International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The analytic method used in the evaluation of this type of supper-prompt critical core disruptive accident (CDA) in fast reactor was originally developed by Bethe and Tait in 1956, and had been modified by many authors since then. It is still of value today, because of its simplicity and relative ease to extend for improvements. It is particularly useful tp perform various parametric studies for better understanding of core disassembly process of LMFRs as well as to estimate upper-limit values of the energy release resulting from a power excursion. Moreover, the method would provide an essential experience and Knowledge base on the analysis of the hypothetical core disruptive accidents(HCDAs) in KALIMER. This report describes the concept and mathematical formations of the modified Bethe-Tait methods, and some salient results and insights that had come out of their use for the hypothetical supper-prompt critical accidents in fast reactors. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xixin Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.
Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER(Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) under the long-term nuclear R and D program. In this report, descriptions of the KALIMER safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure design performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram(ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as bounding events(BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analysis are presented. The designs of the existing LMR containment and the KALIMER containment dome have been compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core kinetics and hydraulic behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Mathematical formulations have been developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method, and scoping analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions
Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, descriptions of safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents for the breakeven core KALIMER are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in Chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events.In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. In Chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analyses are presented. The design of the existing containment and the KALIMER containment dome are compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in Chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using mathematical formulations developed in the framework of the Modified Bethe-Tait method. Work energy potential was then calculated based on the isentropic fuel expansion model
Safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term nuclear R and D Program. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER safety analysis are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the performance analysis results of the KALIMER containment dome are described along with the HCDA accident scenario and source terms. The major containment parameters of peak pressure and peak temperature have been calculated using the CONTAIN-LMR code. Radiological consequence has been evaluated by the MACCS code. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using SCHAMBETA code developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method. Work energy potentials based arising from the sodium expansion as well as the isentropic fuel expansion are then calculated to evaluate the structural integrity of the reactor vessel, reactor internals and primary coolant system of KALIMER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
More, J. J.; Sorensen, D. C.
1982-02-01
Newton's method plays a central role in the development of numerical techniques for optimization. In fact, most of the current practical methods for optimization can be viewed as variations on Newton's method. It is therefore important to understand Newton's method as an algorithm in its own right and as a key introduction to the most recent ideas in this area. One of the aims of this expository paper is to present and analyze two main approaches to Newton's method for unconstrained minimization: the line search approach and the trust region approach. The other aim is to present some of the recent developments in the optimization field which are related to Newton's method. In particular, we explore several variations on Newton's method which are appropriate for large scale problems, and we also show how quasi-Newton methods can be derived quite naturally from Newton's method.
Kılıç, Selim
2013-01-01
Most of the studies related to health are conducted with samples. Selection of sampling may be performed with random or nonrandom sampling methods. Sampling methods may vary with respect to some characteristics of study population, researchers’ aims and facilities. It is necessary to select samples by random sampling methods in order to provide the representativeness of the study population. The advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods are presented in this manuscript which ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin
1999-01-01
When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....
Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos
2012-01-01
Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations
Berezin, I S
1965-01-01
Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjellsson, G.
OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90.......OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90....
G. Gobo
2011-01-01
This insightful book explores the most important established and emerging qualitative and quantitative research methods in tourism. The authors provide a detailed overview of the nature of the research method, its use in tourism, the advantages and limitations, and future directions for research.
Dusan Maga
2004-01-01
Presented paper is based on authors experience on numerical methods of field solution, mostly magnetic. This paper, as the first one of prepared series, deals with mathematical apparatus and basic physical principles, as well as with possible short-comings or advantages when using the Finite Difference Method (FDM).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.; Mehta, K. K.
Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Kikila
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is cited that discipline is not the same as punishment because is more related to teaching. The ultimate goal of effective punishment is to help the child in exercising self-control, accountability and respect. Children raised without proper discipline, are at risk for a variety of behavioral and emotional problems. Over the last decades, many child discipline techniques have been suggested that vary according to the age of the child, the parenting style and the severity of the behavior. The most effective methods are giving rewards and guidance to make good choices, explaining negative consequences for disobedience without issuing threats, teaching of moral behaviors by displaying parents' good and moral behaviors. Another commonly accepted discipline method is "the consequences' which permits children to have the dignity of dealing with results of their behavior. Conclusions: Discipline consists a tool for parents for the reason that it trains children to think their improper behavior and the following consequences as well as the possible solutions to each problem.
Szulc, Stefan
1965-01-01
Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then
Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J
2010-01-01
Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a
R. Rogers
2013-01-01
In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals wi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)
1993-01-01
Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.
Dahlquist, Germund
2003-01-01
""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.
Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.
1959-09-29
A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This little volume is one of an extended series of basic textbooks on analytical chemistry produced by the Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning project in the UK. Prefatory sections explain its mission, and how to use the Open Learning format. Seventeen specific sections organized into five chaptrs begin with a general discussion of nuclear properties, types, and laws of nuclear decay and proceeds to specific discussions of three published papers (reproduced in their entirety) giving examples of radiochemical methods which were discussed in the previous chapter. Each section begins with an overview, contains one or more practical problems (called self-assessment questions or SAQ's), and concludes with a summary and a list of objectives for the student. Following the main body are answers to the SAQ's, and several tables of physical constants, SI prefixes, etc. A periodic table graces the inside back cover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To subject the condensate of steam discharged from the turbine of a BWR type power plant to ion-exchange processing, and thereafter to render sodium sulfate containing radioactive liquid wastes produced when the ion-exchange resin thus obtained are reproduced into asphalt solidified bodies stable even in water. Method: In the above described liquid wastes, there is added a water-soluble calcium compound such as calcium nitrate or the like. In this case, when the quantity of the water-soluble calcium compound added is 7 to 8% with respect to sulfuric acid ions on the basis of the weight of calcium ions, swelling and porosity of solidified bodies can be prevented. (Kamimura, M.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cătălin LUPU
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In this article presents applications of “Divide et impera” method using object -oriented programming in C #.Main advantage of using the "divide et impera" cost in that it allows software to reduce the complexity of the problem,sub-problems that were being decomposed and simpler data sharing in smaller groups of data (eg sub -algorithmQuickSort. Object-oriented programming means programs with new types that integrates both data and methodsassociated with the creation, processing and destruction of such data. To gain advantages through abstractionprogramming (the program is no longer a succession of processing, but a set of objects to life, have differentproperties, are capable of specific action s and interact in the program. Spoke on instantiation new techniques,derivation and polimorfismul object types.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To enable to decontaminate an object having a complicate surface and also remove hard cruds by a simple device. Method: An object to be decontaminated is placed in a water vessel and steams jetted out from a steam nozzle are condensated at the surface of the object to be decontaminated and decontamination is conducted by impact shocks upon elimination of bubbles. The inside of the water vessel is filled with liquid and steams jetted out from the steam nozzle are cooled by the liquid and condensated. The steams are supplied with a steam supply device by way of steam supply pipeways to the steam nozzle. Since the temperature of the liquid in the water vessel is elevated upon condensation of the jetted steams, the liquids are cooled by the cooling device. Further, since the steams condensated at the surface of the decontaminated object forms water of condensation to increase the water level in the water vessel, the water corresponding to the elevated level is discharged from an overflow pipe. (Kawakami, Y.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakurai, Mikio; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Izumi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sato, Toru; Owada, Kazuo.
1987-11-21
Purpose: To enable to decontaminate an object having a complicate surface and also remove hard cruds by a simple device. Method: An object to be decontaminated is placed in a water vessel and steams jetted out from a steam nozzle are condensated at the surface of the object to be decontaminated and decontamination is conducted by impact shocks upon elimination of bubbles. The inside of the water vessel is filled with liquid and steams jetted out from the steam nozzle are cooled by the liquid and condensated. The steams are supplied with a steam supply device by way of steam supply pipeways to the steam nozzle. Since the temperature of the liquid in the water vessel is elevated upon condensation of the jetted steams, the liquids are cooled by the cooling device. Further, since the steams condensated at the surface of the decontaminated object forms water of condensation to increase the water level in the water vessel, the water corresponding to the elevated level is discharged from an overflow pipe. (Kawakami, Y.).
Numerical Methods - III Numerical Methods - III
Dusan Maga
2005-01-01
This contribution deals with giving a possible most simplified view on one of the most frequently used numerical methods – Boundary Element Method (BEM). However, after reading the previous related papers the reader would be able to realize the adequate model by-hand, this time the relative complicate integral formulations probably will not allow to do the same. In spite of this we hope that the principles of this method will also be presented clearly and could be understand.This contribution...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hostrup, Astrid Kuijers
1999-01-01
An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented.......An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented....
Transport equation solving methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method
Simulations using meshfree methods
P, Kirana Kumara
2015-01-01
In this paper, attempt is made to solve a few problems using the Polynomial Point Collocation Method (PPCM), the Radial Point Collocation Method (RPCM), Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), and the Finite Point Method (FPM). A few observations on the accuracy of these methods are recorded. All the simulations in this paper are three dimensional linear elastostatic simulations, without accounting for body forces.
On Probabilistic Rationing Methods
Tasnádi, Attila
2002-01-01
Rationing occurs if the demand for a certain good exceeds its supply. In such situations a rationing method has to be specified in order to determine the allocation of the scarce good to the agents. Moulin (1999) introduced the notion of probabilistic rationing methods for the discrete framework. In this paper we establish a link between classical and probabilistic rationing methods. In particular, we assign to any given classical rationing method a probabilistic rationing method with minimal...
Dřevický, Miroslav
2012-01-01
Summary: The purpose of this thesis is to present some methods for gear calculation. In the chapter "Design methods for gears" are described four methods of calculation. Detail description of procedure for calculation by using these methods is in this chapter, including designing calculation and checking calculation. There are primary mentioned the calculation methods for a front gears with straight gearing. In the chapter "Calculation of gear set" is the gear set computed by using each meth...
Methods of Neutron Spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1. Introduction. 2. Methods of spectral distribution measurements. 2.1. General remarks. 2.2. Methods using the wave properties of radiation. 2.2.1. Electromagnetic radiation. 2.2.2. Neutrons. 2.3. Methods using the corpuscular properties of radiation. 2.3.1. Electromagnetic radiation. 2.3.2. Neutrons. 3. Crystal lattice; momentum space; crystal monochromators. 3.1. Crystal lattice in real space. 3.2. Reciprocal lattice.. 3.3. Bragg's equation. 3.4. Ewald's construction. 3.5. Single crystal monochromators. 4. Structure analysis. 4.1. Introductory remarks. 4.2. Structure analysis using single crystals. 4.2.1. Crystal spectrometer method (DAS). 4.2.2. Time-of-flight method (TOF). 4.3. Structure analysis using powdered crystals. 4.3.1. Crystal spectrometer method (DAS). 4.3.2. Time- of-flight method (TOF). 4.4. DAS method VS. TOF method. 5. Lattice dynamics studies. 5.1. Introductory remarks. 5.2. Crystal spectrometer methods. 5.2.1. Triple axes spectrometer (TAS). 5.2.2. The neutron crystal spectrometer with a polycrystalline filter in front of the detector. 5.3. Time-of-methods. 5.3.1. The TOF methods using a monochromatic incident beam. 5. 3.2. The TOF methods using a polychromatic incident beam. 5. 4. Crystal spectrometer methods vs. TOF methods. 6. Outlook for the future. (author)
Radiochemical method development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy's analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations
Advanced differential quadrature methods
Zong, Zhi
2009-01-01
Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...
Modified quaternion Newton methods
Falcão, M. I.; Miranda, Fernando
2014-01-01
We revisit the quaternion Newton method for computing roots of a class of quaternion valued functions and propose modified algorithms for finding multiple roots of simple polynomials. We illustrate the performance of these new methods by presenting several numerical experiments.
Electromagnetic induction methods
Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
2010-01-01
engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods in......The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book on...... Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information...
Mastorakis, Nikos E
2009-01-01
Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
Radiochemical separation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiochemical separations make use of the traditional methods of separating elements: precipitation, ion exchange and solvent extraction, of which precipitation has been employed from the very beginning. A new method, accepted into wide use in the 1990s, is extraction chromatography, which combines solvent extraction as the separation method with column chromatography technology earlier used in ion exchange. These four methods are discussed in the paper. (author)
Bootstrap Methods in Econometrics
MacKinnon, James G.
2006-01-01
There are many bootstrap methods that can be used for econometric analysis. In certain circumstances, such as regression models with independent and identically distributed error terms, appropriately chosen bootstrap methods generally work very well. However, there are many other cases, such as regression models with dependent errors, in which bootstrap methods do not always work well. This paper discusses a large number of bootstrap methods that can be useful in econometrics. Applications to...
Methods in Psychological Research
Chow, Siu L.
2002-01-01
Psychologists collect empirical data with various methods for different reasons. These diverse methods have their strengths as well as weaknesses. Nonetheless, it is possible to rank them in terms of different critieria. For example, the experimental method is used to obtain the least ambiguous conclusion. Hence, it is the best suited to corroborate conceptual, explanatory hypotheses. The interview method, on the other hand, gives the research participants a kind of emphatic experience that m...
Durling, Richard
1995-01-01
I have discussed the four methods of ancient philosophy namely demonstration, division, resolution, and composition. But first, I glance at logic, which "discovers the principles of medical treatment". Method in pathology discovers "the affected parts of the body" and nosology, "the symptoms of diseases and their causes". In therapeutics, method "discovers drugs appropiate to specific diseases". The leader in all things pertaining to method is Hippocrates.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, J. M.
1965-01-01
A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....
Geobacteraceae strains and methods
Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana
2015-07-07
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulk analysis techniques using gamma radiation are described. The methods include gamma-ray induced reactions, selective gamma-ray scattering and methods which rely on natural radioactivity. The gamma-ray resonance scattering technique can be used for the determination of copper and nickel in bulk samples and drill cores. The application of gamma-gamma methods to iron ore analysis is outlined
Commissioning strategies and methods
Galambos, John
2013-01-01
Accelerator beam commissioning is a challenging and exciting period. It is generally the first integrated operation of the many systems in an accelerator and, most importantly, of the beam. First, general preparation is discussed. Then general methods for initial beam commissioning are described, including methods for transverse and longitudinal beam set-up. The particular emphasis here is on tuning methods for linear accelerators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1993-12-31
Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.
Possibilities of roentgenological method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown
Numerical methods using Matlab
Gupta, Abhishek
2015-01-01
Numerical Methods with MATLAB provides a highly-practical reference work to assist anyone working with numerical methods. A wide range of techniques are introduced, their merits discussed and fully working MATLAB code samples supplied to demonstrate how they can be coded and applied. Numerical methods have wide applicability across many scientific, mathematical, and engineering disciplines and are most often employed in situations where working out an exact answer to the problem by another method is impractical. Numerical Methods with MATLAB presents each topic in a concise and readable
Mimetic discretization methods
Castillo, Jose E
2013-01-01
To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and
[Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].
Liu, Hongbin
2015-09-01
Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra-210Pb, U-Pa, 14C, 36Cl, 10Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)
Soybean allergen detection methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline;
2008-01-01
) using basophils passively sensitized with patient serum and a PCR method detecting soy DNA. Eight food products were selected as model foods to test the performance of the methods. There was an overall good agreement between the methods in terms of ranks of soy content but not the quantity. The sandwich......Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...... ELISA aimed at native soy proteins had the lowest detection limit of 0.05 ppm, but only identified soy in 5/8 products, and generally in lower amounts compared to other methods. The competitive ELISA had a higher detection limit of 21 ppm, but seemed more successful in detecting processed soy. Only HR...
Business Combination Accounting Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FLORIN IOAN SCORŢESCU
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the author refers to some aspects looking the business combination accounting methods. In this purpose are presented certain elements that are specific to the acquisition method and pooling of interest method. Thus, the society that is bought is accounted, as any asset, at cost. When the acquisition is done in a single stage, the exchange date will be the acquisition date. In accordance with the acquisition method, the assets are estimated to its fair value; regarding the liabilities, only the existed one at the acquisition date are accounted. In accordance with the pooling of interest method, the identifiable assets and liabilities of the enterprise that is bought are accounted at the account value. Because of this, at the acquisition date the goodwill is no longer possible to appear. In keeping with IFRS 3 “Business combination” only the acquisition method is allowed to account the business combinations.
Lazov, Lyubomir; Deneva, Hristina; Narica, Pavels
2015-01-01
Different methods for laser marking are systematized and discussed in the paper. Today in the practice there are many different methods that could be used to realise high quality on the workpiece of various materials with various shapes. Some materials could be marked only by marking or engraving without special requirements and difficulty, while for other materials one can choose the concrete method about the kind of material, marking type, and the specific needs of the production process an...
Nuclear physics mathematical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nuclear physics mathematical methods, applied to the collective motion theory, to the reduction of the degrees of freedom and to the order and disorder phenomena; are investigated. In the scope of the study, the following aspects are discussed: the entropy of an ensemble of collective variables; the interpretation of the dissipation, applying the information theory; the chaos and the universality; the Monte-Carlo method applied to the classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics; the finite elements method, and the classical ergodicity
Hageman, Louis A
2004-01-01
This graduate-level text examines the practical use of iterative methods in solving large, sparse systems of linear algebraic equations and in resolving multidimensional boundary-value problems. Assuming minimal mathematical background, it profiles the relative merits of several general iterative procedures. Topics include polynomial acceleration of basic iterative methods, Chebyshev and conjugate gradient acceleration procedures applicable to partitioning the linear system into a "red/black" block form, adaptive computational algorithms for the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, and comp
Situational Decomposition Method
Zhukabayeva Tamara Kokenovna; Khu Ven-Tsen
2012-01-01
The method of optimum control of the complex multivariate objects, based on the account of situations during the moment of acceptance of operating decisions is offered. The method allows to reduce the initial problem of management complicated for the decision, to set of more simple consistently solved problems representing the modified initial problem. The method is realized in a control system of the variable structure combining principles of centralized and decentralized management.
McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-α is no longer an α-eigenvalue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....
Yıldırım, Ali; Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü
1999-01-01
In this article, the basic characteristics of qualitative research methods are discussed in relation to quantitative research methods and their potential contribution to educational research. In addition, the article reviews the roots of qualitative research, the basic data collection methods used and how the results are used in practice. As the basic characteristics of qualitative research, being sensitive to natural context, the participant role of the researcher, a holistic approach, explo...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kučera, Vladimír
Control System Advanced Methods. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2011 - (Lewine, W.), s. 21.1-21.21. (Electrical Engineering Handbook). ISBN 978-1-4200-7366-9 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Control Systems * Advanced Methods * Methods Systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/TR/kucera-0433966.pdf
Liou, Meng-Sing
1995-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gheorghe CHEIA
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Science and its development has been a priority of human society by centuries. The human society increment dues to scientific progress and advanced research in this domain. Geography promoted as science, and also tourism geography, one of its branch, possess their own research tools which analyze the two main types of resources: natural and manmade. In the research process, the tourism geography uses traditionalgeographical methods (observation, analysis, synthesis and specific methods as well. One of the most commonly used classification of specific methods is the one that focusses on quantitative andqualitative methods, each of them having their own specific tools of research. Regarding qualitative methods we centered our atention on interviw method, focus-group, and document analysis; in point of quantitative methods, the statistical method and the model method (touristic flow odel, territorial model, theoretical model of settlement, etc preempt an distinguished role in the research domain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected
The Generalized Sturmian Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil
2011-01-01
these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new...
