics showed one (Betula, Pinaceae or more maximum values (Corylus, Populus, Fraxinus, Salix. The occurrence of many peaks could be explained by the appearance of several species within one genus in the studied area or by various weather conditions. In 2002 maximum pollen concentrations were recorded earlier than in 2006. The differences in these dates could be explained better by cumulative temperature >5℃ than >0℃.

  16. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Bertrand, A.; Casares, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Oviedo University, Julian Claveria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es; Tames, R.S. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction.

  17. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  18. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  19. [An orientational examination of the effects of extracts from mixtures of herbal drugs on selected renal functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteiková, R; Klimas, R; Samura, B B; Savickas, A; Samura, B A; Belaij, S I; Samura, I B; Rabisková, M; Chalupová, Z; Bernatoniene, J

    2007-04-01

    The paper aimed to determine the effects of mixtures of selected medicinal plants on some physiological renal functions, i.e. excretion of urine and electrolytes and changes in the quantity of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma after water and salt load. The following medicinal plants were selected for the examination: downy birch (Betula pubescens EHRH.), everlasting flower (Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.), German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.). Herbal drugs were used to compose 6 mixtures. Extracts from these mixtures were administered to Wistar strain males and their effects were compared with the effects of an administered suspension of hydrochlorothiazide, an extract from field horsetail herb alone, and a control group of animals which was not administered any preparation. The greatest diuretic effect was found in a mixture composed of birch leaves (Betulae folium), hawthorn berries (Crataegi fructus), strawberry leaves (Fragariae folium), corn silk (Maydis stigmata), chamomile flowers (Matricariae flos), and horsetail herb (Equiseti herba). Its effect was greater by 47% and 34% than the effect of a horsetail herb extract and a hydrochlorothiazide suspension (p < 0.05), respectively. The extract from this mixture also increased the quantity of prostaglandins E2 and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma in water and salt load.

  20. Holocene Vegetation Succession and Response to Climate Change on the South Bank of the Heilongjiang-Amur River, Mohe County, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen samples from peat sediments on the south bank of the Heilongjiang River in northern Northeast China (NE China were analyzed to reconstruct the historical response of vegetation to climate change since 7800 cal yr BP. Vegetation was found to have experienced five successions from cold-temperate mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest to forest-steppe, steppe-woodland, steppe, and finally meadow-woodland. From 7800 to 7300 cal yr BP, the study area was warmer than present, and Betula, Larix, and Picea-dominated mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests thrived. Two cooling events at 7300 cal yr BP and 4500 cal yr BP led to a decrease in Betula and other broadleaved forests, whereas herbs of Poaceae expanded, leading to forest-steppe and then steppe-woodland environments. After 2500 cal yr BP, reduced temperatures and a decrease in evaporation rates are likely to have resulted in permafrost expansion and surface ponding, with meadow and isolated coniferous forests developing a resistance to the cold-wet environment. The Holocene warm period in NE China (7800–7300 cal yr BP could have resulted in a strengthening of precipitation in northernmost NE China and encouraged the development of broadleaved forests.

  1. РАСТИТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ЗАКАЗНИКА «ЗАЛЕСОВСКИЙ» (АЛТАЙСКИЙ КРАЙ)

    OpenAIRE

    Терёхина, Татьяна; Елесова, Наталья; Копытина, Татьяна; Иванова, Мария

    2013-01-01

    Растительность заказника «Залесовский» представлена черневой тайгой со значительным участием комплекса травянистых третичных реликтов. Характерными ассоциациями растительности являются: Abies sibirica+Betula pendula–Crepis sibirica, Abies sibirica+Betula pendula–Brachypodium pinnatum+Aegopodium podagraria, Abies sibirica–Salix caprea, Populus tremula+Abies sibirica–Aconitum septentrionale, Abies sibirica+Populus tremulaAegopodium podagraria+Filipendula ulmaria, Abies sibirica+Populus tremula–...

  2. Quantitative relationships between vegetation and several pollen taxa in surface soil from North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the vegetation investigation and pollen analysis of surface samples sampled along a precipitation gradient of the Northeast China Transect (NECT), several pollen taxa, including Pinus, Betula, Quercus, Tilia, Acer, Ulmus, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, were chosen to make the regression and correlation analyses. The results indicated that there exists a close relationship between vegetation and pollen taxa in surface samples. The regression parameters for ten taxa in the forests in the eastern part of NECT were different from those in the steppes in the western part. Pinus, Betula, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae, which have large slope and y-intercept terms, were over-representative taxa. Acer, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, which have small slope and y-intercept terms, were under-representative taxa. Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus whose slope terms have negative correlation with y-intercept terms were equi-representative taxa. The pollen taxa with large slope or large y-intercept terms have small variability coefficients, implying that the slope and y-intercept terms for these pollen taxa are of high accuracy in the estimation of plant abundance from pollen frequencies.

  3. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  4. Hydrogen Apparent Fractionation between Precipitation and Leaf Wax n-Alkanes from Conifers and Deciduous Angiosperms along a Longitudinal Transect in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Fisher, Katherine; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    D/H composition of individual organic compounds derived from leaf wax may provide a wealth of information regarding plant-water relations in studies of plant ecology and climate change. Extracting that information from the organic D/H signal requires a thorough understanding of hydrogen isotope fractionation between environmental water and organic compounds. The purpose of this project is to investigate the importance of plant types and local climatic conditions on hydrogen apparent fractionation in higher terrestrial plants. We determined D/H composition of n-alkanes derived from leaf wax extracted from several extant plants representing common evergreen and deciduous conifer (Pinus and Larix) and deciduous angiosperm (Betula, Salix, and Sorbus) genera along a longitudinal transect from the UK to central Siberia at 10 different locations. These data were used to calculate the apparent fractionation factor (epsilon) between source water, estimated using the Online Isotopes in Precipitation Calculator, and n-alkanes. Our initial results show the following. First, we found large differences in the epsilon values among different genera at each location, e.g. Betula -63‰ vs. Salix -115‰ in Norwich, UK, and Betula -86‰ vs. Salix -146‰ in Novosibirsk, Russia. Assuming the plants at individual locations utilized soil water of very similar deltaD values, variations in the epsilon values are likely to be explained by differences in plant physiology and biochemistry. Second, we identified extensive shifts in the epsilon values in individual species along the transect from the UK to central Siberia, e.g. Betula -63‰ in Norwich vs. -104‰ in Zotino, Krasnoyarsk Krai, central Siberia and Salix -115‰ in Norwich vs. -164‰ in Sodankyla, Finland. With the exception of Sorbus, there is a positive relationship between the MAT (mean annual temperature) and epsilon values at locations above 2 °C MAT, suggesting a possible climatic effect on isotopic fractionation

  5. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  6. The Research on the Pollen Viability of Rosa chinensis Varieties and Rosa multiflora with Different Methods%多个月季品种与蔷薇的花粉生活力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨攀; 王升; 郭风民; 李永华

    2015-01-01

    With a total of 30 Rosa chinensis varieties and Rosa multiflora as test materials,the pollen viability was measured by staining and germination,and the varieties was graded according to the pollen germination. The result showed as follows. The germination was suitable for detecting pollen viability,the measurement with 10%sucrose concentration was suitable for the Rosa chinensis and Rosa multiflora varieties pollen germination.‘Rosa multiflora Thunb.var.platyphylla Thory’‘Darthuizer Orang Fire’‘Rosa cymos’and‘Fen He’had the higher pollen germination rate than other varieties,and the rates respectively were 84.20%,71.60%,59.20%and 54.00%,the pollen viability gradually reduced as the extension of storage time. With the pollen germination as the judgment ,Rosa chinensis and Rosa multiflora varieties were classified three grades:the pollen germination of the first grade was more than 50%,‘Rosa multiflora Thunb.var.platyphylla Thory’‘Darthuizer Orang Fire’;the second grade was between 10% and 50%‘,Pink Peace‘’Monica’;the third grade was less than 10%‘,Spectra‘’ Golden Showers’.%以30个月季品种及蔷薇属植物为试验材料,采用沙尔达考夫染色法、悬滴液发芽法测定其花粉生活力,并根据花粉萌发率对品种进行分级.结果表明:1)悬滴液发芽法更适合花粉生活力的测定,10%蔗糖浓度下适宜月季品种及蔷薇属植物的花粉萌发;2)30个月季品种和蔷薇中,花粉萌发率较高的是‘十姊妹’‘、橘红火焰’‘、小果蔷薇’和‘粉荷’,分别为84.20%、71.60%、59.20%和54.00%,花粉生活力随着时间的延长而降低;3)以花粉萌发率为判断标准,月季品种及蔷薇分为三个等级,一级品种:‘十姊妹’、‘橘红火焰’,萌发率高于50%;二级品种:‘粉和平’、‘摩尼卡’,萌发率在10%~50%;三级品种:‘光谱’、‘金阵雨’,萌发率低于10%.

  7. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilissen Ludovicus JWJ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10 multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a single tree, PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of PR-10 genes was performed on two diploid B. pendula cultivars and one interspecific tetraploid Betula hybrid. Sequences were attributed to putative genes based on sequence identity and intron length. Information on transcription was derived by comparison with homologous cDNA sequences available in GenBank/EMBL/DDJB. PCR-cloning of multigene families is accompanied by a high risk for the occurrence of PCR recombination artifacts. We screened for and excluded these artifacts, and also detected putative artifact sequences among database sequences. Results Forty-four different PR-10 sequences were recovered from B. pendula and assigned to thirteen putative genes. Sequence homology suggests that three genes were transcribed in somatic tissue and seven genes in pollen. The transcription of three other genes remains unknown. In total, fourteen different Bet v 1-type isoforms were identified in the three cultivars, of which nine isoforms were entirely new. Isoforms with high and low IgE-reactivity are encoded by different genes and one birch pollen grain has the genetic background to produce a mixture of isoforms with varying IgE-reactivity. Allergen diversity is even higher in the interspecific tetraploid hybrid, consistent with the presence of two genomes. Conclusion Isoforms of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 are encoded by multiple genes, and we propose to name them accordingly. The present characterization of the Bet v 1 genes provides a framework for the screening of specific Bet v 1 genes among other B. pendula cultivars or Betula species, and for future breeding for trees with a reduced

