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Sample records for betaine

  1. THE BETAINES FROM CHINESE SEAWEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽君; 范晓; 严小军

    2002-01-01

    Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high,and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.

  2. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ► We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ► Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ► Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  3. Betaine potassium iodide dihydrate: a new compound of betaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betaine potassium iodide dihydrate, [(CH3)3N+CH2COO-]2.KI.2H2O, BKI for short, is a new compound of the aminoacid betaine with a triclinic symmetry and the space group P1-bar at room temperature. The study of dielectric properties provided evidence for the existence of a structural phase transition occurring around 100 K. The spontaneous electric polarization is zero in both phases. A study of dielectric dispersion disclosed two relaxational modes with different relevance in the high and in the low temperature phases. The main features observed in BKI are consistently described by the Landau theory, by assuming a quadratic coupling between the primary order parameter and the electric polarization. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  4. Betaine transport in kidney and liver: use of betaine in liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempson, Stephen A; Vovor-Dassu, Komi; Day, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is an important human nutrient obtained from a variety of foods and also can be synthesized from choline. Betaine is much more abundant in kidney and liver compared to other mammalian organs. The principal role of betaine in the kidney is osmoprotection in cells of the medulla and it enters these cells via the betaine/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter protein (BGT1), which is upregulated by hyperosmotic stress. This process has been studied in great detail. In liver, the main role of betaine is a methyl donor in the methionine cycle. However, recent studies showed that BGT1 is much more abundant in liver compared to kidney medulla. Despite this, the role of BGT1 in liver has received little attention. Entry of betaine into liver cells is a necessary first step for its action at the cellular level. Increased interest in betaine has developed because of a number of therapeutic uses. These include treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver and hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Several important questions need to be addressed to better understand the potential of betaine as a therapeutic agent for other liver diseases, such as alcohol-induced injury. Heavy alcohol consumption is the most common cause for liver-related deaths and altered liver metabolism may contribute to hepatic, vascular, coronary, and cerebral diseases. PMID:24429813

  5. Dielectric properties of betaine phosphite and deuterated betaine phosphite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashova, E. V., E-mail: balashova@mail.ioffe.ru; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Zaitseva, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Pankova, G. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Frederiks, I. D.; Lemanov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Polycrystalline films of betaine phosphite (BPI) and deuterated BPI have been grown by evaporation on LiNbO{sub 3}, {alpha}-SiO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. These films consist of large single-crystal blocks in which the polar axis (b) lies in the substrate plane. The results of studying the dielectric properties of the films using interdigital electrodes, X-ray diffraction, and block images in a polarized-light microscope in reflection are reported. The film transition into the ferroelectric state at T = T{sub c} is accompanied by strong anomalies of the capacitance of the film/interdigital structure/substrate structure. The deuteration of BPI films leads to an increase in their temperature T{sub c}: from T{sub c} = 200 K for BPI-based structures to T{sub c} = 280 K for structures with a high degree of deuteration (d {approx} 90%).

  6. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic a

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine (betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as feed additives up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg betaine/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride should be considered hazardous by inhalation, as irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes, and skin sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. Betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride are considered as nutritionally equivalent sources of betaine. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures; and (iv protection of users when handling the additives.

  8. Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Holm, P.I.; Ueland, P.M.; Olthof, M.R.; Clarke, R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can occur through either the folate-dependent methionine synthase pathway or the betaine-dependent betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase pathway. The relevance of betaine as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) is not known, nor

  9. Research Progress in Glycine Betaine Improving Plant Salty Stressful Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong; WANG Wenjie; YAN Yongqing; ZU Yuangang

    2008-01-01

    Many plants accumulate compatible solutes in response to the imposition of environmental stresses. Glycine betaine, which is one of compatible solutes in cell of plants, has been shown to have surviving ability for plant from salt stress. Effect of glycine betaine on improving plant salt resistance was discussed in plants under salt stress. The accumulation of glycine betaine protects plants against the damaging effects of stress. Strategies of glycine betaine against the damaging effects of stress were analyzed to clarify the roles of glycine betaine in salt stress tolerance of plants.

  10. The metabolism and biotechnological application of betaine in microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Chen, Ningning; Shi, Mengxun; Xian, Mo; Song, Yimin; Liu, Junhong

    2016-05-01

    Glycine betaine (betaine) is widely distributed in nature and can be found in many microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, and fungi. Due to its particular functions, many microorganisms utilize betaine as a functional chemical and have evolved different metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis and catabolism of betaine. As in animals and plants, the principle role of betaine is to protect microbial cells against drought, osmotic stress, and temperature stress. In addition, the role of betaine in methyl group metabolism has been observed in a variety of microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that betaine supplementation can improve the performance of microbial strains used for the fermentation of lactate, ethanol, lysine, pyruvate, and vitamin B12, during which betaine can act as stress protectant or methyl donor for the biosynthesis of structurally complex compounds. In this review, we summarize the transport, synthesis, catabolism, and functions of betaine in microorganisms and discuss potential engineering strategies that employ betaine as a methyl donor for the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as a variety of vitamins, coenzymes, and antibiotics. In conclusion, the biocompatibility, C/N ratio, abundance, and comprehensive metabolic information of betaine collectively indicate that this molecule has great potential for broad applications in microbial biotechnology. PMID:27005411

  11. The betaine/GABA transporter and betaine: roles in brain, kidney and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Kempson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of the betaine/GABA transporter (BGT1; slc6a12 are still being debated. BGT1 is a member of the solute carrier family 6 (the neurotransmitter, sodium symporter transporter family and mediates cellular uptake of betaine and GABA in a sodium- and chloride- dependent process. Most of the studies of BGT1 concern its function and regulation in the kidney medulla where its role is best understood. The conditions here are hostile due to hyperosmolarity and significant concentrations of NH4Cl and urea. To withstand the hyperosmolarity, cells trigger osmotic adaptation, involving concentration of a transcriptional factor TonEBP/NFAT5 in the nucleus, and accumulate betaine and other osmolytes. Data from renal cells in culture, primarily MDCK, revealed that transcriptional regulation of BGT1 by TonEBP/NFAT5 is relatively slow. To allow more acute control of the abundance of BGT1 protein in the plasma membrane, there is also post-translation regulation of BGT1 protein trafficking which is dependent on intracellular calcium and ATP. Further, betaine may be important in liver metabolism as a methyl donor. In fact, in the mouse the liver is the organ with the highest content of BGT1. Hepatocytes express high levels of both BGT1 and the only enzyme that can metabolize betaine, namely betaine:homocysteine –S-methyltransferase (BHMT1. The BHMT1 enzyme removes a methyl group from betaine and transfers it to homocysteine, a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Finally, BGT1 has been proposed to play a role in controlling brain excitability and thereby represents a target for anticonvulsive drug development. The latter hypothesis is controversial due to very low expression levels of BGT1 relative to other GABA transporters in brain, and also the primary location of BGT1 at the surface of the brain in the leptomeninges. These issues are discussed in detail.

  12. Osmoprotectants in Halomonas elongata: High-affinity betaine transport system and choline-betaine pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Cánovas, David; Vargas, C.; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Csonka, Laszlo N.

    1996-01-01

    The osmoregulatory pathways of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 have been investigated. This strain grew optimally at 1.5 to 2 M NaCl in M63 glucose-defined medium. It required at least 0.5 M NaCl for growth, which is a higher concentration than that exhibited by the H. elongata type strain ATCC 33173. Externally provided betaine, choline, or choline-O-sulfate (but not proline, ectoine, or proline betaine) enhanced the growth of H. elongata on 3 M NaCl-glucose-M...

  13. The betaine content of sweat from adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Horrace

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was developed to establish whether betaine was present in the sweat of females and to determine any correlations with other sweat components. Methods Sweat patches were placed on eight trained adolescent Highland dancers (age = 13.6 ± 2.3 yr, who then participated in a dance class for 2 hours. Patches were removed, and the sweat recovered via centrifugation. The sweat was subsequently analyzed for betaine, choline, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, glucose, urea and ammonia. Results Betaine was present in the sweat of all subjects (232 ± 84 μmol·L-1, which is higher than typically found in plasma. The concentration of several sweat components were correlated, in particular betaine with most other measured components. Conclusion Betaine, an osmoprotectant and methyl donor, is a component of sweat that may be lost from the body in significant amounts.

  14. Betaine fermentation and oxidation by marine desulfuromonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijthuijsen, J H; Hansen, T A

    1989-04-01

    Two bacterial strains were dominant in anaerobic enrichment cultures with betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate and intertidal mud as an inoculum. One was a coccoid bacterium which was a trimethylamine (TMA)-fermenting methanogen similar to Methanococcoides methylutens. The other strain, a rod-shaped, gram-negative, motile bacterium, fermented betaine. On the basis of its ability to oxidize acetate and ethanol to CO(2) with sulfur as an electron acceptor, its inability to reduce sulfate and sulfite, its morphology, the presence of c-type cytochromes, and other characteristics, the isolated strain PM1 was identified as Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Although only malate and fumarate were known as substrates for fermentative growth of this species, the type strain (DSM 684) also fermented betaine. Strain PM1 grew with a doubling time of 9.5 h at 30 degrees C on betaine and produced approximately 1 mol of TMA per mol of betaine, 0.75 mol of acetate, and presumably CO(2) as fermentation products but only in the presence of selenite (100 nM). In this fermentation, betaine is probably reductively cleaved to TMA and acetate, and part of the acetate is then oxidized to CO(2) to provide the reducing equivalents for the initial cleavage reaction. In the presence of sulfur, betaine was converted to TMA and presumably CO(2) with the formation of sulfide; then, only traces of acetate were produced. PMID:16347897

  15. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners. PMID:24162571

  16. Betaine is a positive regulator of mitochondrial respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Icksoo, E-mail: icksoolee@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaine’s anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study we investigated whether betaine directly targets mitochondria. We show that betaine treatment leads to an upregulation of mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity in H2.35 cells, the proposed rate limiting enzyme of ETC in vivo. Following treatment, the mitochondrial membrane potential was increased and cellular energy levels were elevated. We propose that the anti-proliferative effects of betaine on cancer cells might be due to enhanced mitochondrial function contributing to a reversal of the Warburg effect.

  17. Antiferroelectric films of deuterated betaine phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thin films of partially deuterated betaine phosphate have been grown by the evaporation on Al2O3(110) and NdGaO3(001) substrates with a preliminarily deposited structure of interdigitated electrodes. The grown films have a polycrystalline block structure with characteristic dimensions of blocks of the order of 0.1-1.5 mm. The degree of deuteration of the films D varies in the range of 20-50%. It has been found that, at the antiferroelectric phase transition temperature T c afe = 100-114 K, the fabricated structures exhibit an anomaly of the electrical capacitance C, which is not accompanied by a change in the dielectric loss tangent tanδ. The strong-signal dielectric response is characterized by the appearance of a ferroelectric nonlinearity at temperatures T > T c afe , which is transformed into an antiferroelectric nonlinearity at T diagram has been constructed.

  18. Glycine betaine confers enhanced osmotolerance and cryotolerance on Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, R; Smith, L T; Smith, G.M

    1994-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive food-borne pathogen that is notably resistant to osmotic stress and can grow at refrigerator temperatures. These two characteristics make it an insidious threat to public health. Like several other organisms, L. monocytogenes accumulates glycine betaine, a ubiquitous and effective osmolyte, intracellularly when grown under osmotic stress. However, it also accumulates glycine betaine when grown under chill stress at refrigerator temperatures. Exogenous...

  19. Betaine Fermentation and Oxidation by Marine Desulfuromonas Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Heijthuijsen, J. H. F. G.; Hansen, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Two bacterial strains were dominant in anaerobic enrichment cultures with betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate and intertidal mud as an inoculum. One was a coccoid bacterium which was a trimethylamine (TMA)-fermenting methanogen similar to Methanococcoides methylutens. The other strain, a rod-shaped, gram-negative, motile bacterium, fermented betaine. On the basis of its ability to oxidize acetate and ethanol to CO2 with sulfur as an electron acceptor, its inability to reduce sulfa...

  20. Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Ursula; Törrönen, Anneli; Meririnne, Esa; Saarinen, Markku; Alfthan, Georg; Aro, Antti; Uusitupa, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Betaine, i.e., trimethylglycine, is linked to homocysteine metabolism. A 3-mo daily betaine supplementation decreased even normal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in humans. The pharmacokinetic characteristics and metabolism of betaine in humans have not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of orally administered betaine and its acute effect on plasma tHcy concentrations. Healthy volunteers (n = 10; 3 men, 7 women) with normal body weight (mean +/- SD, 69.5 +/- 17.0 kg), 40.8 +/- 12.4 y old, participated in the study. The betaine doses were 1, 3, and 6 g. The doses were mixed with 150 mL of orange juice and ingested after a 12-h overnight fast by each volunteer according to a randomized double-blind crossover design. Blood samples were drawn for 24 h and a 24-h urine collection was performed. Orally administered betaine had an immediate and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine concentration. Single doses of 3 and 6 g lowered plasma tHcy concentrations (P = 0.019 and P < 0.001, respectively), unlike the 1-g dose. After the highest dose, the concentrations remained low during the 24 h of monitoring. The change in plasma tHcy concentration was linearly associated with betaine dose (P = 0.006) and serum betaine concentration (R2 = 0.17, P = 0.025). The absorption and elimination of betaine were dose dependent. The urinary excretion of betaine seemed to increase with an increasing betaine dose, although a very small proportion of ingested betaine was excreted via urine. In conclusion, a single dose of orally administered betaine had an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine concentration and resulted in lowered plasma tHcy concentrations within 2 h in healthy subjects. PMID:16365055

  1. Reversible, partial inactivation of plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase by betaine aldehyde: mechanism and possible physiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate-Romero, Andrés; Murillo-Melo, Darío S; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Montiel, Carmina; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2016-04-01

    In plants, the last step in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) is the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BAL) catalysed by some aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 10 enzymes that exhibit betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity. Given the irreversibility of the reaction, the short-term regulation of these enzymes is of great physiological relevance to avoid adverse decreases in the NAD(+):NADH ratio. In the present study, we report that the Spinacia oleracea BADH (SoBADH) is reversibly and partially inactivated by BAL in the absence of NAD(+)in a time- and concentration-dependent mode. Crystallographic evidence indicates that the non-essential Cys(450)(SoBADH numbering) forms a thiohemiacetal with BAL, totally blocking the productive binding of the aldehyde. It is of interest that, in contrast to Cys(450), the catalytic cysteine (Cys(291)) did not react with BAL in the absence of NAD(+) The trimethylammonium group of BAL binds in the same position in the inactivating or productive modes. Accordingly, BAL does not inactivate the C(450)SSoBADH mutant and the degree of inactivation of the A(441)I and A(441)C mutants corresponds to their very different abilities to bind the trimethylammonium group. Cys(450)and the neighbouring residues that participate in stabilizing the thiohemiacetal are strictly conserved in plant ALDH10 enzymes with proven or predicted BADH activity, suggesting that inactivation by BAL is their common feature. Under osmotic stress conditions, this novel partial and reversible covalent regulatory mechanism may contribute to preventing NAD(+)exhaustion, while still permitting the synthesis of high amounts of GB and avoiding the accumulation of the toxic BAL.

  2. Methane formation from betaine with trimethylamine as intermediary. Methanbildung aus Betain ueber Trimethylamin als Zwischenprodukt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, E.

    1983-07-01

    A defined mixed culture of C-sporogenes and Methanoscarina barkeri of the Fusaro strain converted betaine into methane as the main fermentation product in the presence of an equal amount of L-alanine. Methane formation took place in two clearly distinct phases. In the first phase, the substrate mixture was completely converted by C. sporogenes, while the total trimethylamine plus 15.5% of the expected acetate was converted by M. barkeri, Fusaro strain. In the second phase, methane was formed exclusively from the remaining acetate. There was no syntrophic association between the two organisms.

  3. Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E.F.; Koning, T.J. de; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Hasselt, P.M. van

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES MEDLI

  4. Survival and Psychomotor Development With Early Betaine Treatment in Patients With Severe Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES MEDLI

  5. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic a

  6. Identification of an ATP-Driven, Osmoregulated Glycine Betaine Transport System in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Rinkei; Smith, Linda Tombras

    1999-01-01

    The ability of the gram-positive, food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to tolerate environments of elevated osmolarity and reduced temperature is due in part to the transport and accumulation of the osmolyte glycine betaine. Previously we showed that glycine betaine transport was the result of Na+-glycine betaine symport. In this report, we identify a second glycine betaine transporter from L. monocytogenes which is osmotically activated but does not require a high concentration of Na+ ...

  7. Salmonella typhimurium proP gene encodes a transport system for the osmoprotectant betaine.

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, J; Booth, I R; Higgins, C F

    1985-01-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations and serves an important osmoprotective function in enteric bacteria. We found that the proP gene of Salmonella typhimurium, originally identified as encoding a minor transport system for proline (permease PP-II), plays an important role in betaine uptake. Mutations in proP reduced the ability of betaine to serve as an osmoprotectant. Transport of betaine into the cells was also severely impaired in these ...

  8. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry.