Wankat, Phillip C.
1984-01-01
Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)
D.R. Gasper (Des)
2003-01-01
textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q
Improved nonlinear prediction method
Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi
2014-06-01
The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
2014-01-01
engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call for a...
Methods for data classification
Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.
2011-10-11
The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.
Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin
2006-01-01
The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…
Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun
2015-08-11
A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2014-05-20
An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.
Del Grande, John
1993-01-01
Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)
Probabilistic boundary element method
Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.
1989-01-01
The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.
Nölting, Bengt
2006-01-01
Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...
Saucez, Ph
2001-01-01
The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Won; Kang, Seok Hun; Suk, Soo-Dong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
CDA is analyzed in three phases. In the first phase, the source term is defined in the form of a core bubble, which is a two-phase mixture of fuel structural materials and coolant, having the potential to release a specified quantity of mechanical energy. In the second phase, the mechanical consequences, such as straining in the vessels, impact on the top shield, and sodium release into the Reactor Containment Building (RCB), are analyzed. In the third phase, the post-accident heat removal aspect is analyzed. Whether CDA are potentially real events that must be considered in establishing design bases for the containment, very low probability events that can be eliminated from design basis considerations, or mechanistically unrealistic fantasies of creative analysts has been hotly debated. The answer may be design dependent. An argument has been made by advocates of metallic-fueled SFR designs that in scenarios of interest, fuel melting within a fuel pin results in an axial movement that decreases reactivity, fuel failure when it occurs would likely be above the active core region, and that the fuel debris would be swept out of the core region. An analysis of the CDA energy release based on the Bethe-Tait method is carried out and its results are used as the initial conditions for the core explosion computations. Calculations are made for the super prompt power excursions of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) core and the influences of the Doppler effect on the power excursions are investigated. The transient pressure and temperature of the core are examined by solving the equation of state of ideal gas and nonlinear governing equation of momentum conservation in one-dimensional spherical coordinates. Energy balance is examined during the core expansion process. A numerical analysis is conducted to estimate the energy release, pressure behavior and core expansion behavior induced by CDA of PGSFR using CDA-ER and CDA-CEME codes. Conservatively, the calculated results of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CDA is analyzed in three phases. In the first phase, the source term is defined in the form of a core bubble, which is a two-phase mixture of fuel structural materials and coolant, having the potential to release a specified quantity of mechanical energy. In the second phase, the mechanical consequences, such as straining in the vessels, impact on the top shield, and sodium release into the Reactor Containment Building (RCB), are analyzed. In the third phase, the post-accident heat removal aspect is analyzed. Whether CDA are potentially real events that must be considered in establishing design bases for the containment, very low probability events that can be eliminated from design basis considerations, or mechanistically unrealistic fantasies of creative analysts has been hotly debated. The answer may be design dependent. An argument has been made by advocates of metallic-fueled SFR designs that in scenarios of interest, fuel melting within a fuel pin results in an axial movement that decreases reactivity, fuel failure when it occurs would likely be above the active core region, and that the fuel debris would be swept out of the core region. An analysis of the CDA energy release based on the Bethe-Tait method is carried out and its results are used as the initial conditions for the core explosion computations. Calculations are made for the super prompt power excursions of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) core and the influences of the Doppler effect on the power excursions are investigated. The transient pressure and temperature of the core are examined by solving the equation of state of ideal gas and nonlinear governing equation of momentum conservation in one-dimensional spherical coordinates. Energy balance is examined during the core expansion process. A numerical analysis is conducted to estimate the energy release, pressure behavior and core expansion behavior induced by CDA of PGSFR using CDA-ER and CDA-CEME codes. Conservatively, the calculated results of
Determination method of radiostrontium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This manual provides determination methods of strontium-90 and strontium-89 in the environment released from nuclear facilities, and it is a revised edition of the previous manual published in 1974. As for the preparation method of radiation counting sample, ion exchange method, oxalate separation method and solvent extraction method were adopted in addition to the method of fuming nitric acid separation adopted in the previous edition. Strontium-90 is determined by the separation and radioactivity determination of yttrium-90 in radioequilibrium with strontium-90. Strontium-89 is determined by subtraction of radioactivity of strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 from gross radioactivity of isolated strontium carbonate. Radioactivity determination should be carried out with a low-background 2 π-gas-flow counting system for the mounted sample on a filter having a chemical form of ferric hydroxide, yttrium oxalate or strontium carbonate. This manual describes sample preparation procedures as well as radioactivity counting procedures for environmental samples of precipitates as rain or snow, airborne dust, fresh water, sea water and soil, and also for ash sample made from biological or food samples such as grains, vegetables, tea leaves, pine needle, milk, marine organisms, and total diet, by employing a method of fuming nitric acid separation, ion exchange separation, oxalate precipitate separation or solvent extraction separation (only for an ash sample). Procedures for reagent chemicals preparation is also attached to this manual. (Takagi, S.)
STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlov A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious
Structural Reliability Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.
The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation of...... structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature of the...
Generalized subspace correction methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)
1996-12-31
A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.
Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan
Praha: Matematický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i, 2015 - (Chleboun, J.; Přikryl, P.; Segeth, K.; Šístek, J.; Vejchodský, T.), s. 130-135 ISBN 978-80-85823-64-6. [Programs and Algorithms of Numerical Mathematics /17./. Dolní Maxov (CZ), 08.06.2014-13.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : minimization * nonlinear conjugate gradient methods * comparison of methods * efficiency of methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/702674
Jayaraman, Arul
2009-01-01
This volume provides a detailed look at the two main aspects of systems biology: the design of sophisticated experimental methods and the development of complex models to analyze the data. Focusing on methods that are being used to solve current problems in biomedical science and engineering, this comprehensive, richly illustrated resource shows you how to design of state-of-the art methods for analyzing biological systems, implement experimental approaches for investigating cellular behavior in health and disease, use algorithms and modeling techniques for quantitatively describing biomedical
Applied nonparametric statistical methods
Sprent, Peter
2007-01-01
While preserving the clear, accessible style of previous editions, Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, Fourth Edition reflects the latest developments in computer-intensive methods that deal with intractable analytical problems and unwieldy data sets. Reorganized and with additional material, this edition begins with a brief summary of some relevant general statistical concepts and an introduction to basic ideas of nonparametric or distribution-free methods. Designed experiments, including those with factorial treatment structures, are now the focus of an entire chapter. The text also e
Boolean Orthogonalizing Combination Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yavuz Can
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new logical operation method called “ presented. It is used to calculate the difference, but also the complement of a function as well as the EXOR and EXNOR of two minterms respectively two ternary respectively two ternary-vector logical operation method called “orthogonal OR advantages of both methods are their results, which are already available form that has an essential advantage for continuing calculations. Since it applies, an orthogonal disjunctive normal form is equal to orthogonal antivalence normal form, subsequent Boolean differential calculus will be simplified.
Numerical methods using Matlab
Lindfield, George
2012-01-01
Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use
The Prescribed Velocity Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfacto...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.
2016-05-10
This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.
Concrete compositions and methods
Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua
2015-06-23
Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The discovery of an isomeric species of carcinoembryonic antigen and methods of isolation, identification and utilization as a radiolabelled species of the same as an aid in the diagnosis of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are disclosed. 13 claims
Cloud droplet measurement methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
All important techniques to measure cloud and fog droplets are mentioned in this compendium. It especially refers to those authors who established and developed measurement methods for cloud droplets and to those whose papers contained cloud droplet size distributions. (orig.)
Anderson, N.G.
1963-01-29
An improved method of sedimentation is described. A series of spaced surfaces of powdered material positioned normal to the centrifugal field concentrates the larger, slower moving molecules of a liquid and hastens sedimentation. (AEC)
Zahorik, John A.
1973-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)
Nölting, Bengt
2010-01-01
Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively
Dolan, Thomas G.
2003-01-01
Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)
Hurth, Tobias; Hurth, Tobias; Skenderis, Kostas
1999-01-01
We present a general method for constructing consistent quantum field theories with global symmetries. We start from a free non-interacting quantum field theory with given global symmetries and we determine all consistent perturbative quantum deformations assuming the construction is not obstructed by anomalies. The method is established within the causal Epstein-Glaser approach to perturbative quantum field theory (which leads directly to a finite perturbative series and does not rely on an intermediary regularization). Our construction can be regarded as a direct implementation of Noether's method at the quantum level. We illustrate the method by constructing SU(n) gauge theory (where the relevant global symmetry is BRST symmetry), and the N=1 supersymmetric model of Wess and Zumino. The whole construction is done before the so-called adiabatic limit is taken. Thus, all considerations regarding symmetry, unitarity and anomalies are well-defined even for massless theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Used radionuclides (Sr-85 and Cs-137) and agriculture characteristics of the selected soils and used methods of sorption and desorption of the radionuclides as well as extraction solutions are described
Methods for Reliable Teleportation
Vaidman, L.; Yoran, N.
1998-01-01
Recent experimental results and proposals towards implementation of quantum teleportation are discussed. It is proved that reliable (theoretically, 100% probability of success) teleportation cannot be achieved using the methods applied in recent experiments, i.e., without quantum systems interacting one with the other. Teleportation proposal involving atoms and electro-magnetic cavities are reviewed and the most feasible methods are described. In particular, the language of nonlocal measureme...
Nuclear methods monitor nutrition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron activation of nitrogen and hydrogen in the body, the isotope dilution technique and the measurement of naturally radioactive potassium in the body are among the new nuclear methods, now under collaborative development by the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization and medical specialists from several Sydney hospitals. These methods allow medical specialists to monitor the patient's response to various diets and dietary treatments in cases of cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, long-term surgical trauma, renal diseases and AIDS. ills
Clustering with Spectral Methods
Gaertler, Marco
2002-01-01
Grouping and sorting are problems with a great tradition in the history of mankind. Clustering and cluster analysis is a small aspect in the wide spectrum. But these topics have applications in most scientific disciplines. Graph clustering is again a little fragment in the clustering area. Nevertheless it has the potential for new pioneering and innovative methods. One such method is the Markov Clustering presented by van Dongen in 'Graph Clustering by Flow Simulation'. We investigated the qu...
Painful Bile Extraction Methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The invention relates to a method of immunoassay for prolactin using monoclonal lgG antibodies. The method preferably comprises the use of two different monoclonal antibodies which bind respectively at different antigenic sites on the prolactin molecule. One antibody is labelled and the other is immobilised on a water-insoluble carrier material, whereby an immunochemical complex comprising labelled antibody, prolactin and immobilised antibody is formed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaumburg-Müller, Sten
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Methods of Measuring Competitiveness
Podaºcã Raluca
2012-01-01
Any approach to measuring competitiveness and competitive advantages must take account of one hand of the covered analysis: microeconomic, mezoeconomic, macroeconomic, and on the other hand that they are the result of many variables that are interconditioned directly or indirectly. Measurement methods attempt to quantify the impact of competitiveness and the variables considered relevant. Among all methods of measuring global competitiveness stands Global Competitiveness Index and Economic Fr...
Gasper, Des
2003-01-01
textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...
Henn, Fritz
2013-04-09
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Jandová, Pavlína
2009-01-01
Traditional marketing methods are losing their effectiveness and credibility. It has been worse and worse to communicate with customers, and marketers are therefore looking for new techniques and way how to appeal buyers. They turn to the use of modern marketing methods, which typical features are possibility of accurate targeting and low costs, and, also, the fact that they are still not considered being a classic promotion. In the theoretical part of the diploma thesis the alternative marke...
Multiscale methods for nanoengineering
Jolley, Kenny
This project is presented in two sections. Two different multiscale models are developed in order to increase the computational speed of two well known atomistic algorithms, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). In Section I, the MD method is introduced. Following this, a multiscale method of linking an MD simulation of heat conduction to a finite element (FE) simulation is presented. The method is simple to implement into a conventional MD code and is independent of the atomistic model employed. This bridge between the FE and MD simulations works by ensuring that energy is conserved across the FE/MD boundary. The multiscale simulation allows for the investigation of large systems which are beyond the range of MD. The method is tested extensively in the steady state and transient regimes, and is shown to agree with well with large scale MD and FE simulations. Furthermore, the method removes the artificial boundary effects due to the thermostats and hence allows exact temperatures and temperature gradients to be imposed on to an MD simulation. This allows for better study of temperature gradients on crystal defects etc.. In Section II, the KMC method is introduced. A continuum model for the KMC method is presented and compared to the standard KMC model of surface diffusion. This method replaces the many discrete back and forth atom jumps performed by a standard KMC algorithm with a single flux that can evolve in time. Elastic strain is then incorporated into both algorithms and used to simulate atom deposition upon a substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Quantum dot formation due to a mismatch in the lattice spacing between a substrate and a deposited film is readily observed in both models. Furthermore, by depositing alternating layers of substrate and deposit, self-organised quantum dot super-lattices are observed in both models..
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637. ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0898122115003818
Henn, Fritz
2012-01-24
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Henke, Luke
2010-01-01
The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics
VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorisz Talas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of management can be conducted mainly with real options. This paper briefly describes the essence of the Dividend Discount Model, the Free Cash Flow Model, the benefit from using real options and the Residual Income Model. There are a few words about the Adjusted Present Value approach as well. Different models uses different premises, and an overall truth is that if the required premises are real and correct, the value will be appropriately accurate. Another important condition is that experts, analysts should choose between the models on the basis of the purpose of valuation. Thus there are no good or bad methods, only methods that fit different goals and aims. The main task is to define exactly the purpose, then to find the most appropriate valuation technique. All the methods originates from the premise that the value of an asset is the present value of its future cash flows. According to the different points of view of different techniques the resulted values can be also differed from each other. Valuation models and techniques should be adapted to the rapidly changing world, but the basic statements remain the same. On the other hand there is a need for more accurate models in order to help investors get as many information as they could. Today information is one of the most important resources and financial models should keep up with this trend.
Methods for Neutron Spectrometry
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1961-01-09
The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saadd, Y.
1994-12-31
In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adéla Volfová
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Geostatistics is a scientific field which provides methods for processing spatial data. In our project, geostatistics is used as a tool for describing spatial continuity and making predictions of some natural phenomena. An open source statistical project called R is used for all calculations. Listeners will be provided with a brief introduction to R and its geostatistical packages and basic principles of kriging and cokriging methods. Heavy mathematical background is omitted due to its complexity. In the second part of the presentation, several examples are shown of how to make a prediction in the whole area of interest where observations were made in just a few points. Results of these methods are compared.
Multiple detectors "Influence Method".
Rios, I J; Mayer, R E
2016-05-01
The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904
Newest fire extinguishing methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newest fire extinguishing media and methods developed during the last few years as replacements or alternatives to halons are reviewed in this study. No perfect replacement has been found yet but it is being looked for widely around the world. Even though the motivation of most of the research has been to replace halons, the use of which will be almost totally banned in the near future, the research has forwarded the development of all the areas of suppression technology. New suppression agents and methods have appeared in the market which - without the ban of halons - probably would never have been discovered. The whole basis of fire safety engineering has had to be reconsidered, and it may be concluded that many old but especially new extinguishing methods together with a modern fire detection system form an efficient fire protection system in almost any building and construction. (orig.) (13 refs., 4 tabs.)
Pontius, James T. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.
Model Correction Factor Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes
1997-01-01
of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods......The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...
Le, Khanh Chau
2012-01-01
The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.G. 1.92 modal combination rules for the response spectrum method design of multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF) piping systems are known to yield highly overestimated results for correlated close modes, so-called ''twin modes.'' These modes occur either when two independent sub-structures of a system possess identical natural frequencies, or when a large mass ratio exists between two coupled sub-structures at tuned natural frequencies. The Twin Mode Rotation (TMR) method aims at removing this unwanted degree of conservatism by performing a rotation of the twin mode pair in the modal space before combining them following R.G. 1.92. The theoretical basis and validation of the method and its practical implementation are presented. Academic problems and real cases in large-scale piping systems are discussed
Neuerburg, Kent M.
2007-01-01
Newton's Method, the recursive algorithm for computing the roots of an equation, is one of the most efficient and best known numerical techniques. The basics of the method are taught in any first-year calculus course. However, in most cases the two most important questions are often left unanswered. These questions are, "Where do I start?" and "When do I stop?" We give criteria for determining when a given value is a good starting value and how many iterations it will take to ...
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.
Unorthodox theoretical methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.
Tautomerism methods and theories
Antonov, Liudmil
2013-01-01
Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc
Dunn, William L
2012-01-01
Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble
Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.
1964-01-14
This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)
Nonparametric statistical methods
Hollander, Myles; Chicken, Eric
2013-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition"This book should be an essential part of the personal library of every practicing statistician."-Technometrics Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. The book continues to emphasize the importance of nonparametric methods as a significant branch of modern statistics and equips readers with the conceptual and technical skills necessary to select and apply the appropriate procedures for any given sit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of sterilisation of food packaging is described which comprises treating microorganisms with an ultraviolet irradiated solution of hydrogen peroxide to render the microorganisms non-viable. The wavelength of ultraviolet radiation used is wholly or predominantly below 325 nm and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is no greater than 10% by weight. The method is applicable to a wide variety of microorganisms including moulds, yeasts, bacteria, viruses and protozoa and finds particular application in the destruction of spore-forming bacteria, especially those which are dairy contaminants. (U.K.)
Essential numerical computer methods
Johnson, Michael L
2010-01-01
The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface
Gheorghe CHEIA
2010-01-01
Science and its development has been a priority of human society by centuries. The human society increment dues to scientific progress and advanced research in this domain. Geography promoted as science, and also tourism geography, one of its branch, possess their own research tools which analyze the two main types of resources: natural and manmade. In the research process, the tourism geography uses traditionalgeographical methods (observation, analysis, synthesis) and specific methods as we...
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Rencher, Alvin C
2012-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document gives a first introduction to 14C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2013-01-01
Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption...... algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package...
Probabilistic methods for physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an asymptotic method giving a probability of presence of the iterated spots of Rd by a polynomial function f. We use the well-known Perron Frobenius operator (PF) that lets certain sets and measure invariant by f. Probabilistic solutions can exist for the deterministic iteration. If the theoretical result is already known, here we quantify these probabilities. This approach seems interesting to use for computing situations when the deterministic methods don't run. Among the examined applications, are asymptotic solutions of Lorenz, Navier-Stokes or Hamilton's equations. In this approach, linearity induces many difficult problems, all of whom we have not yet resolved.
Herrick, James A.
1989-01-01
Explores how argumentation in the eighteenth-century miracles controversy (a century-long debate in Britain over the reasonableness of revealed religion) exhibited a controlling concern for procedural considerations. Discusses how the Deists and the Orthodox apologists used their argumentative force to advance rival methods for evaluating miracle…
Software specification methods
Habrias, Henri
2010-01-01
This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.