  8. High-resolution study of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in the Southern Carpathian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E.; Jakab, G.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Retezat Massif of the S Carpathian Mountains abounds in glacial lakes, mainly above 1900 m a.s.l., just above the present day tree limit formed by Picea abies and Pinus cembra in the northern slopes. For the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in this mountain, two lakes were selected: Taul dintre Brazi (1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (1990 m a.s.l.). Sediments obtained from these lakes extend back to the Late Glacial, and so provide us an exceptional opportunity to study 1) when trees were first established locally around the lower lake following glacial retreat and 2) what tree and shrub species were present and replaced each other in the Late Glacial and early postglacial forests in response to the high-amplitude climatic fluctuation, and in case of the Early Holocene, the high-amplitude climatic amelioration. Pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossils were studied from both lake sediments at approximately 100 years resolution. Sediment chronologies were based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. Preliminary results from this study show that Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Betula nana appeared very early during the lateglacial interstadial, ca. 14,500 cal yr BP followed by Larix decidua around 14,200 cal yr BP. Pinus cembra gained dominance in the Latglacial interstadial forest and survived locally during the Younger Dryas reversal unlike Picea abies. Another important result was the reconstruction of the Early Holocene forest composition around the lower lake that proved much more species rich than the present-day forest; Picea abies grew together with Larix decidua, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Alnus viridis, Juniperus, Betula nana and Betula pubescens during the Early Holocene, furthermore the stomatal record suggested that conifer species were evenly distributed around the lake. In light of our data, the position of the Early Holocene tree line reached 1990 m a.s.l. by ca. 10,700 cal yr BP (i

  9. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  10. Hospital discharge variation trend analysis of disease in patients with mental disorders%某医院出院精神障碍患者疾病构成变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎锋; 和吟枫; 杨旭娇; 董亮

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the mental disorder patients disease constitutes a change trend,and provide reference for prevention and control of mental illness and strengthen the suk specialty construction. Methods On the kasic information and diagnos=tic categories and changes in our hospital in the years 2012-2014 patients were retrospectively studied and analyzed. Results Of 3 years,of which the hospital patients in 10476 cases,men accounted for 57. 65%,women accounted for 42. 35%,70% patients age ketween 21~50 years old. Repeatedly hospitalized patients ratio increased from 13. 61% to 16. 10%. Mental and kehavioural disor=ders and schizophrenia caused ky alcohol is always the top two diseases,mental and kehavioral disorders caused ky alcohol ratio in=creased from 16. 48% to 19. 01%,kipolar disorder constituent ratio increased from 7. 71% to 15. 73%,krain damage and function disorder and other mental disorders constituent ratio increased from 2. 01% to 4. 57%. Conclusion The mental and kehavioral disor=ders and schizophrenia caused ky alcohol is always the focus of service in our hospital,kipolar affective disorder and krain damage and dysfunction as well as physical disease caused ky other mental disorders than there is an upward trend in our hospital,should strengthen the suk specialty construction.%目的了解精神障碍出院患者疾病构成变化趋势,为防治精神疾病和加强亚专科建设提供参考依据。方法对云南省大理州第二人民医院2012年-2014年出院患者的基本信息和疾病构成情况及其变化情况进行比较。结果3年来,我院出院患者共10476例,其中,男性占57.65%,女性占42.35%;年龄21~50岁有70%。多次住院的患者比例由13.61%上升到16.10%。精神分裂症与使用酒精所致的精神和行为障碍始终为前两位疾病,使用酒精所致的精神和行为障碍构成比由16.48%上升到19.01%,双相情感障碍构成比由7.71%上升到15.73%,脑损害和功能

  11. Radial variation in sap flow in five laurel forest tree species in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M. Soledad; Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermák, Jan; Morales, Domingo

    2000-11-01

    Variations in radial patterns of xylem water content and sap flow rate were measured in five laurel forest tree species (Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Persea indica (L.) Spreng., Myrica faya Ait., Erica arborea L. and Ilex perado Ait. ssp. platyphylla (Webb & Berth.) Tutin) growing in an experimental plot at Agua García, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Measurements were performed around midday during warm and sunny days by the heat field deformation method. In all species, water content was almost constant (around 35% by volume) over the whole xylem cross-sectional area. There were no differences in wood color over the whole cross-sectional area of the stem in most species with the exception of E. arborea, whose wood became darker in the inner layers. Radial patterns of sap flow were highly variable and did not show clear relationships with tree diameter or species. Sap flow occurred over the whole xylem cross-sectional area in some species, whereas it was limited to the outer xylem layers in others. Sap flow rate was either similar along the xylem radius or exhibited a peak in the outer part of the xylem area. Low sap flow rates with little variation in radial pattern were typical for shaded suppressed trees, whereas dominant trees exhibited high sap flow rates with a peak in the radial pattern. Stem damage resulted in a significant decrease in sap flow rate in the outer xylem layers. The outer xylem is more important for whole tree water supply than the inner xylem because of its larger size. We conclude that measurement of radial flow pattern provides a reliable method of integrating sap flow from individual measuring points to the whole tree.

  12. CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chang-chun; WANG Yi-yong; WANG Yue-si; YAN Bai-xing; WANG De-xuan; ZHAO Zhi-chun; LOU Yan-jing

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was measured from mires in the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China, by using a static chamber technique during free snow-covered periods. The seasonal mean emission of CH4 was 12.4mg/(m2.h) and the emission range of CO2 was 8.7-16.6g/(m2.d) (gross CO2 flux) during plant growth period. CO2 emission rate in the day was stronger than that at night, and the daily peak appears at 19:00. The mire plants in the Sanjiang Plain begin to sprout at the end of April. The aboveground biomass of the mire plants in-creased from zero to the peak from July to September and showed single peak form. The aboveground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa (464.8g/m2) was lower than that of Deyeuxia playphylla (530.8g/m2), but the underground biomass was higher than that of Deyeuxia platyphylla. Gross CO2 flux showed the significance positive correlation relation-ship with plant biomass. Gross CO2 flux and CH4 emission were also correlated with soil temperature (0-5cm) and water temperature. However, the highest CH4 emission rate lagged behind the highest soil temperature in the root area during plant growth period. The data also indicated that wet and warm conditions during the early spring led to greater value of CH4 emission flux. Inundation is the necessary condition for the existence of methane bacteria, but there is no significant positive correlation between the inundation depth and CH4 emission rate in this region. Within the same growing season and under the same inundation condition, the variations of CH4 emission rate could be markedly different.

  13. Diversité, priorité pastorale et de conservation des ligneux fourragers des terres de parcours en zone soudano-guinéenne du Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sèwadé, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, pastoral and conservation priorities of fodder trees in the Sudano-Guinean pasture lands of Benin. Description of the subject. Fodder trees are important for livestock survival in dryland Africa. In view of the pressure faced by these trees, and their consequent rarity noted in rangelands, a study was conducted in the Sudano-Guinean transition zone of Benin at the level of the local population surrounding the protected forests of Monts Kouffé, Wari-Maro and Ouémé Supérieur. Objectives. This study aimed to inventory the fodder trees, analyze the local perception of factors threatening target fodder trees, according to different sociolinguistic groups and prioritize fodder trees for conservation. Method. Ethnobiological surveys and ecological data from the available literature were used to construct a database following different criteria. The citation rates of the fodder trees by the surveyed populations were used to establish pastoral priority, while their conservation priority was established using a combination of four methods and nine criteria. Results. Forty-eight fodder trees belonging to 17 families dominated by Leguminosae (27.1% and Moraceae (16.6% were reported. These species were distributed among 37 genera, with the genus Ficus being the most represented (16.6%. Palatability, species availability and the impact of tree fodder on animal productivity were the criteria used by the surveyed sociolinguistic groups in their selection of fodder trees. The prioritization methods yielded ten top ranked species: Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Khaya senegalensis, Vitellaria paradoxa, Mangifera indica, Ficus platyphylla, Balanites aegyptiaca, Annona senegalensis, Ficus umbellata and Daniellia oliveri. Conclusions. With the aim of establishing the sustainable management of pasture lands, we suggest that priority be given to the aforementioned species of fodder trees as part of restoration, afforestation/reforestation and

  14. Central nervous system activities of two diterpenes isolated from Aloysia virgata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Cristina; Marder, Mariel

    2011-03-15

    Using the guide of a competitive assay for the benzodiazepine binding site in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)), two active diterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu var. platyphylla (Briquet) Moldenke. These compounds, identified as (16R)-16,17,18-trihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (1) and (16R)-16,17-dihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (2) on the basis of spectral data, competitively inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-FNZ to the benzodiazepine binding site with K(i)±S.E.M. values of 56±19 μM and 111±13 μM, respectively. The behavioral actions of these diterpenes, intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in mice, were examined in the plus-maze, holeboard, locomotor activity and light/dark tests. Compound 1 exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice evidenced by a significant increase of the parameters measured in the holeboard test (the number of head dips at 0.3 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, the rears at 1 mg/kg and the time spent head-dipping at 3 mg/kg), in the plus-maze assay (the percentage of open arm entries at 1 mg/kg) and in the light/dark test (the time in light and the number of transitions at 1 mg/kg). Compound 2 augmented the number of rearings in the holeboard apparatus (at 0.3 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) and the locomotor activity (at 1 mg/kg). These results reveal the presence of neuroactive compounds in Aloysia virgata.

  15. Effect of hydroxyapatite-containing microspheres embedded into three-dimensional magnesium phosphate scaffolds on the controlled release of lysozyme and in vitro biodegradation

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    Lee JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jongman Lee, Hui-suk YunPowder and Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The functionality of porous three-dimensional (3D magnesium phosphate (MgP scaffold was investigated for the development of a novel protein delivery system and biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold. This enhancement can be achieved by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA-containing polymeric microspheres (MSs into a bulk MgP matrix, and a paste-extruding deposition (PED system. In this work, the amount of MS and HA was precisely controlled when manufacturing MS-embedded MgP (MS/MgP composite scaffolds. The main influence was researched in terms of in vitro lysozyme-release, in vitro biodegradation, mechanical properties, and in vitro calcification. The controlled release of lysozyme was indicated, while showing graded release patterns according to HA content. The composite scaffolds degraded gradually with MS content and degradation time. Due to the effect of HA inclusion, the higher HA-containing MS/MgP scaffolds could, not only delay the biodegradation process but also, compensate for the possible loss of mechanical properties. In this regard, it is reasonable to confirm the inverse relationship between biodegradation and corresponding compressive properties. In order to encourage bioactivity and osteoconductivity, the MS/MgP composite scaffolds were subjected to simulated body fluid treatment. Calcium deposition was, in turn, improved with increasing MS and HA content over time. This quantitative result was also proved using morphological and elemental analysis. In summary, a significant transformation of a monolithic MgP scaffold was directed toward a multifunctional bone tissue engineering scaffold equipped with controlled protein delivery, biodegradability, and bioactivity.Keywords: protein delivery, bone tissue engineering