  9. Characteristics and Osmoregulatory Roles of Uptake Systems for Proline and Glycine Betaine in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Douwe; Hagting, Anja; Alkema, Harmen; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1993-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lacti ML3 contains high pools of proline or betaine when grown under conditions of high osmotic strength. These pools are created by specific transport systems. A high-affinity uptake system for glycine betaine (betaine) with a Km of 1.5 µM is expressed constitutively. The

  10. Betaine synthesis from radioactive precursors in attached, water-stressed barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In wilted barley leaves, betaine accumulates at about 200 nanomoles per 10 centimeters leaf per day. Results with 14C-labeled precursors were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with de novo synthesis of this betaine from serine via ethanolamine, choline, and betaine aldehyde and indicated that water stress may increase the activities of all steps in this pathway except the last. Doses (I micromole) of each 14C-labeled precursor were supplied as droplets to the tips of attached, 10-centimeter, second-leaf blades of turgid and wilted plants, and the incorporation of 14C into betaine was followed. From the rates of betaine labeling, estimates were made of the potential capacities (nanomoles per 10 centimeters leaf per day) for the methylation and oxidation steps. Labeling of betaine from absolute value 14C choline, absolute value 14C ethanolamine, and absolute value 14C serine was about 7- to 10-fold greater in leaves wilted for 2 days than in turgid leaves, whereas label from absolute value 14C betaine aldehyde appeared in betaine at about the same rate in both turgid and wilted leaves. In leaves wilted for 2 days, the potential capacities for converting absolute value 14C ethanolamine, absolute value 14C choline, and absolute value 14C betaine aldehyde to betaine all approached or exceeded the rate of betain accumulation (about 200 nanomoles per 10 centimeters leaf per day); in turgid leaves, only the potential for converting betaine aldehyde to betaine exceeded this rate. The rate of conversion of absolute value 14C ethanolamine to betaine increased 4-fold after 6 to 10 hours of wilting, which was soon enough to account for the onset of betaine accumulation

  11. Synthesis of mesomeric betaine compounds with imidazolium-enolate structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gonsior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a heterocyclic mesomeric betaine by quaternization reaction of 1-butylimidazole and tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone is presented. The structure was verified by means of X-ray single-crystal analysis, NMR and IR spectroscopy. Inclusion complexes of the heterocyclic mesomeric betaine with randomly methylated (1.8 β-cyclodextrin were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, the reaction conditions were applied to poly(vinylimidazole and 1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-1-ylbutane to obtain functionalized polymer networks and condensate polymers, respectively.

  12. Orientation-switching transition and ferroelectricity in betaine arsenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J L; Dekola, T; Vieira, L G, E-mail: jlr@fisica.uminho.p [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4715-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2009-08-12

    This paper reports a detailed investigation of the low frequency dielectric relaxation of betaine arsenate near the ferroelectric phase transition. The dielectric relaxation data are complemented with polarized infrared reflectivity data taken at low temperatures. The reported results allow us to identify several low frequency modes that clarify the complex behaviour of the dielectric response near the Curie temperature T{sub c2}{approx}120 K. It is suggested that the important slow dynamics observed is linked to the reorientation of the betaine molecular group. The roles of the different molecular units in the structural changes are briefly discussed and a new and more complex phase transition sequence is proposed.

  13. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  14. Effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in mice and the involvement of GABA transporter 2

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa Masaya; Tsuboi Mizuki; Noguchi Yumiko; Enokishima Aoi; Nabeshima Toshitaka; Hiramatsu Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine) plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidative stress in aged rat kidney, the effects of betaine on the central nervous system are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment and on mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory molecul...

  15. Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, E; Le Bell, A; Kirstilä, V; Tenovuo, J

    1998-04-01

    Subjects with dry mouth often experience irritation of the oral mucosa when using sodium lauryl sulfate containing products for oral hygiene. Betaine, or trimethylglycine, reduces skin-irritating effects of ingredients of cosmetics such as sodium lauryl sulfate. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a betaine-containing toothpaste with a regular toothpaste on the oral microbial flora, the condition of the oral mucosa, and subjective symptoms of dry mouth in subjects with chronic dry mouth symptoms. Thirteen subjects with chronic dry mouth symptoms and with a paraffin-stimulated salivary flow rate < or = 1 mL/min participated in the double-blind crossover study. Ten subjects had a very low salivary flow rate (< or = 0.6 mL/min). The subjects used both experimental toothpastes (with or without 4% betaine) twice a day for 2 weeks. Oral examinations and microbiologic sample collections were made at the base lines preceding the two experimental periods and at the end. Standardized questions on subjective symptoms of dry mouth were used when the subjects were interviewed at the end of the two experimental periods. No study-induced significant changes were observed in the microbiologic variables (plaque index, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, Candida species) or in the appearance of the oral mucosa. The use of the betaine-containing toothpaste was, however, associated with a significant relief of several subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Betaine appears thus to be a promising ingredient of toothpastes in general and especially of toothpastes designed for patients with dry mouth. PMID:9669455

  16. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, M R; Verhoef, P

    2005-02-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in homocysteine remethylation, but effects on homocysteine have been less thoroughly investigated. Betaine in high doses (6 g/d and higher) is used as homocysteine-lowering therapy for people with hyperhomocysteinemia due to inborn errors in the homocysteine metabolism. Betaine intake from foods is estimated at 0.5-2 g/d. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor choline. Studies in healthy volunteers with plasma homocysteine concentrations in the normal range show that betaine supplementation lowers plasma fasting homocysteine dose-dependently to up to 20% for a dose of 6 g/d of betaine. Moreover, betaine acutely reduces the increase in homocysteine after methionine loading by up to 50%, whereas folic acid has no effect. Betaine doses in the range of dietary intake also lower homocysteine. This implies that betaine can be an important food component that attenuates homocysteine rises after meals. If homocysteine plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, a diet rich in betaine or choline might benefit cardiovascular health through its homocysteine-lowering effects. However betaine and choline may adversely affect serum lipid concentrations, which can of course increase risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the potential beneficial health effects of betaine and choline outweigh the possible adverse effects on serum lipids is as yet unclear. PMID:15720203

  17. Hydration and vibrational dynamics of betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tanping; Cui, Yaowen; Mathaga, John; Kumar, Revati; Kuroda, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Zwitterions are naturally occurring molecules that have a positive and a negative charge group in its structure and are of great importance in many areas of science. Here, the vibrational and hydration dynamics of the zwitterionic system betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is reported. The linear infrared spectrum of aqueous betaine exhibits an asymmetric band in the 1550-1700 cm−1 region of the spectrum. This band is attributed to the carboxylate asymmetric stretch of betaine. The potential of ...

  18. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Xu; Ping Xu

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose con...

  19. Betaine conjugated cationic pullulan as effective gene carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambattu, Lizebona August; Rekha, M R

    2015-01-01

    Polyethyleneimne (PEI) is a very efficient transfecting agent but is toxic due to high charge density. To generate a vector which is efficient and less cytotoxic, PEI was conjugated with pullulan (PPEI). Further conjugation was done on PPEI with zwitter ionic betaine which possess antifouling property. PEI of molecular weight 1.2, 2, and 10 kDa were used in the study. Buffering capacity of pullulan-PEI-betaine (PPB) conjugates was found to be sufficient enough for the polymers to make endosomal escape. The polymers proved to be less cytotoxic and highly hemocompatible than PEI. Nuclear localization of YOYO tagged DNA was observed with the nanoplexes developed using PPEI and PPBs of PEI 10 kDa. Transfection efficiency was evaluated using p53 expressing gene and the live dead assay demonstrated very high transfection efficiency with PPB conjugates of PEI 10 kDa. PMID:25304750

  20. Motional narrowing of broadband absorption of solvatochromic indicator Betaine 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renge, Indrek [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia Street 142, EE51014 Tartu (Estonia)], E-mail: indrek.renge@ut.ee

    2009-05-15

    Temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of Betaine 30 (2,6-diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinio)-phenolate, widely known as Reichardt's dye) is compared with that of the broadband spectra of other dyes. The double value of the half-width (2 hwhm) of Betaine 30 absorption band between 10 and 293 K in a polymer decreases by 130{+-}20 cm{sup -1}, from 4220 to 4090 cm{sup -1}. This unprecedented narrowing with increasing temperature is ascribed to hydrogen bond symmetrization due to thermally activated proton tunneling in a pigment-solvent complex. The averaging of charge distribution along the proton coordinate causes motional narrowing of inhomogeneous width.

  1. Dissociation of gaseous zwitterion glycine-betaine by slow electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyra, J; Abdoul-Carime, H

    2010-05-28

    In this work, we investigate dissociation processes induced by low-energy electrons to gas phase N,N,N-trimethylglycine [glycine-betaine, (CH(3))(3)N(+)CH(2)COO(-)] molecules. Glycine-betaine represents a model system for zwitterions. All negative fragments are observed to be produced only at subelectronic excitation energies (<4 eV). With the exception of the loss of a neutral H atom that could arise from any C[Single Bond]H bond breaking, we tentatively suggest that the zwitterion dissociates exclusively from the fragmentation of the cation site of the molecule, subsequent to the attachment of the excess electron. Within the context of radiation induced damage to biological systems, the present findings contribute to a more complete description of the fragmentation mechanism occurring to amino acids, peptides, and proteins since they adopt usually a zwitterion structure. PMID:20515090

  2. Betaine enhances antidepressant-like, but blocks psychotomimetic effects of ketamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Cheng; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2016-09-01

    Ketamine is emerging as a new hope against depression, but ketamine-associated psychotomimetic effects limit its clinical use. An adjunct therapy along with ketamine to alleviate its adverse effects and even potentiate the antidepressant effects might be an alternative strategy. Betaine, a methyl derivative of glycine and a dietary supplement, has been shown to have antidepressant-like effects and to act like a partial agonist at the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Accordingly, betaine might have potential to be an adjunct to ketamine treatment for depression. The antidepressant-like effects of ketamine and betaine were evaluated by forced swimming test and novelty suppressed feeding test in mice. Both betaine and ketamine produced antidepressant-like effects. Furthermore, we determined the effects of betaine on ketamine-induced antidepressant-like and psychotomimetic behaviors, motor incoordination, hyperlocomotor activity, and anesthesia. The antidepressant-like responses to betaine combined with ketamine were stronger than their individual effects. In contrast, ketamine-induced impairments in prepulse inhibition, novel object recognition test, social interaction, and rotarod test were remarkably attenuated, whereas ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion and loss of righting reflex were not affected by betaine. These findings revealed that betaine could enhance the antidepressant-like effects, yet block the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine, suggesting that betaine can be considered as an add-on therapy to ketamine for treatment-resistant depression and suitable for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27363702

  3. Betaine and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Back to the future?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandeep Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an important indication for liver transplantation in many Western countries. Obesity and insulin resistance are the two most common risk factors for NASH, which can lead to recurrent NASH after liver transplantation. There is currently no approved therapy for NASH, and treat-ment is directed at risk factor modification and lifestyle changes. Betaine has been used for NASH, with mixed results, and may show promise in conjunction with other agents in clinical trials.

  4. Glycine Betaine as a Direct Substrate for Methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Andrew J.; Roussel, Erwan; Parkes, R. John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    International audience Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and gr...

  5. Distinct Difference in Absorption Pattern in Pigs of Betaine Provided as a Supplement or Present Naturally in Cereal Dietary Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2015-01-01

    The net absorption of betaine and choline was determined for 4 h after the first meal of the day in three experiments with porto-arterial catheterized pigs in which betaine was added as a supplement to a low-betaine diet (n = 4 pigs) and compared to the net absorption of betaine and choline from...... high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n = 6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120–180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet × time interaction after...... feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed...

  6. Mesomeric betaine chemistry in solution: Solvent effect on the structure and spectra of uracilyl-pyridinium betaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A., E-mail: schmidt@ioc.tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lindner, A.S. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Casado, J.; Lopez Navarrete, J.T. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Ramirez, F.J., E-mail: ramirez@uma.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain)

    2010-05-25

    Graphical abstract: Vibrational Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies, supported by DFT calculations, demonstrate that a polar environment quinoidizes the cationic part and aromatizes the anionic moiety of cross-conjugated mesomeric betaines. - Abstract: The presence of positive and negative delocalized charges in a heterocyclic conjugated system gives rise to an interesting class of molecules known as mesomeric betaines. These can be conveniently represented by dipolar canonical formulae. Among them, cross-conjugation appears when the charges are placed in separated parts of the common {pi}-electron system. This fact makes cross-conjugated mesomeric betaines (CCMB) suitable systems to study intramolecular electron transfer processes. In this paper, we studied Raman and electronic spectra of an uracilyl-pyridinium CCMB in solution. Vibrational results demonstrated that the presence of a polar environment quinoidizes the cationic part and aromatizes the anionic moiety of this molecule, which gave us useful information to propose the more relevant mesomeric structures of this molecule in solution. Raman spectroscopy was able to account for cross-conjugation by characterizing conjugational-sensitive bands. The effect of the solvent polarity was studied by electronic spectroscopy, allowing us to establish spectroscopy-structure relationships.

  7. Characterization of Glycine Betaine Porter I from Listeria monocytogenes and Its Roles in Salt and Chill Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Mendum, Mary Lou; Smith, Linda Tombras

    2002-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium that can grow at low temperatures and elevated osmolarity. The organism survives these stresses by the intracellular accumulation of osmolytes: low-molecular-weight organic compounds which exert a counterbalancing force. The primary osmolyte in L. monocytogenes is glycine betaine, which is accumulated from the environment via two transport systems: glycine betaine porter I, an Na+-glycine betaine symporter; and glycine betaine porter II, an ATP...

  8. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Vliet, van T.; Boelsma, E.; Verhoef, P.

    2003-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine is a risk for cardiovascular disease and can be lowered through supplementation with 6 g/d of betaine. However, dietary intake of betaine is similar to0.5-2 g/d. Therefore, we investigated whether betaine supplementation in the range of dietary intake lowers plasma homocyste

  9. Betaine as a determinant of postmethionine load total plasma homocysteine before and after B-vitamin supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, P.I.; Bleie, O.; Ueland, P.M.; Lien, E.A.; Refsum, H.; Nordrehaug, J.E.; Nygard, O.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Betaine is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, converting homocysteine to methionine. There are only sparse data on plasma betaine as a determinant of the plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety patients undergoing corona

  10. Low Dose Betaine Supplementation Leads to Immediate and Long Term Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Vliet, T. van; Boelsma, E.; Verhoef, P.

    2003-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine is a risk for cardiovascular disease and can be lowered through supplementation with 6 g/d of betaine. However, dietary intake of betaine is ∼0.5-2 g/d. Therefore, we investigated whether betaine supplementation in the range of dietary intake lowers plasma homocysteine conce

  11. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  12. Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, P.I.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Midttun, O.; Blom, H.J.; Keijzer, M.B.; Heijer, M. den

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Two published studies have demonstrated that betaine in the circulation is a determinant of plasma total homocysteine, but none had sufficient power to investigate the possible effect modification by folate status. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured homocysteine, betaine, folate, vitamin B(

  13. Modulation of Colitis-associated Colon Tumorigenesis by Baicalein and Betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. Betaine, trimethylglycine, is an essential biochemical molecule of the methionine/homocysteine cycle and is synthesized by conversion of choline. Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods including sugar beet and lycium. Betaine has provided various health benefits including disease prevention. However, the action mechanisms of their activity remain poorly understood. Recent studies reported the effects of baicalein and betaine on cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells and chemically induced colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice. Administrations of baicalein and betaine containing diets significantly inhibited the incidence of tumors and hyperplasia with down-regulation of inflammation. Therefore, baicalein and betaine might be applicable to the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. PMID:25337584

  14. An analytical method for the determination of betaine (trimethylglycine) from hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliainen, K; Nevalainen, H; Väkeväinen, H; Jutila, K; Gummer, C L

    2010-04-01

    Hair fibres have no active renewable protective mechanisms yet hair (wool and fur) provides an essential protective function. Therefore, it is possible that hair contains a number of internal components to maintain fibre and protein structure and function through a range of normal environmental conditions. Trimethylglycine (betaine) provides cellular and protein protection during times of high osmotic stress and low water concentrations. These conditions are very pertinent to everyday cosmetic procedures such as shampooing, bleach or perming. Therefore, we have conducted preliminary investigations to establish the presence of natural betaine in hair as a possible ingredient to provide protection and maintain protein function. Using an high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique designed for the analysis of betaine in blood and urine, we have demonstrated, via simple hot water extraction, a measurable level of betaine in blood and human hair. Further, we have demonstrated, in principle, the possibility of adding betaine back to the fibre via cosmetic products such as shampoos. PMID:19818084

  15. Alleviation of hepatic fat accumulation by betaine involves reduction of homocysteine via up-regulation of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chul Won; Jun, Doo Sung; Na, Jong Deok; Choi, Yeo Jin; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the anti-lipogenic effect of betaine in rats fed methionine and choline-deficient diet (MCD). Intake of MCD for 3 wk resulted in a significant accumulation of hepatic lipids, which was prevented by betaine supplementation in drinking water (1%). Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) was inhibited by MCD intake, and these changes were all inhibited by betaine feeding. Meanwhile, betaine supplementation reversed the reduction of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and the elevation of homocysteine levels in the liver, which could be attributable to the induction of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Different cell lines were used to clarify the role of homocysteine on activation of the AMPK pathway. Homocysteine treatment decreased pAMPK, pACC, pSREBP-1c and pLKB1 in HepG2 cells. Metformin-induced activation of AMPK was also inhibited by homocysteine. Treatment with hydroxylamine, a cystathionine β-synthase inhibitor, resulted in a reduction of pAMPK, pACC and pSREBP-1c, accompanied by an elevation of intracellular homocysteine. Betaine treatment prevented the homocysteine-induced reduction of pAMPK, pACC, pSREBP-1c and pLKB1 in H4IIE cells, but not in HepG2 cells. Also the elevation of cellular homocysteine and inhibition of protein expression of BHMT were prevented by betaine only in H4IIE cells which express BHMT. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of betaine against hepatic lipid accumulation may be attributed, at least in part, to the depletion of homocysteine via up-regulation of BHMT in hepatocytes. PMID:27320863

  16. Glycine Betaine Recognition through Cation−π Interactions in Crystal Structures of Glycine Betaine Complexes with C-Ethyl-pyrogallol[4]arene and C-Ethyl-resorcin[4]arene as Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhide Fujisawa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The glycine betaine (betaine, interacts with several types of proteins with diverse structures in vivo, and in the contact regions, the aromatic rings of protein residues are frequently found beside the trimethylammonium group of betaine, implying the importance of the cation−π interactions in recognition of this molecule. The crystal structures determined by X-ray crystallography of the complexes of betaine and C-ethyl-pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer: PCT and betaine and C-ethyl-resorcin[4]arene (resorcinol cyclic tetramer: RCT mimic the conformations of betaine and protein complexes and show that the clathrate conformations are retained by the cation−π interactions. The difference of the conformation feature of betaine in the Protein Data Bank and in the Cambridge Structural Database was found by chance during the research and analyzed with the torsion angles.