Andersson, Pher G
2008-01-01
With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.
Photovoltaic device and method
Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L
2015-01-27
The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.
Research Methods in Sociolinguistics
Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel
2014-01-01
The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…
Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.
2010-10-26
A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe
1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013 - (Björm, E.), s. 205-224 ISBN 978-3-540-70528-4 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : classical iterative methods * applied computational mathematics * encyclopedia Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.springerreference.com/docs/ navigation .do?m=Encyclopedia+of+Applied+and+Computational+Mathematics+%28Mathematics+and+Statistics%29-book224
Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.
Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.
1989-01-01
Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…
Isaacson, Eugene
1994-01-01
This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent technological advances have given new tools to the clinician, and in this review four diagnostic approaches are detailed - staging of lung cancer by computed tomography (CT), radiation therapy planning with CT, follow-up with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and follow-up of colorectal malignancies with positron emission tomography. The present status and future prospects of each method are discussed. (author)
Method of killing microorganisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of sterilizing the contents of containers involves exposure to a plasma induced therein by focusing a high-power laser beam in an electromagnetic field preferably for a period of from 1.0 millisec to 1.0 secs. (U.K.)
Radiation irradiation test method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present invention provides a method of irradiating radiation (rays) to a test piece by using an actual powder of nuclear fuel material. Namely, the test piece is sealed in an inner and outer double-walled bag of a radiation-permeable polymer film to form an irradiation specimen. The irradiation specimen is placed at a predetermined position of a glove box for a predetermined period of time, and necessary irradiation is performed. The outer bag is cut out, and the test piece in the inner bag not deposited with radioactive material is obtained. This is transported out of the glove box by using a bag-out method. The test piece sealed in the inner bag can be taken out by cutting out the inner bag in an operation hood capable of preventing scattering of radioactive materials. The bag-out method mentioned herein is a method of taking out radioactive materials or materials contaminated by the radioactive materials in the glove box after sealing them in a vinyl chloride bag by welding. (I.S.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynnerup, Niels
2009-01-01
Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1994-12-31
This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).
Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.
1973-01-01
Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.
5. Integral dosimetric methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main types of integral dosemeters are described as are their uses, recording and data acquisition and the possibility of multiple evaluation. Discussed are photographic methods, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, exoelectron emission, lyoluminescence, radiation induced thermally activated currents, silicon diodes, MOS transistors, chemical dosemeters, solid state track detectors and activation detectors. (M.D.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects
Kestila, Antti Alexander
2010-01-01
Here is described a preliminary method that enables secure 'anti-search-engine' encryption, where the middleman can participate in the encrypted information exchange, without being able to understand the exchanged information, encrypted using a one-way function, as well as being unaware of one of two main exchange participants.
Dasenbrock, Reed Way
1995-01-01
Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Upon the request of the ''Enquete-Kommission'' on Future Nuclear Energy Policy set up by the German Federal Parliament, a literature survey has been compiled on all scientific studies of Bethe-Tait accidents with high potentials of mechanical energy releases (''Literaturuebersicht zu allen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ueber Bethe-Tait-Stoerfaelle mit hohem mechanischem Energiefreisetzungspotential''). The study is a critical review of all relevant scientific publications and studies by the international scientific community in this field, which are devoted to high mechanical energy releases from major accidents in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, or at least indicate the potential for high energy releases. These publications are evaluated with respect to their relevance to the design base levels of the SNR 300. In accordance with the wishes expressed by the ''Enquete-Kommission'', the study not only deals with the arguments and findings by scientists from national research centers and from the fast breeder development association, but also takes into account the arguments and findings by working groups in Germany and abroad, which represent different attitudes vis-a-vis the utilization of nuclear power and the fast breeder reactor. The study was handed over to the ''Enquete-Kommission'' in 1982. The present version differs in some minor points from the original version. The conclusion to be drawn from the examination of the bulk of the above mentioned information is this: - For the SNR 300 the occurence of major accidents with mechanical energy releases exceeding the design limit of 370 MWs can be excluded with a probability verging on certainty, i.e., to all practical intents and purposes. (orig.)
An implicit integration method for joint coordinate subsystem synthesis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To analyze a multibody system, this paper proposes an implicit numerical integration method for joint coordinates subsystem synthesis method. To verify the proposed method, a multibody model for an unmanned robot vehicle, which consists of six identical independent suspension systems, is developed. The symbolic method is applied to compute the system Jacobian matrix for the implicit integration method. The proposed method is also verified by performing rough terrain run over simulation in comparison with the conventional implicit integration method. In addition, to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, the CPU time obtained by using this method is compared with that obtained by using the conventional implicit method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cathleen Haskins
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.
2013-01-01
There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steijn, Arthur
2016-01-01
context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model......Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...
Implementation of Rosenbrock methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shampine, L. F.
1980-11-01
Rosenbrock formulas have shown promise in research codes for the solution of initial-value problems for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). To help assess their practical value, the author wrote an item of mathematical software based on such a formula. This required a variety of algorithmic and software developments. Those of general interest are reported in this paper. Among them is a way to select automatically, at every step, an explicit Runge-Kutta formula or a Rosenbrock formula according to the stiffness of the problem. Solving linear systems is important to methods for stiff ODEs, and is rather special for Rosenbrock methods. A cheap, effective estimate of the condition of the linear systems is derived. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the developments.
Motor degradation prediction methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.
1995-12-31
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)
Motor degradation prediction methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.
1996-12-01
Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dislocation-Dynamics (DD) technique is identified as the method able to model the evolution of material plastic properties as a function of the microstructural transformation predicted at the atomic scale. Indeed, it is the only simulation method capable of taking into account the collective behaviour of a large number of dislocations inside a realistic microstructure. DD simulations are based on the elastic dislocation theory following rules inherent to the dislocation core structure often call 'local rules'. All the data necessary to establish the local rules for DD have to come directly from experiment or alternatively from simulations carried out at the atomic scale such as molecular dynamics or ab initio calculations. However, no precise information on the interaction between two dislocations or between dislocations and defects induced by irradiation are available for nuclear fuels. Therefore, in this article the DD technique will be presented and some examples are given of what can be achieved with it. (author)
Statistical Methods for Astronomy
Feigelson, Eric D
2012-01-01
This review outlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory, hypothesis tests and point estimation for use in the analysis of modern astronomical data. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Resampling methods, particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributions functions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection and good- ness of fit are considered. Applied statistics relevant to astronomical research are briefly discussed: nonparametric methods for use when little is known about the behavior of the astronomical populations or processes; data smoothing with kernel density estimation and nonparametric regression; unsupervised clustering and supervised classification procedures for multivariate problems; survival analysis for astronomical datasets with nondetections; time- and frequency-domain times series analysis for light curves; and spatial statistics to interpret the spati...
Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...... relations between individuals and social contexts, aesthetics and production, distribution and consumption, as well as relations between fluidity and stability. By addressing the field of fashion, the paper proposes to shed light on an empirical setting which has so far been studied either as a purely...... - Domestication of the Scallops and Fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay. Power, Action, and Belief - A New Sociology of Knowledge. J. Law. London, Routledge and Keagan Paul: 196-233. Hennion, A. (1997). "Baroque and rock: Music, mediators and musical taste." Poetics 24: 414 - 435. Latour, B. (1993). We Have Never Been...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin
2016-06-21
Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia Dumitrescu
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The vortex model of propellers is modified and applied to the high-speed horizontal axis turbines. The turbine blades are replaced by lifting lines and trailing vortices which shed along the blade span. The model is not a free wake model, but it is still a nonlinear one which should be solved iteratively. In addition to the regular case where the trailing vortices are constrained to distribute along a helical surface, another version, where each trailing vortex sheding from the blade grows as a free helical vortex line, is also included. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are, shown to compare favorably with existing numerical data from more involved free wake methods, but require less computational effort. Thereby, the present method may be a very useful tool for calculating the aerodynamic loads on horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for making better quality molten (borosilicate and other) glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the a ass constituents that are fed into the melterin accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a ''non-bridging oxygen'' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karosiene, Edita
introduces the NetMHCIIpan-3.0 predictor based on artificial neural networks, which is capable of giving binding affinities to any human MHC class II molecule. Chapter 4 of this thesis gives an overview of bioinformatics tools developed by the Immunological Bioinformatics group at Center for Biological...... machine learning techniques. Several MHC class I binding prediction algorithms have been developed and due to their high accuracy they are used by many immunologists to facilitate the conventional experimental process of epitope discovery. However, the accuracy of these methods depends on data defining...... the MHC molecule in question, making it difficult for the non-expert end-user to choose the most suitable predictor. The first paper in this thesis presents a new, publicly available, consensus method for MHC class I predictions. The NetMHCcons predictor combines three state-of-the-art prediction...
Holm, Darryl D
2015-01-01
Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article we will find that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularised Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularised Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also characterise the Hamiltonian dynamics of the higher-order singular vortices. Applications to the design of numerical meth- ods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings shed light onto the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the multiscale aspects of regularized fluid m...
Developments in Surrogating Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans van Dormolen
2005-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.
Richtárik, Peter
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose and analyze a variant of the level method [4], which is an algorithm for minimizing nonsmooth convex functions. The main work per iteration is spent on 1) minimizing a piecewise-linear model of the objective function and on 2) projecting onto the intersection of the feasible region and a polyhedron arising as a level set of the model. We show that by replacing exact computations in both cases by approximate computations, in relative scale, the theoretical ...
Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2009-01-20
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Nuclear fuel reprocessing method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a nuclear fuel reprocessing method for supplying nitrogen oxides used for driving out iodine and for oxidizing plutonium, according to the present invention, nitric acid is decomposed in a nitrogen oxide production step to form nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxides formed are supplied to the reprocessing step described above. Excess nitric acid recovered from the reprocessing step is recycled to the nitrogen oxide production step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes discharged from the reprocessing step is remarkably reduced. (T.M.)
CIPRIAN NICOLESCU
2011-01-01
Best practices method is one of the managerial instruments used more often in the context of transition to knowledge economy, that can be explained by many benefits it generates in organizations. Among these the most important are the following: identification and replacement of bad practices within the organization, superior capitalization of knowledge and experience existing in the organization, promoting an intense individual/ organizational learning and multiplication of implicit/ explici...
Vela Velupillai, K.
2011-01-01
Takashi Negishi's remarkable youthful contribution to welfare economics, general equilibrium theory and, with the benefit of hindsight, also to one strand of computable general equilibrium theory, all within the span of six pages in one article, has become one of the modern classics of general equilibrium theory and mathematical economics. Negishi's celebrated theorem and what has been called Negishi's Method have formed one foundation for computable general equilibrium theory. In this paper ...
Methods of celestial mechanics
Brouwer, Dirk
2013-01-01
Methods of Celestial Mechanics provides a comprehensive background of celestial mechanics for practical applications. Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that is devoted to the motions of celestial bodies. This book is composed of 17 chapters, and begins with the concept of elliptic motion and its expansion. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other aspects of celestial mechanics, including gravity, numerical integration of orbit, stellar aberration, lunar theory, and celestial coordinates. Considerable chapters explore the principles and application of various mathematical metho
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahlstrom, R.A.; Rubin, J.N.
1980-04-17
In this method for extraction of alcohol from fermented material, insoluble organic matter is first removed before the ferment enters the distillation column and tried spent grains then recovered by drying under pressure. Excess steam from the drying stage is used to heat the distillation column. In addition, excess water vapour produced as a result of further heating by head vapour from the first distillation column, is drawn off from the evaporation step, condensed and fed into the distillation columns and evaporation step.
Holt, Maurice
1996-01-01
In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods intended to produce metallic borides and some boron nonmetallic compounds are described. Consideration is given to the synthesis of metal and boron through metal-boron alloyage or sintering. Systematic study has been made of the carbothermal reduction of the mixtures composed of a metallic oxide and boron with carbon. The method of borocarbothermal reduction is realized by the reaction MeO+B+C→MeB+Bsub(x)Osub(y)+CO and is employed to produce the borides of alkaline-earth and rare-earth metals. Carbidoboron reduction of metallic oxides is based on the interaction of metals, hydrides or carbides of transition metals with boron carbide with the additions of boron oxide in the amounts required for the removal of carbon. This method is realizable within 1750 to 2000 deg C. The borothermal reduction of metallic oxides follows the reaction MeO+B→MeB+Bsub(x)Osub(y). It is advisable that the process be carried out in a vacuo at 1450 to 1800 deg C. The metallic reduction of the mixtures composed of metallic oxides and boron occurs by the reaction MeO+B2O3+Mg(Na,K)→MeB+MgO(Na2O, K2O) at 1100 to 1700 deg C. The method of precipitation from the gaseous phase is represented by the reaction MeCl4+BCl3+H2→MeB+HCl at 1400 deg C. The electrolysis of the melted agents involves the passage of electric current through the salt melts. The current density, voltage and temperature in the electrolytic bath can be widely varied
Zahn, Jeffrey D
2009-01-01
This unique volume presents leading-edge microfluidics methods used to handle, manipulate, and analyze cells, particles, and biological components (e.g., proteins and DNA) for microdiagnostics. The authors offer clear and detailed guidance on microfabrication techniques utilized to create microfluidic devices and on-chip flow control and mixing Microsystems, protein and DNA handling devices for electrophoretic and isoelectric separations in microchromatography columns, microfluidic manipulations of droplets via electrowetting and particles via dielectrophoresis for separations and chemical rea
Situational method engineering
Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti
2014-01-01
While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the
Methods of Telomerase Inhibition
Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.
2008-01-01
Telomerase is central to cellular immortality and is a key component of most cancer cells although this enzyme is rarely expressed to significant levels in normal cells. Therefore, the inhibition of telomerase has garnered considerable attention as a possible anticancer approach. Many of the methods applied to telomerase inhibition focus on either of the two major components of the ribonucleoprotein holoenzyme, that is, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) catalytic subunit or the telo...
Method for making nanomaterials
Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng
2013-06-04
A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.
Rege, Kaushal
2009-01-01
Filling a critical gap in the current literature, this new resource presents practical, step-by-step methods to help you synthesize, characterize, biofunctionalize and apply the nanomaterial that is most suitable for handling a given nanoscale bioengineering problem. Written and presented by leading scientists and engineers in their respective fields, the authors offer a clear and detailed understanding of how to carry out nanoparticle functionalization with biomolecules (including enzymes), nanoparticle analysis and characterization, in vitro evaluation of nanoparticles using different cell l
Lipp, G. Daniel
1994-04-26
A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.
Carbon nanotubes decorating methods
A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz; D. Łukowiec; D. Cichock; W. Wolany
2013-01-01
Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studie...
Taiwo Ayodele; Shikun Zhou; Rinat Khusainov
2010-01-01
In this paper we presents a neural network based system for automated email grouping into activities found in the email message- Email Grouping Method (EGM). Email users spend a lot of time reading, replying and organizing their emails and this seems to be time consuming and sometimes can resolves to less performance of daily duty, and un-necessary distractions. A new system that can manage mails on our behalf is required. EGM is developed to help organise email messages, intelligently struct...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)
RUTHENIUM DECONTAMINATION METHOD
Gresky, A.T.
1960-07-19
A liquid-liquid extraction method of separating uranium from fission products is given. A small amount of a low molecular weight ketone is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing neutron-irradiated uranium and its associated fission products. The resulting solution is digested and then contacted with an organic liquid that extracts uranium values. The purpose of the step of digesting the aqueous solution in the presence of the ketone is to suppress the extractability of ruthenium.
Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2010-07-13
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Segeth, Karel
Liberec : Technická univerzita v Liberci, 2006, s. 335-341. ISBN 80-7372-055-8. [International Conference Presentation of Mathematics ICPM ´05. Liberec (CZ), 20.09.2005-23.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/04/1503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear algebraic system * conjugate gradient method * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Statistical Methods for Astronomy
Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, G. Jogesh
2012-01-01
This review outlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory, hypothesis tests and point estimation for use in the analysis of modern astronomical data. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Resampling methods, particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributions functions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection and good- ness of fit are considered. Applied s...
Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki
1987-01-01
The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...
Generalized Agile Estimation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shilpa Bahlerao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Agile cost estimation process always possesses research prospects due to lack of algorithmic approaches for estimating cost, size and duration. Existing algorithmic approach i.e. Constructive Agile Estimation Algorithm (CAEA is an iterative estimation method that incorporates various vital factors affecting the estimates of the project. This method has lots of advantages but at the same time has some limitations also. These limitations may due to some factors such as number of vital factors and uncertainty involved in agile projects etc. However, a generalized agile estimation may generate realistic estimates and eliminates the need of experts. In this paper, we have proposed iterative Generalized Estimation Method (GEM and presented algorithm based on it for agile with case studies. GEM based algorithm various project domain classes and vital factors with prioritization level. Further, it incorporates uncertainty factor to quantify the risk of project for estimating cost, size and duration. It also provides flexibility to project managers for deciding on number of vital factors, uncertainty level and project domains thereby maintaining the agility.
Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods
1991-01-01
These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...
Validation of analytical methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xavier Rius, F.
2002-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we shall discuss the concept of method validation, describe the various elements and explain its close relationship with fitness for purpose. Method validation is based on the assumption that a series of requirements are fulfilled and we shall explain how these requirements are selected, the way in which evidence is supplied and what work has to be carried out in the laboratory. The basic principles of method validation and the different ways to validate a methodology, by inter-laboratory comparison or performing an in-house validation, are also described.En este artículo se discute el concepto de validación del método, se describen los elementos que la componen y se explica la fuerte relación entre la validación y las características de ajuste. El método de validación se basa en el cumplimiento de una serie de requerimientos, se explica como seleccionar esos requerimientos, la forma en que se suministran evidencias, y que trabajo se debe llevar a cabo en el laboratorio. También se describen, los principios básicos del método de validación y los diferentes caminos para validar una metodología, tanto en la comparación entre laboratorios o como cuando se lleva a cabo una validación dentro del laboratorio.
Development of partitioning method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The literature survey was carried out on the amount of natural resources, behaviors in reprocessing process and in separation and recovery methods of the platinum group elements and technetium which are contained in spent fuel. The essential results are described below. (1) The platinum group elements, which are contained in spent fuel, are quantitatively limited, compared with total demand for them in Japan. And estimated separation and recovery cost is rather high. In spite of that, development of these techniques is considered to be very important because the supply of these elements is almost from foreign resources in Japan. (2) For recovery of these elements, studies of recovery from undisolved residue and from high level liquid waste (HLLW) also seem to be required. (3) As separation and recovery methods, following techniques are considered to be effective; lead extraction, liquid metal extraction, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, adsorption, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis or their combination. (4) But each of these methods has both advantages and disadvantages. So development of such processes largely depends on future works. (author) 94 refs
Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.
Koen, Billy Vaughn
1987-01-01
Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)
Combined method of geodetic survey
Lebeničnik, Alenka
2012-01-01
Graduation thesis deals with combination of observations of terrestrial polar detailed method of surveying and RTK method of GNSS surveying. Every method for itself has advantages and disadvantages. We combine both methods into combined method of geodetic surveying for better results. On a chosen completed range we measured identical detailed points twice, with polar method and RTK method of surveying. We gained couple of coordinates of detailed points and their accuracy values. Positions...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.