  16. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

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    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus-like nanoparticle vaccination induces long-term protection without pulmonary disease by modulating cytokines and T-cells partially through alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Young-Tae Lee,1,* Eun-Ju Ko,1,2,* Hye Suk Hwang,1,2 Jong Seok Lee,1,3 Ki-Hye Kim,1 Young-Man Kwon,1 Sang-Moo Kang1,2 1Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The mechanisms of protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV are poorly understood. Virus-like nanoparticles expressing RSV glycoproteins (eg, a combination of fusion and glycoprotein virus-like nanoparticles [FG VLPs] have been suggested to be a promising RSV vaccine candidate. To understand the roles of alveolar macrophages (AMs in inducing long-term protection, mice that were 12 months earlier vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV or FG VLPs were treated with clodronate liposome prior to RSV infection. FI-RSV immune mice with clodronate liposome treatment showed increases in eosinophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, interleukin (IL-4+ T-cell infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and, in particular, mucus production upon RSV infection. In contrast to FI-RSV immune mice with severe pulmonary histopathology, FG VLP immune mice showed no overt sign of histopathology and significantly lower levels of eosinophils, T-cell infiltration, and inflammatory cytokines, but higher levels of interferon-γ, which are correlated with protection against RSV disease. FG VLP immune mice with depletion of AMs showed increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as eosinophils. The results in this study suggest that FG nanoparticle vaccination induces long-term protection against RSV and that AMs play a role in the RSV protection by modulating eosinophilia, mucus production, inflammatory cytokines, and T-cell infiltration. Keywords: alveolar macrophage, nanoparticle vaccine, VLP, FI-RSV, RSV disease

  18. Lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with lnterbody fusion cage and posteriotaterior lumbar bone graft%椎间融合器联合后外侧植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永栋; 蒋卫平; 韦冰丹; 杨晓明; 甘坤宁; 周竖平; 刘剑伟; 黄家志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the Affiliated to clinical outcome of lumbar spondylolisthesis using hiterbody fusion cage and posteriolalerion lumbar bone graft. Methods From January 2007 to January 2011,32 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis were treated with lnterbody fusion cages and posteriolaterion lumbar bone graft. Results ['oilowed—up for 12 to 38 months.averaged 3.6 months, the fusion rate was 100%. According lo evaluation standard of ZOU De-wei;19 cases achieved excellent outcomes.good 10 and 3 fair,the clinical satisfaction rate of 90,62%, Conclusions The lnterbody fusion cages and posteriolaterion lumbar bone graft is a effective method for keeping spinal stability and restoring inlerverlebral height and improving the bony fusion rale.%目的 探讨椎间融合器联合后外侧植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱的术后效果.方法 2007-01-2011-01 采用椎间植骨联合后外侧植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱患者32 例.结果 随访12~38 月,平均16 个月,根据Suk 方法判定术后骨融合情况,骨融合率为100%.根据邹德威等临床功能评价标准评分:优19 例,良10 例,可3 例,优良率90.62%.结论 椎间融合器联合后外侧植骨融合术治疗腰椎滑脱是一种较理想的手术方法,能维持脊柱稳定性,恢复椎间隙高度和提高植骨融合率.

  19. 一种高斯曲率策动和高阶微分相融合的去噪方法%A Fusion Denoising Method Based on Both Gaussian Curvature-driven and Differential of Higher Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳红; 李维国

    2009-01-01

    Lee Suk-Ho和Seo Jin Keun提出的基于高斯曲率的去噪方法在处理低梯度区域时,虽然对于保留图像的细节特征非常有效,但是步长选择稍大时,会产生黑白点,过小又会增加迭代次数.针对此问题,提出了一种用Tukey's biweight函数来控制曲率扩散的修正模型,该模型可以在较大时间步长的情况下避免黑白点的出现.进一步,为了利用高阶去噪方法对高梯度区域进行快速去噪,提出了一种将高斯曲率去噪方程和四阶偏微分方程相融合的去噪模型,以便可以根据具体的图像合理地分配两部分的权重.数值实验证明,该模型不仅可以处理曲面拟合方法所不能消除的椒盐噪声,而且可以实现两种方法的优点互补,既能保持边界,又较好地保留了细节特征.

  20. Neuroprotection and acidosis induced by cortical spreading depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong KK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth K Kwong, Suk-tak Chan Department of Radiology, MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA We read with interest the article “Cortical spreading depression produces a neuroprotective effect activating mitochondrial uncoupling protein-5” published in Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat by Viggiano et al.1 The authors showed that cerebral spreading depression (CSD triggered uncoupling protein-5 (UCP-5,1 which had been reported to exert a long-term effect upon neuron protection.2 The result is another piece in CSD literature on modifying gene expressions to provide neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic episodes.3,4 Authors' replyGiovanni Messina1,2Emanuela Viggiano1,3Vincenzo Monda1Antonietta Messina1Fiorenzo Moscatelli2Anna Valenzano2Domenico Tafuri4Vincenzo De Luca5Giuseppe Cibelli2Marcellino Monda1 1Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetic and Sport Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Caserta, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, 4Department of Motor Sciences and Wellness, University of Naples “Parthenope,” Napoli, Italy; 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Thank you for the attention paid to our article entitled: “Cortical spreading depression produces a neuroprotective effect activating mitochondrial uncoupling protein-5”.1 We do agree that cerebral spreading depression (CSD-induced acidosis is an intriguing aspect of the neuroprotection puzzle. It is well known that CSD is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, cerebral ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury.2–7 View the original paper by Viggiano and colleagues. 

  1. [The early medical textbooks in Korea: medical textbooks published at Je Joong Won-Severance Hospital Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H W

    1998-01-01

    Kwang Hye Won(Je Joong Won), the first western hospital in Korea, was founded in 1885. The first western Medical School in Korea was open in 1886 under the hospital management. Dr. O. R. Avison, who came to Korea in 1893, resumed the medical education there, which was interrupted for some time before his arrival in Korea. He inaugurated translating and publishing medical textbooks with the help of Kim Pil Soon who later became one of the first seven graduates in Severance Hospital Medical School. The first western medical textbook translated into Korean was Henry Gray's Anatomy. However, these twice-translated manuscripts were never to be published on account of being lost and burnt down. The existing early anatomy textbooks, the editions of 1906 and 1909, are not the translation of Gray's Anatomy, but that of Japanese anatomy textbook of Gonda. The remaining oldest medical textbook in Korean is Inorganic Materia Medica published in 1905. This book is unique among its kind that O. R. Avison is the only translator of the book and it contains the prefaces of O. R. Avison and Kim Pil Soon. The publication of medical textbook was animated by the participation of other medical students, such as Hong Suk Hoo and Hong Jong Eun. The list of medical textbooks published includes almost all the field of medicine. The medical textbooks in actual existence are as follows: Inorganic Materia Medica (1905), Inorganic Chemistry (1906), Anatomy I (1906), Physiology (1906), Diagnostics I (1906), Diagnostics II (1907), Obstetrics (1908), Organic Chemistry (1909), Anatomy (1909), and Surgery (1910).

  2. Quantitative measurements of C-reactive protein using silicon nanowire arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Min-Ho Lee, Kuk-Nyung Lee, Suk-Won Jung, Won-Hyo Kim, Kyu-Sik Shin, Woo-Kyeong SeongKorea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi, KoreaAbstract: A silicon nanowire-based sensor for biological application showed highly desirable electrical responses to either pH changes or receptor-ligand interactions such as protein disease markers, viruses, and DNA hybridization. Furthermore, because the silicon nanowire can display results in real-time, it may possess superior characteristics for biosensing than those demonstrated in previously studied methods. However, despite its promising potential and advantages, certain process-related limitations of the device, due to its size and material characteristics, need to be addressed. In this article, we suggest possible solutions. We fabricated silicon nanowire using a top-down and low cost micromachining method, and evaluate the sensing of molecules after transfer and surface modifications. Our newly designed method can be used to attach highly ordered nanowires to various substrates, to form a nanowire array device, which needs to follow a series of repetitive steps in conventional fabrication technology based on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method. For evaluation, we demonstrated that our newly fabricated silicon nanowire arrays could detect pH changes as well as streptavidin-biotin binding events. As well as the initial proof-of-principle studies, C-reactive protein binding was measured: electrical signals were changed in a linear fashion with the concentration (1 fM to 1 nM in PBS containing 1.37 mM of salts. Finally, to address the effects of Debye length, silicon nanowires coupled with antigen proteins underwent electrical signal changes as the salt concentration changed.Keywords: silicon nanowire array, C-reactive protein, vapor-liquid-solid method

  3. Measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean

  4. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert;

    2006-01-01

    the response in EM fungal abundance to long-term warming and fertilization in two arctic ecosystems with contrasting responses of the EM shrub Betula nana. •  Ergosterol was used as a biomarker for living fungal biomass in roots and organic soil and ingrowth bags were used to estimate EM mycelial production....... We measured 15N and 13C natural abundance to identify the EM-saprotrophic divide in fungal sporocarps and to validate the EM origin of mycelia in the ingrowth bags. •  Fungal biomass in soil and EM mycelial production increased with fertilization at both tundra sites, and with warming at one site....... This was caused partly by increased dominance of EM plants and partly by stimulation of EM mycelial growth. •  We conclude that cycling of carbon and nitrogen through EM fungi will increase when strongly nutrient-limited arctic ecosystems are exposed to a warmer and more nutrient-rich environment. This has...

  5. Biochemical and molecular genetic approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Sung, Woo Kyung; Piao, Wen Hua [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. About 100 medicinal plants were purchased and methanol extract samples were prepared. Radio-protective and radio-sensitizing activities of these samples were screened. Seven samples showed above 20% radio-protective activities: Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, Alpiniae officinari rhizoma, Meliae fructus, Alpiniae katsumadaii semen, Betulae cortex. Acanthopanax sessiliflous showed the highest radio-sensitizing effect and 10 other samples revealed moderate activities: Melia japonica, Agastache rugosa, Platycodon gradiflorum, Broussonetia bazinoki, Angelica gigas, Inula helenium, Chelidonium majus, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Dioscorea batatas. (author). 49 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Effect of different steam explosion conditions on methane potential and enzymatic saccharification of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Olsen, Elisabeth F; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2013-01-01

    Birch (Betula pubescens) was steam exploded at 13 different conditions with temperatures ranging from 170 to 230 °C and residence times ranging from 5 to 15 min. Increasing severity in the pretreatment led to degradation of xylan and formation of pseudo-lignin. The effect of the pretreatments was evaluated by running enzymatic saccharification and anaerobic digestion followed by analysis of sugar and methane yields, respectively. Enzymatically released glucose increased with pretreatment severity up to 220 °C for 10 min and levels of solubilized glucose reached 97% of the theoretical maximum. The highest methane yield (369 mL gVS(-1)) was obtained at a severity factor of 4.5 and this yield was 1.8 times higher than the yield from untreated birch. Enzymatic glucose yields and methane yields were generally correlated. The results indicate that steam-exploded birch can be effectively converted to either glucose or methane.

  7. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  8. Short communication. A review on the efficacy tests and risk analyses conducted on Chondrostereum purpureum, a potential biocontrol agent, in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantula, J.; Hamberg, L.; Vartiamaki, H.; Korhonen, K.; Uotila, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hardwood sprouting is a problem in forest regeneration areas, under electric lines, on roadsides and railways. In Finland, isolates of Chondrostereum purpureum were screened by field experiments for their efficiency to control sprouting. The proportion of dead stumps with the best isolates exceeded 80% on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), and C. purpureum was also found to affect the sprouting of aspen (Populus tremula) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The risks of C. purpureum based biocontrol were evaluated by population genetic analysis. It showed that C. purpureum is a geographically undifferentiated species that does not reproduce clonally. The risk of infection of non-target trees was found to be highest in early spring. These findings suggest that the risks of using C. purpureum in biocontrol are small. (Author) 36 refs.