  17. Betaine lipids and zwitterionic phospholipids in plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzler, K; Eichenberger, W

    1997-11-01

    Of spermatophytes, ferns, mosses, algae, lichens and fungi, 110 species not analysed so far were examined for diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diaclyglycerylhydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-beta-alanine (DGTA), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by TLC by using Dragendorff's and molybdenum-blue reagents for detection. The limit of detection was 0.5 microgram per mg or 0.05 weight % of total lipid. The results reveal that betaine lipids are present exclusively in non-flowering plants, including lichens and fungi and, hence, are produced by autotrophic, as well as heterotrophic organisms. DGTS in small amounts is typical of some Rhodophytes, and in appreciable amounts, of vascular cryptogamic plants and some higher fungi. Estimation of the amounts of DGTS and PC in 29 different species reveal that the total amount of zwitterionic lipids varies considerably amongst organisms. No general correlation could be found for the amounts of DGTS and PC, although Rhodophytes contain traces of DGTS but high amounts of PC. On the basis of these results and the presently available data, the natural distribution of the betaine lipids DGTS, DGTA and diacylglycerylcarboxy-N-hydroxymethyl-choline (DGCC) is discussed. In terms of biochemical evolution, the capacity for the formation of DGTS might have been acquired first and, in organisms of the 'DGTS branch', kept until the present time. The formation of DGTA and DGCC might have evolved at a later stage of development in organisms of the 'DGTA-DGCC branch'.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobically modified polymeric betaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Shakhvorostov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric betaines containing long alkyl chains C12H25, C14H29, C16H33 and C18H37 were synthesized by Michael addition reaction of alkylaminocrotonates and methacrylic acid (MAA. They were characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR, DSC, DLS, GPC, cryo-TEM, viscometry and zeta-potential measurements. The polymers were fully soluble in DMF, THF and DMSO, partially dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene and formed colloid solutions in aqueous KOH. In aqueous KOH and DMSO solutions, hydrophobically modified polymeric betaines behaved as polyelectrolytes. The average hydrodynamic size and zeta potential of diluted aqueous solutions of hydrophobic polybetainess containing dodecyl-, tetradecyl-, hexadecyl-, and octadecyl groups were studied as a function of pH. Anomalous low values of the isoelectric point (IEP of amphoteric macromolecules were found to be in the range of pH 2.7-3.4. According to DLS data, the average size of macromolecules tends to decrease with dilution. Zeta-potential of amphoteric macromolecules in aqueous solution is much higher than that in DMSO. The cryo-TEM results revealed that in both aqueous KOH and DMSO media, the micron- and nanosized vesicles existed. The structural organization of vesicles in water and DMSO is discussed. The wax inhibition effect of hydrophobic polybetaines at a decrease of the pour point temperatures of high paraffinic oils was better in comparison with commercial available ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers (EVA.

  19. Effect of betaine on growth performance and resistance on Vibriosis in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponpai, T.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of betaine fortified in the feed on growth performance and resistance to Vibriosis was conducted in P. vannamei of average initial weight 2 gram. In the 6-week feeding trial different feed formulae were tested. Formula 1 feed control was without betaine fortification while in formula 2 through 5 contained betaine at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 percent, respectively. Determination of weight gain was carried out at 2 week intervals. The results showed that there was no significant difference among treatments in survival, feed conversion ratio or feed intake although average individual weight gain showed a difference with higher weight gain in those given 4 percent fortified feed compared with control. A similar result was obtained for specific growth rate, which was higher for 4 percent betaine than the control. The feed with 4 percent betaine fortification resulted in the best performance on immune response while the best capacity to eliminate V. harveyi in plasma was noted in the treatment with 3 percent betaine supplementation. In conclusion, betaine has been shown to be effective in its application to enhance growth and immunity, and this might help support the sustainability of the shrimp industry.

  20. 1H NMR determination of urinary betaine in patients with premature vascular disease and mild homocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, P; Dudman, N P; Kuchel, P W; Wilcken, D E

    1995-02-01

    Urinary N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) have been identified and quantified for clinical purposes by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) measurement in previous studies. We have assessed these procedures by using both one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D NMR spectroscopy, together with pH titration of urinary extracts to help assign 1H NMR spectral peaks. The betaine calibration curve linearity was excellent (r = 0.997, P = 0.0001) over the concentration range 0.2-1.2 mmol/L, and CVs for replicate betaine analyses ranged from 7% (n = 10) at the lowest concentration to 1% (n = 9) at the highest. The detection limit for betaine was < 15 mumol/L. Urinary DMG concentrations were substantially lower than those of betaine. Urinary betaine and DMG concentrations measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy from 13 patients with premature vascular disease and 17 normal controls provided clinically pertinent data. We conclude that 1H NMR provides unique advantages as a research tool for determination of urinary betaine and DMG concentrations. PMID:7533065

  1. Salmonella typhimurium proP gene encodes a transport system for the osmoprotectant betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, J; Booth, I R; Higgins, C F

    1985-12-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations and serves an important osmoprotective function in enteric bacteria. We found that the proP gene of Salmonella typhimurium, originally identified as encoding a minor transport system for proline (permease PP-II), plays an important role in betaine uptake. Mutations in proP reduced the ability of betaine to serve as an osmoprotectant. Transport of betaine into the cells was also severely impaired in these mutants. The kinetics of uptake via PP-II suggest that betaine, rather than proline, is the important physiological substrate for this transport system. Betaine uptake via PP-II was regulated by osmotic pressure at two different levels: transcription of the proP gene was increased by increasing osmolarity, and, in addition, activity of the transport system itself was dependent upon the osmotic pressure of the medium. The specificity of the transport system was also altered by increasing osmolarity which enhanced the affinity for betaine while reducing that for proline. PMID:3905767

  2. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  3. Structures of two co-crystals of pyridine betaine with L(+)-tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Dutkiewicz, G.; Kosturkiewicz, Z.

    2010-07-01

    Crystal structure of pyridine betaine with L(+)-tartaric acid, crystallized from methanol, is determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal 1, at the 2:1 ratio of pyridine betaine and tartaric acid, is orthorhombic, space group P2 12 12 and contains disordered methanol guest molecules. Tartaric acid is bonded to two pyridine betaine molecules by the COOH···OOC hydrogen bonds of 2.443(2) Å. Complex 1 is situated at the special position, on twofold axis. After recrystallization of 1 from butanol crystal 2 is formed at the 3:1 ratio of pyridine betaine and semi-tartrate anion, without solvent molecules. Crystal 2 is monoclinic, space group P2 1 and shows an ionic character. Semi-tartrate anions form infinite chains and each anion is joined to one pyridine betaine molecule by the O-H···OOC hydrogen bonds, formed between two hydroxyl groups of semi-tartrate anion and the carboxylate oxygen atoms of pyridine betaine, of 2.772(2) and 2.738(2) Å. The counter-ion appears as a homoconjugated cation of two pyridine betaine molecules linked by the O·H·O hydrogen bond of 2.481(2) Å, using the proton transferred form tartaric acid. The FTIR and NMR spectra of 1 and 2 complexes are different. The 1H NMR spectrum in D 2O confirms the presence of methanol in 1.

  4. Gbu Glycine Betaine Porter and Carnitine Uptake in Osmotically Stressed Listeria monocytogenes Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mendum, Mary Lou; Smith, Linda Tombras

    2002-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes grows actively under high-salt conditions by accumulating compatible solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine from the medium. We report here that the dominant transport system for glycine betaine uptake, the Gbu porter, may act as a secondary uptake system for carnitine, with a Km of 4 mM for carnitine uptake and measurable uptake at carnitine concentrations as low as 10 μM. This porter has a Km for glycine betaine uptake of about 6 μM. The...

  5. Inhibitors of bacterial growth in urine: what is the role of betaines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S T; Peddie, B A; Randall, K; Lever, M

    1999-05-01

    It has long been recognised that some individuals produce urine that is inhibitory to uropathogens. This may be partly explained by inhibitors. Several inhibitors have been identified in urine including urea and organic acids. Bacteria adapt to high osmolarity by activating osmoregulated betaine porters and accumulating organic osmolytes intracellularly. The preferred substrate is glycine betaine, which is present in urine, and promotes rapid growth by balancing osmotic forces and stabilising macromolecular structures against the toxicity of urea and low pH. Other dietary betaines such as trigonelline may also be taken but enhance urea toxicity. The importance of such compounds in vivo is unknown. PMID:10394986

  6. Betaine inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 expression in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To test whether ethanol feeding could induce Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)responses,assess the hepatoprotective effect of betaine and its inhibitive effect on TLR4 in animal models of alcoholic liver injury.METHODS:Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups as control,model,low and high dose betaine groups.Except control group,all rats were fed with high fat-containing diet plus ethanol and fish oil gavages for 8 wk.Betaine was administered intragastrically after exposure...

  7. Biosynthesis, translocation, and accumulation of betaine in sugar beet and its progenitors in relation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A D; Wyse, R

    1982-10-01

    Like other halophytic chenopods, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) can accumulate high betaine levels in shoots and roots. N,N,N-trimethylglycine impedes sucrose crystallization and so lowers beet quality. The objective of this research was to examine the genetic variability and physiological significance of betaine accumulation in sugar beet and its relatives. Three cultivated genotypes of B. vulgaris and two genotypes of the wild progenitor B. maritima L. were grown with and without gradual salinization (final NaCl concentration = 150 millimolar). At 6 weeks old, all five genotypes had moderately high betaine levels in shoots and roots when unsalinized (averages for all genotypes: shoots = 108 micromoles per gram dry weight; roots = 99 micromoles per gram dry weight). Salinization raised betaine levels of shoots and roots 2- to 3-fold, but did not greatly depress shoot or root growth. The genotype WB-167-an annual B. maritima type-always had approximately 40% lower betaine levels in roots than the other four genotypes, although the betaine levels in the shoots were not atypically low.THE SITE AND PATHWAY OF BETAINE SYNTHESIS WERE INVESTIGATED IN YOUNG, SALINIZED SUGAR BEET PLANTS BY: (a) supplying 1 micromole [(14)C]ethanolamine to young leaf blades or to the taproot sink of intact plants; (b) supplying tracer [(14)C]formate to discs of leaf, hypocotyl, and taproot tissues in darkness. Conversion of both (14)C precursors to betaine was active only in leaf tissue. Very little (14)C appeared in the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine before betaine was heavily labeled; this was in marked contrast to the labeling patterns in salinized barley. Phosphorylcholine was a prominent early (14)C metabolite of both [(14)C]ethanolamine and [(14)C]formate in all tissues of sugar beet. Betaine translocation was examined in young plants of sugar beet and WB-167 by applying tracer [methyl-(14)C]betaine to a young expanded leaf and determining the distribution of (14)C after 3 days. In

  8. Synthesis of glycine betaine from exogenous choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Cánovas, David; Vargas, C.; Csonka, Laszlo N.; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The role of choline in osmoprotection in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata has been examined. Transport and conversion of choline to betaine began immediately after addition of choline to the growth medium. Intracellular accumulation of betaine synthesized from choline was salt dependent up to 2.5 M NaCl. Oxidation of choline was enhanced at 2.0 M NaCl in the presence or absence of externally provided betaine. This indicates that the NaCl concentration in the growth medium has major e...

  9. An improved method for the determination of betaine in Echinacea products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzera, M; Pujol, P; Walker, L; Khan, I A

    2001-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC method for the separation and quantification of betaine in Echinacea products has been developed. Strong cation-exchange (SCX) material was used as stationary phase, and a mixture of methanol and 50 mM choline buffer (pH 3.5) as mobile phase. After formation of the bromophenacyl derivative, betaine was detected at 254 nm with a detection limit of 0.2 microgram/ml. The method was successfully used to analyze several Echinacea market products, and significant variations in their betaine content from 0.04 to 0.64% were observed. PMID:11487974

  10. Betaine Chloride-Betaine Tetrachloridoferrate(III—An Ionic Liquid Related Crystal Structure Governed by the Pearson Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja-Verena Mudring

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The first betaine chloride tetrachloroidoferrate(III  double salt, (Hbet2Cl[FeCl4] = (HbetCl·(Hbet[FeCl4], was obtained from a solution of betaine hydrochloride (HbetCl and FeCl3∙6 H2O in water. The crystal structure (orthorhombic, Pbcm, a = 6.2717(13, b = 12.841(3, c = 25.693(5 Å, Z = 4 is characterized by layers of tetrachloridoferrate(III anions separated by chloride-bridged, H-bond mediated cationic (Hbet dimers. The hydrogen bonding network in the crystal structure follows the Pearson HSAB (hard acid-soft base concept: According to the Pearson concept, the chloride anions show high affinity to the carboxyl group (hard acid and base, and the tetrachloroidoferrate(III anion preferentially interacts with the activated methyl donors (soft acid and base. These interactions between the COOH group, as hard H-bond donor, and chloride as hard acceptor besides those between the soft, activated methyl groups and the soft tetrachloridoferrate(III anions are the major structure-directing forces in the crystal structure of (Hbet2Cl[FeCl4].

  11. Effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in mice and the involvement of GABA transporter 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Masaya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidative stress in aged rat kidney, the effects of betaine on the central nervous system are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced memory impairment and on mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory molecules, glial markers, and GABA transporter 2 (GAT2, a betaine/GABA transporter. Methods Mice were continuously treated with betaine for 13 days starting 1 day before they were injected with LPS, or received subacute or acute administration of betaine shortly before or after LPS injection. Then, their memory function was evaluated using Y-maze and novel object recognition tests 7 and 10-12 days after LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v., respectively. In addition, mRNA expression levels in hippocampus were measured by real-time RT-PCR at different time points. Results Repeated administration of betaine (0.163 mmol/kg, s.c. prevented LPS-induced memory impairment. GAT2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in hippocampus 24 hr after LPS injection, and administration of betaine blocked this increase. However, betaine did not affect LPS-induced increases in levels of mRNA related to inflammatory responses. Both subacute administration (1 hr before, and 1 and 24 hr after LPS injection and acute administration (1 hr after LPS injection of betaine also prevented LPS-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test. Conclusions These data suggest that betaine has protective effects against LPS-induced memory impairment and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in GAT2 mRNA expression is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  12. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of long term betaine supplementation on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) in experienced strength trained men. Methods Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 ± 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 ± 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles. Bench press and back squat training volumes were recorded and changes in training volume were assessed at each micro-cycle. Fasting urine was collected at baseline (BL), weeks 2, 4 and 6, and assayed for HCTL. Subjects were tested prior to and following 6 weeks of treatment. Arm and thigh cross sectional area (CSA) was estimated via girth and skin fold measurements. Body density was estimated via skin fold calipers and used to estimate BF%, fat mass (FM), and lean body mass (LBM). Performance was assessed via vertical jump (VJ), bench press 1 RM (BP), and back squat 1 RM (BS). Results Arm CSA increased significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences existed between group and time for changes in thigh CSA. Back squat training volume increased significantly (p < .05) for both groups throughout training. Bench press training volume was significantly (p < .05) improved for BET compared to PL at microcycles one and three. Body composition (BF%, FM, LBM) improved significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences were found in performance variables (BP, BS, VJ) between groups, except there was a trend (p = .07) for increased VJ power in BET versus PL. A significant interaction (p < .05) existed for HCTL, with increases from BL to week 2 in PL, but not BET. Additionally, HCTL remained elevated at week 4 in PL, but not BET. Conclusion Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press

  13. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) : genomic sequencing and relevance to hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, S.G.; Lievers, K.J.A.; Boers, G.H.; Verhoef, P.; Heijer, den M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with arteriosclerosis and thrombosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia is caused by altered functioning of enzymes of its metabolism due to either inherited or acquired factors. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) serves, next to methionine synthase, a

  14. Variation of Polyphenols and Betaines in Aerial Parts of Young, Field-Grown Amaranthus Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine Krogh; Pedersen, Hans Albert; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2011-01-01

    -trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl-4-O-methyldopamine), and betaines (glycinebetaine, trigonelline) were determined. The variation in phytochemical content due to species and cultivation site was analyzed utilizing the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and graphical model (GM...... primarily by a higher content of trigonelline and the two hydroxycinnamyl amides in A. mantegazzianus. The GM showed that the quantities of the different analytes within each compound group were intercorrelated except in the case of the betaines. The betaines carried no information on each other...... that was not given through correlations with other compounds. The hydroxycinnamic acids were a key group of compounds in this analysis as they separated the other groups from each other (i.e., carried information on all of the other groups). This study showed the contents of polyphenols and betaines in the aerial...