1996-06-01
Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.
Carbon nanotubes decorating methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studies carried out with the HRTEM and SEM techniques have confirmed differences in morphology, homogeneity and density of depositing platinum nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes and its structure.Research limitations/implications: The studies conducted pertained to the process of decorating carbon nanotubes with platinum nanoparticles. Further works are planned aimed at extending the application scope of the newly developed methodology to include the methods of nanotubes decorating with the nanoparticles of other precious metals (mainly palladium and rhodium.Practical implications: CNTs-NPs (Carbon NanoTube-NanoParticles composites can be used as the active elements of sensors featuring high sensitivity, fast action, high selectivity and accuracy, in particular in medicine as cholesterol and glucoses sensors; in the automotive industry for the precision monitoring of working parameters in individual engine components; in environmental conservation to examine CO2, NOx, and CH4 concentrations and for checking leak-tightness and detecting hazardous substances in household and industrial gas installations.Originality/value: The comprehensive characterisation of the methods employed for fabricating nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotubes deposited with Pt, Pd, Rh, Au, Ag nanoparticles with special consideration to the colloidal process.
Langston, Cathy; Gisselman, Kelly; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John
2010-06-01
Multiple techniques exist to remove uroliths from each section of the urinary tract. Minimally invasive methods for removing lower urinary tract stones include voiding urohydropropulsion, retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by dissolution or removal, catheter retrieval, cystoscopic removal, and cystoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy and surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy is less invasive than surgical cystotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used for nephroliths and ureteroliths. Nephrotomy, pyelotomy, or urethrotomy may be recommended in certain situations. This article discusses each technique and gives guidance for selecting the most appropriate technique for an individual patient. PMID:20949423
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi
2016-01-01
researchers should start paying attention to the material world (consisting of both human bodies and material objects) and what it means for how people live their lives. It is argued that this can be done by incorporating the concept of material presence to capture embodied and material layers of existence......, and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by...... suggesting practical guidelines for incorporating attention to materiality in qualitative research....
SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION
Duffield, R.B.
1958-08-12
A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.
Radioanalytical methods manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Radioanalytical Methods manual is comprised of 12 chapters. It includes a review of the pertinent literature up to the end of 1982 pertaining to the measurement of the radioactive species listed under the terms of the contract. Included is methodology recommended for the decompositions of soils, tailings, ores, biological samples and air filters. Detailed analytical methodology for the measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, total thorium, radon-222, radon-220 and radon-219 is presented
Interval methods: An introduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj
2006-01-01
This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides the...... important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...... '' techniques, and the applications of these techniques to various problems of scientific computing....
Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2012-02-21
A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexei Serna A.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)
Reiss, Howard
1997-01-01
Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m
Computational Methods for Crashworthiness
Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Carden, Huey D. (Compiler)
1993-01-01
Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.
Nahmias, Yaakov
2009-01-01
Offering a practical look into the field, this volume presents the science behind microscale device design and the engineering of its fabrication. Supported with dozens of full-color illustrations, this book offers you clear, step-by-step methods for the cell capture from whole blood, high-throughput study of transcriptional dynamics in living cells, temporal control of cell-cell interaction, nanoscale measurements of cellular forces, immobilizing living c. elegans, optical and electrical on-chip cell sorting and human-on-chip modeling of drug metabolism.
Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.
1985-08-20
A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.
Mathematical methods for physicists
Arfken, George B
1985-01-01
Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Third Edition provides an advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate study in physical science, focusing on the mathematics of theoretical physics. This edition includes sections on the non-Cartesian tensors, dispersion theory, first-order differential equations, numerical application of Chebyshev polynomials, the fast Fourier transform, and transfer functions. Many of the physical examples provided in this book, which are used to illustrate the applications of mathematics, are taken from the fields of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The He
Method to manufacture scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The substrate (quarz) including luminous substance is coated using a common method on a laminate material (epoxy material). BaFCl:Eu is suitable as luminous substance. The problem of hygroscopicity is greatly reduced by a multilayer structure. The structure with the dispersed of luminous substance is not sensitive to changer of the X-ray sectrum as a result of filter effects of the matrix material. A typical scintillator-detector system for X-ray and γ-radiation is described. (DG)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CarloAlberto Redi
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......
Del Pico, Wayne J
2014-01-01
Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el
Ståhl, Patrik L.
2010-01-01
The human genome reference sequence has given us a two‐dimensional blueprint of our inherited code of life, but we need to employ modern‐day technology to expand our knowledge into a third dimension. Inter‐individual and intra‐individual variation has been shown to be larger than anticipated, and the mode of genetic regulation more complex. Therefore, the methods that were once used to explain our fundamental constitution are now used to decipher our differences. Over the past four years, thr...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Fras
2009-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, a new SHSF (Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis in Mould process of synthesis of the functionally gradient materials (FGMs was described. The said method enabled generating a thin, sub-surface layer of the MMC type in two alloys, i.e. in cast iron/NbC and Ni3Al/NbC systems. The layer was composed of fine-dispersed niobium carbides present in high volume content. The cast iron/NbC and Ni3Al/NbC materials fabricated by the SHSF process were next subjected to metallographic and structural examinations, combined with testing of mechanical properties.
E. Fras; E. Olejnik; A. Janas; A. Kolbus
2009-01-01
In this study, a new SHSF (Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis in Mould) process of synthesis of the functionally gradient materials (FGMs) was described. The said method enabled generating a thin, sub-surface layer of the MMC type in two alloys, i.e. in cast iron/NbC and Ni3Al/NbC systems. The layer was composed of fine-dispersed niobium carbides present in high volume content. The cast iron/NbC and Ni3Al/NbC materials fabricated by the SHSF process were next subjected to metallograp...
Langarón, J.M.; Pérez Masía, Rocío; López, Amparo
2011-01-01
[EN] The invention relates to a method for the production of encapsulated PCMs, comprising the following steps: a) preparing a viscous melt by means of heating or a solution of polymers or biopolymers that form encapsulates; b) preparing a solution or suspension of PCM without mixing with the solution or melt of polymer or biopolymer from step (a) or adding the PCM to the melt or solution from step (a) (i) directly, (ii) in solution or (iii) in suspension; and c) encapsulating the PCM directl...
Ackermann, Lutz
2009-01-01
Today, arylation methods are belonging to the most important reaction types in organic synthesis. Lutz Ackermann, a young and ambitious professor has gathered a number of top international authors to present the first comprehensive book on the topic. Starting from a historical review, the book covers hot topics like Palladium-catalyzed arylation of N-H and alpha-C-H-acidic Bonds, Copper-catalyzed arylation of N-H and O-H Bonds, direct arylation reactions, carbanion aromatic synthesis, arylation reactions of alkenes, alkynes and much more. This compact source of high quality information is indi
Nastasescu, Constantin
2004-01-01
The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.
Introduction to Numerical Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schoonover, Joseph A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-14
These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.
Neutron source multiplication method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system
Development of partitioning method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A partitioning method has been developed under the concepts of separation of nuclides in high level nuclear fuel reprocessing liquid waste according to their half lives and radioactive toxicity and of disposal of them by suitable methods. In the partitioning process, which has been developed in JAERI, adoption of solvent extraction process with DIDPA (di-isodecyl phosphoric acid) has been studied for actinides separation. The present paper mainly describes studies on back extraction behavior of Np(IV), Pu(IV) and U(VI) in DIDPA. Most experiments were carried out according to following procedure. These actinides were extracted from 0.5 M nitric acid with DIDPA, where nitric acid concentration in HLW is expected to be adjusted to this value prior to actinides extraction in the partitioning process, and back-extracted with various reagents such as oxalic acid. The experimental results show that distribution ratios of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) can be reduced to less than unity with 1 M oxalic acid and those of U(VI) and Np(IV) with 5 M phosphoric acid. From results of these studies and previous research on Am and Cm, following possibilities were confirmed ; U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm, which are major actinides in HLW, can be extracted simultaneously with DIDPA, and they can be removed from DIDPA with various reagents. (nitric acid for Am and Cm, oxalic acid for Np and Pu, and phosphoric acid for U respectively). (author)
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Chia-Jean
2007-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this session is to discuss the various possibilities for detecting modifications in DNA after irradiation and whether these changes can be utilized as an indicator for the irradiation treatment of foods. The requirement to be fulfilled is that the method be able to distinguish irradiated food without the presence of a control sample, thus the measured response after irradiation must be large enough to supersede background levels from other treatments. Much work has been performed on the effects of radiation on DNA, particularly due to its importance in radiation biology. The main lesions of DNA as a result of irradiation are base damage, damage of the sugar moiety, single strand and double strand breaks. Crosslinking between bases also occurs, e.g. production of thymine dimers, or between DNA and protein. A valuable review on how to utilize these DNA changes for detection purposes has already appeared. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the proposed methods of detecting changes in irradiated DNA, some identified products as examples for a possible irradiation indicator, in the case of immunoassay the substance used as antigen, and some selected literature references. In this short review, it is not intended to provide a complete literature survey
Methods of Endotoxin Detection.
Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting
2015-08-01
Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life. PMID:25720597
Research methods in information
Pickard, Alison Jane
2013-01-01
The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present invention provides a laser seam welding method for welding spacers to be used in nuclear fuel assemblies at a stable quality. Namely, the laser seam welding method comprises irradiating, while moving, laser beams to a portion to be welded. In this case, data of the shapes and characteristics of the portion to be welded are inputted to restrict the range of the welding of the portion to be welded. The power, moving speed, distance to a focal point and energy of the laser beams are controlled in the midway of the range for the welding. Then, a welding nugget having a shape defined to a portion to be welded can be formed thereby enabling to keep the portion to be welded to stable quality. As a result, failed welding can be eliminated, and strength of joint can be guaranteed. In addition, auxiliary products of portions to be welded, for example, springs are not failed by laser beams. As a result, satisfactory spacers can be provided. (I.S.)
Method for radioactivity monitoring
Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.
1976-10-26
The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.
Reactor core monitoring method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, Michitsugu [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kanemoto, Shigeru; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Ebata, Shigeo
1998-05-06
The present invention provides a method of monitoring the state of coolant flow in a reactor of a BWR power plant. Namely, a plurality of local power region monitors (LPRM) are disposed to the inside of the reactor core for monitoring a power distribution. Signals of at least two optional LPRM detectors situated at positions different in axial or radial positions of the reactor core are obtained. General fluctuation components which nuclear hydrothermally fluctuate in overall reactor core are removed from the components of the signals. Then, correlational functions between these signals are determined. The state of coolant flow in the reactor is monitored based on the correlational function. When the axial flowing rate and radial flow interference are monitored, the accuracy upon monitoring axial and radial local behaviors of coolants can be improved by thus previously removing the general fluctuation components from signals of LPRM detectors and extracting local void information near to LPRM detectors at high accuracy. (I.S.)
Radioactive ruthenium removing method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volatile radioactive ruthenium contained in gas wastes is reacted with a gas incorporating NO2 at an amount of more than 100 molar times of the ruthenium together with a great excess of water, to convert the volatile ruthenium into water soluble ruthenium. The water soluble ruthenium compound is dissolved into the great excess of water used for the reaction and then removed. In this method, ruthenium tetraoxide contained in the gas wastes are sufficiently brought into contact with NO2 gas and water, if they are present, to form a nitrosyl ruthenium compound. Since the thus formed nitrosyl ruthenium compound is water soluble, it is transferred easily from a gas phase to an aqueous phase, and removed efficiently from the gas wastes. In addition, no secondary wastes containing sodium salt are generated. (T.M.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.
1997-04-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.
Mathematical methods in engineering
Machado, José
2014-01-01
This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as: Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control, Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.
DNA sequencing: chemical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Limited base-specific or base-selective cleavage of a defined DNA fragment yields polynucleotide products, the length of which correlates with the positions of the particular base (or bases) in the original fragment. Sverdlov and co-workers recognized the possibility of using this principle for the determination of DNA sequences. In 1977 a fully elaborated method was introduced based on this principle, which allowed routine analysis of DNA sequences over distances greater than 100 nucleotide unite from a defined, radiolabeled terminus. Six procedures for partial cleavage were described. Simultaneous parallel resolution of an appropriate set of partial cleavage mixtures by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by visualization of the radioactive bands by autoradiography, allows the deduction of nucleotide sequence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inventor proposes a method for separating isotopes from gaseous compounds by selective excitation by means of laser beams for such cases where the reaction partners each consist of several isotopes. For example, separation of 235U and 238U in the form of UCl6 is mentioned with 35Cl and 37Cl existing in the natural composition of 76:24. According to the invention, after isolating the reaction product obtained in a way already known, the remaining fraction of the compound mixture is brought together with the reaction partner present in the natural isotope composition, in a heated flow path. Thereby by isotope exchange of the latter regeneration will take place, and the mixture can pass again through the separation plant in initial composition. (orig./PW)
Unconventional methods for clustering
Kotyrba, Martin
2016-06-01
Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.
Modified risk evaluation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured and cost-oriented process to determine risks associated with nuclear material and other security interests. Financial loss is a continuing concern for US Department of Energy contractors. In this paper risk is equated with uncertainty of cost impacts to material assets or human resources. The concept provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of an integrated protection system, which includes operations, safety, emergency preparedness, and safeguards and security. The concept is suitable for application to sabotage evaluations. The protection of assets is based on risk associated with cost impacts to assets and the potential for undesirable events. This will allow managers to establish protection priorities in terms of the cost and the potential for the event, given the current level of protection
Computational Methods in Medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is absolutely necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, such as Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on [2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are Categories, Objects, Properties, Relations between objects, Situations, States, Time, Events, Causes and effects, Knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types
[3, 4], Search Problems and Representation Problem. There exist different ways to reach this objective. So, we have [3] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts and so on, that are often interconnected. Also, it will be very useful, in dealing with problems of uncertainty and causality, to introduce Bayesian Networks and particularly, a principal tool as the Essential Graph. We attempt here to show the scope of application of such versatile methods, currently fundamental in Medicine.
Metal copper dissolving method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This method is applied to remove copper deposited on steam generators of PWR type reactors. A solution containing ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) and an oxidizing agent is brought into contact with metal copper. NH4HCO3 used in the solution has a neutral pH region, as an aqueous solution, of about 7.8, and ammonium scarcely evaporates from a solution at such a pH region. Therefore, it scarcely worsens the operation circumstance. When it is used together with an oxidizing agent, the dissolving capacity for metal copper is greater compared with a case of using ammonium or other ammonium salt, so that metal copper can efficiently be dissolved. The oxidizing agent can include hydrogen peroxide, ammonium persulfate. (T.M.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olivarius, Signe
While increasing evidence appoints diverse types of RNA as key players in the regulatory networks underlying cellular differentiation and metabolism, the potential functions of thousands of conserved RNA structures encoded in mammalian genomes remain to be determined. Since the functions of most...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA......-protein pulldown combined with mass spectrometry analysis is applied for in vivo as well as in vitro identification of RNA-binding proteins, the latter succeeding in verifying known RNA-protein interactions. Secondly, acknowledging the significance of flexible promoter usage for the diversification of the...
Adaptive multiresolution methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schneider Kai
2011-12-01
Full Text Available These lecture notes present adaptive multiresolution schemes for evolutionary PDEs in Cartesian geometries. The discretization schemes are based either on finite volume or finite difference schemes. The concept of multiresolution analyses, including Harten’s approach for point and cell averages, is described in some detail. Then the sparse point representation method is discussed. Different strategies for adaptive time-stepping, like local scale dependent time stepping and time step control, are presented. Numerous numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions validate the adaptive schemes and illustrate the accuracy and the gain in computational efficiency in terms of CPU time and memory requirements. Another aspect, modeling of turbulent flows using multiresolution decompositions, the so-called Coherent Vortex Simulation approach is also described and examples are given for computations of three-dimensional weakly compressible mixing layers. Most of the material concerning applications to PDEs is assembled and adapted from previous publications [27, 31, 32, 34, 67, 69].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellerman, Peter
2013-12-21
The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.
Frederix, Rikkert
2015-01-01
We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...
Radioactive air sampling methods
Maiello, Mark L
2010-01-01
Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.
2009-11-10
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Lee, Dongryeol; Gray, Alexander G
2011-01-01
A three-body potential function can account for interactions among triples of particles which are uncaptured by pairwise interaction functions such as Coulombic or Lennard-Jones potentials. Likewise, a multibody potential of order $n$ can account for interactions among $n$-tuples of particles uncaptured by interaction functions of lower orders. To date, the computation of multibody potential functions for a large number of particles has not been possible due to its $O(N^n)$ scaling cost. In this paper we describe a fast tree-code for efficiently approximating multibody potentials. For the first time, we show how to extend the series-expansion-based approach of Fast Multipole Method-like algorithms to handle interactions among more than two particles. Our approach guarantees a user-specified bound on the absolute or relative error in the computed potential. We provide speedup results on a three-body dispersion potential, the Axilrod-Teller potential.
Cyclostationarity theory and methods
Leśkow, Jacek; Napolitano, Antonio; Sanchez-Ramirez, Andrea
2014-01-01
In the last decade the research in signal analysis was dominated by models that encompass nonstationarity as an important feature. This book presents the results of a workshop held in Grodek—Poland in February 2013 which was dedicated to the investigation of cyclostationary signals. Its main objective is to highlight the strong interactions between theory and applications of cyclostationary signals with the use of modern statistical tools. An important application of cyclostationary signals is the analysis of mechanical signals generated by a vibrating mechanism. Cyclostationary models are very important to perform basic operations on signals in both time and frequency domains. One of the fundamental problems in diagnosis of rotating machine is the identification of significant modulating frequencies that contribute to the cyclostationary nature of the signals. The book shows that there are modern tools available for analyzing cyclostationary signals without the assumption of gaussianity. Those methods are...
Ponzetto, Federico; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Boccard, Julien; Nicoli, Raul; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial
2016-01-01
Over the past few years, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has focused its efforts on detecting not only small prohibited molecules, but also larger endogenous molecules such as hormones, in the view of implementing an endocrinological module in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). In this chapter, the detection of two major types of hormones used for doping, growth hormone (GH) and endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAASs), will be discussed: a brief historical background followed by a description of state-of-the-art methods applied by accredited anti-doping laboratories will be provided and then current research trends outlined. In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs) will also be presented as a new class of biomarkers for doping detection. PMID:27348309
Standard environmental test methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schafer, D R
1983-12-01
This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.
Remanufacturability and Assessment Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHUSheng; CUIPei-zhi; YAOJu-kun
2004-01-01
Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging their useful life, protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.
Remanufacturability and Assessment Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Sheng; CUI Pei-zhi; YAO Ju-kun
2004-01-01
Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging theit useful life,protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing.Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.
Characterization Methods of Encapsulates
Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping
, reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.