  9. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  10. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Hannon, Gina E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other...... thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during...... two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give...

  11. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Piotr; Fijałek, Zbigniew; Daszczuk, Anna; Ostapczuk, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements).

  12. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  13. A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record of paleoecologic environment evolution in the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuli; FANG Xiaomin; MA Yuzhen; AN Zhisheng; LI Jijun

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record was obtained from a continuous loess-paleosol sequence at Chaona in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. It shows that (1) arid herbs of largely Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae and arbors of mainly Pinus, Betula and Quercus dominate loess and paleosol, respectively, reflecting cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid conditions of glaciation and interglaciation; (2) that similar vegetation pattern and cold-dry condition were found in times of unusual thick and coarse loesses L9 and L15, which have been regarded as two extremely cold and dry times as indicated by inorganic climatic proxies; and (3) that shifts of vegetations from earlier forest-steppe to open-forest and steppe and then to steppe were found at 0.95 and 0.5 Ma, implying a stepwise of drying of the Loess Plateau in the Quaternary.

  14. Aeropalynologic analysis of Timisoara (Romania during 2006 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a one year qualitative-quantitative study of airborne pollen. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the daily presence and distribution of pollen and to identify the pollen types that are abundantly represented in the atmosphere of the city of Timisoara. A continuous aeropalynologic survey was accomplished between 1 mai 2006 and 8 octombrie 2006. Plants with anemophilous pollination were the best represented: Pinaceae, Poaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Ambrosia, Fraxinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Quercus, Juglans, Platanus, Morus, Tilia. The total pollen spectrum was represented by 17 pollen types. Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen types was dominant. The highest level of pollen emission was recorded during August-September.

  15. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes;

    2010-01-01

    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might......-generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  16. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  17. Contributions on the diagnosis of fluorine damage. I. Fluorine damage in indicator plants in the wild flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsdorf, W.

    1960-01-01

    In an area of Central Germany affected by gaseous waste containing fluorine, the wild flora and some cultivated plants were investigated as to their suitability as indicators of fluorine pollution. As a result of three years of observation a list of 59 species is presented, four susceptibility groups being distinguished on the basis of the macroscopic symptoms of the damage (necrosis on the leaf tips and margins, less frequently in the zones between the ribs). Vitis vinifera L., Carpinus betula L., Iris germanica L., Arrenatherum clatius (L.) J.u.C. Presl and Dactylis glomenata L. proved to be extremely sensitive. The intensity of the symptoms is influenced, among other things, by a number of environmental factors (topographic features, predominant direction of winds, precipitation and degree of afforestation). 6 references.

  18. [Vegetation and its relation with climate conditions near the timberline of Beitai, the Xiaowutai Mts., northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengtao; Liu, Hongyan; Cui, Haiting

    2002-05-01

    On the basis of field investigations, the timberline range of Beitai, the Xiaowutai Mountains was carved up, and the changes in the makeup and diversity of plants with the altitude were discussed. The results showed that the timberline with gradual changes in the northern slope of Beitai ranged from 2620-2800 m. In timberline, herbaceous plants were rich, and the diversity was higher than that in coniferous forest and sub-alpine meadow zones. The turnover rates of species were gradually hoisting from the centre of timberline to sub-alpine meadow and forest zones, and highest at the edge of timberline. Betula, Picea meyreri and Larix principis-ruprechtii species were the ecological indicator for research on environmental changes. Climate indication significance of these arbor species distributed in and near the timberline was also discussed.

  19. 东北长白山垂直林带下现代表土花粉与植被关系%Pollen Record of Surface Sediments from Vertical Forest Zones of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China and Their Relations to the Modern Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湘君; 罗运利; 田军; 吴玉书

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-nine surface samples (mosses) from five vertical distribution vegetation zones inChangbai Mountain, Northeast China have been palynologically analyzed and the results were tested bycorrespondence analysis. The results show that, except a few samples, arboreal pollen is predominant inalmost all pollen assemblages; Pinus and Betula are the main pollen types in quantities and they are foundin all vegetation zones of Changbai Mountain. The highest pollen proportion of Pinus occurs in the mixedconifer and broadleaved forest where Pinus koraiensis is the main component; Betula pollen is found inhigh percentage in both subalpine B. ermanii forest and broadleaved deciduous forest predominated byBetula and Quercus; in the former Betula pollen is accompanied by cold-tolerant shrub such as Rhodo-dendron; whereas in the latter it appears a large amount of fern spores. Pollen assemblage of broadleaveddeciduous forests is marked by high diversity and proportions of deciduous trees and a large number of fernspores. Subalpine conifer forest is distinguished by high percentage of Picea pollen. Although tree pollenis slightly dominated, very few or absent of fern spores and increasing of herb and small shrub pollenproportions, particularly predominance of Rhododendron in herbaceous pollen and occurrence of tundraindicator type-Dryas pollen distinguish pollen assemblages of alpine tundra.%在长白山北坡5个垂直植被带的林下采集29个表土(苔藓)样品进行孢粉分析,同时将其结果作对应分析.结果表明,除个别样品,在长白山垂直植被带的孢粉组合中乔木花粉占优势,其中以松属和桦木属最多,在各植被带均有分布.松属花粉最高含量出现在以红松为主的针阔混交林带的孢粉组合中;桦木属花粉则大量见于亚高山岳桦林带和以栎桦为主的阔叶落叶林带,但前者伴有耐寒、早的小灌丛杜鹃花属花粉,而在后者中则见有大量蕨类孢子.阔叶落叶林带的孢粉组

  20. Limiting factors for vegetation development during the early late glacial in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Jessen, Cathrine

    .g. climate change, soil erosion or soil development. In an attempt to identify the most important factors determining the temporal variation of the pollen record at Slotseng, redundancy analysis (RDA) was applied to subsets of pollen data representing a moving window of 20 samples at a time (1-20, 2-21, 3...... to climate change suggests that other factors limited vegetational development. These factors included soil instability, aridity and low soil nitrogen.. This study highlights the multitude of climatic, physical, chemical and biological interactions important for the formation of pollen records of late...... periods at Slotseng was dominated by Betula nana and Dryas octopetala and associated with many herbs of open habitats. Late-glacial pollen records are frequently interpreted only in the context of climate change. However, the forcing mechanisms of vegetational change may shift over time between e...

  1. Palynological investigation of a Holocene profile section from the Palaeo-Gaxun-Nur-Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Demske; S. Mischke

    2003-01-01

    Palynological investigations on lacustrine sediment samples revealed ageneral dominance of open Artemisia-Chenopodiaceae vegetation in the Palaeo-Gaxun- Nur-Basin (Inner Mongolia) between 5250 and 3500 cal. aBP. Riverside woods (Hippophae, Populus) developed between 3500-3250 cal. aBP and reflect moister growing conditions. During the following moist-dry transition pronounced cooling occurred around 3000 cal. aBP, in upper elevations favouring the spread of montanewoods (Picea, Betula). Aridity strongly increased from 2900 to 2700 cal. aBP. The recorded vegetational and environmental changes after 3500 cal. aBP can be correlated with glacier advances in the mountains and with a humid phase in the Tengger Shamo followed by desertification.

  2. Modeling the Current and Future Distribution of Treeline Species in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, P. K.; Cairns, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the current distribution of treeline species is important for predicting their future distribution in the landscape. Many studies have indicated that treeline will advance with climate change. Treeline advance will result in a loss of alpine biodiversity because the advancing treeline will fragment alpine ecosystems. A species distribution modeling approach using predicted climate data can increase our understanding of how treeline species will expand their range in the future. We used the Maxent model to predict the current and future distributions of three dominant treeline species, Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis, and Pinus wallichiana, of the Nepal Himalaya. The Maxent model predicted that the distribution of treeline species will change significantly under future climate change scenarios. The range of these treeline species will expand northward or upslope in response to future climate change. The model also indicated that temperature-related climatic variables are the most important determinants of the distribution of treeline species.

  3. Comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density Corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, A; Nachtergale, L; Staelens, J; Luyssaert, S; De Keersmaeker, L

    2004-09-01

    In Flanders, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication are exceeded in the majority of the forest stands, and many previously nitrogen limited forest ecosystems have become nitrogen saturated. The present study investigates whether a naturally regenerated stand of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) contributes less to the acidification and eutrophication of the forest soil than a high-density plantation of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio Maire). Throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen was about 3.5 times higher in the Corsican pine stand than in the birch stand. Potassium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under birch due to higher canopy leaching. Magnesium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under the pine canopy due to higher dry deposition. The lower nitrogen throughfall deposition in the birch stand was reflected in a 60% lower nitrate percolation at 1m depth compared with pine. Nitrate soil percolation is linked to losses of aluminium and base cations.

  4. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

    2012-06-15

    Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants.

  5. Reproductive strategies of Caltha palustris L. under various living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Werpachowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive effort and strategies of Caltha palustris were compared for four phytocoeno­ses located in the southern Biebrza basin: sedge reedswamp (Caricetum gracilis, sedge-moss community (Caricetum limoso-diandrae, willow-birch brushwood (Salix cinerea-Betula pubescens, and alder-bog forest (Carici elongatae-Alnetum, The individuals of analysed populations were found to differ with respect to their biomass allocation to generative and vegetative reproduction. Three types of reproductive strategies were distinguished: generative (G, vegetative (V and intermediate (G/V. The individuals growing in the alder-bog forest had the highest reproductive effort (V strategy, while those from sedge reedswamp - the lowest (G strategy.

  6. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-20

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  7. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  8. Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation.

  9. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  10. PURIFICATION OF HARDWOOD-DERIVED AUTOHYDROLYSATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Tapani Lehto,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes of birch (Betula pendula chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed, whereas in the latter case, the corresponding amounts were about 30% and 50 to 90%, respectively. A partial recovery of various unsaturated impurities is of importance, because they may act as inhibitors when biochemically converting carbohydrates in hydrolysates into value-added products.

  11. Study on complexity of plant communities at different altitudes on the Northern Slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By the method of gradient pattern analysis, twenty plots were set at altitudes of 700-2600 m with an interval of 100 m on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain. The dissimilarity of respective sub-plots in the same community was measured and the complexity of plant communities at different altitudes was analyzed. The result from binary data of tree species in canopy tree indicated that the sub-plots in the communities, except subalpine Betula ermanii forest, showed comparatively high dissimilarity in species composition. Especially, the dissimilarity index (0.7) of broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was obviously higher than other communities. The differences are not obvious between communities referring to dark coniferous forest. Comparatively, the dissimilarity in sub-plots of the communities at altitude of 1400 m was slightly higher than that of other communities, which reflected the complexity of tree species compositions of transitory-type communities. For subalpine Betula ermanii forest, tree species composition was simple and showed a high similarity between sub-plots. The results derived from binary data of shrub showed that the dissimilarity index of shrub species in broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was higher than that in other communities, but the divergence tendency wasn't so obvious as that of arbor species. The dissimilarity derived from binary data of herb and all plant species at different altitudes showed greatly close tendency, and the differences in herb and all plant species between sub-plots were the greatest for the communities of broad-leaved-Korean pine forest and alpine tundra zone.