  15. Effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite in exercise-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Cameron G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betaine, beetroot juice, and supplemental nitrate have recently been reported to improve certain aspects of exercise performance, which may be mechanistically linked to increased nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite, a surrogate marker or nitric oxide, in exercise-trained men. Methods We used three different study designs (acute intake of betaine at 1.25 and 5.00 grams, chronic intake of betaine at 2.5 grams per day for 14 days, and chronic [6 grams of betaine per day for 7 days] followed by acute intake [6 grams], all involving exercise-trained men, to investigate the effects of orally ingested betaine on plasma nitrate/nitrite. Blood samples were collected before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after ingestion of 1.25 and 5.00 grams of betaine (Study 1; before and after 14 days of betaine supplementation at a dosage of 2.5 grams (Study 2; and before and after 7 days of betaine supplementation at a dosage of 6 grams, followed by acute ingestion of 6 grams and blood measures at 30 and 60 min post ingestion (Study 3. Results In Study 1, nitrate/nitrite was relatively unaffected and no statistically significant interaction (p = 0.99, dosage (p = 0.69, or time (p = 0.91 effects were noted. Similar findings were noted in Study 2, with no statistically significant interaction (p = 0.57, condition (p = 0.98, or pre/post intervention (p = 0.17 effects noted for nitrate/nitrite. In Study 3, no statistically significant changes were noted in nitrate/nitrite between collection times (p = 0.97. Conclusion Our data indicate that acute or chronic ingestion of betaine by healthy, exercise-trained men does not impact plasma nitrate/nitrite. These findings suggest that other mechanisms aside from increasing circulating nitric oxide are likely responsible for any performance enhancing effect of betaine supplementation.

  16. Betaine and Carnitine Derivatives as Herbicidal Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Michał; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Fochtman, Przemysław; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Praczyk, Tadeusz

    2016-08-16

    This study focused on the synthesis and subsequent characterization of herbicidal ionic liquids based on betaine and carnitine, two derivatives of amino acids, which were used as cations. Four commonly used herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP and Dicamba) were used as anions in simple (single anion) and oligomeric (two anions) salts. The obtained salts were subjected to analyzes regarding physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, refractive index, thermal decomposition profiles and solubility) as well as evaluation of their herbicidal activity under greenhouse and field conditions, toxicity towards rats and biodegradability. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized herbicidal ionic liquids displayed low toxicity (classified as category 4 compounds) and showed similar or improved efficacy against weed compared to reference herbicides. The highest increase was observed during field trials for salts containing 2,4-D as the anion, which also exhibited the highest biodegradability (>75 %). PMID:27374836

  17. Growth-regulating Activity of Cinnamamide and Betaine Cinnamamide on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weiyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of Cinnamamide and betaine Cinnamamide developed from the structure of cinnamic acid were synthesized. Different concentrations of Cinnamamide and betaine Cinnamamide were employed to check their effects on seed germination and early growth in wheat. The preliminary results showed that, under the condition of this experiment, target compounds have high activity in promoting seed germination, accelerating the lengths of root and shoot and improving the quality of wheat.

  18. Modulation of Colitis-associated Colon Tumorigenesis by Baicalein and Betaine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflamm...

  19. Effects of supplementation of betaine hydrochloride on physiological performances of broilers exposed to thermal stress

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Sudipto

    2015-01-01

    Abhay K Singh,1 Tapan K Ghosh,1 David C Creswell,2 Sudipto Haldar1 1Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, India; 2Creswell Nutrition, Sydney, Australia Background: Betaine has the potential to spare methionine and choline as methyl-group donors, and is thought to improve broiler performance under conditions of stress. An experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of supplemental betain...

  20. The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Obeid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methyl groups are important for numerous cellular functions such as DNA methylation, phosphatidylcholine synthesis, and protein synthesis. The methyl group can directly be delivered by dietary methyl donors, including methionine, folate, betaine, and choline. The liver and the muscles appear to be the major organs for methyl group metabolism. Choline can be synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via the cytidine-diphosphate (CDP pathway. Low dietary choline loweres methionine formation and causes a marked increase in S-adenosylmethionine utilization in the liver. The link between choline, betaine, and energy metabolism in humans indicates novel functions for these nutrients. This function appears to goes beyond the role of the nutrients in gene methylation and epigenetic control. Studies that simulated methyl-deficient diets reported disturbances in energy metabolism and protein synthesis in the liver, fatty liver, or muscle disorders. Changes in plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy reflect one aspect of the metabolic consequences of methyl group deficiency or nutrient supplementations. Folic acid supplementation spares betaine as a methyl donor. Betaine is a significant determinant of plasma tHcy, particularly in case of folate deficiency, methionine load, or alcohol consumption. Betaine supplementation has a lowering effect on post-methionine load tHcy. Hypomethylation and tHcy elevation can be attenuated when choline or betaine is available.

  1. The metabolic burden of methyl donor deficiency with focus on the betaine homocysteine methyltransferase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima

    2013-09-09

    Methyl groups are important for numerous cellular functions such as DNA methylation, phosphatidylcholine synthesis, and protein synthesis. The methyl group can directly be delivered by dietary methyl donors, including methionine, folate, betaine, and choline. The liver and the muscles appear to be the major organs for methyl group metabolism. Choline can be synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via the cytidine-diphosphate (CDP) pathway. Low dietary choline loweres methionine formation and causes a marked increase in S-adenosylmethionine utilization in the liver. The link between choline, betaine, and energy metabolism in humans indicates novel functions for these nutrients. This function appears to goes beyond the role of the nutrients in gene methylation and epigenetic control. Studies that simulated methyl-deficient diets reported disturbances in energy metabolism and protein synthesis in the liver, fatty liver, or muscle disorders. Changes in plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) reflect one aspect of the metabolic consequences of methyl group deficiency or nutrient supplementations. Folic acid supplementation spares betaine as a methyl donor. Betaine is a significant determinant of plasma tHcy, particularly in case of folate deficiency, methionine load, or alcohol consumption. Betaine supplementation has a lowering effect on post-methionine load tHcy. Hypomethylation and tHcy elevation can be attenuated when choline or betaine is available.

  2. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  3. Effect of betaine on HSP70 expression and cell survival during adaptation to osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E M; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1993-07-15

    Induced expression of the HSP70 gene in 3T3 and SV-3T3 cells was monitored by measurements of the synthesis of HSP70 and of the cellular contents of both HSP70 and its mRNA. The presence of betaine (N-trimethylglycine) at concentrations of 2.5-25 mM decreased the induction of HSP70 gene expression caused by incubation of 3T3 and SV-3T3 cells in hypertonic (0.5 osM) medium. This effect was accompanied by an enhancement of SV-3T3 cell adaptation, assayed by colony formation, to the hyperosmotic conditions. In contrast, the presence of betaine did not affect HSP70 gene expression induced in these cells by heat shock. After 6 h incubation with 25 mM betaine under hypertonic (0.5 osM) conditions the intracellular concentration of betaine in SV-3T3 cells was about 195 mM, compared with about 70 mM under isotonic (0.3 osM) conditions. Hence, with this concentration of extracellular betaine, the marked increase in the accumulation of betaine within the cells presumably counteracts the imposed osmotic pressure and eliminates the signal that otherwise initiates increased expression of the HSP70 gene. PMID:8343134

  4. Three Transporters Mediate Uptake of Glycine Betaine and Carnitine by Listeria monocytogenes in Response to Hyperosmotic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidis, Apostolos S.; Smith, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of the potent osmolytes glycine betaine and carnitine enable the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to proliferate in environments of elevated osmotic stress, often rendering salt-based food preservation inadequate. To date, three osmolyte transport systems are known to operate in L. monocytogenes: glycine betaine porter I (BetL), glycine betaine porter II (Gbu), and a carnitine transporter OpuC. We investigated the specificity of each transporter towards e...

  5. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  6. Effect of natural betaine on estimates of semen quality in mature AI boars during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, F A; Stewart, K R; Schinckel, A P; Barnes, W; Boyd, R D; Wilcock, P; Woodliff, J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. PMID:27095614

  7. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  8. Betaine accumulation and (/sup 14/C)formate metabolism in water-stressed barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.D.; Nelsen, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants at the three-leaf stage were water-stressed by flooding the rooting medium with polyethylene glycol 6000 with an osmotic potential of -19 bars, or by withholding water. While leaf water potential fell and leaf kill progressed, the betaine (trimethylglycine) content of the second leaf blade rose from about 0.4 micromole to about 1.5 micromoles in 4 days. The time course of betaine accumulation resembled that of proline. Choline levels in unstressed second leaf blades were low (<0.1 micromole per blade) and remained low during water stress. Upon relief of stress, betaine-like proline-remained at a high concentration in drought-killed leaf zones, but betaine did not disappear as rapidly as proline during recovery. When (methyl-/sup 14/C)choline was applied to second leaf blades of intact plants in the growth chamber, water-stressed plants metabolized 5 to 10 times more /sup 14/C label to betaine than control plants during 22 hours. When infiltrated with tracer quantities of (/sup 14/C)formate and incubated for various times in darkness or light, segments cut from water-stressed leaf blades incorporated about 2- to 10-fold more /sup 14/C into betaine than did segments from unstressed leaves. In segments from stressed leaves incubated with (/sup 14/C)formate for about 18 hours in darkness, betaine was always the principal /sup 14/C-labeled soluble metabolite. This /sup 14/C label was located exclusively in the N-methyl groups of betaine; thus, reducing equivalents were available in stressed leaves for the reductive steps of methyl group biosynthesis from formate. Incorporation of /sup 14/C from formate into choline was also increased in stressed leaf tissue, but choline was not a major product formed from (/sup 14/C)formate. These results are consistent with a net de novo synthesis of betaine from 1- and 2-carbon precursors during water stress and indicate that the betaine so accumulated may be a metabolically inert end product.

  9. Betaine Accumulation and [C]Formate Metabolism in Water-stressed Barley Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A D; Nelsen, C E

    1978-08-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants at the three-leaf stage were water-stressed by flooding the rooting medium with polyethylene glycol 6000 with an osmotic potential of -19 bars, or by withholding water. While leaf water potential fell and leaf kill progressed, the betaine (trimethylglycine) content of the second leaf blade rose from about 0.4 micromole to about 1.5 micromoles in 4 days. The time course of betaine accumulation resembled that of proline accumulation. Choline levels in unstressed second leaf blades were low (<0.1 micromole per blade) and remained low during water stress. Upon relief of stress, betaine-like proline-remained at a high concentration in drought-killed leaf zones, but betaine did not disappear as rapidly as proline from viable leaf tissue during recovery.When [methyl-(14)C]choline was applied to second leaf blades of intact plants in the growth chamber, water-stressed plants metabolized 5 to 10 times more (14)C label to betaine than control plants during 22 hours. When infiltrated with tracer quantities of [(14)C]formate and incubated for various times in darkness or light, segments cut from water-stressed leaf blades incorporated about 2- to 10-fold more (14)C into betaine than did segments from unstressed leaves. In segments from stressed leaves incubated with [(14)C]formate for about 18 hours in darkness, betaine was always the principal (14)C-labeled soluble metabolite. This (14)C label was located exclusively in the N-methyl groups of betaine, demonstrating that reducing equivalents were available in stressed leaves for the reductive steps of methyl group biosynthesis from formate. Incorporation of (14)C from formate into choline was also increased in stressed leaf tissue, but choline was not a major product formed from [(14)C]formate.These results are consistent with a net de novo synthesis of betaine from 1- and 2-carbon precursors during water stress, and indicate that the betaine so accumulated may be a metabolically inert end

  10. Betaine yields from marine algal species utilized in the preparation of seaweed extracts used in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Gerald; Morse, Peter F; Mathe, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Critchleye, Alan T; Morrell, Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum, and to a lesser extent, Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea and Fucus serratus, are marine algal species utilized in the commercial production of seaweed extracts used in agriculture. Betaines have been shown to be important constituents of these extracts, but there appears to have been no study made on whether there are variations in the betaine contents of these species based on either the place or date of collection. Samples of each of the four species were collected from widely separated areas at different times of the year. Also, in the case of A. nodosum, approximately monthly collections were made from one location. The betaines detected in the various collections of the same species showed little variation, although in the case ofA. nodosum, glycinebetaine was found as a minor constituent in some samples, but was not detected in others. Trigonelline was found in all the tested samples of the two Laminaria species; this is, to our knowledge, the first record of this betaine in marine algae. With the exception of trigonelline in the Laminaria species, the betaine yields from the various samples of L. digitata, L. hyperborea and F. serratus showed little variation, regardless of either the place or date of collection. The trigonelline contents of the Laminaria species collected at one location (Finavarra, Ireland), in particular of L. hyperborea, was substantially greater than those from the other places of collection. In the case of A. nodosum, the betaine yields from samples collected at one site (Dale, Pembrokeshire, UK) were significantly higher than those from the other places of collection, which were very similar to each other. There was no clear indication of seasonal variation in betaine yields from A. nodosum. PMID:20433077

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. Users’ inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. It is likely to cause skin sensitisation. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

  12. Comparative study of urea and betaine solutions by dielectric spectroscopy: liquid structures of a protein denaturant and stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Oshige, Ikuya; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio

    2007-10-11

    We performed dielectric spectroscopy measurements on aqueous solutions of glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine), which is known to be a strong stabilizer of globular proteins, over a wide concentration range (3-62 wt %) and compared the results with our previously published data for aqueous solutions of urea, a representative protein denaturant. The hydration number of betaine (9), calculated on the basis of the reduction in the dielectric relaxation strength of bulk water with addition of betaine, is significantly larger than that of urea (2). Furthermore, the dielectric relaxation time increased with betaine concentration, while that remained nearly constant for the urea-water system over a wide concentration range. This difference between urea and betaine is probably related to their opposite effects on the protein stabilization. PMID:17877386

  13. Expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene and salinity tolerance in rice transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭岩; 张莉; 肖岗; 曹守云; 谷冬梅; 田文忠; 陈受宜

    1997-01-01

    Betaine as one of osmolytes plays an important role in osmoregulation of most high plants. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase C BADH) is the second enzyme involved in betaine biosynthesis. The BADH gene from a halophite, Atriplex hortensis, was transformed into rice cultivars by bombarment method. Totally 192 transgenic rice plants were obtained and most of them had higher salt tolerance than controls. Among transgenic plants transplanted in the saline pool containing 0.5% NaCl in a greenhouse, 22 survived, 13 of which set seeds, and the frequency of seed setting was very low, only 10% . But the controls could not grow under the same condition. The results of BADH ac-tivity assay and Northern blot showed that the BADH gene was integrated into chromosomes of transgenic plants and expressed.

  14. Effects of varying sulphate and nitrogen supply on DMSP and glycine betaine levels in Spartina anglica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, M. M.; Otte, M. L.

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between sulphate, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and glycine betaine concentrations as well as the interaction with nitrogen supply in Spartina anglica Hubbard was investigated. Several studies have already shown that nitrogen affects levels of DMSP and glycine betaine in Spartina. It has further been suggested that sulphate is important to the growth of the salt marsh grass Spartina. We hypothesised that DMSP might be involved in a high sulphur requirement. It was further hypothesised that the effect of sulphate would depend on nitrogen supply. S. anglica shoots were treated with a range of nutrient solutions containing four different sulphate treatments, 0, 80, 800 or 1600 μM and two different nitrogen levels, 0 or 2 mM ammonium nitrate. Plant parts were analysed for DMSP and glycine betaine, as well as total nitrogen and total sulphur. Plants were analysed for proline as well but levels were very low or non-detectable and patterns were not consistent. Total sulphur was affected by both the nitrogen and sulphate treatments while total nitrogen was affected by the nitrogen treatments only. Sulphate had no effect on growth (leaf length or biomass), but nitrogen increased growth of S. anglica shoots. Levels of DMSP and glycine betaine were unaffected by increased sulphate supply. Nitrogen significantly decreased concentrations of DMSP and glycine betaine. However, due to increased biomass production, total amounts of DMSP and glycine betaine per plant were significantly higher in the 2 mM nitrogen treatments. The data suggest that pools of DMSP in roots and stems are more important than previously thought.

  15. Effects of genotype and environment on the contents of betaine, choline, and trigonelline in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corol, Delia-Irina; Ravel, Catherine; Raksegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Charmet, Gilles; Beale, Michael H; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2012-05-30

    This study examined the environmental and genetic variation in methyl donor contents and compositions of 200 cereal genotypes. Glycine betaine, choline, and trigonelline contents were determined by (1)H NMR, and significant differences were observed between cereal types (G) and across harvesting years and growing locations (E). Glycine betaine was the most abundant methyl donor in all of the 200 lines grown on a single site, and concentrations ranged from 0.43 ± 0.09 mg/g dm in oats to 2.57 ± 0.25 mg/g dm in diploid Einkorn varieties. In bread wheat genotypes there was a 3-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Choline contents, in the same lines, were substantially lower, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.17 mg/g dm in oats to 0.27 mg/g dm in durum wheat. Trigonelline was by far the least abundant of the methyl donors studied. Despite this, however, there were large differences between cereal types. Twenty-six wheat genotypes were grown in additional years at four European locations. The average glycine betaine content was highest in grains grown in Hungary and lowest in those grown in the United Kingdom. Across the six environments, there was a 3.8-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Glycine betaine levels, although moderately heritable (0.36), were found to be the most susceptible to the environmental conditions. Free choline concentrations were less variable across genotypes, but heritability of this component was the lowest of all methyl donor components (0.25) and showed a high G × E interaction. Trigonelline showed the most variation due to genotype. Heritability of this metabolite was the highest (0.59), but given that it is at a very low concentration in wheat, it is probably not attractive to plant breeders.