Seismic reflection and refraction methods
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chaubey, A.K.
is the principal seismic method by which the petroleum industry explores hydrocarbon-trapping structures in sedimentary basins. Its extension to deep crustal studies began in the 1960s, and since the late 1970s these methods have become the principal... techniques for detailed studies of the deep crust. These methods are by far the most important geophysical methods and the predominance of these methods over other geophysical methods is due to various factors such as the higher accuracy, higher...
Fourier methods for biosequence analysis.
Benson, D C
1990-01-01
Novel methods are discussed for using fast Fourier transforms for DNA or protein sequence comparison. These methods are also intended as a contribution to the more general computer science problem of text search. These methods extend the capabilities of previous FFT methods and show that these methods are capable of considerable refinement. In particular, novel methods are given which (1) enable the detection of clusters of matching letters, (2) facilitate the insertion of gaps to enhance seq...
Birth control - slow release methods
Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...
Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)
The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.
Schwartz, J L
1992-03-01
Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine
Methods of albedo electron densimetry. 2. Two-channel methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorokin, V.B. (Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehlektronnoj Introskopii)
1981-12-01
Two-channel methods of densimetry permitting to realize control over density of materials with fluctuating composition which have been developed on the basis of one-channel albedo electron methods are considered. The two-channel methods permits to decrease the errors as compared with one-channel ones and when central-peripheral method is applied - also to increase the sensitivity to density variation. The methods are intended for control density of porous materials, especially in powder metallurgy, ceramics production, etc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chromosome aberrations are widely used as biological indicators of radiation exposure. Chromosomes, isolated from human peripheral blood lymphocytes, are assessed by microscopy for the presence of dicentric aberrations. Dicentric figures are produced almost exclusively by exposure to ionizing radiation. The 'natural' background frequency of the dicentric in non-smoking humans is estimated at 1 in 1000-2000 cells (1). The frequency of this aberration increases with the radiation dose and age, and may possibly be related to lifestyle. The chromosome dicentric is most reliable as a biological dosimeter for uniform whole body exposures delivered at high dose rate (acute exposure). One practical shortcoming of using the frequency of dicentrics as an indicator of radiation dose, is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. State-of-the-art imaging software cannot recognize the wide variety of shapes that can be assumed by dicentric chromosomes. The time required to perform other labor intensive elements of the analytical process can be decreased by means of computer routines. These components include data reduction, recording and collation. Often, these tasks contribute little to the validity of the final dose estimate but nevertheless represent bookkeeping functions that are essential for verification and audit purposes should the need ever arise. This report describes a computer-assisted method of chromosomes dicentric analysis that more than doubles the efficiency of the analytical process. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine(3H)-methyl. The O-methylated (3H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin-3H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin-3H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated (3H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method is disclosed of breaking rock from a free surface which uses hydrofracturing to induce rock failure. Initially, a hole is cut in the rock face to a depth suitable for spalling by a high pressure water jet drill. Next, at the bottom of this hole a thin circular slot is hydraulically cut into the rock. The slot's circular axis is cut parallel to the transverse axis of the hole and the slot is made larger than the hole diameter. Following this step, a high pressure packer, with a high pressure tube passing through its center, is inserted into the drill hole. This packer is placed near the bottom of the hole above the slot and inflated. A fluid, like water, under high pressure is pumped down the hole past the packer into the slotted area. This high pressure fluid initiates a tensile fracture in the rock at the circular periphery of the slot. Tension is induced in the rock at this peripheral location due to the small radius of curvature existing there. This circular tensile fracture propagates outward away from the drill hole and upward to the free rock surface. After the rock fragment is broken free, pressure is released from the packer and it is withdrawn from the hole letting the fragment drop. To advance through the rock, the process is continuously repeated with the high pressure fluid being applied to the slotted area over a very short time period
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array
Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic
1993-01-01
The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...
Production Methods for Hyaluronan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen G. Boeriu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide with multiple functions in the human body being involved in creating flexible and protective layers in tissues and in many signalling pathways during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Hyaluronan is an important component of active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of, for example, arthritis and osteoarthritis, and its commercial value far exceeds that of other microbial extracellular polysaccharides. Traditionally hyaluronan is extracted from animal waste which is a well-established process now. However, biotechnological synthesis of biopolymers provides a wealth of new possibilities. Therefore, genetic/metabolic engineering has been applied in the area of tailor-made hyaluronan synthesis. Another approach is the controlled artificial (in vitro synthesis of hyaluronan by enzymes. Advantage of using microbial and enzymatic synthesis for hyaluronan production is the simpler downstream processing and a reduced risk of viral contamination. In this paper an overview of the different methods used to produce hyaluronan is presented. Emphasis is on the advancements made in the field of the synthesis of bioengineered hyaluronan.
Development of partitioning method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A partitioning method has been developed under the concepts of separating radioactive nuclides from a high-level waste according to their half lives and radioactive toxicity, and of disposing the waste safely. The partitioning test using about 18 liters (--220Ci) of the fuel reprocessing waste prepared at PNC has been started in October of 1982. In this test the behavior of radioactive nuclides was made clear. The present paper describes chemical behavior of non-radioactive elements contained in the high-level liquid waste in the extraction with di-isodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA). Distribution ratios of most of metal ions for DIDPA were less than 0.05, except that those of Mo, Zr and Fe were higher than 7. Ferric ion could not be back-extracted with 4 M HNO3, but with 0.5 M (COOH)2. In the extractiion with DIDPA, the third phase, which causes closing the settling banks or the flow paths in a mixer settler, was formed when the ferric ion concentration was over 0.02 M. This unfavorable phenomenon, however, was found to be suppressed by diluting the ferric ion concentration to lower than 0.01 M or by reducing ferric ion to ferrous ion. (author)
Mimetic finite difference method
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail
2014-01-01
The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.
Statistical methods for forecasting
Abraham, Bovas
2009-01-01
The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists."This book, it must be said, lives up to the words on its advertising cover: ''Bridging the gap between introductory, descriptive approaches and highly advanced theoretical treatises, it provides a practical, intermediate level discussion of a variety of forecasting tools, and explains how they relate to one another, both in theory and practice.'' It does just that!"-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society"A well-written work that deals with statistical methods and models that can be used to produce short-term forecasts, this book has wide-ranging applications. It could be used in the context of a study of regression, forecasting, and time series ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ghafoori
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Prostate cancer is currently the most prevalent form of cancer in men and the second leading cause of can-cer death in the United States, and the third most common cancer in men worldwide. Increasing mor-tality rates due to prostate carcinoma have been ob-served worldwide. This disease usually progresses im-perceptibly; thus, patients are unlikely to seek medi-cal help during the early stages. For these reasons, screening programs aimed at early detection have been developed. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA test is among the best screening tools available in medicine today and is recognized as the best marker for its early detection. Prostate cancers detected by DRE method alone are clinically localized only 50% to 60% of the time, whereas PSA-detected tumors are clinically localized 90% of the time and pathologi-cally confined to the prostate as determined at prostatectomy about two thirds of the time. Recently, the detection of localized prostate cancers has improved, owing to the development of various new biopsy methods. However, a standard biopsy method, including number of cores, has not yet been established at present. When screening results indi-cate the possibility of prostate cancer, a pathologic diagnosis may be pursued by ultrasound guided trans-rectal needle biopsy. Prostate biopsy is usually ad-vised if serum PSA is >4 ng/mL, and this procedure remains the gold standard for prostate cancer diagno-sis. Fine needle biopsy is less painful than core bi-opsy, but also less diagnostically accurate. Systematic biopsy protocols: In 1989, Hodge et al. coined the sextant biopsy method that is still the standard of reference in prostate cancer detection. The prostate is bilaterally divided into three regions (apex, midgland, and base, all of which are system-atically biopsied once. Although Hodge et al. first proposed sextant biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance, some recent reports have indicated that systematic sextant biopsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)
Method for biological purification
Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila
2001-03-27
An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.
Desulfurization apparatus and method
Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn
2013-06-18
A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Degasperi, Philipp; Hepp, Stefan; Puffitsch, Wolfgang;
2014-01-01
For real-time systems we need time-predictable processors. This paper presents a method cache as a time-predictable solution for instruction caching. The method cache caches whole methods (or functions) and simplifies worst-case execution time analysis. We have integrated the method cache in the...
Züttel, Andreas
2004-04-01
Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Thost metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m(-3), and large volumes, where the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff
2003-02-28
The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification......-oriented methods to analysis-oriented methods. Then, Sect. 2, we shall provide a "survey": which are the 'prerequisite works' that have enabled formal methods, Sect. 2.1, and which are, to us, the, by now, classical 'formal methods', Sect. 2.2. We then ask ourselves the question: have formal methods for software...... development, in the sense of this paper been successful? Our answer is, regretfully, no! We motivate this answer, in Sect. 3.2, by discussing eight obstacles or hindrances to the proper integration of formal methods in university research and education as well as in industry practice. This "looking back" is...
Unconventional methods of material cutting
Rusz, Radek
2009-01-01
The present bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of unconventional methods of materials cutting. The thesis is only concerned with the most common and most appropriate methods used in practice. The described methods include cutting by laser, plasma, water jet, electron beam and ultrasound. For each of these methods, the principle of current technologies and technological equipment used for materials cutting in industrial practice is described. This thesis compares the individual methods in...
Explorative methods in linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
2004-01-01
The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....
Computational Methods in Drug Discovery
Sliwoski, Gregory; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Meiler, Jens; Edward W. Lowe
2014-01-01
Computer-aided drug discovery/design methods have played a major role in the development of therapeutically important small molecules for over three decades. These methods are broadly classified as either structure-based or ligand-based methods. Structure-based methods are in principle analogous to high-throughput screening in that both target and ligand structure information is imperative. Structure-based approaches include ligand docking, pharmacophore, and ligand design methods. The articl...
Method Points: towards a metric for method complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Graham McLeod
1998-11-01
Full Text Available A metric for method complexity is proposed as an aid to choosing between competing methods, as well as in validating the effects of method integration or the products of method engineering work. It is based upon a generic method representation model previously developed by the author and adaptation of concepts used in the popular Function Point metric for system size. The proposed technique is illustrated by comparing two popular I.E. deliverables with counterparts in the object oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML. The paper recommends ways to improve the practical adoption of new methods.
Variable metric conjugate gradient methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.
1994-07-01
1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.
Dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use
Ma, Xiaohua
2015-01-08
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an aromatic dianhydride, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride, an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, and the like.
Earthquake prediction by Kina Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Earthquake prediction has been one of the earliest desires of the man. Scientists have worked hard to predict earthquakes for a long time. The results of these efforts can generally be divided into two methods of prediction: 1) Statistical Method, and 2) Empirical Method. In the first method, earthquakes are predicted using statistics and probabilities, while the second method utilizes variety of precursors for earthquake prediction. The latter method is time consuming and more costly. However, the result of neither method has fully satisfied the man up to now. In this paper a new method entitled 'Kiana Method' is introduced for earthquake prediction. This method offers more accurate results yet lower cost comparing to other conventional methods. In Kiana method the electrical and magnetic precursors are measured in an area. Then, the time and the magnitude of an earthquake in the future is calculated using electrical, and in particular, electrical capacitors formulas. In this method, by daily measurement of electrical resistance in an area we make clear that the area is capable of earthquake occurrence in the future or not. If the result shows a positive sign, then the occurrence time and the magnitude can be estimated by the measured quantities. This paper explains the procedure and details of this prediction method. (authors)
Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods
Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia
2011-01-01
The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory ...
Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use
Renard, Laetitia
2014-03-06
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.
Stated preference methods using R
Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo
2014-01-01
Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R
Blindman-Walking Optimization Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunming Li
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Optimization methods are all implemented with the hypothesis of unknowing the mathematic express of objective objection. Using the human analogy innovative method, the one-dimension blind-walking optimal method is proposed in this paper. The theory and the algorithm of this method includes halving, doubling, reversing probing step and verifying the applicability condition. Double-step is available to make current point moving to the extremum point. Half-step is available to accelerate convergence. In order to improve the optimization, the applicability condition decides whether update current point or not. The operation process, algorithmic flow chart and characteristic analysis of the method were given. Two optimization problems with unimodal or multimodal objective function were solved by the proposed method respectively. The simulation result shows that the proposed method is better than the ordinary method. The proposed method has the merit of rapid convergence, little calculation capacity, wide applicable range, etc. Taking the method as innovative kernel, the random research method, feasible direction method and complex shape method were improved. Taking the innovative content of this paper as innovative kernel, a monograph was published. The other innovations of the monograph are listed, such as applied algorithm of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT qualifications on judging the restriction extremum point, the design step of computing software, the complementarity and derivation of Powell criterion, the method of keeping the complex shape not to deduce dimension and the analysis of gradual optimization characteristic, the reinforced wall of inner point punish function method, the analysis of problem with constrained monstrosity extremum point, the improvement of Newton method and the validation of optimization idea of blind walking repeatedly, the explanation of later-day optimization method, the conformity of seeking algorithm needing the
Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach
Xiu, Dongbin
2010-01-01
The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth
Systematization of marketing pricing methods
V.V. Bozhkova; I.M. Ryabchenko
2012-01-01
The methodical aspects of marketing price forming are investigated in the article. Methods of marketing pricing are systematized. The suggestion on the improvement of pricing process for domestic industrial enterprises is given.
Systematization of marketing pricing methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.V. Bozhkova
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The methodical aspects of marketing price forming are investigated in the article. Methods of marketing pricing are systematized. The suggestion on the improvement of pricing process for domestic industrial enterprises is given.
Operator theory and numerical methods
Fujita, H; Suzuki, T
2001-01-01
In accordance with the developments in computation, theoretical studies on numerical schemes are now fruitful and highly needed. In 1991 an article on the finite element method applied to evolutionary problems was published. Following the method, basically this book studies various schemes from operator theoretical points of view. Many parts are devoted to the finite element method, but other schemes and problems (charge simulation method, domain decomposition method, nonlinear problems, and so forth) are also discussed, motivated by the observation that practically useful schemes have fine mathematical structures and the converses are also true. This book has the following chapters: 1. Boundary Value Problems and FEM. 2. Semigroup Theory and FEM. 3. Evolution Equations and FEM. 4. Other Methods in Time Discretization. 5. Other Methods in Space Discretization. 6. Nonlinear Problems. 7. Domain Decomposition Method.
International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS
Benvenuti, Elena
2016-01-01
This book gathers selected contributions on emerging research work presented at the International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS (X-DMS), held in Ferrara in September 2015. It highlights the most relevant advances made at the international level in the context of expanding classical discretization methods, like finite elements, to the numerical analysis of a variety of physical problems. The improvements are intended to achieve higher computational efficiency and to account for special features of the solution directly in the approximation space and/or in the discretization procedure. The methods described include, among others, partition of unity methods (meshfree, XFEM, GFEM), virtual element methods, fictitious domain methods, and special techniques for static and evolving interfaces. The uniting feature of all contributions is the direct link between computational methodologies and their application to different engineering areas.
Formal methods in knowledge engineering.
Harmelen, van, F.; Fensel, D.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by summarising the proclaimed advantages, and by arguing against some of the commonly heard objections against formal methods. We briefly summarise the current state of the art and discuss the most import...
Optimization of Medical Teaching Methods
Wang Fei
2015-01-01
In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teac...
Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis
Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1991-01-01
This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.
Agile methods in Project Management
Hradil, Petr
2010-01-01
The aim of this study is to analyze chosen Agile Methods in Project Management. First the SCRUM method is explained and described. Next, the Extreme Programming (XP) method of software development is reviewed. The survey on the topic is conducted with regard to the success perception of the projects. The empirical case study is used to as an example where the agile methods can be successfully used and recommendations are described.
Pixe method as microanalytical instrument
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) as analytical method presenting the evolution, the theoretical fundaments, the detection limit, the optimization for operational conditions is evaluated. The applications of the method to air pollution control and aerosol studies in regions such as Antartic, Amazon and other regions are analysed. (M.C.K.)
Activity based costing (ABC Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.
Methods of decontaminating metal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decontamination methods are discussed for internal and external surfaces of facilities and spaces in nuclear power plants. The problem area is divided into mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, steam emulsion and dry methods. For each group of methods the principle, most suitable application and effectiveness are given. (B.S.)
Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in
Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.
2014-01-01
Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as
Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics
Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.
2016-04-01
We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.
The Plastic Tension Field Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas
method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed, but...
Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics
Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Kadyrov, A S; Kruppa, A; Pang, D Y
2015-01-01
We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.
Method for isolating nucleic acids
Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.
2015-09-29
The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.
Evaluation of modal testing methods
Chen, J.-C.
1984-01-01
Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.
Models and methods in thermoluminescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work contains a conference that was treated about the principles of the luminescence phenomena, the mathematical treatment concerning the thermoluminescent emission of light as well as the Randall-Wilkins model, the Garlick-Gibson model, the Adirovitch model, the May-Partridge model, the Braunlich-Scharman model, the mixed first and second order kinetics, the methods for evaluating the kinetics parameters such as the initial rise method, the various heating rates method, the isothermal decay method and those methods based on the analysis of the glow curve shape. (Author)
Models and methods in thermoluminescence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furetta, C. [ICN, UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2005-07-01
This work contains a conference that was treated about the principles of the luminescence phenomena, the mathematical treatment concerning the thermoluminescent emission of light as well as the Randall-Wilkins model, the Garlick-Gibson model, the Adirovitch model, the May-Partridge model, the Braunlich-Scharman model, the mixed first and second order kinetics, the methods for evaluating the kinetics parameters such as the initial rise method, the various heating rates method, the isothermal decay method and those methods based on the analysis of the glow curve shape. (Author)
Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.)
Elliott, Brian
2010-09-14
Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.
Differentiation method for phase recovery
Özcan, Meriç
2015-03-01
Here we consider a derivative based method for phase recovery and demonstrate a numerical method that can be described as differentiate and cross multiply operation to obtain the phase gradient. This method uses quadrature phase data that is in sine and cosine form, which is a natural outcome many interferometric measurements including that of digital holographic reconstruction. Since the differentiation is performed on trigonometric functions which are discrete, it is shown that the method of differentiation and the sampling rate are important considerations especially for the noise corrupt signals. The method is initially developed for 1D phase signals, and then later extended to 2D. Noise performance of the method is also investigated, and it is shown that for extremely noisy signals the method can be adapted to an iteration routine which recovers the phase successfully. We present simulations and the experimental results which show the validity of the approach.
An Extended Keyword Extraction Method
Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng
Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.
The Plastic Tension Field Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas
2005-01-01
This paper describes a calculation method for steel plate girders with transverse web stiffeners subjected to shear. It may be used for predicting the failure load or, as a design method, to determine the optimal amount of internal web stiffeners. The new method is called the plastic tension field...... method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed, but....... The emphasis is attached to the presentation of a design method based on the diagonal tension field theory. Also, how to determine the load-carrying capacity of a given steel plate girder with transverse web stiffeners, is briefly presented. The load-carrying capacity may be predicted by applying both...
LC-MS/MS Method for Serum Creatinine: Comparison with Enzymatic Method and Jaffe Method
Ou, Meixian; Song, Yunxiao; Li, Shuijun; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Zhang, Menqi; Zhang, Haichen; YU, CHEN
2015-01-01
Accurate quantification of creatinine (Cre) is important to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Differences among various methods of Cre quantification were previously noted. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for serum Cre and compare this method with clinical routine methods. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with an Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system. After adding ...