  12. PALYNOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE BOREHOLE ZKA4 AT DAQIAO TOWN, JIANGDU CITY, JIANGSU PROVINCE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL MEANINGS%江苏省江都市大桥镇ZKA4钻孔第四纪孢粉组合及其环境变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗言; 于俊杰; 蒋仁; 韩芳; 柯学; 徐亚东; 何卫红

    2014-01-01

    本文依据江苏省江都市大桥镇第四系钻孔(ZKA4)中孢粉的分布,自下至上划分了11个孢粉组合:1.Betula-Ulmus-Artemisia,2.Ulmus-Chenopodiaceae-Quercus,3.ArtemisiaGramineae-Quercus,4.Liquidambar-Polypodiaceae-Ulmus,5.Pinus-Quercus-Betula-Juglans,6.Quercus-Juglans-Artemisia,7.Quercus-Polygonum-Juglans-Carya,8.Betula-Gramineae-Artemisia,9.Quercus-Polypodiaceae,10.Podocarpus-Triorites-Polypodiaceae,11.Pinus-Podocarpus-Juglans-Pterocarya.依据孢粉组合,识别出更新世以来七个气候冷暖变化阶段.孢粉组合1为常绿落叶针阔叶混交林,气候以冷干为主,向上气候回暖;孢粉组合2为高寒灌丛—落叶针阔叶混交林,以冷干为主;孢粉组合3为草本—落叶针阔叶混交林,较前一阶段气候变暖,偏暖干;孢粉组合4-5以落叶阔叶为主,整体上以变暖为主;孢粉组合6-7为落叶针阔叶混交林,整体气候为暖湿,早期略干;孢粉组合8-9为以针叶为主的针阔叶混交林,气候温凉偏湿;孢粉组合10-11为常绿落叶阔叶混交林,气候以湿暖为主.

  13. Late Quaternary Stratigraphy, Glacial Limits, and Paleoenvironments of the Marresale Area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Gataullin, Valery; Manley, William; Lokrantz, Hanna

    2002-05-01

    Stratigraphic records from coastal cliff sections near the Marresale Station on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, yield new insight on ice-sheet dynamics and paleoenvironments for northern Eurasia. Field studies identify nine informal stratigraphic units from oldest to youngest (the Marresale formation, Labsuyakha sand, Kara diamicton, Varjakha peat and silt, Oleny sand, Baidarata sand, Betula horizon, Nenets peat, and Chum sand) that show a single glaciation and a varied terrestrial environment during the late Pleistocene. The Kara diamicton reflects regional glaciation and is associated with glaciotectonic deformation from the southwest of the underlying Labsuyakha sand and Marresale formation. Finite radiocarbon and luminescence ages of ca. 35,000 to 45,000 yr from Varjakha peat and silt that immediately overlies Kara diamicton place the glaciation >40,000 yr ago. Eolian and fluvial deposition ensued with concomitant cryogenesis between ca. 35,000 and 12,000 cal yr B.P. associated with the Oleny and the Baidarata sands. There is no geomorphic or stratigraphic evidence of coverage or proximity of the Yamal Peninsula to a Late Weichselian ice sheet. The Nenets peat accumulated over the Baidarata sand during much of the past 10,000 yr, with local additions of the eolian Chum sand starting ca. 1000 yr ago. A prominent Betula horizon at the base of the Nenets peat contains rooted birch trees ca. 10,000 to 9000 cal yr old and indicates a >200-km shift northward of the treeline from the present limits, corresponding to a 2° to 4°C summer warming across northern Eurasia.

  14. A Primary Study on Altitudinal Pattern, Type of of Picea brachytyla formation in Baishuijiang Nature Reserve%白水江自然保护区麦吊云杉群落类型与垂直格局初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建宏; 许闰; 吴俊成; 尹峰

    2006-01-01

    麦吊云杉(Picea brachytyla)为我国二级重点保护植物,也是甘肃白水江国家级自然保护区针阔混交林带(2 100~2 900 m)主要的建群种之一.以第3次大熊猫调查植被数据为基础,以树种重要值为指标,分析了白水江保护区麦吊云杉群落的结构特征.结果表明:该保护区麦吊云杉群落按乔木重要值的大小可划分为10个亚群系,其中与糙皮桦(Betula utilis)和红桦(Betula albo-sinensis)形成的混交林分布最广;麦吊云杉的主要伴生树种为糙皮桦和红桦,其次为铁杉(Tsuga chinensis)、岷江冷杉(Abies chensiensis)、五裂槭(Acer oliverianum)、泡花树(Meliosma dilleniifolia)、华山松(Pinus armandi)等;麦吊云杉群落从低海拔向高海拔的递变规律是由与温性针阔叶树种华山松、铁杉、糙皮桦、红桦等组成的亚群系向与寒温性针叶树冷杉等形成亚群系递变.

  15. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  16. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  17. Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.

    2007-12-01

    Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

  18. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a 'space-for-time' approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg ) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m(-2) ) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m(-2) ) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m(-2) ). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system.

  19. HPLC identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kulevanova

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A new and rapid HPLC method for identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in ten herbal drugs of Macedonian origin is presented. Preparation of samples (Uvae ursi folim, Pruni spinosae flos, Sambuci flos, Betulae folim, Primulae flos, Herniariae herba, Centaurii herba, Tiliae flos, Robiniae pseudoacaciae flos, Bursae pastoris herba included hydrolysis of glycosides and extraction of total aglycones with ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis with UV-diode array detection was carried out on RP C18 column, using 5% acetic acid and acetonitrile in agradient elution mode and column temperature of 30 o C. The monitoring of the elution is performed in the whole UV-range and the acquisition of data for quantitative analysis at 367 nm. Screening of the extracts showed presence of quercetin in nine, kaempferol in seven and myricetin in only one sample. The quantitative analysis showed that the content of quercetin ranged from 0.026-0.506 % (m/m, while for kaempferol it was from traces to 1.246 %. Uvaeursi folium and Pruni spinosae flos were rich in content of quercetin (0.482 % and 0.506 %, respectively, while Pruni spinosae flos and Robiniae pseudoaccaciae flos contained the highest amounts of kaempferol (1.246 % and 0.892 %, respectively. Myricetin was identified and determined only in Betulae folium (0.102 %. The content of total flavonoids in the investigated samples expressed in terms of quercetin ranged from 0.040 to 1.680 %. The proposed HPLC method is convenient for use in routine analysis of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, as well as for estimation of total flavonoids content in herbal drugs.

  20. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials and methods. The concentration of pollen was monitored by a Burkard volumetric pollen trap. At the same time, 198 pollen allergic patients were testing to determine the values of sIgE antibodies against selected pollen allergens; a panel of 8 purified allergens was used. Results. The highest percentages of sensitization were detected for Poaceae and [i]Ambrosia[/i] pollen allergens. The most abundant airborne pollen types were Urticaceae, [i]Betula[/i], [i]Populus[/i], Fraxinus, Pinus and Poaceae. The length of the pollen season varied. The longest pollen season was that of the [i]Plantago[/i] – 105 days, and the shortest, [i]Corylus[/i] – 20 days. A significant correlation was found between annual total pollen quantity and median sIgE values, especially in 2002. Conclusions. A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding [i]Betula[/i], and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  1. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

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    Cho YY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Yeon Cho,1 Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Jeong-Han Kim,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea; 2Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT, and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1, were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 µM increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 µM did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1 in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. Keywords: honokiol, human hepatocytes, drug interactions, cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

  2. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations: A Growing Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol Bain; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bergman, Åke Lennart; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O.; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J.; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    , Van den Berg M, Suk WA. 2016. E-waste and harm to vulnerable populations: a growing global problem. Environ Health Perspect 124:550–555; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509699 PMID:26418733

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic

  4. Enzyme-responsive doxorubicin release from dendrimer nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sang Joon Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Hyung-Kyu Park,3 Dae Hwan Kang,2,4 Jong-Suk Oh,3 Sam-Gyu Lee,5 Hyun Chul Lee31Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 2Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 4Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam, 5Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Since cancer cells are normally over-expressed cathepsin B, we synthesized dendrimer-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG-doxorubicin (DOX conjugates using a cathepsin B-cleavable peptide for anticancer drug targeting.Methods: Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide was conjugated with the carboxylic acid end groups of a dendrimer, which was then conjugated with MPEG amine and doxorubicin by aid of carbodiimide chemistry (abbreviated as DendGDP. Dendrimer-MPEG-DOX conjugates without Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide linkage was also synthesized for comparison (DendDP. Nanoparticles were then prepared using a dialysis procedure.Results: The synthesized DendGDP was confirmed with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DendDP and DendGDP nanoparticles had a small particle size of less than 200 nm and had a spherical morphology. DendGDP had cathepsin B-sensitive drug release properties while DendDP did not show cathepsin B sensitivity. Further, DendGDP had improved anticancer activity when compared with doxorubicin or DendDP in an in vivo CT26 tumor xenograft model, ie, the volume of the CT26 tumor xenograft was significantly inhibited when compared with xenografts treated with doxorubicin or DendDP nanoparticles. The DendGDP nanoparticles were found to be relatively concentrated in the tumor tissue and

  5. Eyes wide open: reader and author responsibility in understanding the limits of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, P J

    2015-10-01

    'Medical science can only flourish in a free society and dies under totalitarian repression.' (1) Peer review post-publication is relatively easy to define: when the world decides the importance of publication. Peer review pre-publication is what the scientific community frequently means when using the term 'peer review'. But what it is it? Few will agree on an exact definition; generally speaking, it refers to an independent, third party scrutiny of a manuscript by scientific experts (called peers) who advise on its suitability for publication. Peer review is expensive; although reviewers are unpaid, the cost in time is enormous and it is slow. There is often little agreement among reviewers about whether an article should be published and peer review can be a lottery. Often referred to as a quality assurance process, there are many examples of when peer review failed. Many will be aware of Woo-Suk Hwang's shocking stem cell research misconduct at Seoul National University. (2) Science famously published two breakthrough articles that were found subsequently to be completely fabricated and this happened in spite of peer review. Science is not unique in making this error. However, love it or hate it, peer review, for the present time at least, is here to stay. In this article, Philippa Benson, Managing Editor of Science Advances (the first open access journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science), discusses the merits of peer review. Dr Benson has extensive experience in the publishing world and was Executive Director of PJB Consulting, a not-for-profit organisation supporting clients on issues related to converting to full electronic publishing workflows as well as challenges working with international authors and publishers. Her clients included the Public Library of Science journals, the American Society for Nutrition and the de Beaumont Foundation. She recently co-authored a book, What Editors Want: An Author's Guide to Scientific Journal