  16. Proximate Composition, and l-Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Seo, Dong Won; Park, Hee Bok; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC) for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female) and meat type (breast and thigh meat) was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y]) from 70 f...

  17. Betaine (trimethylglycine) as a nutritional agent prevents oxidative stress after chronic ethanol consumption in pancreatic tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbak, Gungör; Dokumacioglu, Ali; Tektas, Aysegul; Kartkaya, Kazim; Erden Inal, Mine

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the free radical-mediated cytotoxic effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the pancreatic tissue and a possible cytoprotective effect of betaine as a methyl donor and an important participant in the methionine cycle. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into control, ethanol, and ethanol+betaine groups. Prior to sacrifice, all groups were fed 60 mL/diet per day for two months. Rats in the ethanol group were fed with ethanol 8 g/kg/day. The ethanol+betaine groups were fed ethanol plus betaine (0.5 % w/v). Malondialdehyde levels and adenosine deaminase, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase activities were determined in pancreatic tissues of rats. Compared to control group, MDA levels increased significantly in the ethanol group (p<0.05). MDA levels in the ethanol+betaine group were significantly decreased compared to the ethanol group (p<0.05). ADA activity in the ethanol+betaine group decreased significantly when compared to the ethanol group (p<0.05). XO activities in ethanol-fed rats were decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05). XO activity in the betaine group was increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the ethanol group. SOD activity in the ethanol group decreased significantly compared to control group (p<0.001). SOD activity in the ethanol+betaine group decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control group. We think that betaine, as a nutritional methylating agent, may be effective against ethanol-mediated oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue. PMID:20108209

  18. The solvatochromism of phenolate betaines: comparing different cavities of a polarized continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Domínguez, Moisés

    2015-08-01

    Two variations of the polarized continuum model employing default ("PCM model") and SMD radii ("SMD model") were compared for the reproduction of the solvatochromic behavior of Reichardt's betaine dye, and of eight other phenolate betaines that exhibit a negative, positive or an inverted solvatochromic behavior. Molecules were optimized at the CAM B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, and transition energies were calculated with the TD-DFT method. The PCM model failed to reproduce the negative and the inverted solvachromism of these dyes in protic solvents. The SMD model, though not entirely accounting for hydrogen-bond effects in small, polar hydroxylic solvents, should be recommended as a better alternative for the theoretical simulation of the solvatochromism of phenolate betaines in medium to highly polar solvents. Graphical Abstract A comparison of two polarized continuum models ("default PCM" and "PCM/SMD") for reproducing the solvatochromism of phenolate betaines, with nine examples of negative, positive, and inverted behavior.

  19. The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Ueland, P.M.; Clarke, R.; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van; Groot, L.C. de

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the one-carbon metabolites, choline and homocysteine, to brain function is well known. However, the associations between the one-carbon metabolites choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine with cognition in elderly are unclear. We therefore examined the associations of thes

  20. Glycine betaine fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum during osmostasis and hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaasker, E; Konings, W.N; Poolman, B.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria respond to changes in medium osmolarity by varying the concentrations of specific solutes in order to maintain constant turgor. The primary response of Lactobacillus plantarum to an osmotic upshock involves the accumulation of compatible solutes such as glycine betaine, proline, and glutama

  1. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  2. Physiological and Growth Responses of Tomato Progenies Harboring the Betaine Alhyde Dehydrogenase Gene to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Feng Zhou; Xian-Yang Chen; Xing-Ning Xue; Xin-Guo Zhang; Yin-Xin Li

    2007-01-01

    The responses of five transgenlc tomato (Lycoperslcon esculentum Mill) lines containing the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene to salt stress were evaluated. Proline, betaine (N, N, N-trimethylglycine, hereafter betaine), chlorophyll and ion contents, BADH activity, electrolyte leakage (EL), and some growth parameters of the plants under 1.0% and 1.5% NaCl treatments were examined. The transgenic tomatoes had enhanced BADH activity and betaine content, compared to the wild type under stress conditions. Salt stress reduced chlorophyll contents to a higher extent in the wild type than in the transgenic plants. The wild type exhibited significantly higher proline content than the transgenic plants at 0.9% and 1.3% NaCl. Cell membrane of the wild type was severely damaged as determined by higher EL under salinity stress. K+ and Ca2+ contents of all tested lines decreased under salt stress,but the transgenic plants showed a significantly higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ than the wild type. In contrast,the wild type had significantly higher Cl- and Na+ contents than the transgenic plants under salt stress. Although yield reduction among various lines varied, the wild type had the highest yield reduction. Fruit quality of the transgenic plants was better in comparison with the wild type as shown by a low ratio of blossom end rot fruits.The results show that the transgenic plants have improved salt tolerance over the wild type.

  3. Betaine and L-carnitine transport by Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in response to osmotic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, Annette; Glaasker, Erwin; Poolman, Bert; Abee, Tjakko

    1997-01-01

    The naturally occurring compatible solutes betaine and L-carnitine allow the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to adjust to environments of high osmotic strength. Previously, it was demonstrated that L. monocytogenes possesses an ATP-dependent L-carnitine transporter. The present study reve

  4. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  5. Preparation and Peactions of Pyridinium Ylids via Decarboxylation of Pyridinium Betaines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShrongShiLIN; JianMeiWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    Pyridinium ylids 4 were generated as reaction intermediates from the decarboxylation of pyridinium betaines 3, which were prepared from the reactions of α-amino acid ester hydrochlorides with 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. Protonation,addition and substitution reactions of 4 with electrophiles were studied in this paper.

  6. Plasma choline and betaine and their relation to plasma homocysteine in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, Francien V; Holm, Pål I; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Dijs, Fey P; Ueland, Per M; Muskiet, Frits A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) decrease during pregnancy. This reduction has been investigated in relation to folate status, but no study has addressed the possible role of betaine and its precursor choline. Objective: We investigated the courses of plasma choline and

  7. Surviving environmental stress: the role of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in marine crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NA Stephens-Camacho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH family, an ancestral group of enzymes responsible for aldehyde detoxification in several organisms. The BADH enzyme catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine (GB an important osmoptrotector and osmoregulator accumulated in response to cellular osmotic stress. The BADH enzymes have been extensively described in terrestrial organisms, but information in marine crustaceans remains scarce. Research on crustacean stress-adaptive capacity to environmental stressors relates GB accumulation in response to salinity variations. Although GB de novo synthesis is confirmed on crustaceans, its metabolic pathways and regulation mechanism are unexplored. In this work, the state of the knowledge of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes in marine crustaceans is summarized, as a mechanism to overcome the deleterious effects of changes in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration in seawater. The purpose of this review is to provide a more comprehensive overview to set the basis for exploring novel functions and properties of BADHs on the response of crustaceans to environmental stress.

  8. Separation and Purification of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Wild Suaeda liaotungensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    High active betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) is found in wild Suaeda liaotungensis. The enzyme is purified 206-fold with recovery of 1.5%. It have a specific activity of 2363 nmol/min*mg protein and the molecular mass of each subunit is 64.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE.

  9. Molecular basis of transport and regulation in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ressl, Susanne; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Vonrhein, Clemens; Ott, Vera; Ziegler, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Osmoregulated transporters sense intracellular osmotic pressure and respond to hyperosmotic stress by accumulation of osmolytes to restore normal hydration levels. Here we report the determination of the X-ray structure of a member of the family of betaine/choline/carnitine transporters, the Na+-cou

  10. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  11. The solvatochromism of phenolate betaines: comparing different cavities of a polarized continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Domínguez, Moisés

    2015-08-01

    Two variations of the polarized continuum model employing default ("PCM model") and SMD radii ("SMD model") were compared for the reproduction of the solvatochromic behavior of Reichardt's betaine dye, and of eight other phenolate betaines that exhibit a negative, positive or an inverted solvatochromic behavior. Molecules were optimized at the CAM B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, and transition energies were calculated with the TD-DFT method. The PCM model failed to reproduce the negative and the inverted solvachromism of these dyes in protic solvents. The SMD model, though not entirely accounting for hydrogen-bond effects in small, polar hydroxylic solvents, should be recommended as a better alternative for the theoretical simulation of the solvatochromism of phenolate betaines in medium to highly polar solvents. Graphical Abstract A comparison of two polarized continuum models ("default PCM" and "PCM/SMD") for reproducing the solvatochromism of phenolate betaines, with nine examples of negative, positive, and inverted behavior. PMID:26224604

  12. The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Ueland, P.M.; Clarke, R.; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the one-carbon metabolites, choline and homocysteine, to brain function is well known. However, the associations between the one-carbon metabolites choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine with cognition in elderly are unclear. We therefore examined the associations of thes

  13. Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought.

    OpenAIRE

    Weretilnyk, E A; Hanson, A D

    1990-01-01

    Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. A cDNA clone for BADH (1812 base pairs) was selected from a lambda gt10 cDNA library derived from leaves of salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The library was screened with oligon...

  14. The protecting effects and mechanism of betaine hydrochloride on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Xiao-ming; MA Lian-long; GAO Yong-feng; WANG Hao; WANG Xiao-dan; ZHU Yu-yun; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the protecting effects and mechanism of betaine hydrochloride on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Fourty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (8 animals in each group) : sham-operated control group (A), hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group (B), 200 mg·kg-1 400 mg·kg-1 800 mg·kg-1 betaine hydrochloride + hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group (C、D、E). betaine hydrochloride was administered to animals byoral route in group C、D、E for 7 days before ischemia. A、B group was administered with NS. Made the animal model of part hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the blood and themalondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein content in hepatic tissue were determined after the liver had been reperfused for 24 hours; the hepatic tissue was examined under lightmieroscope and the cell apoptosis was demonstrated with flow cytometry. Results ALT, AST, MDA increased and SOD decreased significantly in B group when compared those in the A group (P<0.05), Hepatic apoptosis was significantly increased; ALT, AST, MDA decreased and SOD increased significantly in betaine hydrochloride 200 mg·kg-1(C) group when compared those in the B group(P<0.05). Hepatic apoptosis was significantly lower, The histologic changes of the liver tissue under lightmicroscope in the C group was more easer than in the I/R group (B). Conclusions Betaine hydrochloride has the ability to scavenge oxygen free radical (OFR), reduce lipid peroxidation and inhibition of apoptosis. So it can protect the rats liver damaged by ischemia-reperfusion.

  15. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.;

    2012-01-01

    of these metabolites from the small intestine. The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P¼0·008). This leads to higher plasma concentrations of methionine (P¼0·0028) and creatine (P¼0·020) of endogenous origin. In conclusion, the use of NMR spectroscopy...... for measuring nutrient uptake in the present study elucidated the relationship between betaine uptake and elevated creatine plasma concentrations....

  16. Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Specificity for Betaine Aldehyde of the Plant ALDH10 Isoenzyme Involved in the Synthesis of Glycine Betaine1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G.; González-Segura, Lilian; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Montiel, Carmina; Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant Km(BAL) increases and Vmax/Km(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the Vmax/Km(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants. PMID:22345508

  17. 甜菜碱及其盐酸盐对籼米热特性和粘度特性影响%Effect of betaine and betaine hydrochloride on the property of pasting and retrogradation of long-shaped rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓映; 吴跃; 林亲录; 丁玉琴; 程威威

    2013-01-01

    Betaine and betaine hydrochloride were researched to addlong–shaped rice which was main produced at Hunan. The object of this investigation was to expand the application of betaine and betaine in starchy food and the exploring a new thought on improving the processing quality of long–shaped rice. The results were as fellow:gelatinization peak temperature and gelatinization enthalpy of long–shaped rice were improved with the addition of betaine and betaine hydrochloride. Meantime,they can reduce the retrogradation enthalpy of long–shaped rice was reduced through,and betaine hydrochloride had greater effect. Breakdown values were reduced obviously when the addition of betaine was 0.20%, and reduction values and setback values were reduced obviously when the addition of betaine was 0.10%and 0.20%. Breakdown values were reduced obviously when the addition of betaine hydrochloride was 0.30%,reduction and setback values were reduced obviously when it was 0.10%.%  为扩展食品添加剂甜菜碱及其盐酸盐在淀粉制品中应用,以湖南地区籼米为原料,研究该两种物质对籼米热特性和粘度特性影响,以期为改善籼米加工品质提供新的解决思路.研究结果表明,甜菜碱和甜菜碱盐酸盐均能提高糊化温度,增大糊化焓值,抑制籼米回生,且甜菜碱盐酸盐抑制回生效果更好;甜菜碱添加量为0.20%时,崩解值明显降低,添加量为0.10%时,消减值明显降低,添加量为0.20%时,回复值明显降低;甜菜碱盐酸盐添加量为0.30%时,崩解值明显增大,添加量为0.10%时,消减值和回复值明显降低.

  18. Identification and Disruption of BetL, a Secondary Glycine Betaine Transport System Linked to the Salt Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes LO28

    OpenAIRE

    Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Abee, Tjakko; Hill, Colin

    1999-01-01

    The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preceded by a consensus ςB-dependent promoter and is predicted to encode a 55-k...

  19. Proteomics reveal a concerted upregulation of methionine metabolic pathway enzymes, and downregulation of carbonic anhydrase-III, in betaine supplemented ethanol-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kharbanda, Kusum K; Vigneswara, Vasanthy; McVicker, Benita L.; Newlaczyl, Anna U.; Bailey, Kevin; Tuma, Dean; David E Ray; Carter, Wayne G.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a proteomic profiling strategy to examine the effects of ethanol and betaine diet supplementation on major liver protein level changes. Male Wistar rats were fed control, ethanol or betaine supplemented diets for 4 weeks. Livers were removed and liver cytosolic proteins resolved by one-dimensional and two-dimensional separation techniques. Significant upregulation of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase-1, methionine adenosyl transferase-1, and glycine N-methyltransferase were t...

  20. Osmotically inducible uptake of betaine via amino acid transport system A in SV-3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1994-05-15

    The osmotically inducible uptake of betaine (NNN-trimethylglycine) by SV-3T3 cells has been studied and compared with the similar process in MDCK cells. Betaine uptake by SV-3T3 cells could be described in terms of a saturable, Na(+)-dependent, component plus a small non-saturable, Na(+)-independent, component. Transport was active, producing considerable accumulation of betaine in the cells. After exposure of the cells to hypertonic conditions for 6 h, there was a marked increase in betaine uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that this increase resulted from an increase in the Vmax. value of the saturable component, from about 88 to 185 nmol of betaine/5 min per mg of protein, the corresponding Km values of about 15 and 10 mM not being significantly different. This induction of transport activity was detectable only after about 2 h exposure of the cells to hypertonic medium, closely paralleling an induction of influx of N-methylaminoisobutyric acid, and was prevented by the presence of cycloheximide. Betaine influx was markedly inhibited by several neutral amino acids, particularly those transported by system A, such as N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and the imino acid proline. A high concentration (25 mM) of betaine also significantly inhibited the uptake of proline by SV-3T3 cells. Although very similar results were obtained with MDCK cells, prolonged exposure of cells to hypertonic conditions revealed distinct differences. When the hypertonic incubation was extended from 6 h to 24 h, betaine transport in SV-3T3 cells either remained the same or decreased, whereas it showed a further marked increase in MDCK cells, and also became sensitive to inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid. mRNA for the betaine transporter BGT-1 [Yamauchi, Uchida, Kwon, Preston, Brooks Robey, Garcia-Perez, Burg and Handler (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 649-652] was detectable in MDCK cells exposed to hypertonic medium for 24 h, but not in SV-3T3 cells under any conditions. It is concluded that

  1. Betaine: a potential agent for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Teixeira Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatopathy associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS is a multifactorial disease associated with poor prognosis. Besides intestinal transplantation, no other treatment has been shown effective. The current study evaluated the efficacy of betaine for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with SBS. Methods: A prospective, unicentric, non-placebo controlled trial was carried out. After initial evaluation, 10g of betaine anhydrous was administrated to SBS patients in two divided doses for three months. The hepatic steatosis was assessed through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, the inflammatory response by interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and ferritin, besides the hepatic lesion through hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Furthermore, the effect of betaine on homocysteine was evaluated as well as its safety and tolerability in this group of patients. Results: After three months supplementation, patients showed decreased percentage of hepatic fat (p = 0.03 through triphasic NMR examination. There was no significant reduction of serum levels for inflammatory proteins and hepatic lesion markers. Homocysteinemia also did not present significant decrease. The most prevalent side effects were diarrhea and nausea, reported in 62% of the participants; however, these symptoms were transient and not severe enough to justify the treatment interruption. Parenteral nutrition-dependent patients did not present different hepatic lesion degree compared to patients who do not need the prolonged use of it. Conclusions: Betaine was shown to be a potential agent for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with SBS, which was evidenced by NMR, although the markers for hepatic lesion have not presented significant decrease.