User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method
Wilson, Chauncey
2014-01-01
User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the
From the scientific method to the clinical method: theoretical considerations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Hernández Hernández
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The scientific method is a general method composed of several stages necessary for the development of any scientific research. It is the focus to approach reality and to study natural phenomenon, reality itself and thoughts in order to find their essence and interrelationships. The clinical method is the particular application of the scientific method and in the present economic conditions its use is crucial because of the advantages that it reports from this point of view, as well as for the wellbeing of the patient.
Methods of albedo electron densimetry. 1. Single-channel methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorokin, V.B. (Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehlektronnoj Introskopii)
1981-10-01
Single-channel methods of densimetry of solid bodies according to fast monoenergetic electron backscattering are considered. Alongside with the well-known integral method, permitting to indirectly control the density of certain non-porous materials by means of the measurement of the effective atomic number, the methods of the direct control of density, applicable for porous materials, are discussed. The effect of fluctuations of solid substance composition on the results of the direct control of density of porous materials using the single-channel methods is evaluated.
The WST method, a fracture mechanics test method for FRC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lofgren, I.; Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes
2008-01-01
The applicability of the wedge-splitting test method (WST), for determining fracture properties of fibre-reinforced concrete, is discussed. Experimental results, using the WST method, are compared with results from uniaxial tension tests (UTT) and three-point bending tests (3PBT) for five different...... FRC compositions. Furthermore, for the WST method, two different specimen sizes have been investigated. Results from this investigation demonstrate the applicability of the WST method and show that the scatter of the test results is lower than for the 3PBT. Through inverse analysis, stress...
The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials
Shreider, YuA
1966-01-01
The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio
Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rewaria S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible Ion chromatography method has been developed forthe estimation of Methane sulfonic acid in Busulfan injectable dosage. The method which is developedis also validated in complete compliance with the current regulatory guidelines by using well developedanalytical method validation techniques and tools which comprises with the analytical method validationparameters like Linearity, LOD and LOQ determination, Accuracy, Method precision, Specificity,System suitability, Robustness, Ruggedness etc. by adopting the current method the linearity obtained isnear to 0.999 and thus this shows that the method is capable to give a good detector response, therecovery calculated was within the range of 85% to 115% of the specification limits.
Factorization Method in Quantum Mechanics
Dong, Shi-Hai
2007-01-01
This Work introduces the factorization method in quantum mechanics at an advanced level with an aim to put mathematical and physical concepts and techniques like the factorization method, Lie algebras, matrix elements and quantum control at the Reader’s disposal. For this purpose a comprehensive description is provided of the factorization method and its wide applications in quantum mechanics which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks. Related to this classic method are the supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariant potentials and group theoretical approaches. It is no exaggeration to say that this method has become the milestone of these approaches. In fact the Author’s driving force has been his desire to provide a comprehensive review volume that includes some new and significant results about the factorization method in quantum mechanics since the literature is inundated with scattered articles in this field, and to pave the Reader’s way into ...
Adjunct methods for caries detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar;
2012-01-01
scientific evidence for diagnostic accuracy regarding fiber-optic methods and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (+OOO). The electrical methods and laser fluorescence could be useful adjuncts to visual-tactile and radiographic examinations, especially on occlusal surfaces in permanent and primary molars......Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...... independently by two reviewers. The study characteristics were compiled in tables and quality graded according to the QUADAS tool. The level of evidence for each diagnostic technology (fiber-optic methods, fluorescence methods, electrical methods) was based on studies of high or moderate quality according to...
Numerical methods for phase retrieval
Osherovich, Eliyahu
2012-01-01
In this work we consider the problem of reconstruction of a signal from the magnitude of its Fourier transform, also known as phase retrieval. The problem arises in many areas of astronomy, crystallography, optics, and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). Our main goal is to develop an efficient reconstruction method based on continuous optimization techniques. Unlike current reconstruction methods, which are based on alternating projections, our approach leads to a much faster and more robust method. However, all previous attempts to employ continuous optimization methods, such as Newton-type algorithms, to the phase retrieval problem failed. In this work we provide an explanation for this failure, and based on this explanation we devise a sufficient condition that allows development of new reconstruction methods---approximately known Fourier phase. We demonstrate that a rough (up to $\\pi/2$ radians) Fourier phase estimate practically guarantees successful reconstruction by any reasonable method. We also pres...
Indication method of irradiated meat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An injury of Chromosome DNA of irradiated meat was indicated by mitochondria DNA (mt DNA) method. Sample was irradiated by 60Co-γ ray at 6 kGy/h of dose rate at 0degC. Mitochondria DNA was obtained by the mitochondria partition method and analyzed by an electrophoresis method. mt DNA of irradiated ox liver can be indicated by PCR method, restriction enzyme method and supercoil/ring opening comparative method. However, the other meat such as chicken and other parts of meat could not be indicated depends on large fat content. About 4 kGy irradiation on liver can indicate whether it was irradiated or not. (S.Y.)
Multivariate methods for particle identification
Visan, Cosmin
2013-01-01
The purpose of this project was to evaluate several MultiVariate methods in order to determine which one, if any, offers better results in Particle Identification (PID) than a simple n$\\sigma$ cut on the response of the ALICE PID detectors. The particles considered in the analysis were Pions, Kaons and Protons and the detectors used were TPC and TOF. When used with the same input n$\\sigma$ variables, the results show similar perfoance between the Rectangular Cuts Optimization method and the simple n$\\sigma$ cuts. The method MLP and BDT show poor results for certain ranges of momentum. The KNN method is the best performing, showing similar results for Pions and Protons as the Cuts method, and better results for Kaons. The extension of the methods to include additional input variables leads to poor results, related to instabilities still to be investigated.
Adaptive Integral Method for Higher Order Method of Moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter
2008-01-01
The adaptive integral method (AIM) is combined with the higher order method of moments (MoM) to solve integral equations. The technique takes advantage of the low computational complexity and memory requirements of the AIM and the reduced number of unknowns and higher order convergence of higher...
Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning
Wheeldon, J.
2010-01-01
This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…
Quantitative Methods for Teaching Review
Irina Milnikova; Tamara Shioshvili
2011-01-01
A new method of quantitative evaluation of teaching processes is elaborated. On the base of scores data, the method permits to evaluate efficiency of teaching within one group of students and comparative teaching efficiency in two or more groups. As basic characteristics of teaching efficiency heterogeneity, stability and total variability indices both for only one group and for comparing different groups are used. The method is easy to use and permits to rank results of teaching review which...
Entropy-based benchmarking methods
Temurshoev, Umed
2012-01-01
We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...
Numerical optimization methods in economics
Schmedders, K.
2008-01-01
Optimization problems are ubiquitous in economics. Many of these problems are sufficiently complex that they cannot be solved analytically. Instead economists need to resort to numerical methods. This article presents the most commonly used methods for both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems in economics; it emphasizes the solid theoretical foundation of these methods, illustrating them with examples. The presentation includes a summary of the most popular software packages f...
Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism
Campbell, John
2010-01-01
Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of...
Comparison of Topographic Correction Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudolf Richter
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A comparison of topographic correction methods is conducted for Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+, and SPOT-5 imagery from different geographic areas and seasons. Three successful and known methods are compared: the semi-empirical C correction, the Gamma correction depending on the incidence and exitance angles, and a modified Minnaert approach. In the majority of cases the modified Minnaert approach performed best, but no method is superior in all cases.
A Voltage Quality Detection Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu
2008-01-01
This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....
Method of manufacturing superconductor wire
Motowidlo, Leszek
2014-09-16
A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.
Methods of Mitigating Double Taxation
Lindhe, Tobias
2002-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing methods of mitigating double taxation of corporate income within a standard cost of capital model. Two of the most well-known and most utilized methods, the imputation and the split rate systems, do not mitigate double taxation in corporations where the marginal investment is financed with retained earnings. However, all methods are effective when the marginal investment is financed with new share issues. The corporate tax rate, fiscal ...
Regression methods for medical research
Tai, Bee Choo
2013-01-01
Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the
The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power
Multiplicative Runge-Kutta Methods
Aktöre, Hatice
2011-01-01
ABSTRACT: In this thesis the multiplicative Runge-Kutta Method is developed employing the idea of the ordinary Runge-Kutta Method to multiplicative calculus. The multiplicative Runge-Kutta Methods for the orders 2,3, and 4 are developed and discussed. The developed algorithms are applied to examples where the solutions of the Ordinary Differential Equations are known. This gives the opportunity to check the relative error of the calculation reliably. The results in the multiplicative case are...
Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods
Boyd, John P
2001-01-01
Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.
Methods of component mode synthesis
Craig, R. R., Jr.
1977-01-01
A generalized substructure coupling, or component mode synthesis, procedure is described. Specific methods, applications, and such special topics as damping and experimental verification are surveyed.
Optimization of Medical Teaching Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Fei
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teaching ideas and teaching concepts provide a theoretical basis.
Methods to establish flaw tolerances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three conventional methods used to establish flaw tolerances are compared with new approaches using fracture mechanics. The conventional methods are those based on (a) non-destructive testing methods; (b) fabrication and quality assurance experience; and (c) service and damage experience. Pre-requisites of fracture mechanics methods are outlined, and summaries given of linear elastic mechanics (LEFM) and elastoplastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). The latter includes discussion of C.O.D.(crack opening displacement), the J-integral and equivalent energy. Proposals are made for establishing flaw tolerances. (U.K.)
Metathesis catalysts and methods thereof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schrock, Richard Royce; Yuan, Jian
2016-04-19
The present application provides, among other things, novel compounds for metathesis reactions, and methods for preparing and using provided compounds. In some embodiments, the present invention provides compounds having the structure of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for preparing a compound of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for using a provided compound. In some embodiments, a provided compound is useful for stereoselective ring-opening metathesis polymerization. In some embodiments, a provided metathesis method provides cis and/or isotactic polymers.
Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.
2010-09-21
Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"
Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…
Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Hans Bruun
1989-01-01
formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...
Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles
Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.
2014-01-01
This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocap
Fluorescence nanoscopy. Methods and applications
Requejo-Isidro, Jose
2013-01-01
Fluorescence nanoscopy refers to the experimental techniques and analytical methods used for fluorescence imaging at a resolution higher than conventional, diffraction-limited, microscopy. This review explains the concepts behind fluorescence nanoscopy and focuses on the latest and promising developments in acquisition techniques, labelling strategies to obtain highly detailed super-resolved images and in the quantitative methods to extract meaningful information from them.
Method of making optoelectric devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
A method of preparing an optoelectric device, comprising: (a) providing a substrate on which is formed a first electrode layer; (b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) forming a film of a coating ink comprising zinc acetate in aqueous solution; ii) drying the...
Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies
Terrell, Steven R.
2012-01-01
Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…
Symmetric Encapsulated Multi-Methods
Lievens, David
2011-01-01
In object systems, classes take the role of modules, and interfaces consist of methods. Because methods are encapsulated in objects, interfaces in object systems do not allow abstracting over \\emph{where} methods are implemented. This implies that any change to the implementation structure may cause a rippling effect. Sometimes this unduly restricts the scope of software evolution, in particular for methods with multiple parameters where there is no clear owner. We propose a simple scheme where symmetric methods may be defined in the classes of any of their parameters. This allows client code to be oblivious of what class contains a method implementation, and therefore immune against it changing. When combined with multiple dynamic dispatch, this scheme allows for modular extensibility where a method defined in one class is overridden by a method defined in a class that is not its subtype. In this paper, we illustrate the scheme by extending a core calculus of class-based languages with these symmetric encaps...
Ground-penetrating radar methods
Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...
Inspection methods and their selection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First those nondestructive testing methods, which are used in quality assurance, are to be treated, e.g. - ultrasonics - radiography - magnetic particle testing - dye penetrant testing - eddy currents, and their capabilities and limitations are shown. Second the selection of optimal testing methods under the aspect of defect recognition in different materials and components are shown. (orig./RW)
Automated methods of corrosion measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch;
1997-01-01
to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin
2009-01-01
We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating rapidly reconfigurable multiple beams. As a phase-only spatially filtering extension of the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arr...... arrays with high light efficiency for optical manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....
Electrochemical method for transferring graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The present application discloses a method for separating a graphene-support layer laminate from a conducting substrate-graphene-support layer laminate, using a gentle, controllable electrochemical method. In this way, substrates which are fragile, expensive or difficult to manufacture can be used...... - and even re-used - without damage or destruction of the substrate or the graphene....
Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang
2016-04-05
Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.
A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....
Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers
Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations
Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.
1982-01-01
An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.
Heinlein, Christian
2005-01-01
The concept of dynamic class methods in Java, constituting a specialization of a general new programming language concept called dynamic routines, is introduced and applied to a simple case study. Its advantages over standard object-oriented programming techniques including design patterns are demonstrated. Furthermore, an implementation of dynamic class methods as a precompiler-based language extension to Java is described.
Looking back: the Delft method
Makkink, H.
2007-01-01
One of the more unexpected innovations to come out of Delft is an unconventional method for teaching a second language. Developed 25 years ago by the applied linguistics section, the Delft method has proved highly effective, provided, that is, the students do their homework. You learn a language by
New Synthetic Method of Ciprofloxacin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A new synthetic method of ciprofloxacin is started with 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone, via oxaly lation, ethoxymethylenation, amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and piperazination. The reaction temperature is moderate and the operation is easily controlled. Additional four new compounds are prepared by the method.
New Synthetic Method of Ciprofloxacin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈英奇; 戴立言
2001-01-01
A new synthetic method of ciprofloxacin is started with 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone, via oxaly-lation, ethoxymethylenation, amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and piperazination. The reaction temperature is moderate and the operation is easily controlled. Additional four new compounds are prepared by the method.
Prediction Method for Regional Logistics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Ying; LU Huapu; WANG Haiwei
2008-01-01
Currently applied prediction methods of regional freight traffic and freight ton-kilometer forecasting were analyzed using typical Chinese regional goods transportation characteristics.The review of prediction methods showes that practical planning experts tend to apply the traditional methods which are easier to implement.The comparison also demonstrates that a combination of traditional methods is more effective than the simple models for practical planning.Research using the statistical data for the Yangtze Delta,Pearl River Delta,and Bohai Rim areas shows that ignoring differences between transport modes impacts the prediction accuracy.The four main transport modes suit different methods.The results show that the power model is better for railways,and the linear model is better for highways and waterways.Thus a combined model gives better results for all modes.The results for regional systems can be generalized to national transportation systems.
Neutronics computational methods for cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This engineering-oriented publication contains a detailed presentation of neutronics computational methods for cores. More precisely, it presents neutronics equations: Boltzmann equation for neutron transport, resolution principles, use of high performance computing. The next parts present the problematic (values to be computed, computation software and methods), nuclear data and their processing. Then the authors describe the application of the Monte Carlo method to reactor physics: resolution of the transport equation by the Monte Carlo method, convergence of a Monte Carlo calculation and notion of quality factor, and software. Deterministic methods are then addressed: discretization, processing of resonant absorption, network calculations, core calculation, deterministic software, fuel evolution, and kinetics. The next chapter addresses multi-physical aspects: necessity of a coupling, principles of neutronic/thermal hydraulic coupling, example of an accidental transient. The last part addresses the checking approach, and neutronics computational code validation
Approximation methods in probability theory
Čekanavičius, Vydas
2016-01-01
This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.
Meshless Methods in Solid Mechanics
Chen, Youping; Eskandarian, Azim
2006-01-01
Finite element method has been the dominant technique in computational mechanics in the past decades, and it has made significant contributions to the developments in engineering and science. Nevertheless, finite element method is not well suited to problems having severe mesh distortion owing to extremely large deformations of materials, encountering moving discontinuities such as crack propagation along arbitrary and complex paths, involving considerable meshing and re-meshing in structural optimization problems, or having multidomain of influence in multi-phenomenon physical problems. It is impossible to completely overcome those mesh-related difficulties by a mesh-based method. The highly structured nature of finite element approximations imposes severe penalties in the solutions of those problems. Distinguishing with finite element, finite difference and finite volume methods, meshless method discretizes the continuum body only with a set of nodal points and the approximation is constructed entirely in t...
Monte Carlo Methods in Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Method of Monte Carlo integration is reviewed briefly and some of its applications in physics are explained. A numerical experiment on random generators used in the monte Carlo techniques is carried out to show the behavior of the randomness of various methods in generating them. To account for the weight function involved in the Monte Carlo, the metropolis method is used. From the results of the experiment, one can see that there is no regular patterns of the numbers generated, showing that the program generators are reasonably good, while the experimental results, shows a statistical distribution obeying statistical distribution law. Further some applications of the Monte Carlo methods in physics are given. The choice of physical problems are such that the models have available solutions either in exact or approximate values, in which comparisons can be mode, with the calculations using the Monte Carlo method. Comparison show that for the models to be considered, good agreement have been obtained
Creativity Methods in Interaction Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim
2010-01-01
The field of interaction design encompasses a variety of methods for fostering innovation and creativity. In this paper, we present a selection of such methods that scaffold ideation and concept development in the early phases of design. As a conceptual frame for discussing these methods, we...... introduce four aspects that are particularly salient in the field of interaction design: tradition and transcendence, convergence and divergence, degree of structure, and sources of inspiration. We then outline how the methods relate to each of these aspects. The paper contributes to design practitioners by...... providing an overview of the methods and insights into when and how they may be employed to foster creativity and innovation in the design process; with regards to design research, the main contribution of the paper lies in the establishment and discussion of the four aspects as a frame for analyzing and...
Vortex methods and vortex statistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chorin, A.J.
1993-05-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.
Vortex methods and vortex statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (''blobs'') and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ''blob'' methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena
Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Information is provided on the techniques employed towards the chemical analysis of volatile, semi-volatile matter, pesticides and PCB's at the Hanford Reservation. Sample preparation methods are included
The Doctrinal Method: Incorporating Interdisciplinary Methods in Reforming the Law
Hutchinson, Terry
2015-01-01
textabstractThe doctrinal methodology is in a period of change and transition. Realising that the scope of the doctrinal method is too constricting, academic lawyers are becoming eclectic in their use of research method. In this transitional time, legal scholars are increasingly infusing evidence (and meth- ods) from other disciplines into their reasoning to bolster their reform recommendations. This article considers three examples of the interplay of the discipline of law with other discipl...
Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods
Chandler, Jackie; Hopewell, Sally
2013-01-01
: This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discu...