  6. Early changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levelsand bone markers after monthly risedronatewith cholecalciferol in Korean patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung HY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ho Yeon Chung,1 Jawon Koo,1 Su Kyoung Kwon,2 Moo-IL Kang,3 Seong-Hwan Moon,4 Jin-Young Park,5 Chan Soo Shin,6 Byung-Koo Yoon,7 Hyun-Koo Yoon,8 Jae-Suk Chang,9 Yoon-Sok Chung,10 Hyoung-Moo Park111Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 2Department of Statistics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 4Department of Orthopedics, Yonsei University, 5Department of Orthopedics, Konkuk University, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sungkyunkwan University, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Kwandong University, 9Department of Orthopedics, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea; 10Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea; 11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South KoreaPurpose: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of monthly risedronate, with and without cholecalciferol, on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and bone markers in Korean patients with osteoporosis.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, prospective, 16-week clinical trial was conducted in ten hospitals. A total of 150 subjects with osteoporosis were randomized to one of the two treatment groups: RSDM+ (monthly risedronate 150 mg and cholecalciferol 30,000 IU combined in a single pill, n = 74 or RSDM (monthly risedronate 150 mg alone, n = 76. We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and bone markers, as well as performing muscle-function tests at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment.Results: After 16 weeks, serum 25(OHD levels significantly increased from 17.8 to 26.8 ng/mL in the RSDM+ group, but did not change in the RSDM group. The RSDM+ group exhibited significantly decreased serum PTH from 46 to 36.7 pg/mL, while the RSDM group showed a tendency for PTH to increase from 38 to 40.6 pg/mL. In both groups, serum bone

  7. Lietuvos erdvinės informacijos sklaidos galimybės ir perspektyvos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beconytė, Giedrė; Papšienė, Lina; Kryžanauskas, Audrius

    2010-01-01

    Padidėjęs erdvinių duomenų ir jų naudojimo poreikis paskatino kurti erdvinių duomenų infrastruktūras, leidžiančias teikti erdvinius duomenis aprašančią informaciją bei pačius duomenis iš įvairių šaltinių, nepriklausomai kur jie bebūtų bei duomenų formato ar struktūros. Lietuvoje dauguma erdvinių duomenų rinkinių "izoliuoti", o informacija apie juos sunkiai prieinama, todėl buvo siekiama sukurti modernią visą šalį apimančią vieną viešojo sektoriaus erdvinių duomenų paie\\vskos ir perdavimo sistemą. 2009 m. buvo sukurta Lietuvos erdvinės informacijos infrastruktūra (LEII), suteikianti priemones užtikrinti nacionalinių erdvinių duomenų pasiekiamumą ir teikimą internetu naudotojams jiems priimtinu būdu. Pagrindinis Europos Bendrijos erdvinės informacijos infrastruktūros (INSPIRE) kūrimo tikslas - pasiekti visų Bendrijos narių erdvinės informacijos suderinamumą. Įvairiose šalyse duomenų kaupimo, tvarkymo ir teikimo praktika skirtinga, todėl yra kuriamos bendros, vienijančios INSPIRE temų erdvinių duomenų rinkinių specifikacijos. Europos Bendrijos narės bus įpareigotos teikti duomenis INSPIRE laikantis šių specifkacijų, todėl atsiras galimybė iš skirtingų Europos Bendrijos valstybių gautus erdvinius duomenis sujungti ir naudoti kaip bendrus. Sukūrus LEII, Lietuvoje technologi\\vskai pasirengta teikti erdvinius duomenis bei yra sukaupti 56 oficialių duomenų rinkiniai, atitinkantys INSPIRE temas. Nors kol kas visi duomenų rinkiniai ne visi\\vskai atitinka patvirtintąsias specifikacijas, taikant Lietuvos erdvinės informacijos infrastruktūros technologijas, duomenis galima transformuoti į reikiamą struktūrą teikimo proceso metu.

  8. Paracellular permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 C-terminal amidation in nasal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song KH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keon-Hyoung Song,1 Sang-Bum Kim,2 Chang-Koo Shim,2 Suk-Jae Chung,2 Dae-Duk Kim,2 Sang-Ki Rhee,1 Guang J Choi,1 Chul-Hyun Kim,3 Kiyoung Kim4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Sports Medicine, 4Department of Medical Biotechnology, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea Background: The identification of permeation enhancers has gained interest in the development of drug delivery systems. A six-mer peptide, H-FCIGRL-OH (AT1002, is a tight junction modulator with promising permeation-enhancing activity. AT1002 enhances the transport of molecular weight markers or agents with low bioavailability with no cytotoxicity. However, AT1002 is not stable in neutral pH or after incubation under physiological conditions, which is necessary to fully uncover its permeation-enhancing effect. Thus, we increased the stability or mitigated the instability of AT1002 by modifying its terminal amino acids and evaluated its subsequent biological activity.Methods: C-terminal-amidated (FCIGRL-NH2, Pep1 and N-terminal-acetylated (Ac-FCIGRL, Pep2 peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We further assessed cytotoxicity on cell monolayers, as well as the permeation-enhancing activity following nasal administration of the paracellular marker mannitol.Results: Pep1 was nontoxic to cell monolayers and showed a relatively low decrease in peak area compared to AT1002. In addition, administration of mannitol with Pep1 resulted in significant increases in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and peak plasma concentration at 3.63-fold and 2.68-fold, respectively, compared to mannitol alone. In contrast, no increase in mannitol concentration was shown with mannitol/AT1002 or mannitol/Pep2 compared to the control. Thus, Pep1 increased

  9. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Slovak mountains. Josef Suk (1874 - 1935): Pohádka léta (A Summer's Tale) - a work for orchestra remembering a relax and consolation in beauties of the Nature. Bohuslav Martinů (1890 - 1959): Otvírání studánek (The Opening of the Springs) - cantata for soli, female chorus and instrumental accompaniment remembering old local customs of purifying water in the wells when spring comes.

  10. Tautinė reprezentacija Vladimiro Dubeneckio steigiamojo seimo interjere (1924 m.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Preišegalavičienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rusų kilmės dailininkas, architektas, pedagogas Vladimiras Dubeneckis (1888–1932 gerai žinomas Lietuvoje dėl vertingo architektūrinio palikimo, kurį sukūrė mūsų kraštui gyvendamas ir dirbdamas Kaune 1919–1932 m. Straipsnio tikslas aptarti mažiau žinomą V. Dubeneckio kūrybos pusę – visuomeninių patalpų interjerus. Iki šiol mažai nagrinėta tema leis praplėsti požiūrį į žinomo architekto kūrybą, kartu suteiks papildomos medžiagos Lietuvos interjerų istorijai. Kadangi reprezentatyvumo aspektas interjeruose yra vienas iš svarbesnių konceptualių siekių, tyrimui pasirinktas Steigiamojo Seimo patalpų interjeras (1924 m.. Seimo interjero projekte daugiausia dėmesio buvo skiriama posėdžių salės įrangai ir baldams projektuoti. Straipsnyje nagrinėjama, kaip architekto atkurtos ir kūrybiškai perdirbtos praeities stilių formos bei tautodailės motyvai sąveikauja tarpusavyje, kad būtų išreikšta tautinė reprezentacija. Aptariant Steigiamojo Seimo interjero projektą pastebima tarpukariu oficialiajai reprezentacijai taikytas tautinis stilius, gvildenamos šio stiliaus ištakos interjero dizaine. Straipsnyje keliama hipotezė, kad tautinis stilius buvo visai Europai būdingo XX a. pradžios tarptautinio proceso art nauveau tęsinys, o vėliau – art deco dalis. Kadangi nagrinėjamu laikotarpiu greta tautinės reprezentacijos egzistavo ir kiti reprezentacijos tipai, siekiant juos palyginti straipsnyje paminėti dar keli tarpukario Lietuvos kultūrinės ir visuomeninės paskirties reprezentaciniai interjerai: Ministrų kabinetas ir Vytauto Didžiojo muziejus.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  11. [Use of comet assay for the risk assessment of oil- and chemical-industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyesi, János; Biró, Anna; Wigmond, László; Major, Jenő; Tompa, Anna

    2014-11-23

    Bevezetés: A comet assay a DNS száltöréseinek kimutatására alkalmas fluoreszcens mikroszkópos módszer. Jelentősége az alacsony sejtszámú mintáknál mutatkozik, képes számokban kifejezni a DNS-károsodást a nem proliferáltatható sejtekben. Célkitűzés: Genotoxikus, illetve oxidatív DNS-károsodásokat mértünk foglalkozásuk során benzollal, policiklusos aromás szénhidrogénekkel, illetve sztirollal exponált csoportokban. Célunk volt annak megvizsgálása, hogy a módszer használható-e genotoxikológiai monitorhatás markereként. Módszer: A comet assay alaplépései mellett az enzimkezelt mintát formamido-pirimidin-DNS glikoláz restrikciós enzimmel kezeljük, ami az oxidatív DNS-károsodás mértékére utal. Eredmények: A kezeletlen (genotoxikus DNS-károsodás) és a kezelt (oxidatív DNS-károsodás) minták esetében emelkedés volt tapasztalható a csóvahosszokat illetően minden csoporton belül a kontrollhoz képest. Következtetések: Megállapítható, hogy a környezeti (munkahelyi) expozíció valószínűsíthető a vizsgált csoportokban. A comet assay kitűnő hatásmarker, illetve kiegészítő módszer lehet egy monitorrendszerben, amelynek adatai tájékoztatást adhatnak a munkahelyeken emelkedett genotoxikus hatások jelenlétéről vagy hiányáról. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(47), 1872–1875.