  2. Determination of Betaine in Fructus Lycii Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Du; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Yeon; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Un Yong; Yang, Dong Hyug; Han, Sang Beom; Youm, Jeong Rok [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A simple new method was developed for the determination of betaine in Fructus Lycii using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HILIC-ELSD). Good chromatographic separation and reasonable betaine retention was achieved on a Kinetex HILIC column (2.1 x 100 mm, 2.6 μm) packed with fused-core particle. The mobile phase consisted of (A) acetonitrile and (B) 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 3.0)/acetonitrile (90/10, v/v). It was used with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/ min. The column temperature was set at 27.5 .deg. C and the injection volume was 10 μL. The ELSD drift tube temperature was 50 .deg. C and the nebulizing gas (nitrogen) pressure was 3.0 bar. Stachydrine, a zwitterionic compound, was used as an internal standard. Calibration curve over 10-250 μg/mL showed good linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.9992) and betaine in the 70% methanol extract of Fructus Lycii was well separated from other peaks. Intra and inter-day precision ranged from 1.1 to 3.0% and from 2.4 to 5.3%, respectively, while intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from 100.0 to 107.0% and from 94.3 to 103.9%, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 μg/mL and the recoveries were in the range of 98.2-102.7%. The developed HILIC-ELSD method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine the amount of betaine in fourteen Fructus Lycii samples from different locations, demonstrating that this method is simple, rapid, and suitable for the quality control of Fructus Lycii.

  3. catena-Poly[[manganese(II-tris(μ-betaine-κ2O:O′] tetrabromidomanganate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Bohatý

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Mn(C5H11NO23]·MnBr4, contains polymeric cationic chains of distorted MnO6 octahedra and bridging betaine molecules, running parallel to the a axis. There are two distinct Mn2+ cations in the chain, both with site symmetry overline{1}. Distorted [MnBr4]2− tetrahedra occupy the spaces between the chains.

  4. Hydration and vibrational dynamics of betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanping; Cui, Yaowen; Mathaga, John; Kumar, Revati; Kuroda, Daniel G

    2015-06-01

    Zwitterions are naturally occurring molecules that have a positive and a negative charge group in its structure and are of great importance in many areas of science. Here, the vibrational and hydration dynamics of the zwitterionic system betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is reported. The linear infrared spectrum of aqueous betaine exhibits an asymmetric band in the 1550-1700 cm(-1) region of the spectrum. This band is attributed to the carboxylate asymmetric stretch of betaine. The potential of mean force computed from ab initio molecular dynamic simulations confirms that the two observed transitions of the linear spectrum are related to two different betaine conformers present in solution. A model of the experimental data using non-linear response theory agrees very well with a vibrational model comprising of two vibrational transitions. In addition, our modeling shows that spectral parameters such as the slope of the zeroth contour plot and central line slope are both sensitive to the presence of overlapping transitions. The vibrational dynamics of the system reveals an ultrafast decay of the vibrational population relaxation as well as the correlation of frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF). A decay of ∼0.5 ps is observed for the FFCF correlation time and is attributed to the frequency fluctuations caused by the motions of water molecules in the solvation shell. The comparison of the experimental observations with simulations of the FFCF from ab initio molecular dynamics and a density functional theory frequency map shows a very good agreement corroborating the correct characterization and assignment of the derived parameters. PMID:26049458

  5. Betaine reduces the expression of inflammatory adipokines caused by hypoxia in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, K; Lahtinen, S; Rautonen, N; Tiihonen, K

    2013-01-14

    Obesity is characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and the elevated circulating and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, including inflammation-related adipokines, released from white adipose tissue. The expression and release of these adipokines generally rises as the adipose tissue expands and hypoxic conditions start to develop within the tissue. Here, the effect of betaine, a trimethylglycine having a biological role as an osmolyte and a methyl donor, on the expression of inflammation-related markers was tested in human adipocytes under hypoxia. Differentiated adipocytes were cultivated under low (1 %) oxygen tension for 8-20 h. The expression of different adipokines, including IL-6, leptin, PPARγ, TNF-α and adiponectin, was measured by quantitative PCR by determining the relative mRNA level from the adipocytes. Hypoxia, in general, led to a decrease in the expression of PPARγ mRNA in human adipocytes, whereas the expression levels of leptin and IL-6 mRNA were substantially increased by hypoxia. The cultivation of adipocytes under hypoxia also led to a reduction in the expression of TNF-α mRNA. The results showed that hypoxia increased the relative quantification of leptin gene transcription, and that betaine (250 μmol/l) reduced this effect, caused by low oxygen conditions. Under hypoxia, betaine also reduced the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α. These results demonstrate that the extensive changes in the expression of inflammation-related adipokines in human adipocytes caused by hypoxia can be diminished by the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of betaine. PMID:22424556

  6. The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Ueland, P. M.; Clarke, R; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van, R.; Groot, de, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the one-carbon metabolites, choline and homocysteine, to brain function is well known. However, the associations between the one-carbon metabolites choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine with cognition in elderly are unclear. We therefore examined the associations of these metabolites with cognition in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Individuals (n 195) were randomized to receive daily oral capsules with either 1000 ¿g cobalamin (vitamin B12), or 1000 ¿g ...

  7. Hepatoprotective Effects of Betaine Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Levodopa and Benserazide in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alirezaei

    2015-02-01

    Results: The study results indicated that the treatment of rats with levodopa and benserazide significantly increased total homocysteine (tHcy in plasma of the LD/Ben. group in comparison with the other groups (p <0.05. tHcy concentration was also significantly higher in LD group in comparison with control, betaine and LD/Bet. groups. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS amount of liver increased significantly in LD/Ben. group when compared to the control group which this index decreased by betaine treatment. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in liver were significantly higher in the LD-treated rats as compared to the LD/Ben. group. Serumic dopamine concentration decreased significantly in LD/Ben.-treated rats in comparison with LD and LD/Bet. groups. Conclusion: Taken together, it seems that betaine acts as an antioxidant agent regarding decrease of LD/Ben.-induced oxidative stress and is able to decrease their oxidative effects in liver of rats.

  8. Proline, glycine betaine, total phenolics and pigment contents in response to osmotic stress in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJJAD MOHARRAMNEJAD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the fresh weight, RWC, pigment content, total phenolics, proline and glycine betaine responses of maize inbred lines to osmotic stress, a factorial experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions with two maize inbred lines (B73 and MO17 and two osmotic stress levels induced by PEG (control and -0.6 MPa. Fresh weight significantly decreased under drought stress. On the basis of percent inhibition in fresh weight at the osmotic stress MO17 was ranked as tolerant (inhibition 45.30%, and B73 drought sensitive (inhibition more than 50%. Leaf relative water content (RWC was significantly decreased in both inbred lines under osmotic stress. The pigment concentrations were substantially declined in both maize inbreds under osmotic stressed conditions. However, this reduction was less in B73 than MO17. Osmoitc stress declined the levels of total phenolics in both maize inbreds. On the other hand, the osmotic stress markedly enhanced the levels of proline and glycine betaine in both maize inbreds, but this was more pronounced in MO17. The present results showed that osmotic stress retards the growth and some biochemical attributes of maize inbreds. In conclusion, the level of proline and glycine betaine in maize could improve drought tolerance.

  9. Osmotic Regulation of Betaine Content in Leymus chinensis Under Saline-alkali Stress and Cloning and Expression of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase(BADH)Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xi-yan; WANG Yong; GUO Ji-xun

    2008-01-01

    The potted Leymus chinensis seedlings were treated with saline-alkali solution of six different(from Ⅰ to Ⅵ) concentrations.The results demonstrate that the betaine content and Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase(BADH:EC 1.2.1.8) activities have a direct relation with increased stressing time in the same treatment;both exhibit a single peak with increasing the concentration of saline-alkali solution,and number V shows the highest value.The BADH gene of Leymus chinensis Was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE technology and Was designated as LcBADH.The cDNA sequence of LcBADH Was 1774bp including the open reading frame(ORF)of 1521bp(coding 506 amino acids).The vector of prokaryotic expression was constructed by inserting the LcBADH gene fragment into pET30a(+)and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3).The result of SDS-PAGE shows that the idio-protein with a molecular mass of 56.78 kDa was effectively expressed in the recombinant bacteria induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside(IPTG).

  10. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency--the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, D E; Dudman, N P; Tyrrell, P A

    1985-12-01

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency may be responsive to pyridoxine, a precursor of the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate, and the amount of residual enzyme activity present is the probable determinant of this. In six treated pyridoxine-responsive patients whose biochemical control of fasting plasma amino acid levels appeared optimal, we assessed the effects on plasma amino acids of standard oral methionine loads (4g/m2 of body area) before and after adding betaine (trimethylglycine) 6 g/d, to the treatment regimen of pyridoxine and folic acid. Our aim was to define the capacity of these patients to metabolize methionine and to determine whether betaine would effect a reduction in postload homocysteine levels. During the 24 hours after the methionine challenge all patients had higher plasma methionine and homocysteine and lower cysteine than did 17 normal subjects. After betaine these homocysteine responses were reduced to near normal, and there was a trend toward increased methionine. There was a direct correlation between premethionine fasting homocysteine and mean homocysteine responses during the 24 hours following the methionine load, both before (r = 0.79) and after betaine (r = 0.71). Betaine also increased plasma cysteine levels in patients with the more severe biochemical abnormalities. After betaine there were modest increases in plasma serine (mean increase 25%; P less than 0.025). Since the vascular complications of homocystinuria are related to increased plasma homocysteine, betaine therapy may reduce this risk in patients receiving a standard pyridoxine and folic acid regimen in whom there are abnormal homocysteine responses after a standard methionine load. PMID:3934499

  11. Methylation and Gene Expression Responses to Ethanol Feeding and Betaine Supplementation in the Cystathionine Beta Synthase-Deficient Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Schroeder, Diane I.; Woods, Rima; LaSalle, Janine M.; Geng, Yongzhi; Shibata, Noreene M.; Peerson, Janet; Hodzic, Emir; Dayal, Sanjana; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W.; Halsted, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is caused in part by the effects of ethanol on hepatic methionine metabolism. Methods To investigate the phenotypic and epigenetic consequences of altered methionine metabolism in this disease, we studied the effects of 4-wk intragastric ethanol feeding with and without the methyl donor betaine in cystathionine beta synthase (CβS) heterozygous C57BL/6J mice. Results The histopathology of early ASH was induced by ethanol feeding and prevented by betaine supplementation, while ethanol feeding reduced and betaine supplementation maintained the hepatic methylation ratio of the universal methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the methyltransferase inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). MethylC-Seq genomic sequencing of heterozygous liver samples from each diet group found 2–4% reduced methylation in gene bodies but not promoter regions of all autosomes of ethanol fed mice, each of which were normalized in samples from mice fed the betaine supplemented diet. The transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) were increased, while those of peroxisome proliferator receptor-a (Pparα) were reduced in ethanol fed mice, and each was normalized in mice fed the betaine supplemented diet. DNA pyrosequencing of CβS heterozygous samples found reduced methylation in a gene body of Nos2 by ethanol feeding that was restored by betaine supplementation, and was correlated inversely with its expression and positively with SAM: SAH ratios. Conclusions The present studies have demonstrated relationships among ethanol induction of ASH with aberrant methionine metabolism that was associated with gene body DNA hypomethylation in all autosomes and was prevented by betaine supplementation. The data imply that ethanol-induced changes in selected gene transcript levels and hypomethylation in gene bodies during the induction of ASH is a result of altered methionine metabolism that can be reversed

  12. Effect of Betaine on the Regulation of the Lipid Metabolism in Laying Hen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xiao-ting; LU Jian-jun

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of betaine on lipid metabolism of laying hens. 1 600 ISA brown laying hens of 20 weeks of age were alloted randomly into 4 groups each with 4 replicates of 100 layers, the layers were given a corn-soybean basal diet with 0,400,600 and 800 mg/kg betaine respectirely. Results indicated that supplementation of 600 mg/kg betaine significantly improved lay performance, and increased egg production 8.67 % ( P < 0.04), decreased feed/egg ratio by 9.02 % ( P < 0.03) compared with control, but there were no significant differences in egg weight and feed intake. It was found that supplementation of 600 mg/kg betaine decreased weights of abdominal fat by 19.63 % (P < 0.02)and 22.35%(P<0.02), and decreased liver fat by 8.52%(P<0.05) and 16.28%(P<0.01) in 50 and 70 weeks of age respectively. Compared with control, in 70 weeks of age, activity of LPL in abdominal fat was decreased by 44.83% (P < 0.01), HSL activity in abdominal fat increased by 50.0% (P < 0.02), and MDH activity in liver was decreased by 28.74% (P<0.03). Supplementation of 600 betaine increased levels of T3 by 43.29%( P < 0.05) and 43.95 % ( P < 0.02) in 50 and 70 weeks of age respectively, and increased the concentration of cAMP in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary by 59.89% ( P < 0.01) and 24.03% ( P < 0.05) respectively in 70 weeks of age. The concentration of serum gluclose (GLU) , FFA and phospholipid were increased by 44.50% (P<0.03), 19.66%(P<0.03) and 71.66% (P<0.01) in 50 weeks of age. The concentration of serum gluclose (GLU), FFA and phospholipid were increased by 16.25% ( P < 0.05), 22.51% ( P < 0.02) and 22.42%(P<0.01) in 70 weeks of age.

  13. Betaine and Trimethylamine-N-Oxide as Predictors of Cardiovascular Outcomes Show Different Patterns in Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lever

    Full Text Available Betaine is a major osmolyte, also important in methyl group metabolism. Concentrations of betaine, its metabolite dimethylglycine and analog trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO in blood are cardiovascular risk markers. Diabetes disturbs betaine: does diabetes alter associations between betaine-related measures and cardiovascular risk?Plasma samples were collected from 475 subjects four months after discharge following an acute coronary admission. Death (n = 81, secondary acute MI (n = 87, admission for heart failure (n = 85, unstable angina (n = 72 and all cardiovascular events (n = 283 were recorded (median follow-up: 1804 days.High and low metabolite concentrations were defined as top or bottom quintile of the total cohort. In subjects with diabetes (n = 79, high plasma betaine was associated with increased frequencies of events; significantly for heart failure, hazard ratio 3.1 (1.2-8.2 and all cardiovascular events, HR 2.8 (1.4-5.5. In subjects without diabetes (n = 396, low plasma betaine was associated with events; significantly for secondary myocardial infarction, HR 2.1 (1.2-3.6, unstable angina, HR 2.3 (1.3-4.0, and all cardiovascular events, HR 1.4 (1.0-1.9. In diabetes, high TMAO was a marker of all outcomes, HR 2.7 (1.1-7.1 for death, 4.0 (1.6-9.8 for myocardial infarction, 4.6 (2.0-10.7 for heart failure, 9.1 (2.8-29.7 for unstable angina and 2.0 (1.1-3.6 for all cardiovascular events. In subjects without diabetes TMAO was only significant for death, HR 2.7 (1.6-4.8 and heart failure, HR 1.9 (1.1-3.4. Adding the estimated glomerular filtration rate to Cox regression models tended to increase the apparent risks associated with low betaine.Elevated plasma betaine concentration is a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes; conversely low plasma betaine concentrations indicate increased risk in the absence of diabetes. We speculate that the difference reflects control of osmolyte retention in tissues. Elevated

  14. Corticoadrenal activity in rat regulates betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression with opposite effects in liver and kidney

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Osvaldo Fridman; Analía V Morales; Laura E Bortoni; Paula C Turk-Noceto; Elio A Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Betaine-homocysteine -methyltransferase (BHMT) is an enzyme that converts homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine using betaine as a methyl donor. Betaine also acts as osmolyte in kidney medulla, protecting cells from high extracellular osmolarity. Hepatic BHMT expression is regulated by salt intake. Hormones, particularly corticosteroids, also regulate BHMT expression in rat liver. We investigated to know whether the corticoadrenal activity plays a role in kidney BHMT expression. BHMT activity in rat kidneys is several orders of magnitude lower than in rat livers and only restricted to the renal cortex. This study confirms that corticosteroids stimulate BHMT activity in the liver and, for the first time in an animal model, also up-regulate the BHMT gene expression. Besides, unlike the liver, corticosteroids in rat kidney down-regulate BHMT expression and activity. Given that the classical effect of adrenocortical activity on the kidney is associated with sodium and water re-absorption by the distal tubule leading to volume expansion, by promoting lesser use of betaine as a methyl donor, corticosteroids would preserve betaine for its other role as osmoprotectant against changes in the extracellular osmotic conditions. We conclude that corticosteroids are, at least in part, responsible for the inhibition of BHMT expression and activity in rat kidneys.