A Natural Method for Family Planning: Lactational Amenorrhea Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayten Senturk Erenel
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390
New Methods of Celestial Mechanics
Poincare, Henri; Goroff, David
Edited by Daniel Goroff, Harvard University This English-language edition of Poincare's landmark work is of interest not only to historians of science, but also to mathematicians. Beginning from an investigation of the three-body problem of Newtonian mechanics, Poincare lays the foundations of the qualitative solutions of differential equations. To investigate the long-unsolved problem of the stability of the Solar System, Poincare invented a number of new techniques including canonical transformations, asymptotic series expansions, and integral invariants. These "new methods" are even now finding applications in chaos and other contemporary disciplines. Contents: Volume I: Periodic and asymptotic solutions: Introduction by Daniel Goroff. Generalities and the Jacobi method. Series integration. Periodic solutions. Characteristic exponents. Nonexistence of uniform integrals. Approximate development of the perturbative function. Asymptotic solutions. Volume II: Approximations by series: Formal calculus. Methods of Newcomb and Lindstedt. Application to the study of secular variations. Application to the three-body problem. Application to orbits. Divergence of the Lindstedt series. Direct calculation of the series. Other methods of direct calculation. Gylden methods. Case of linear equations. Bohlin methods. Bohlin series. Extension of the Bohlin method. Volume III: Integral invariants and asymptotic properties of certain solutions: Integral invariants. Formation of invariants. Use of integral invariants. Integral invariants and asymptotic solutions. Poisson stability. Theory of consequents. Periodic solutions of the second kind. Different forms of the principle of least action.
Spatial statistical methods in health
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bailey Trevor C.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the geographical distribution of disease incidence and its relationship to potential risk factors (referred to here as ''geographical epidemiology" has provided, and continues to provide, rich ground for the application and development of statistical methods and models. In recent years increasingly powerful and versatile statistical tools have been developed in this application area. This paper discusses the general classes of problem in geographical epidemiology and reviews the key statistical methods now being employed in each of the application areas identified. The paper does not attempt to exhaustively cover all possible methods and models, but extensive references are provided to further details and to additional approaches. The overall aim is to provide a picture of the "current state of the art" in the use of spatial statistical methods in epidemiological and public health research. Following the review of methods, the main software environments which are available to implement such methods are discussed. The paper concludes with some brief general reflections on the epidemiological and public health implications of the use of spatial statistical methods in health and on associated benefits and problems.
Electromagnetic methods of nondestructive testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent developments (both in the United States and Europe) in the field of electromagnetic nondestructive testing methods and also show how numerical analysis techniques can provide a generic modeling procedure. Topics discussed include applications of numerical field modeling to electromagnetic methods of nondestructive testing, multifrequency eddy current examination of heat exchanger tubing, pulsed eddy current flaw detection and flaw characterization, and current practice in the use of electromagnetic nondestructive defect inspection methods in Europe
Beyer, Hugh
2010-01-01
With the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing relationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being disrupted. Agile methods introduce new concepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user), short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals fit in this new world? Agile methods also bring a new mindset -- no big design, no specifications, minimal planning -- which conflict with the needs of UX design. This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UX community and describes strategie
Machine learning methods for planning
Minton, Steven
1993-01-01
Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi
Deuff, Dominique
2013-01-01
Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec
Nonparametric statistical methods using R
Kloke, John
2014-01-01
A Practical Guide to Implementing Nonparametric and Rank-Based ProceduresNonparametric Statistical Methods Using R covers traditional nonparametric methods and rank-based analyses, including estimation and inference for models ranging from simple location models to general linear and nonlinear models for uncorrelated and correlated responses. The authors emphasize applications and statistical computation. They illustrate the methods with many real and simulated data examples using R, including the packages Rfit and npsm.The book first gives an overview of the R language and basic statistical c
A Tutorial on Heuristic Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Werra, D. de; Silver, E.
1980-01-01
In this paper we define a heuristic method as a procedure for solving a well-defined mathematical problem by an intuitive approach in which the structure of the problem can be interpreted and exploited intelligently to obtain a reasonable solution. Issues discussed include: (i) the measurement of...... the quality of a heuristic method, (ii) different types of heuristic procedures, (iii) the interactive role of human beings and (iv) factors that may influence the choice or testing of heuristic methods. A large number of references are included....
Statistical methods for physical science
Stanford, John L
1994-01-01
This volume of Methods of Experimental Physics provides an extensive introduction to probability and statistics in many areas of the physical sciences, with an emphasis on the emerging area of spatial statistics. The scope of topics covered is wide-ranging-the text discusses a variety of the most commonly used classical methods and addresses newer methods that are applicable or potentially important. The chapter authors motivate readers with their insightful discussions, augmenting their material withKey Features* Examines basic probability, including coverage of standard distributions, time s
Computational Methods For Composite Structures
Chamis, Christos C.
1988-01-01
Selected methods of computation for simulation of mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix composite materials described in report. For each method, report describes significance of behavior to be simulated, procedure for simulation, and representative results. Following applications discussed: effects of progressive degradation of interply layers on responses of composite structures, dynamic responses of notched and unnotched specimens, interlaminar fracture toughness, progressive fracture, thermal distortions of sandwich composite structure, and metal-matrix composite structures for use at high temperatures. Methods demonstrate effectiveness of computational simulation as applied to complex composite structures in general and aerospace-propulsion structural components in particular.
Computational Methods Development at Ames
Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.
METHODS FOR TESTING DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriana ZAIŢ
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The study presents three methods which can be used to assess discriminant validity for multi-item scales. Q-sorting is presented as a method that can be used in early stages of research, being more exploratory, while the chi-square difference test and the average variance extracted analysis are recommended for the confirmatory stages of research. The paper describes briefly the three methods and presents evidence from two surveys that aimed to develop a scale for measuring perceived risk in e-commerce.
Pattern classification using ensemble methods
Rokach, Lior
2009-01-01
Researchers from various disciplines such as pattern recognition, statistics, and machine learning have explored the use of ensemble methodology since the late seventies. Thus, they are faced with a wide variety of methods, given the growing interest in the field. This book aims to impose a degree of order upon this diversity by presenting a coherent and unified repository of ensemble methods, theories, trends, challenges and applications. The book describes in detail the classical methods, as well as the extensions and novel approaches developed recently. Along with algorithmic descriptions o
Lectures on the coupling method
Lindvall, Torgny
2002-01-01
An important tool in probability theory and its applications, the coupling method is primarily used in estimates of total variation distances. The method also works well in establishing inequalities, and it has proven highly successful in the study of Markov and renewal process asymptotics. This text represents a detailed, comprehensive examination of the method and its broad variety of applications. Readers progress from simple to advanced topics, with end-of-discussion notes that reinforce the preceding material. Topics include renewal theory, Markov chains, Poisson approximation, ergodicity
Optical switches and switching methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doty, Michael
2008-03-04
A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.
Ensemble Methods Foundations and Algorithms
Zhou, Zhi-Hua
2012-01-01
An up-to-date, self-contained introduction to a state-of-the-art machine learning approach, Ensemble Methods: Foundations and Algorithms shows how these accurate methods are used in real-world tasks. It gives you the necessary groundwork to carry out further research in this evolving field. After presenting background and terminology, the book covers the main algorithms and theories, including Boosting, Bagging, Random Forest, averaging and voting schemes, the Stacking method, mixture of experts, and diversity measures. It also discusses multiclass extension, noise tolerance, error-ambiguity a
Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis
Sachkov, Vladimir N
2014-01-01
This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist
Psychological methods of employee selection
Víchová, Gabriela
2012-01-01
This thesis focuses on employee selection methods, it´s brief characteristics and practical use, so that the selected method is to the most appropriate level applied on specific requi-rements during the employee selection process. Theoretical part introduction represents a brief overview of employee selection alternati-ves, preparation for the process from both employer´s and employee´s point of view. We will make a note on the historical development of employee selection methods. We will ...
Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles
Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M
2013-02-12
A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.
New methods of concurrent checking
Goessel, Michael; Sogomonyan, Egor; Marienfeld, Daniel
2008-01-01
Written by a team of two leading experts and two very successful young former PhD students, New Methods of Concurrent Checking describes new methods of concurrent checking, such as partial duplication, use of output dependencies, complementary circuits, self-dual parity, self-dual duplication and others. A special chapter demonstrates how the new general methods of concurrent checking can be more specifically applied to regular structures to obtain optimum results. This is exemplified for all types of adders up to 64 bits with a level of detail never before presented in the literature. The cle
Baaz, Matthias
2011-01-01
This is the first book on cut-elimination in first-order predicate logic from an algorithmic point of view. Instead of just proving the existence of cut-free proofs, it focuses on the algorithmic methods transforming proofs with arbitrary cuts to proofs with only atomic cuts (atomic cut normal forms, so-called ACNFs). The first part investigates traditional reductive methods from the point of view of proof rewriting. Within this general framework, generalizations of Gentzen's and Sch\\"utte-Tait's cut-elimination methods are defined and shown terminating with ACNFs of the original proof. M
Manufacturing method of photonic crystal
Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang
2013-01-29
A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.
Integral equation methods for electromagnetics
Volakis, John
2012-01-01
This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo
Formal Methods: Practice and Experience
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan;
2009-01-01
Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting on a....... Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate the...
Terrorism Financing Methods: An Overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Freeman
2013-08-01
Full Text Available How do terrorists move money? This article examines six of the most widely used methods: cash couriers, informal transfer systems (e.g. hawala, money service businesses, formal banking, false trade invoicing, and high value commodities. When terrorists move money, they choose methods that take into account issues of: volume, risk, convenience, simplicity, costs, and speed. This article analyzes the methods according to these issues. It draws on multiple cases and examples, including the most recent cases of Hezbollah’s and al Shabaab’s use of money service businesses, and many others.
SIMULATION OF THE COMBINED METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya Levin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available DDoS attacks have become one of the most dangerous issues in the Internet today. Because of theseattacks, legitimate users can not access the resources they need. In [1] authors proposeda combined method for tracing and blocking the sources of DDoS-attacks. The essence of the method isthat each router marks the network packet that passes through it using a random hash function from theset. At the receiving side this information is stored and used to filter unwanted traffic and traceback thesource of distributed attack. This article describes the simulation and its results of the combined method.
Selection Method for COTS Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo
2014-01-01
requires new skills and methods supporting the process of evaluating and selecting information systems. This paper presents a method for selecting COTS systems. The method includes the following phases: problem framing, requirements and appraisal, and selection of systems. The idea and distinguishing...... approaching the selection of COTS systems as viewing them as a ‘means’ to reach organizational ‘ends’ is different from the mainstream views of information systems development, namely the view that sees information systems development as a problem-solving process, and the underlying ontological view in other...... feature behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational ‘ends’ or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends’ (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means’ (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way of...
[Alternative treatment methods in ENT].
Friese, K H
1997-08-01
In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666
Tree Formation Using Coordinate Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Choudhary
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we are introducing a new method of tree formation, we propose a coordinate based method by which we can store and access tree structures. As we know in NLP, parsing is the most important module. The output of this module is generally parsed trees. Currently, TAG (Tree Adjoining Grammar is widely used grammar due to its linguistic and formal nature. It is simply tree generating system. The unit structure used in TAG is structured trees. So we used our new method to store trees where we worked on English to Hindi language. We worked on different sentences from English to Hindi, our method is the easiest way to manipulate tree. We have implemented within small corpus and for finite number of structures and further can be extended in future.
Decontamination method for radioactive waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metallic radioactive wastes are immersed in a liquid nitrogen vessel above a freezing crusher and they are frozen to about -196degC. Then, impact shocks are applied to crush the radioactive wastes frozen by a rotary shearing shock crusher disposed below the freezing crusher. The thus obtained crushed materials are sent to a decontamination device and decontaminated. In this case, since the objective materials are crushed, any of a blast decontamination method, an electrolytic polishing decontamination method, a redox decontamination method and a chemical agent immersion decontamination method can be applied. Thereafter, the dose of remaining radioactivity of the decontaminated crushed materials is measured. With such procedures, the decontamination and the subsequent measurement for the radiation contamination dose can easily and certainly be conducted for metallic radioactive wastes such as pipes of a small diameter and complicated structures. (I.N.)
Methods of core neutronic calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Core neutronic calculations lead to the determination of geometry, composition, controls systems and to the core exploitation limits in agreement with the expected performances, with safety rules, technological choices and fuel management methods. Neutronic calculations object are described with physics justifications of hypothesis and approximations. A description and a definition of reactivity and power distribution are also given. A panorama of calculation methods used in the conception of fast breeder and pressure water reactors, are described with numerical aspects and general interest considerations related to the field of these methods and to the industrial options chosen. A complete industrial uses panorama of methods derived from the classical or generalized perturbation theory is followed by the qualification and the definition of the validity field of numerical codes.(A.B.). 88 refs., 6 figs
A new vehicle detection method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zebbara Khalid
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.
Method of operating centrifugal clarifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present invention concerns a method of operating a centrifugal clarifier for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. That is, clarified liquid containing useful ingredients dissolved therein and sludge ingredients are separated centrifugally by rotating a bottom-opened cylindrical bawl. In this case, the rotation of the cylindrical bawl is stopped to discharge and recover the clarified liquid remaining in the bawl from the bottom thereof. Further, sludge deposition layers are left in the bawl and they are rinsed to recover the useful ingredients. With this method, it is possible to reduce the amount of the rinsing liquid used as compared with the conventional method and also shorten the rinsing operation time compared with the conventional method. Furthermore, since useful ingredients contained in the sludge depositions, for example, U and Pu solutions can be recovered, their losses can be reduced remarkably. (I.S.)
Evaluation methods for hospital facilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fronczek-Munter, Aneta
2013-01-01
according to focus areas and proposes which evaluation methods to use in different building phases of healthcare facilities. Hospital evaluations with experts and users are also considered; their subjective view on space, function, technology, usability and aesthetics. Results & solutions: This paper...... presents the different methods for evaluating buildings in use in a new model, the Evaluation Focus Flower, and proposes which evaluation methods are suitable for various aims and building phases, i.e. which is giving best input for the initial briefing process of new hospital facilities with ambition of...... creating buildings with enhanced usability. Additionally various evaluation methods used in hospital cases in Denmark and Norway are presented. Involvement of users is proposed, not just in defining requirements but also in co-creation/design and evaluation of solutions. The theories and preliminary...
Karst groundwaters vulnerability assessment methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Vlaicu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A major socio-economic and scientific issue is represented by karst hydrostructures vulnerability mapping, which qualitatively and quantitatively highlights their exposure degree. Two research trends have been developed, one taking into account the environment features exclusively – the aquifer and protective cover type, permeability, aquifer depth, recharge rate, etc. (intrinsic vulnerability, the other focused on the types and quantities of pollutants (specific vulnerability. MAGIERA (2000 described and compared 69 methods, grouped in 5 types: hydrogeological complex and setting methods, index models and analogical relations (AF, AVI, Ekv, ΔhT’, parametric system models (DRASTIC, DWSAP, SINTACS, EPPNA, GOD, EPIK, REKS, PI, GSI, GLA, mathematical models (VULK, FAVA and statistical methods (CALVUL. However, it is also possible to classify the methods on the basis of other criteria, such as scale (local, regional, national, aim (land use planning, protection zoning, site assessment and target (source or resource vulnerability.
Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frølunde, Lisbeth
2014-01-01
methods are exemplified through two university classroom cases about collaborative idea generation processes. The visual methods and materials in the cases are photo elicitation using photo cards, and modeling with LEGO Serious Play sets. Why. The goal is to encourage the reader, whether student or...... professional, to facilitate with visual methods in a critical, reflective, and experimental way. The chapter offers recommendations for facilitating with visual methods to support playful, emergent designerly processes. The chapter also has a critical, situated perspective. Where. This chapter offers case...... vignettes that refer to design-oriented workshops where student groups generate ideas, such as for a campaign. The cases are set at Roskilde University. How. There are recommendations on how to facilitate workshops and develop your own practice as a reflexive facilitator. Some of the typical facilitation...
Molecular subtyping methods for campylobacter
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparative genome ind...
Data transmission system and method
Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.
Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods
... per 100 women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male ... for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...
Graph modeling systems and methods
Neergaard, Mike
2015-10-13
An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.
Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism
Campbell, John
2010-01-01
Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that system...
Splitting Methods for Convex Clustering
Chi, Eric C.; Lange, Kenneth
2013-01-01
Clustering is a fundamental problem in many scientific applications. Standard methods such as $k$-means, Gaussian mixture models, and hierarchical clustering, however, are beset by local minima, which are sometimes drastically suboptimal. Recently introduced convex relaxations of $k$-means and hierarchical clustering shrink cluster centroids toward one another and ensure a unique global minimizer. In this work we present two splitting methods for solving the convex clustering problem. The fir...
Secure Method Invocation in JASON
Brinkman, Richard; Hoepman, Jaap-Henk
2002-01-01
We describe the Secure Method Invocation (SMI) framework implemented for Jason, our Javacard As Secure Objects Networks platform. Jason realises the secure object store paradigm, that reconciles the card-as-storage-element and card-as-processing-element views. In this paradigm, smart cards are viewed as secure containers for objects, whose methods can be called straightforwardly and securely using SMI. Jason is currently being developed as a middleware layer that securely interconnects an arb...
Microfluidic device, and related methods
Wong, Eric W. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method of making a microfluidic device is provided. The method features patterning a permeable wall on a substrate, and surrounding the permeable wall with a solid, non-permeable boundary structure to establish a microfluidic channel having a cross-sectional dimension less than 5,000 microns and a cross-sectional area at least partially filled with the permeable wall so that fluid flowing through the microfluidic channel at least partially passes through the permeable wall.
A nonperturbative method for QCD
Jora, Renata
2015-01-01
Based on specific properties of the partition function and of the quantum correlators we derive the exact form of the beta function in the background gauge field method for QCD with an arbitrary number of flavors. The all order beta function we obtain through this method has only the first two orders coefficients different than zero and thus is equivalent to the 't Hooft scheme.
Efficient methods of piping cleaning
Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna
2014-01-01
The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...
Information System Quality Assessment Methods
Korn, Alexandra
2014-01-01
This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...
Bioinformatic methods in protein characterization
Kallberg, Yvonne
2002-01-01
Bioinformatics is an emerging interdisciplinary research field in which mathematics. computer science and biology meet. In this thesis. bioinformatic methods for analysis of functional and structural properties among proteins will be presented. I have developed and applied bioinformatic methods on the enzyme superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs), coenzyme-binding enzymes of the Rossmann fold type, and amyloid-forming proteins and peptides. The basis...
Calculation method of Tesla coil
Коломієць, Роман Олександрович
2015-01-01
Tesla coil, despite the simplicity of its design may be called one of the least studied electronic devices. The article is an attempt to bring in various experimental results of general theoretical framework, which is the basis of exact calculation method of Tesla coils. Such calculation should be the starting point to create devices based on it. In order to develop such methods were considered the general principles of designing Tesla coil, reviewed the most famous mathematical models of its...
Managerial Decision-Making Methods
ŘÍHOVÁ, Veronika
2013-01-01
Managerial Decision Making Methods ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Summary The bachelor thesis is focused on „Managerial Decision Making Methods". In the theoretical part of the literature review described the decision itself , which governs not only the manager, but basically everyone in everyday life. Deciding not be linked only with large contracts, whether public or private sector, but may relate to common things like buying a new car. The ...
Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods
Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)
2000-01-01
Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.