  12. Dual-function synthetic peptide derived from BMP4 for highly efficient tumor targeting and antiangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi SH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suk Hyun Choi,1,* Jue Yeon Lee,2,* Jin Sook Suh,1 Yoon Shin Park,3 Chong Pyoung Chung,2 Yoon Jeong Park1 1Department of Dental Regenerative Biotechnology, Dental Research Institute, 2Central Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 3Department in Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth and metastasis of cancer, and growth factors released from cancer promote blood-vessel formation in the tumor microenvironment. The angiogenesis is accelerated via interactions of growth factors with the high-affinity receptors on cancer cells. In particular, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs on the surface of cancer cells have been shown to be important in many aspects of determining a tumor’s phenotype and development. Specifically, the regulation of the interactions between HSPGs and growth factors results in changes in tumor progression. A peptide with heparin-binding (HBP activity has been developed and synthesized to inhibit tumor growth via the prevention of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that HBP could inhibit the interaction of growth factors and HSPGs on the surface of cancer cells, decrease paracrine signaling in endothelial cells (ECs, and finally decrease angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we found that HBP had antiangiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The conditioned media obtained from a breast cancer cell line treated with HBP were used to culture human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs to evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of HBP on ECs. HBP effectively inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, the expressions of angiogenesis-mediating factors, including ERK, FAK, and Akt, were considerably

  13. Comorbidity as a contributor to frequent severe acute exacerbation in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong SH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Suk Hyeon Jeong,1,* Hyun Lee,1,* KC Carriere,2,3 Sun Hye Shin,1 Seong Mi Moon,1 Byeong-Ho Jeong,1 Won-Jung Koh,1 Hye Yun Park1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Comorbidities have a serious impact on the frequent severe acute exacerbations (AEs in patients with COPD. Previous studies have used the Charlson comorbidity index to represent a conglomerate of comorbidities; however, the respective contribution of each coexisting disease to the frequent severe AEs remains unclear.Methods: A retrospective, observational study was performed in 77 COPD patients who experienced severe AE between January 2012 and December 2014 and had at least 1-year follow-up period from the date of admission for severe AE. We explored the incidence of frequent severe AEs (≥2 severe AEs during 1-year period in these patients and investigated COPD-related factors and comorbidities as potential risk factors of these exacerbations.Results: Out of 77 patients, 61 patients (79.2% had at least one comorbidity. During a 1-year follow-up period, 29 patients (37.7% experienced frequent severe AEs, approximately two-thirds (n=19 of which occurred within the first 90 days after admission. Compared with patients not experiencing frequent severe AEs, these patients were more likely to have poor lung function and receive home oxygen therapy and long-term oral steroids. In multiple logistic regression analysis, coexisting asthma (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =4.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30–12.46, P=0.016, home oxygen therapy (adjusted OR =9.39, 95% CI =1.60–55.30, P=0.013, and C-reactive protein

  14. CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF TWO ANGIOSPERM FOSSILS IN NEOGENE FROM TENGCHONG, YUNNAN PROVINCE AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE%云南腾冲新近纪两种被子植物化石的角质层构造及其古环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏年; 丛培允; 阎德飞; 解三平

    2003-01-01

    This paper emphatically describes the cuticular characteristics of two fossil angiosperm species Betula mioluminifera Hu et Chaney and Carpinus subcordata Nathorst collected from Neogene in Tengchong, Yunnan. The cuticular characteristics of their Nearest Living Relative species (NLR species), Betula luminifera Winkler and Carpinus cordata B1.var. mollis Cheng et Chen, are analysed. In this experiment, we have got the lower epidermis of C.subcordata, whose characteristics are described as follows: Only the middle and lower parts of leave preserved; length about 7.5 cm, width 5 cm. Midrib strong; angle between ventricumbent and midrib 40°-50°; nearer to the base, bigger the angle; venulose, more than 12 pairs. Upper epidermis a little thicker and net-veined, stomata not found; epidermic cells arrayed rotundly, polygonal, length and width 20-30 μm; length of the net about 350 μm, width about 200 μm; width of nervecourses 50 μm with 3-4 rows of parallel cells; cells in nervecourses oblong, length about 2-3 times of width. Lower epidermis thin with stomata; trichome found; arrangement of epidermic cells as the same of upper epidermis. Distribution of stomata ruleless; type of stomatal apparatus Anomocytic; stomata slightly sunken; guard cells kidney-shaped and slightly lower than surrounding cells; inner surface of guard cells thick; guard cell surrounded by several epidermic cells. The cuticle, with its stomatal pores, represents the interface between plants and atmosphere, and its features such as cuticle thickness, stomatal density (SD), stomatal index (SI) and stomatal ratio (SR) are well used as a palaeoenvironmental indicator. Therefore, we can analyse changes in palaeoenvironment by studying the stomatal parameter of fossil plants which are sensitive to the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this experiment, we have got the stomatal parameter of C.subcordata which indicates that atmospheric CO2 concentration in Neogene was higher than that of

  15. 百花山典型林分土壤有机碳储量及垂直分布特征%Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Vertical Distribution of Different Forest Types in Baihua Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 查同刚; 付汝军

    2012-01-01

    针对百花山落叶阔叶混交林、华北落叶松林、桦木林3种典型林分土壤有机碳储量及垂直分布特征进行研究.结果表明,不同林分类型下的土壤有机碳含量存在明显差异,桦木林最高(33.87g/kg±2.82g/kg),华北落叶松林次之(27.42 g/kg±2.21 g/kg),落叶阔叶混交林最低(26.24 g/kg±1.91 g/kg),桦木林土壤有机碳的密度为(26.06±1.88) kg/m2,落叶阔叶混交林为(19.81±1.70) kg/m2,华北落叶松林为(18.94±1.50)kg/m2,土层间有机碳密度为(1.57~7.22) kg/m2,且随着土层深度的增加呈现减少的趋势;不同林分中0~20 cm土层有机碳储量占整个剖面有机碳总储量的百分比均达到50%以上,0~20 cm土层有机碳含量变化总趋势为下坡位>中坡位>上坡位.%Storage and vertical distribution features of soil organic carbon (SOC) about mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest,Larix principis-rupprechtii forest and Betula spp. Forest in Baihua Mountain of Beijing were studied in this paper. The results were as follows: the contents of SOC in different types of forest showed significantly difference; SOC content presented a rule as Betula spp. Forest> Larix principis-rupprechtii forest > mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest, the average value was (33.87±2.82) g/kg, (27.42 + 2.21) g/kg, and (26.24 + 1.91) g/kg correspondenly; SOC density was Betula spp. Forest (26.06±l. 88 kg/m2) > mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest (19. 81 ±1. 70 kg/m2) >Larix principis-rupprechtii forest (18. 94 + 1. 50 kg/m2). SOC density changed with a range of 1. 57~7. 22 kg/m2 for five soil layers in the three forest types, and both the density and content decreased with the depth of soil layers; on the upper layer (0 - 20 cm), the SOC content followed the variety trend of lower slope > middle slope >upper slope, and this layer occupied more than 50% SOC in all the soil profiles (0 - 80 cm).

  16. Interactions between climate and vegetation during the Lateglacial period as recorded by lake and mire sediment archives in Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Elisa; Ravazzi, Cesare; Arpenti, Enrico; Finsinger, Walter; Pini, Roberta; Valsecchi, Verushka; Wick, Lucia; Ammann, Brigitta; Tinner, Willy

    2007-06-01

    We reconstruct the vegetational history of the southern side of the Alps at 18,000-10,000 cal yr BP using previous and new AMS-dated stratigraphic records of pollen, stomata, and macrofossils. To address potential effects of climatic change on vegetation, we compare our results with independent paleoclimatic series (e.g. isotope and chironomid records from the Alps and the Alpine forelands). The period before 16,000 cal yr BP is documented only at the lowland sites. The previous studies used for comparison with our new Palughetto record, however, shows that Alpine deglaciation must have started before 18,000-17,500 cal yr BP south of the Alps and that deglaciated sites were colonized by open woods and shrublands ( Juniperus, tree Betula, Larix, Pinus cembra) at ca 17,500 cal yr BP. The vegetational history of a new site (Palughetto, 1040 m a.s.l.) is consistent with that of previous investigations in the study region. Our results show three conspicuous vegetational shifts delimited by statistically significant pollen zones, at ca 14,800-14,400, 13,300-12,800 and 11,600-11,200 cal yr BP. At sites situated above 1000 m a.s.l. (e.g. Palughetto, Pian di Gembro) forests expanded in alpine environments at ca 14,500 cal yr BP (onset of Bølling period, GI-1 in the Greenland ice record). At the same time, rather closed treeline communities of the lowlands were replaced by dense stands of Pinus sylvestris and Betula. These early forests and shrublands consisted of Larix, P. cembra, Juniperus, P. sylvestris, Pinus mugo, and Betula, and had become established at ca 16,000 cal yr BP, probably in response to a temperature increase. If combined with other records from the Southern Alps, our data suggest that treeline ascended by ca 800-1000 m in a few centuries at most, probably as a consequence of climatic warming at the beginning of the Bølling period. At 13,100-12,800 cal yr BP the onset of a long-lasting decline of P. sylvestris was accompanied by the expansion of Quercus

  17. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  18. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  19. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  20. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  1. High-Resolution Remote Sensing and Stable Isotope Patterns Across Heath-Shrub-Forest Ecotone at Abisko and Vassijaure, Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, M. R.; Herrick, C.; Hobbie, E. A.; Chen, J.; Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Marek, E.; Kashi, N. N.; Smith, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid warming in arctic and sub-arctic environments shifts plant community structure which in turn can alter carbon cycling by releasing large stocks of carbon sequestered in arctic soils. Much work has been done in sub-arctic peatlands to understand how shifts in dominant vegetation cover can ultimately affect global carbon balances, but less focus has been given to upland environments where similar changes are occurring. Recent circumpolar expansion of deciduous shrubs and trees in sub-arctic upland environments may alter carbon cycling due to shrubs and trees sequestering less C in soils than the heath plants they typically replace. In this study we explored the relationship between nutrient and carbon cycling and above-ground vegetation on six transects which traverse an ecotone gradient from heath tundra (dominated by ericoid mycorrhizal plants) through deciduous shrubs to deciduous trees (dominated by ectomycorrhizal plants) in upland environments of sub-arctic Sweden near Vassijaure (~850 mm precipitation) and Abisko (~300 mm precipitation). We collected soil and foliage for analysis of natural abundances of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N), which can be a sensitive indicator of C and N dynamics. We also took high-resolution remote aerial imagery over the transects to calculate percent cover of vegetation types using GIS software. We concurrently estimated percent cover in smaller plots on the ground of three dominant species, Empetrum nigrum, Betula nana, and Betula pubescens, to serve as ground-truthing for the aerial imagery. Analysis of vegetation cover data shows significant differences in vegetation types along the transects. Preliminary multiple regression analysis of isotopes shows that δ13C in organic soil at the Vassijaure site is mostly controlled by distance along the transect, an interaction term between transect distance and soil depth, and δ15N (adjusted r2 = 0.85, p < 0.0001). Values of δ13C were lower in soils in the

  2. Preparation of Total DNA from "Recalcitrant Plant Taxa"%顽拗植物类群的总DNA制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杰; 邹喻苹; 白嘉雨; 郑海水

    2002-01-01

    Contamination problems on DNA isolation from "recalcitrant plant taxa" which is rich in polysaccharides have been commonly encountered in a wide range of research fields such as plant population biology,biodiversity,and molecular marker-assisted breeding.Here we present an improved protocol to extract DNA efficiently from dry or fresh leaves of a "recalcitrant plant taxa",Betula alnoides Buch.Ham.ex D.Don in which three key steps are involved:1) washing out most of polysaccharides and other secondary compounds with CTAB-free buffer from homogenate; 2) adoption of 3% CTAB rather than 2% CTAB in the exaction medium; and 3) using of high concentration of salt prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol to remove residual polysaccharides.The isolated DNA has been proved suitable for RAPD-PCR amplification and restriction digestion.This modified procedure is simple,inexpensive and reliable,and is also applicable to many other plant taxa with high polysaccharides.%从富含多糖的顽拗植物类群提取与纯化DNA是许多研究领域例如居群生物学、生物多样性、分子标记辅助育种研究普遍遇到的难题.以西南桦( Betula alnoides )为例发展了一套改进的方案,有效地从这种顽拗植物的干叶和鲜叶中制备了DNA.此方案包括3个关键步骤:首先从植物细胞匀浆中用不含CTAB的缓冲液洗去大部分多糖和其他次生物质;在提取介质中采用3% CTAB而不是通常用的2% CTAB;将常用的高盐去糖的纯化操作提前到用异丙醇沉淀DNA之前进行.从西南桦提取的DNA已成功地用于RAPD-PCR扩增和限制性酶切.这个简单、经济和可靠的改进方案也适用于许多其他的顽拗植物类群.