  15. Betaine inhibits in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis through suppression of the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eui-Yeun; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels form existing vessels surrounding a tumor. The process of angiogenesis is an important step for tumor growth and metastasis, as is inflammation. Thus, angiogenesis inhibitors that suppress inflammation have been studied as an anticancer treatment. Recently, many research groups have investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of natural compounds since some have been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. Among many natural compounds, we focused on betaine, which is known to suppress inflammation. Betaine, trimethylglycine (TMG), was first discovered in the juice of sugar beets and was later shown to be present in wheat, shellfish and spinach. In Southeast Asia, betaine is used in traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of hepatic disorders. Here, we report the anti-angiogenic action of betaine. Betaine inhibited in vitro angiogenic cascade, tube formation, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Betaine also inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. The mRNA expression levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in HUVECs were decreased by betaine treatment. In addition, betaine suppressed NF-κB and Akt activation. PMID:22940742

  16. SIT1 is a betaine/proline transporter that is activated in mouse eggs after fertilization and functions until the 2-cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Mohamed-Kheir Idris; Lee, Martin B; Zhou, Chenxi; Hammer, Mary-Anne; Slow, Sandy; Karmouch, Jennifer; Liu, X Johné; Bröer, Stefan; Lever, Michael; Baltz, Jay M

    2008-12-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) added to culture media is known to substantially improve the development of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro, and to be imported into 1-cell embryos by a transporter that also accepts proline. Here, we found that the betaine/proline transporter is active in preimplantation mouse embryos only for a short period of development, between the 1- and 2-cell stages. Betaine/proline transport was activated after fertilization, beginning approximately 4 hours post-egg activation and reaching a maximum by approximately 10 hours. One- and 2-cell embryos contained endogenous betaine, indicating that a likely function for the transporter in vivo is the accumulation or retention of intracellular betaine. The appearance of transport activity after egg activation was independent of protein synthesis, but was reversibly blocked by disruption of the Golgi with brefeldin A. We assessed two candidates for the betaine/proline transporter: SIT1 (IMINO; encoded by Slc6a20a) and PROT (Slc6a7). mRNA from both genes was present in eggs and 1-cell embryos. However, when exogenously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, mouse PROT did not transport betaine and had an inhibition profile different from that of the embryonic transporter. By contrast, exogenously expressed mouse SIT1 transported both betaine and proline and closely resembled the embryonic transporter. A morpholino oligonucleotide designed to block translation of SIT1, when present from the germinal vesicle stage, blocked the appearance of betaine transport activity in parthenogenotes. Thus, SIT1 is likely to be a developmentally restricted betaine transporter in mouse preimplantation embryos that is activated by fertilization. PMID:19029042

  17. Uptake of betaine into mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes via the SLC7A6 isoform of y+L transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Hannah E; Dubé, Chantal D; Slow, Sandy; Lever, Michael; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2014-04-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) has previously been shown to function in cell volume homeostasis in early mouse embryos and also to be a key donor to the methyl pool in the blastocyst. A betaine transporter (SLC6A20A or SIT1) has been shown to be activated after fertilization, but there is no saturable betaine uptake in mouse oocytes or eggs. Unexpectedly, the same high level of betaine is present in mature metaphase II (MII) eggs as is found in one-cell embryos despite the lack of transport in oocytes or eggs. Significant saturable betaine transport is, however, present in intact cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). This transport system has an affinity for betaine of ∼227 μM. The inhibition profile indicates that betaine transport by COCs could be completely blocked by methionine, proline, leucine, lysine, and arginine, and transport is dependent on Na(+) but not Cl(-). This is consistent with transport by a y+L-type amino acid transport system. Both transcripts and protein of one y+L isoform, SLC7A6 (y+LAT2), are present in COCs, with little or no expression in isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, MII eggs, or one-cell embryos. Betaine accumulated by COCs is transferred into the enclosed GV oocyte, which requires functional gap junctions. Thus, at least a portion of the endogenous betaine in MII eggs could be derived from transport into cumulus cells and subsequent transfer into the enclosed oocyte before gap junction closure during meiotic maturation. The oocyte-derived betaine then could be regulated and supplemented by the SIT1 transporter that arises in the embryo after fertilization. PMID:24599290

  18. Radiotracer evidence implicating phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in betaine synthesis by water-stressed barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pulse-chase experiments with barley wilted leaves, label from [14C]-ethanolamine continued to accumulate in betaine as it was being lost from phosphatidylcholine. When [14C]monomethylethanolamine was supplied to wilted leaves, phosphatidylcholine was initially more heavily labeled than betaine. These results are qualitatively consistent with a precursor-to-product relationship between phosphatidylcholine and betaine. The following experiments, in which tracer amounts of [14C]ethanolamine or [14C]formate were supplied to wilted barley leaves, implicated phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in the methylation steps between ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Label from both [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate entered phosphorylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine very rapidly; these phosphoryl bases were the most heavily labeled products at 15 to 30 minutes after label addition and lost label rapidly as the fed 14C-labeled precursor was depleted. Phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were also significantly labeled from [14C]ethanolamine and [14]formate at early times; the corresponding free bases and nucleotide bases were not. Addition of a trapping pool of phosphorylcholine reduced [14C]ethanolamine conversion to both phosphatidylcholine and betaine, and resulted in accumulation of labe in the trap. A computer model of the synthesis of betaine via phosphatidylcholine was developed from 14C kinetic data. The model indicates that about 20% of the total leaf phosphatidylcholine behaves as an intermediate in betaine biosynthesis and that a marked decrease (greater than or equal to2-fold) in the half-life of this metabolically active phosphatidylcholine fraction accompanies wilting

  19. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  20. Dietary Betaine Impacts the Physiological Responses to Moderate Heat Conditions in a Dose Dependent Manner in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Kristy; Simpson, Sarah; Leury, Brian J; Dunshea, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Heat exposure (HE) results in decreased production in ruminant species and betaine is proposed as a dietary mitigation method. Merino ewes ( n = 36, 40 kg, n = 6 per group) were maintained at thermoneutral (TN, n = 18, 21 °C) or cyclical HE ( n = 18, 18-43 °C) conditions for 21 days, and supplemented with either 0 (control), 2 or 4 g betaine/day. Sheep had ad libitum access to water and were pair fed such that intake of sheep on the TN treatment matched that of HE animals. Heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), rectal (T R ) and skin temperatures (T S ) were measured 3 times daily (0900 h, 1300 h, 1700 h). Plasma samples were obtained on 8 days for glucose and NEFA analysis. The HE treatment increased T R by 0.7 °C (40.1 vs. 39.4 °C for HE and TN respectively p breaths/min (133 vs. 87 breaths/min, p breaths/min for control, 2 and 4 g betaine/day, p < 0.001) compared to control. Betaine supplementation decreased plasma NEFA concentrations by ~25 μM (80, 55 and 54 μmol/L for 0, 2 and 4 g/day respectively, p = 0.05). These data indicate that dietary betaine supplementation at 2 g betaine/day provides improvements in physiological responses typical of ewes exposed to heat stress and may be a beneficial supplement for the management of sheep during summer. PMID:27589811

  1. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation and Posttranslational Activity of the Betaine Transporter BetL in Listeria monocytogenes Are Controlled by Environmental Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Sleator, Roy D.; Wood, Janet M.; Hill, Colin

    2003-01-01

    While the genetic elements contributing to the salinity tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes have been well characterized, the regulatory signals and responses (genetic and/or biochemical) that govern these mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Encoded by betL, the first genetic element to be linked to listerial osmotolerance, the secondary betaine uptake system BetL is a member of the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family. Preceded by consensus σA- and σB-dependent promoter sites, betL...

  3. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25240200

  4. Prevention of strychnine-induced seizures and death by the N-methylated glycine derivatives betaine, dimethylglycine and sarcosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, W J

    1985-04-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) and N,N-dimethylglycine have been reported to have anticonvulsant properties in animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these compounds can antagonize strychnine-induced seizures when administered intraperitoneally and to compare their effects with those of sarcosine (N-methylglycine) and glycine. Betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine and sarcosine were equipotent in decreasing the incidence of seizures and death, causing a 38 to 72 percent decrease in the incidence of seizures and death at a dosage of 5 mmole/kg. Glycine had no effect. Thus anticonvulsant activity is conferred to glycine by a single N-methylation. PMID:2581277

  5. Effects of Exogenous Betaine on the Endogenous BetaineSynthesis in Banana under Low Temperature Stress%外源甜菜碱对低温胁迫下香蕉内源甜菜碱合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂富; 韦建学; 符良峰; 李绍鹏

    2011-01-01

    After being treated with different concentration of BT, then stressed in the artificial bioclimatic chamber under 7℃ low temperature,the effects of exogenous betaine on the endogenous betaine synthesis in leaf and root of banana(Musa AAA Giant Cavendish cv.Brazil) were studied by measuring the content of endogenous betaine and the activities of the betaine key synthetase BADH in the leaves and roots of banana seedlings.The results indicated that after being treated with 10 mg/L BT for 16 h under 7℃,the activity of BADH and the content of endogenous betaine in leaves were increased with highly significant difference.Though the content of endogenous betaine in root was significantly higher than that in control which grows under normal circumstance,the activity of BADH was not significantly increased after being stressed for 24 h.Moreover,the endogenous betaine in leaf has significantly partial correlation with the BADH activity, and significantly correlation with the endogenous betaine in root, but no significantly correlation with the exogenous betaine.These results suggest that exogenous betaine could improve the synthesis and content of endogenous betaine in banana under low temperature stress.Both leaves and root have the ability to synthesize BT.%以巴西香蕉(Musa AAA Giant Cavendish cv.Brazil)幼苗为试验材料,用不同浓度外源甜菜碱(BT)预处理香蕉幼苗后,置于人工气候箱中模拟低温(7℃)胁迫,分别测定香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱的含量和甜菜碱合成关键酶甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)活性,以探讨外源甜菜碱对香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱合成的影响.结果显示:7℃低温胁迫16 h后,10 mg/L外源甜菜碱即可极显著提高香蕉幼苗叶片BADH活性,叶片内源BT含量也同步极显著增加,低温胁迫24h后根系内源甜菜碱的含量虽显著高于常温对照,其BADH活性却无显著提升.同时,香蕉幼苗叶片内源BT含量的积累与叶片BADH活性的提高具有

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Trouw Nutritional International B.V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous should be considered hazardous by inhalation, irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

  7. Double-blind therapeutic trial in Angelman syndrome using betaine and folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sarika U; Bird, Lynne M; Kimonis, Virginia; Glaze, Daniel G; Shinawi, Lina M; Bichell, Terry Jo; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Nespeca, Mark; Anselm, Irina; Waisbren, Susan; Sanborn, Erica; Sun, Qin; O'Brien, William E; Beaudet, Arthur L; Bacino, Carlos A

    2010-08-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is caused by reduced or absent expression of the maternally inherited ubiquitin protein ligase 3A gene (UBE3A), which maps to chromosome 15q11-q13. UBE3A is subject to genomic imprinting in neurons in most regions of the brain. Expression of UBE3A from the maternal chromosome is essential to prevent AS, because the paternally inherited gene is not expressed, probably mediated by antisense UBE3A RNA. We hypothesized that increasing methylation might reduce expression of the antisense UBE3A RNA, thereby increasing UBE3A expression from the paternal gene and ameliorating the clinical phenotype. We conducted a trial using two dietary supplements, betaine and folic acid to promote global levels of methylation and attempt to activate the paternally inherited UBE3A gene. We performed a number of investigations at regular intervals including general clinical and developmental evaluations, biochemical determinations on blood and urine, and electroencephalographic studies. We report herein the data on 48 children with AS who were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled protocol using betaine and folic acid for 1 year. There were no statistically significant changes between treated and untreated children; however, in a small subset of patients we observed some positive trends.

  8. A glycine betaine importer limits Salmonella stress resistance and tissue colonization by reducing trehalose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilonieta, M Carolina; Nagy, Toni A; Jorgensen, Dana R; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2012-04-01

    Mechanisms by which Salmonella establish chronic infections are not well understood. Microbes respond to stress by importing or producing compatible solutes, small molecules that stabilize proteins and lipids. The Salmonella locus opuABCD (also called OpuC) encodes a predicted importer of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Under stress conditions, if glycine betaine cannot be imported, Salmonella enterica produce the disaccharide trehalose, a highly effective compatible solute. We demonstrate that strains lacking opuABCD accumulate more trehalose under stress conditions than wild-type strains. ΔopuABCD mutant strains are more resistant to high-salt, low-pH and -hydrogen peroxide, conditions that mimic aspects of innate immunity, in a trehalose-dependent manner. In addition, ΔopuABCD mutant strains require the trehalose production genes to out-compete wild-type strains in mice and macrophages. These data suggest that in the absence of opuABCD, trehalose accumulation increases bacterial resistance to stress in broth and mice. Thus, opuABCD reduces bacterial colonization via a mechanism that limits trehalose production. Mechanisms by which microbes limit disease may reveal novel pathways as therapeutic targets.

  9. Synthesis and surface activities of a novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants of 1,2-bis[N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl-3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium] alkyl betaines (DBAs–n, where s and n represent the spacer length of 2, 4 and 6 and the hydrocarbon chain length of 8, 12, 14, 16 and 18, respectively) were synthesized by reacting alkylamine with sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanesulfonate (the alternative sulphonated agent), followed by the reactions with a,ω-dibromoalkyl and then ethyl bromide. Their adsorption and aggregation properties were investigated by means of equilibrium surface tension, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DBAs–n gemini surfactants showed excellent surface activities and packed tightly at the interface. For example, the minimum CMC value for DBAs–n series was of the order of 10−5 M and the surface tension of water can be decreased as low as 22.2 mN/m. It was also found that the aggregates of DBAs–n solutions were significantly dependent on their hydrocarbon chain lengths. The aggregates changed from vesicles to entangled fiber-like micelles as the chain length increased from dodecyl to tetradecyl.

  10. Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid Induced Modification in Water Relations and Productivity of Drought Wheat Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of parameters associated with adjustments in internal water balance, namely: diurnal variation in transpiration rate, stomatal opening area, relative water content, water use efficiency, hormonal level of wheat flag leaves in relation to grain yield is presented. Drought induced marked decreases in diurnal and mean daily values of transpiration rate, stomatal pore areas (on upper and lower sides, relative water content, water use efficiency, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, cytokinins (CKs and grain yield but led to a significant increase in the abscisic acid (ABA concentration in flag leaves of the wheat cultivars. Grain presoaking in salicylic acid or foliar application with glycine betaine alleviated the stress by keeping water within leaves and consequently recover the turgidity of stressed plants by restricting the transpiration rate, stomatal closure, decreasing the ABA level and enhancing the growth promoters particularly (IAA, GA3 & CKs particularly with the sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine + salicylic acid treatment. The grain yield appeared to be positively correlated with IAA, GA3, CK, RWC, WUEG and WUEB but negatively correlated with ABA, SWD, transpiration rate and stomatal areas on both wheat cultivars.

  11. Synthesis and surface activities of a novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Xiang F., E-mail: gengxiangfei1988111@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploration, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Hu, Xing Q.; Xia, Ji J. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploration, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Jia, Xue C. [Institute of Resources and Environmental, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China)

    2013-04-15

    A series of novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants of 1,2-bis[N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl-3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium] alkyl betaines (DBA{sub s–n}, where s and n represent the spacer length of 2, 4 and 6 and the hydrocarbon chain length of 8, 12, 14, 16 and 18, respectively) were synthesized by reacting alkylamine with sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanesulfonate (the alternative sulphonated agent), followed by the reactions with a,ω-dibromoalkyl and then ethyl bromide. Their adsorption and aggregation properties were investigated by means of equilibrium surface tension, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DBA{sub s–n} gemini surfactants showed excellent surface activities and packed tightly at the interface. For example, the minimum CMC value for DBA{sub s–n} series was of the order of 10{sup −5} M and the surface tension of water can be decreased as low as 22.2 mN/m. It was also found that the aggregates of DBA{sub s–n} solutions were significantly dependent on their hydrocarbon chain lengths. The aggregates changed from vesicles to entangled fiber-like micelles as the chain length increased from dodecyl to tetradecyl.

  12. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a New Cadmium(Ⅱ) Complex with a Double Betaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Fa-Kun; WU A-Qing; LI Yan; GUO Guo-Cong; HUANG Jin-Shun

    2005-01-01

    A new flexible double betaine L (L =1,4-bis(pyridinio-4-carboxylato-N-methyl)and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.Crystallo13.7854(3), b = 14.2820(3), c = 14.9188(4)(。A), β = 116.418(1)°, V = 2630.5(1)(。A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.704g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 0.911 mm-1, F(000) = 1368, the final R = 0.0315 and wR = 0.0768 for 3637observed reflections with I > 2σ(I).In complex 1, L acts as a monodentate ligand to link a Cd(Ⅱ) ion in a novel coordination mode of double betaines.The mononuclear [Cd(H2O)4L(NO3)] units are connected through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking reactions to generate a 3D network.

  13. Effect of exogenous proline, betaine, and carnitine on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a minimal medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, R R; Te Giffel, M C; Cox, L J; Rombouts, F M; Abee, T

    1994-04-01

    Three Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food or food-processing environments were used to assess the response of this species to salinity in a chemically defined minimal medium. Growth in a minimal medium containing five essential amino acids and glucose as a carbon and energy source was comparable to growth in a rich medium (brain heart infusion broth). In the absence and presence of 3% NaCl the final cell numbers reached in minimal medium were 10(9) and 10(7) CFU/ml, respectively. Growth under the latter conditions could not be detected by spectrophotometry by measuring A660. Apparently, this technique was not suitable for these experiments since the detection level was > 10(7) CFU/ml. Exogenously added proline (10 mM), trimethylglycine (betaine) (1 mM), and beta-hydroxy-gamma-N-trimethyl aminobutyrate (carnitine) (1 mM) significantly stimulated growth under osmotic stress conditions in minimal medium at both 37 and 10 degrees C. Betaine and carnitine are present in foods derived from plants and animals, respectively. Therefore, these compounds can contribute significantly to growth of L. monocytogenes in various foods at high osmolarities. PMID:8017923

  14. Study of the Effects of Betaine and/or C-Phycocyanin on the Growth of Lung Cancer A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Bingula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of betaine, C-phycocyanin (C-PC, and their combined use on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. When cells were coincubated with betaine and C-PC, an up to 60% decrease in viability was observed which is significant compared to betaine (50% or C-PC treatment alone (no decrease. Combined treatment reduced the stimulation of NF-κB expression by TNF-α and increased the amount of the proapoptotic p38 MAPK. Interestingly, combined treatment induced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase for ~60% of cells. In vivo studies were performed in pathogen-free male nude rats injected with A549 cells in their right flank. Their daily food was supplemented with either betaine, C-PC, both, or neither. Compared to the control group, tumour weights and volumes were significantly reduced in either betaine- or C-PC-treated groups and no additional decrease was obtained with the combined treatment. This data indicates that C-PC and betaine alone may efficiently inhibit tumour growth in rats. The synergistic activity of betaine and C-PC on A549 cells growth observed in vitro remains to be further confirmed in vivo. The reason behind the nature of their interaction is yet to be sought.