Statistical methods in quality assurance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the different phases of a production process - planning, development and design, manufacturing, assembling, etc. - most of the decision rests on a base of statistics, the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Statistical methods can be thought of as a kit of tools to help to solve problems in the quality functions of the quality loop with respect to produce quality products and to reduce quality costs. Various statistical methods are represented, typical examples for their practical application are demonstrated. (RW)
Computational Methods in Plasma Physics
Jardin, Stephen
2010-01-01
Assuming no prior knowledge of plasma physics or numerical methods, Computational Methods in Plasma Physics covers the computational mathematics and techniques needed to simulate magnetically confined plasmas in modern magnetic fusion experiments and future magnetic fusion reactors. Largely self-contained, the text presents the basic concepts necessary for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Along with discussing numerical stability and accuracy, the author explores many of the algorithms used today in enough depth so that readers can analyze their stability, efficiency,
Software quality and agile methods
Huo, Ming; Verner, June; Zhu, Liming; Ali Babar, Muhammad
2004-01-01
peer-reviewed Agile methods may produce software faster but we also need to know how they meet our quality requirements. In this paper we compare the waterfall model with agile processes to show how agile methods achieve software quality under time pressure and in an unstable requirements environment, i.e. we analyze agile software quality assurance. We present a detailed waterfall model showing its software quality support processes. We then show the quality pra...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on theoretical and experimental analysis, the X-X method is put forward. The content of some materials such as ash coal can be on-line or in-situ determined relying on the whole spectrum stimulated by a controllable X-ray source. It is proved by practice that the X-X method is advanced, useful, economic, safe and environmental pollution-free
Qualitative methods : the new orthodoxy?
Crang, M.
2002-01-01
It is an interesting moment to write Progress in Human Geography’s first report on qualitative methods. In one sense, it suggests these methods have, at long last, arrived and been accepted as established approaches. That this is an overdue recognition needs little emphasizing when surveying the number of articles drawing upon, at least in part, qualitative material. However, a less encouraging omen is the recent column in the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s Social Sciences, penned ...
Method of mucociliary clearance assessment
Danilova, Tatiana V.; Manturov, Alexey O.; Ermakov, Igor Y.; Mareev, Gleb O.; Mareev, Oleg V.
2016-04-01
The article is devoted to the research capabilities of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses using modern techniques of digital video recording and processing. We describe the setup and software for this method and the results of our research. Using microscope and digital camera we can provide a good method to study mucociliary clearance and by usage of special software we able to measure some characteristic of nasal mucosae and its main function.
Analytical methods under emergency conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references
Selenium determination by fluorimetric method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A fluorimetric method to determine selenium both in vegetable samples and blood serum is developed. The method consists of a radioisotope 75Se initially in order to optimize the determination of analytical conditions. Three samples digestion processes and also some factors related to methodology is studied. The nitric-percloric digestion process for 40 samples and the analytical process is shown. (M.J.C.)
Miguel Moreno Rodríguez
2010-01-01
This is an opinion paper. The author identifies an universal crisis of the clinical method, with dangerous consequences in the practice of medicine. Among its main causes, there are discussed: a deterioration in the doctor-patient relationship, the undervaluation of clinics, the overvaluation of technology, and the indifference for general medicine. A call for attention is made for the restoration of clinical method values and to permanent seed its principles in all medical students and young...
The Multivariate Ahrens Sampling Method
Karawatzki, Roman
2006-01-01
The "Ahrens method" is a very simple method for sampling from univariate distributions. It is based on rejection from piecewise constant hat functions. It can be applied analogously to the multivariate case where hat functions are used that are constant on rectangular domains. In this paper we investigate the case of distributions with so called orthounimodal densities. Technical implementation details as well as their practical limitations are discussed. The application to more general distr...
Robust methods for data reduction
Farcomeni, Alessio
2015-01-01
Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy
New disinfection and sterilization methods.
Rutala, W A; Weber, D J
2001-01-01
New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxid...
Parallel methods for nonstiff VIDEs
Houwen, van der, P.J.
1998-01-01
We consider numerical methods for nonstiff initial-value problems for Volterra integro-differential equations. Such problems may be considered as initial-value problems for ordinary differential equations with expensive righthand side functions because each righthand side evaluation requires the application of a quadrature formula. The often considerable costs suggest the use of methods that require only one righthand side evaluation per step. One option is a conventional linear multistep met...
New methods for creating superoscillations
Chojnacki, Leilee; Kempf, Achim
2016-01-01
Superoscillating functions, i.e., functions that locally oscillate at a rate faster than their highest Fourier component, are of interest for applications from fundamental physics to engineering. Here, we develop a new method which allows one to construct superoscillations of arbitrarily high frequency and arbitrarily long duration in a computationally efficient way. We also present a method for constructing non-singular Schr\\"odinger potentials whose ground state is a superoscillating wave f...
Tourism research and audio methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
2016-01-01
• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....
MULITIGRID METHODS FOR OBSTACLE PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Carsten Gr(a)ser; Ralf Kornhuber
2009-01-01
In this review,we intend to clarify the underlying ideas and the relations between various multigrid methods ranging from subset decomposition,to projected subspace decomposition and truncated multigrid.In addition,we present a novel globally convergent inexact active set method which is closely related to truncated multigrid.The numerical properties of algorithms are carefully assessed by means of a degenerate problem and a problem with a complicated coincidence set.
Analytic Methods in Nonperturbative QCD
Simonov, Yu.A.
2000-01-01
Recently developed analytic methods in the framework of the Field Correlator Method are reviewed in this series of four lectures and results of calculations are compared to lattice data and experiment. Recent lattice data demonstrating the Casimir scaling of static quark interaction strongly support the FCM and leave very little space for all other theoretical models, e.g. instanton gas/liquid model. Results of calculations for mesons, baryons, quark-gluon plasma and phase transition temperat...
Analytic Methods for Cosmological Likelihoods
Taylor, A. N.; Kitching, T. D.
2010-01-01
We present general, analytic methods for Cosmological likelihood analysis and solve the "many-parameters" problem in Cosmology. Maxima are found by Newton's Method, while marginalization over nuisance parameters, and parameter errors and covariances are estimated by analytic marginalization of an arbitrary likelihood function with flat or Gaussian priors. We show that information about remaining parameters is preserved by marginalization. Marginalizing over all parameters, we find an analytic...
System and method for authentication
Duerksen, Gary L.; Miller, Seth A.
2015-12-29
Described are methods and systems for determining authenticity. For example, the method may include providing an object of authentication, capturing characteristic data from the object of authentication, deriving authentication data from the characteristic data of the object of authentication, and comparing the authentication data with an electronic database comprising reference authentication data to provide an authenticity score for the object of authentication. The reference authentication data may correspond to one or more reference objects of authentication other than the object of authentication.
Qualitative methods in travel surveys
HANNES, Els; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert
2009-01-01
This chapter explains the added value of integrating qualitative methods in travel surveys. The introduction briefly frames some general aspects of qualitative research. Distinct steps in a research process structure the remainder of this chapter. First, questions and contexts most applicable for qualitative methods are addressed. Next, its actual use, role and timing in travel surveys are discussed. Sampling and data collection issues are treated subsequently, followed by a brief account on ...
Comparison between Monte Carlo method and deterministic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A fast critical assembly consists of a lattice of plates of sodium, plutonium or uranium, resulting in a high inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity in the lattice should be evaluated carefully to determine the bias factor accurately. Deterministic procedures are generally used for the lattice calculation. To reduce the required calculation time, various one-dimensional lattice models have been developed previously to replace multi-dimensional models. In the present study, calculations are made for a two-dimensional model and results are compared with those obtained with one-dimensional models in terms of the average microscopic cross section of a lattice and diffusion coefficient. Inhomogeneity in a lattice affects the effective cross section and distribution of neutrons in the lattice. The background cross section determined by the method proposed by Tone is used here to calculate the effective cross section, and the neutron distribution is determined by the collision probability method. Several other methods have been proposed to calculate the effective cross section. The present study also applies the continuous energy Monte Carlo method to the calculation. A code based on this method is employed to evaluate several one-dimensional models. (Nogami, K.)
Improved Method for Searching of Interleavers Using Garello's Method
Trifina, Lucian
2012-01-01
In this paper an improved method for searching good interleavers from a certain set is proposed. The first few terms, corresponding to maximum distance of approximately 40 of the distance spectra, for turbo codes using these interleavers are determined by means of Garello's method. The method is applied to find quadratic permutation polynomials (QPP) based interleavers. Compared to previous methods for founding QPP based interleavers, the search complexity is reduced, allowing to find interleavers of higher length. This method has been applied for QPP interleavers with lengths from the LTE (Long Term Evolution) standard up to 1504. The analyzed classes are those with the largest spread QPP (LS-QPP), with the D parameter equal to that of LTE interleaver (D_L_T_E-QPP), and the class consisting of all QPP interleavers for lengths up to 1008. The distance spectrum optimization is made for all classes. For the class of LS-QPP interleavers of small lengths, the search led to superior or at least equal performances ...
SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CHIS ANCA OANA
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.
Manifold methods for methane combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1995-10-01
Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.
Comparison of nuclear analytical methods with competitive methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of nuclear analytical techniques, especially neutron activation analysis, already have a 50 year old history. Today several sensitive and accurate, non-nuclear trace element analytical techniques are available and new methods are continuously developed. The IAEA is supporting the development of nuclear analytical laboratories in its Member States. In order to be able to advise the developing countries which methods to use in different applications, it is important to know the present status and development trends of nuclear analytical methods, what are their benefits, drawbacks and recommended fields of application, compared with other, non-nuclear techniques. In order to get an answer to these questions the IAEA convened this Advisory Group Meeting. This volume is the outcome of the presentations and discussions of the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers. Refs, figs, tabs
A new uranium geochemical exploration method. Humic acid extraction method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The humic acid extraction method is a new one to carry out ore prospecting by using the element content in existing form or the so-called phase content. This paper expounds the association between metallic elements such as uranium that is combined with humic acid and uranium mineralization at depth. The adsorption mechanism of heavy metallic elements by humic acid is further analysed. The technical method of testing is presented and detailed introduction to the case histories on concealed uranium deposit exploration is given
A new method for orbit determination: Unit vector method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, a method of orbit determination is presented according to the principle of unit vector method (UVM). The model and arithmetic are improved and it not only suits initial orbit determination with short arc data, it also suits orbit improvement with data longer. It is also suitable for orbit of any eccentricity and any inclination. It omits most partial derivatives of all the elements which must be calculated in classical differential orbit improvement (DOI), so, it is more efficient than DOI, and the accuracy of orbit determination and convergence of algorithm are also improved appreciably.
The crystalline sponge method updated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manabu Hoshino
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method. In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore–solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with Rint = 0.0279 and R1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [Rint = 0.0421, R1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons = −0.0071 (11
The crystalline sponge method updated.
Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto
2016-03-01
Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore-solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = -0.0071 (11)] represents the
The crystalline sponge method updated
Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto
2016-01-01
Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore–solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = −0.0071 (11)] represents the
Efficient methods of piping cleaning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple
Computerized accounting methods. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ''Kurchatov Institute'' Russian Research Center (''KI'' RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC
Methods of airway resistance assessment.
Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz
2016-01-01
Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174
Advanced probabilistic method of development
Wirsching, P. H.
1987-01-01
Advanced structural reliability methods are utilized on the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project to provide a tool for analysis and design of space propulsion system hardware. The role of the effort at the University of Arizona is to provide reliability technology support to this project. PSAM computer programs will provide a design tool for analyzing uncertainty associated with thermal and mechanical loading, material behavior, geometry, and the analysis methods used. Specifically, reliability methods are employed to perform sensitivity analyses, to establish the distribution of a critical response variable (e.g., stress, deflection), to perform reliability assessment, and ultimately to produce a design which will minimize cost and/or weight. Uncertainties in the design factors of space propulsion hardware are described by probability models constructed using statistical analysis of data. Statistical methods are employed to produce a probability model, i.e., a statistical synthesis or summary of each design variable in a format suitable for reliability analysis and ultimately, design decisions.
Liquid radioactive waste concentration methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods for concentrating liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) - an important step in waste processing procedures aimed at reducing hazards to personnel and the public - are reviewed, and some of their advantages and drawbacks pointed out. Chemical LRW-treatment methods include coagulation (by aluminium sulfate, ferric chloride, etc.), soda-lime softening of water, as well as techniques based on specific reactions with particular nuclides. By addition of sorbents (clay, activated charcoal, etc.) the chemical scavenging effect is enhanced, while use of flocculating agents (sodium polyalginate, polyacrylamide, synthetic polymers, etc.) produces accelerated deposition of resulting precipitates. A second major LRW-concentration method is evaporation, which is relatively expensive and, moreover, inapplicable in the case of volatile radionuclides escaping into the fume-and-vapor phase. It is emphasized that to overcome difficulties due to presence of contaminants such as saponaceous, organic or mineral oil matter, use of defoaming agents is indicated. A third important LRW-concentration method is that by ion exchange; synthetic is well as natural organic ion exchan.gers are in use. There are a number of other methods that also find application, such as biological techniques, electrodialysis, embedding in bitumen or asphalt, sand filtration, etc. (A.B.)
Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods
Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.
2015-04-01
State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.
THE METHODS OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS TREATMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. V. Merzlikin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The methods of choledocholithiasis treatment, which are currently used in clinics of the Russian Federa-tion, has been presented. The problems of diagnosis and treatment of gallstones (GSD in individuals of different age groups are spotlighted. In the study of treatment of cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, including arising complications, it can be concluded that so far the ideal method of treatment of this pa-thology has not been found. Up to now, the majority of doctor’s main treatment is surgical removal of gall stones by some method or other.This article also considers a conservative approach (drug: antispasmodics (selective and nonselective, and non-pharmacological: treatment, diet, describes the criteria and assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions that help in the question of further treatment: the continuation of drug therapy or assignment of surgical treatment. Invasive techniques that are covered in the article, namely, a tech-nique of remote and endoscopic lithotripsy, are high-tech and in demand at the moment, which, along with high efficiency removal of a stone, reduced the number and severity of postoperative complications. Additionally, in the analysis of the features of a particular method of treatment, advantages and disadvantages of different treatment methods are described, indications and contraindications (absolute and relative together with complications, possible outcomes, and further prognosis are high-lighted.
Comparison of regional screening methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.
1979-09-01
This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.
Concrete decontamination and demolition methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding
FEATURE SELECTION METHODS AND ALGORITHMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.Ladha,
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Feature selection is an important topic in data mining, especially for high dimensional datasets. Feature selection (also known as subset selection is a process commonly used in machine learning, wherein subsets of the features available from the data are selected for application of a learning algorithm. The best subset contains the least number of dimensions that most contribute to accuracy; wediscard the remaining, unimportant dimensions. This is an important stage of preprocessing and is one of two ways of avoiding the curse of dimensionality (the other is feature extraction. There are twoapproaches in Feature selection known as Forward selection and backward selection. Feature selection has been an active research area in pattern recognition, statistics, and data mining communities.The main idea of feature selection is to choose a subset of input variables by eliminating features with little or no predictive information. Feature selection methods can be decomposed into three broad classes. One is Filter methods and another one is Wrapper method and the third one is Embedded method. This paper presents an empirical comparison of feature selection methods and its algorithms. In view of the substantial number of existing feature selection algorithms, the need arises to count on criteria that enable to adequately decide which algorithm to use in certain situations. This work reviews several fundamental algorithms found in the literature and assesses their performance in a controlled scenario.
Methods Data Qualification Interim Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath
2010-09-01
The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.
Methods Data Qualification Interim Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V and V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.
Distance sampling methods and applications
Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S
2015-01-01
In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website. Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts. The first part addresses basic methods, the ...
Costing methods for nuclear desalination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The question of the methods used for costing desalination plants has been recognized as very important in the economic choice of a plant and its optimization. The fifth meeting of the Panel on the Use of Nuclear Energy in Saline Water Conversion, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency in April 1965, noted this fact and recommended the preparation of a report on suitable methods for costing and evaluating nuclear desalination schemes. The Agency has therefore prepared this document, which was reviewed by an international panel of experts that met in Vienna from 18 to 22 April, 1966. The report contains a review of the underlying principles for costing desalination plants and of the various methods that have been proposed for allocating costs in dual-purpose plants. The effect of the different allocation methods on the water and power costs is shown at the end of the report. No attempt is made to recommend any particular method, but the possible limitations of each are indicated. It is hoped that this report will help those involved in the various phases of desalination projects
Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design
Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara
1998-01-01
The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.
METHODS IN THE POST-METHODS ERA. REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Liu
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Do methods still have a place in 21" century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the surnmer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of448, which was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the ten commonly recognized teaching methods surveyed, both the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and an eclectic method seem to have the highest rate in familiarity, preference, and use. But when multiple factors, such as teaching contexts, instructional settings, learners' proficiency levels, class size, teaching experience and educational backgrounds of the teachers, and the status of being a native or nonnative English speaking professional were taken into consideration, various patterns and themes emerged. One interesting finding is that Grammar Translation is still used in EFL contexts, in larger classes, and with learners at low proficiency levels, though the ratio between the actual use of this method and teachers' preference does not match. Based on the results of the survey, a new theoretical framework is proposed to conceptualize language teaching methods in the post-methods era.
THE METHOD OF PROBLEMS VERSUS THE METHOD OF TOPICS
Fred Eidlin
2015-01-01
Many scholars face a difficulty in formulating a research problem and research question while 1working on the research. The author introduces several methods that would help researchers to be more precise while working on the architecture of their research topic.
Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Klaus; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Johnsen, Kjeld
Thsi paper describes recent efforts made by the Danish Building Research Institute regarding the integration of a life cycle assessment (LCA) method into a whole building hygro-thermal simulation tool. The motivation for the work is that the increased requirements to the energy performance of...
Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods
Hu, Qi
2012-11-01
We use a particle-based method to simulate incompressible flows, where the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions. The most time-consuming kernelsâ\\'the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equationâ\\'are mathematically reformulated so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six, while automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, and on our previous work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm also uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently but with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s. © 2012 IEEE.
The Objective Borderline Method: A Probabilistic Method for Standard Setting
Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa; Jones, Philip; Wilkinson, Tim
2015-01-01
A new probability-based standard setting technique, the Objective Borderline Method (OBM), was introduced recently. This was based on a mathematical model of how test scores relate to student ability. The present study refined the model and tested it using 2500 simulated data-sets. The OBM was feasible to use. On average, the OBM performed well…
Statistical methods for quality assurance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the first German-language textbook on quality assurance and the fundamental statistical methods that is suitable for private study. The material for this book has been developed from a course of Hagen Open University and is characterized by a particularly careful didactical design which is achieved and supported by numerous illustrations and photographs, more than 100 exercises with complete problem solutions, many fully displayed calculation examples, surveys fostering a comprehensive approach, bibliography with comments. The textbook has an eye to practice and applications, and great care has been taken by the authors to avoid abstraction wherever appropriate, to explain the proper conditions of application of the testing methods described, and to give guidance for suitable interpretation of results. The testing methods explained also include latest developments and research results in order to foster their adoption in practice. (orig.)