  3. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  4. Harvesting wood fuels from mixed stands of hard- and softwood on forest and agricultural land. Final report; Uttag av traedbraensle ur blandbestaand av loev- och barrtraed vaexande paa skogs- och aakermark. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2001-12-01

    The aim was to study the growth of birches (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in mixed stands of birch and spruce, and in pure stands of Norway spruce. Data from nine localities have been analysed. The trials were spread between lat. 56 and 60 deg N. The experiment was established on eight localities in Sweden. Plots in mixed stands of 20-32-year-old birches and Norway spruces were established in 1983-84. Number of stems per hectare, height and diameter of the stems was registered. Then two treatments were made. On a locality all birches in a plot were cut to make pure spruce stands. In another plot 500 birches per hectare were left in the spruce stand for establishing mixed stands. The established stands were then measured. The stands were examined five years later. Stem number, height and diameter was registered. Small corrections in the stands were made eg. birch sprouts were cut and some spruces were cut. In 1996-1998 the stands were examined again. The birch shelter was cut and measured. On one shelter plot per locality 100 birches per hectare was left. The birch shelter was left for making timber production of good quality. The shelter should be cut when the birches are about 60 years old. By the results given in the study there is obvious that MAI for Norway spruce growing for 13-15 years under shelter is lower, 7.2 m{sup 3}/ha/year than for pure spruce stand, 7.9. However the total MAI including birch in the shelter was 11.5 compared with 7.9 m{sup 3}/ha/year in pure spruce stands. Corresponding MAI for biomass in shelter and pure spruce stands was 3.8 and 4.2 ton d.w./ha/year. Total MAI was 6.4 and 4.2 ton/ha/year. A practical implication of the study is that removal of birches when creating mixed stands has too small dimensions for harvesting pulp wood or fuel wood. In the end of the rotation period for mixed stands the birch stems were 16 cm at breast height. These birches could be used as pulp

  5. Does Tree Architectural Complexity Influence the Accuracy of Wood Volume Estimates of Single Young Trees by Terrestrial Laser Scanning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Hess

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of the wood volume or biomass of individual trees have gained considerable importance in recent years. The accuracy of wood volume estimation by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point cloud data may differ between individual trees due to species-specific differences in tree architecture. We selected three common and ecologically important central European deciduous tree species, which differ considerably in tree architectural complexity in early ontogenetic stages: Acer pseudoplatanus (simple, Sorbus aucuparia (intermediate and Betula pendula (complex. We scanned six single young trees for each species (18 trees in total under optimal scan conditions (single tree stand, leafless state, four scanning positions, high resolution. TLS-based volume estimates were derived for the total tree as well as for the two compartments; trunk and branches, using a voxel-based bounding box method. These estimates were compared with highly accurate xyolmetric (water displacement volume measurements. Coefficients of determination between xylometric measurements and bounding box estimates were very high for total trees (R2adj = 0.99, trunks (R2adj = 0.99, and high for branches (R2adj = 0.78. The accuracy of estimations for total tree and trunk volume was highly similar among the three tree species. In contrast, significant differences were found for branch volume estimates: the accuracy was very high for Sorbus aucuparia, intermediate for Betula pendula, and low for Acer pseudoplatanus. A stepwise multiple regression showed that the accuracy of branch volume estimates was negatively related to the number of the first-order branches within diameter sizes of D ≤ 5 mm and crown surface area (R2adj = 0.61. We conclude that the accuracy in total tree and trunk volume estimates was not affected by the studied types of tree architectural complexity. The impact of the structural variability of branches and occlusion by branches was, thus, not as high as

  6. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  7. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  8. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  9. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  10. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    205 surface pollen samples from different communities in Northern China were analyzed to understand the quantitative relationship between pollen and its original vegetation. Pollen analysis and vegetation investigation show that the pollen assemblages differ a lot in different vegetation regions. Arboreal pollen account for more than 30% in temperate broad-deciduous forests region. In temperate steppe regions, herb pollen percentages are more than 90%, where Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are domi- nant pollen types with Artemisia percentages more than 30%. In temperate desert, Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are more than Artemisia, where ferns are rare. Cyperaceae pollen percentages are more than 20% in sub-alpine or cold meadows. The relations between pollen percentages and vegeta- tion cover indicate that most arboreal pollen shows a close relationship with parent plant covers, most shrubby pollen types have more or less correlations, but most herbs do not show clear correlations. For arboreal pollen types, Picea pollen shows the closest correlation with spruce trees coverage, then is Quercus and Carpinus. Betula, Larix and Juglans have also high correlation coefficients with their plants coverage, but Betula pollen is of overrepresented pollen type and more than 40% in birch forest, while Larix and Juglans pollen is underrepresented and pollen percentages are more than 10% in Larix or Juglans pure forests. Pinus is of overrepresented pollen type, and pollen percentages have some relations with plants cover. Pine forest might present when Pinus pollen percentages are more than 30%. The relations between Ulmus and Populus pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not close, where they are mixed with other arbors, they cannot be recorded easily, but if their pollen percentages are more than 1%, Ulmus or Populus trees should exist. For shrubby pollen types, the correlation be- tween Vitex pollen percentages and vegetation cover is the highest, then is Corylus

  11. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; YANG XiaoLan; ZHENG ZhenHua

    2007-01-01

    205 surface pollen samples from different communities in Northern China were analyzed to understand the quantitative relationship between pollen and its original vegetation. Pollen analysis and vegetation investigation show that the pollen assemblages differ a lot in different vegetation regions. Arboreal pollen account for more than 30%in temperate broad-deciduous forests region. In temperate steppe regions, herb pollen percentages are more than 90%,where Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are dominant pollen types with Artemisia percentages more than 30%.In temperate desert, Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are more than Artemisia, where ferns are rare. Cyperaceae pollen percentages are more than 20% in sub-alpine or cold meadows. The relations between pollen percentages and vegetation cover indicate that most arboreal pollen shows a close relationship with parent plant covers, most shrubby pollen types have more or less correlations, but most herbs do not show clear correlations. For arboreal pollen types, Picea pollen shows the closest correlation with spruce trees coverage, then is Quercus and Carpinus. Betula, Larix and Juglans have also high correlation coefficients with their plants coverage, but Betula pollen is of overrepresented pollen type and more than 40% in birch forest, while Larix and Juglans pollen is underrepresented and pollen percentages are more than 10%in Larix or Juglans pure forests. Pinus is of overrepresented pollen type, and pollen percentages have some relations with plants cover. Pine forest might present when Pinus pollen percentages are more than 30%.The relations between Ulmus and Populus pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not close, where they are mixed with other arbors. They cannot be recorded easily, but if their pollen percentages are more than 1%,Uimus or Populus trees should exist. For shrubby pollen types, the correlation between Vitex pollen percentages and vegetation cover is the highest, then is Corylus, Tamariaceae

  12. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  13. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  14. The Clinical Effect of the Length of the Rod under Direct Vision Combined with Posterior Reduction and Internal Fixation with Pulling Nerve Injury with Severe Traumatic Lumbar Fracture and Dislocation%后路直视下长短棒结合提拉复位内固定治疗伴神经损伤的重度创伤性腰椎骨折脱位的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中政; 孙海燕; 楚超; 孙树发; 丁超; 王英胜; 郝其全

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察直视下长短棒结合提拉复位内固定治疗伴神经损伤的重度创伤性腰椎骨折脱位在临床上的应用价值。方法回顾分析2010年~2013年解放军第89医院收治的35例伴神经损伤的重度腰椎骨折脱位采用后路直视下长短棒结合提拉复位内固定术,术后采用Suk标准判断植骨融合情况。结果平均手术时间约170min,出血量约600ml,术后随访脊柱植骨融合且稳定,术中未发现神经根及硬膜囊等医源性损伤。术后行脊柱正侧位X线检查,椎体脱位及旋转、成角移位均完全纠正,椎体前缘高度由术前的45%恢复到术后的95%.Cobb角从术前的32.5°±2.9°恢复至术后平均4.5°±2.2°。脊髓神经功能恢复按照Frankel截瘫分级,其中25例分别提高1~3级,10例A级无明显变化,术后3个月下地或坐轮椅,无迟发性脊髓损伤,未见断钉。结论重度骨折脱位伴神经损伤采用后路直视下长短棒结合提拉复位内固定术,可有效去除对神经的骨性压迫并重建脊柱的稳定性,融合率较高,安全有效。%[ ABSTRACT] Objective To observe the clinical application value of direct vision combined with the length of the rod pulling fixa -tion on lumbar fracture and dislocation with severe traumatic nerve injury .Methods Retrospective analysis of 35 cases of severe lumbar frac-ture and dislocation complicated with nerve injury in PLA 89th hospitals during 2010~2013 treated by pulling open reduction and internal fixation with posterior length under rod was made ,the treatment effect was evaluated by Suk standards .Results The average operation time ws about 170 minutes,blood loss was about 600ml,intraoperative nerve root and dural sac such as iatrogenic injury was not found and postop -erative follow-up showed stable spinal bone graft fusion .Postoperative lateral X -ray examination of the spine ,vertebrae dislocation and rota

  15. Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, S; Grote, M; Duchêne, M; van Ree, R; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Valenta, R

    1993-01-01

    In this study we reinvestigated the kinetics of allergen release from birch pollen (Betula verrucosa) and timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) using different protein extraction procedures, immunoblotting with specific antibodies and immune electron microscopy. Pollen allergens such as the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, the major timothy grass pollen allergens, Phl p I and Phl p V, group-II/III allergens from timothy grass and profilins were released rapidly and in large amounts from hydrated pollen. Within a few minutes pollen allergens could be detected in aqueous supernatants prepared from birch and grass pollen with serum IgE or specific antibodies. In parallel the allergen content in the pollen pellet fractions decreased. A nonallergenic protein such as heat shock protein 70 can be extracted in sufficient amounts only with harsh extraction procedures. Immune electron microscopy of dry and rehydrated birch pollens sho