  15. Identification and disruption of BetL, a secondary glycine betaine transport system linked to the salt tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes LO28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, R D; Gahan, C G; Abee, T; Hill, C

    1999-05-01

    The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N, N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preceded by a consensus sigmaB-dependent promoter and is predicted to encode a 55-kDa protein (507 amino acid residues) with 12 transmembrane regions. BetL exhibits significant sequence homologies to other glycine betaine transporters, including OpuD from Bacillus subtilis (57% identity) and BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum (41% identity). These high-affinity secondary transporters form a subset of the trimethylammonium transporter family specific for glycine betaine, whose substrates possess a fully methylated quaternary ammonium group. The observed Km value of 7.9 microM for glycine betaine uptake after heterologous expression of betL in E. coli MKH13 is consistent with values obtained for L. monocytogenes in other studies. In addition, a betL knockout mutant which is significantly affected in its ability to accumulate glycine betaine in the presence or absence of NaCl has been constructed in L. monocytogenes. This mutant is also unable to withstand concentrations of salt as high as can the BetL+ parent, signifying the role of the transporter in Listeria osmotolerance. PMID:10224004

  16. Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ruth K; Keaveney, Edel M; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; Ward, Mary; Ueland, Per M; McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J; Parker, Michael J; Welch, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence that whole-grain foods protect against heart disease. Although underlying mechanisms and components are unclear, betaine, found at high levels in wheat aleurone, may play a role. We evaluated the effects of a diet high in wheat aleurone on plasma betaine and related measures. In a parallel, single-blinded intervention study, 79 healthy participants (aged 45-65 y, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) incorporated either aleurone-rich cereal products (27 g/d aleurone) or control products balanced for fiber and macronutrients into their habitual diets for 4 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and postintervention (4 wk) from participants. Compared with the control, the aleurone products provided an additional 279 mg/d betaine and resulted in higher plasma betaine (P aleurone-rich products into the habitual diet for 4 wk significantly increases plasma betaine concentrations and lowers tHcy, which is attributable to enhanced betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase-mediated remethylation of homocysteine. Although this supports a role for betaine in the protective effects of whole grains, concomitant decreases in LDL suggest more than one component or mechanism may be responsible.

  17. Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: involvement of p42/44 MAPK activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myeong Soo Lee; Myung-Sunny Kim; Soo Young Park; Chang-Won Kang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of betaine on the ethanolinduced secretion of IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 using radioimmunoassay and Western blotting, respectively, in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of ethanol and PD98059 procedures. The hepatocytes were also treated with different doses of betaine (10-5,10-4, and 10-3 mol/L). We measured IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 using radioimmunoassay and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: The ethanol-induced inhibition of IGF-Ⅰ secretion was attenuated by betaine in a concentration-dependent manner in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. At 10-3 mol/L, betaine significantly increased IGF-Ⅰ secretion but decreased IGFBP-1 secretion. In addition, p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was accelerated significantly from 10 min to 5 h after treatment with 10-3 mol/L betaine. Furthermore, the changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 secretion resulting from the increased betaine-induced p42/44 MAPK activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes was blocked by treatment with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059. Betaine treatment blocked the ethanol-induced inhibition of IGF-Ⅰ secretion and p42/44 MAPK activity, and the ethanol-induced increase in IGFBP-1 secretion.CONCLUSION: Betaine modulates the secretion of IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 via the activation of p42/44 MAPK in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Betaine also alters the MAPK activations induced by ethanol.

  18. Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; An, Dami; Nguyen, Chau T T; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun

    2014-02-12

    The composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied. Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by betanin and betaine was also tested. Four predominant betalains, two betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin) and two betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I and miraxanthin V), were isolated and quantified. Betanin and vulgaxanthin I were the major compounds in red and yellow beetroot extracts, respectively, and they comprised >90% of the betalain content in the tested cultivars. The total betalain content of beetroots produced from the field was between 650 and 800 μg/g fresh weight, approximately 25% higher than those from the greenhouse. The betaine content of the beetroot grown in the field was between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/g fresh weight, approximately 20% higher than in plants from the greenhouse. There was great variation among the cultivars with respect to their contents of betalains and betaine. In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells after exposure to betanin and betaine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 μg/mL and from 0 to 800 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Betanin resulted in a 49% inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation at 200 μg/mL, and betaine yielded a 25% inhibition at 800 μg/mL, implying a higher cytotoxicity of betanin compared with betaine. The results indicated that the contents of health-beneficial compounds in beetroots, betalains and betaine, could be increased by modifying the growing conditions and that betanin and betaine extracted from beetroots had some anticancer effects against HepG2 cells. PMID:24467616

  19. 甜菜碱聚合物研究进展%Progress in Betaine-Based Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾仁昌; 徐守萍; 蔡智奇; 文秀芳; 皮丕辉; 程江

    2013-01-01

    甜菜碱聚合物是一类具有生物防污、抗细菌粘附、血液相容等优良性能的聚合物,在医用生物材料、抗细菌粘附材料、船体防污涂层等方面有着良好的应用前景.文中介绍了国内外用于合成甜菜碱聚合物的主要单体结构,分析了几种主要的聚合方法(主要是活性聚合)在甜菜碱聚合上的应用及优劣性,归纳了甜菜碱聚合物的各种功能,并对其未来的发展方向作出了展望.%Betaine-based polymers exhibit great application potential in medical biomaterials, antibacterial materials and antifouling coatings for ship due to their resistance to protein adsorption, microbe adhesion activity and good blood compatibility. The structures of main monolithic used for the synthesis of betaine-based polymers are introduced. Several frequently-used polymerization methods (particularly living polymerization) applied in preparing betaine-based polymers are reviewed. And the advantages and disadvantages are also analyzed. The properties of betaine-based polymers are summarized, and their future development is briefly discussed in this paper.

  20. Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, Nuran; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej;

    2007-01-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, a major amino acid-producing microorganism in biotechnology, is equipped with several osmoregulated uptake systems for compatible solutes, which is relevant for the physiological response to osmotic stress. The most significant carrier,...... dynamics by local anesthetics and the lack of a possible influence of internally accumulated betaine on BetP activity....

  1. Efficiency influence of exogenous betaine on anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Chai, Hong-Xiang; Fan, Ming-Yu; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    When treating a composite mustard tuber wastewater with high concentrations of salt (about 20 g Cl(-) L(-1)) and organics (about 8000 mg L(-1) COD) by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) in winter, both high salinity and low temperature will inhibit the activity of anaerobic microorganisms and lead to low treatment efficiency. To solve this problem, betaine was added to the influent to improve the activity of the anaerobic sludge, and an experimental study was carried to investigate the influence of betaine on treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater by the ASBBR. The results show that, when using anaerobic acclimated sludge in the ASBBR, and controlling biofilm density at 50% and water temperature at 8-12 degrees C, the treatment efficiency of the reactor could be improved by adding the betaine at different concentrations. The efficiency reached the highest when the optimal dosage ofbetaine was 0.5 mmol L(-1). The average effluent COD, after stable acclimation, was 4461 mg L(-1). Relative to ASBBR without adding betaine, the activity of the sludge increased significantly. Meanwhile, the dehydrogenase activity of anaerobic microorganisms and the COD removal efficiency were increased by 18.6% and 18.1%, respectively. PMID:22988630

  2. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0.05), and increased concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (linear P = 0.038, quadratic P = 0.003) in serum of broilers. Moreover, incremental levels of betaine increased linearly (P < 0.05) the proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) mRNA expression in liver of broilers. In conclusion, this study indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation. PMID:27071487

  3. Study of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) by neutrons inelastic scattering; Etude du chlorure de betaine et de calcium dihydrate (BCCD) par diffusion inelastique de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinka, J.

    1995-06-27

    The aim of this work is to study the betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) lattice dynamics by neutrons inelastic and coherent scattering. In the first part are summarized the main properties of the BCCD as they are determined in some previous experimental works. It has been more particularly emphasized on the structural and dynamical properties of this compound. The theoretical concepts used in incommensurate dielectric materials physics are given in the second part. They are at first introduced generally and then applied to BCCD. In the third part is described the experimental method used in this work : the neutrons inelastic scattering. The experimental results on the BCCD normal phase dynamics are then presented. These results and their interpretation allow to build up a semi-microscopic model introduced in the fifth part. The incommensurate lattice dynamics (at 20 K under the transition temperature towards the modulated phase) is studied in the last part. It has been shown that new aspects in relation to the previous works appear in BCCD. (O.L.). 121 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. A Study on the New Technology of Synthesizing Betaine%甜菜碱合成新工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨官娥; 魏文珑

    2001-01-01

    The paper reported the new technology of synthesizing betaine.The betaine was synthesized by two steps,which were the neutralization reaction of Ca(OH)2 and ClCH2COOH,amination reaction of(CH3)3N and (ClCH2COO)2Ca,then the betaine was obtained by separation and purification.The content of the betaine reached (98±1)%.%报道了合成甜菜碱的新工艺。该法通过氢氧化钙和氯乙酸的中和,氯乙酸钙的三甲胺化两步反应,最后提纯分离制取甜菜碱,产品甜菜碱含量达到(98±1)%。

  5. Assessment of the effect of betaine on p16 and c-myc DNA methylation and mRNA expression in a chemical induced rat liver cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wen-hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development and progression of liver cancer may involve abnormal changes in DNA methylation, which lead to the activation of certain proto-oncogenes, such as c-myc, as well as the inactivation of certain tumor suppressors, such as p16. Betaine, as an active methyl-donor, maintains normal DNA methylation patterns. However, there are few investigations on the protective effect of betaine in hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Four groups of rats were given diethylinitrosamine (DEN and fed with AIN-93G diets supplemented with 0, 10, 20 or 40 g betaine/kg (model, 1%, 2%, and 4% betaine, respectively, while the control group, received no DEN, fed with AIN-93G diet. Eight or 15 weeks later, the expression of p16 and c-myc mRNA was examined by Real-time PCR (Q-PCR. The DNA methylation status within the p16 and c-myc promoter was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR. Results Compared with the model group, numbers and areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-p-positive foci were decreased in the livers of the rats treated with betaine (P . Although the frequency of p16 promoter methylation in livers of the four DEN-fed groups appeared to increase, there is no difference among these groups after 8 or 15 weeks (P > 0.05. Betaine supplementation attenuated the down-regulation of p16 and inhibited the up-regulation of c-myc induced by DEN in a dose-dependent manner (P P . Finally, enhanced antioxidative capacity (T-AOC was observed in both the 2% and 4% betaine groups. Conclusion Our data suggest that betaine attenuates DEN-induced damage in rat liver and reverses DEN-induced changes in mRNA levels.

  6. Research Progress of Betaine Health Role in Human Health%甜菜碱对人体健康作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海艳; 吴艳平; 廖顺平

    2011-01-01

    Betaine plays an important role in human nutrition and health. Research progress of betaine health role in human health was reviewed and its application was prospected.%甜菜碱对人类的营养和健康起到重要的作用,本文综述了甜菜碱对人体健康作用的研究进展,展望了甜菜碱应用前景.

  7. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T F Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. RESULTS: The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range 6.70 (5.78-8.03 and 9.40 (8.10-11.3 µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ± SD 383 ± 98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142 ± 70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B=6.054, SE=2.283, p=0.009 and betaine (B=7.350, SE=1.933, p=0.0002 at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. CONCLUSION: We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work

  8. Betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase--a new assay for the liver enzyme and its absence from human skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J A; Dudman, N P; Lynch, J; Wilcken, D E

    1991-12-31

    Chronic elevation of plasma homocysteine is associated with increased atherogenesis and thrombosis, and can be lowered by betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) treatment which is thought to stimulate activity of the enzyme betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase. We have developed a new assay for this enzyme, in which the products of the enzyme-catalysed reaction between betaine and homocysteine are oxidised by performic acid before being separated and quantified by amino acid analysis. This assay confirmed that human liver contains abundant betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (33.4 nmol/h/mg protein at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4). Chicken and lamb livers also contain the enzyme, with respective activities of 50.4 and 6.2 nmol/h/mg protein. However, phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured human skin fibroblasts contained no detectable betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (less than 1.4 nmol/h/mg protein), even after cells were pre-cultured in media designed to stimulate production of the enzyme. The results emphasize the importance of the liver in mediating the lowering of elevated circulating homocysteine by betaine. PMID:1819467

  9. The organic osmolyte betaine induces keratin 2 expression in rat epidermal keratinocytes - A genome-wide study in UVB irradiated organotypic 3D cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Leena; Hämäläinen, Lasse; Dunlop, Thomas W; Pehkonen, Petri; Bart, Geneviève; Kokkonen, Maarit; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-12-25

    The moisturizing and potentially protective properties of the organic osmolyte betaine (trimethylglycine) have made it an attractive component for skin care products. Its wide use despite the lack of comprehensive studies addressing its specific effects in skin led us to characterize the molecular targets of betaine in keratinocytes and to explore, whether it modifies the effects of acute UVB exposure. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on organotypic cultures of rat epidermal keratinocytes, treated either with betaine (10mM), UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) or their combination. Results were verified with qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Among the 89 genes influenced by betaine, the differentiation marker keratin 2 showed the highest upregulation, which was also confirmed at protein level. Expression of Egr1, a transcription factor, and Purkinje cell protein 4, a regulator of Ca(2+)/calmodulin metabolism, also increased, while downregulated genes included several ion-channel components, such as Fxyd2. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that genes modulated by betaine are involved in DNA replication, might counteract UV-induced processes, and include many targets of transcription factors associated with cell proliferation and differentiation. Our results indicate that betaine controls unique gene expression pathways in keratinocytes, including some involved in differentiation. PMID:26391144

  10. Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) averts photochemically-induced thrombosis in pial microvessels in vivo and platelet aggregation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-07-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is an important food component with established health benefits through its homocysteine-lowering effects, and is used to lower total homocysteine concentration in plasma of patients with homocystinuria. It is well established that hyperhomocysteinemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the possible protective effect of betaine on coagulation events in vivo and in vitro has thus far not been studied. Betaine was given to mice at oral doses of either 10 mg/kg (n = 6) or 40 mg/kg (n = 6) for seven consecutive days, and control mice (n = 6) received water only. The thrombotic occlusion time in photochemically induced thrombosis in pial arterioles was significantly delayed in mice pretreated with betaine at doses of 10 mg/kg (P < 0.001) and 40 mg/kg (P < 0.01). Similar effects were observed in pial venules with 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and 40 mg/kg (P < 0.05) betaine. In vitro, in whole blood samples collected from untreated mice (n = 3-5), betaine (0.01-1 mg/mL) significantly reversed platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (5 µM). The number of circulating platelets and plasma concentration of fibrinogen in vivo were not significantly affected by betaine pretreament compared with the control group. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mice pretreated with betaine was significantly reduced compared with the control group. Moreover, betaine (0.01-1 mg/mL) caused a dose-dependent and significant prolongation of PT (n = 5) and aPTT (n = 4-6). In conclusion, our data show that betaine protected against coagulation events in vivo and in vitro and decreased LPO in plasma. PMID:25662827

  11. Trehalose/2-sulfotrehalose biosynthesis and glycine-betaine uptake are widely spread mechanisms for osmoadaptation in the Halobacteriales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Savage-Ashlock, Kristen N; McCully, Alexandra L; Luedtke, Brandon; Shaw, Edward I; Hoff, Wouter D; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of osmoadaptation in the order Halobacteriales, with special emphasis on Haladaptatus paucihalophilus, known for its ability to survive in low salinities. H. paucihalophilus genome contained genes for trehalose synthesis (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/trehalose-6-phosphatase (OtsAB pathway) and trehalose glycosyl-transferring synthase pathway), as well as for glycine betaine uptake (BCCT family of secondary transporters and QAT family of ABC transporters). H. paucihalophilus cells synthesized and accumulated ∼1.97–3.72 μmol per mg protein of trehalose in a defined medium, with its levels decreasing with increasing salinities. When exogenously supplied, glycine betaine accumulated intracellularly with its levels increasing at higher salinities. RT-PCR analysis strongly suggested that H. paucihalophilus utilizes the OtsAB pathway for trehalose synthesis. Out of 83 Halobacteriales genomes publicly available, genes encoding the OtsAB pathway and glycine betaine BCCT family transporters were identified in 38 and 60 genomes, respectively. Trehalose (or its sulfonated derivative) production and glycine betaine uptake, or lack thereof, were experimentally verified in 17 different Halobacteriales species. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that trehalose synthesis is an ancestral trait within the Halobacteriales, with its absence in specific lineages reflecting the occurrence of gene loss events during Halobacteriales evolution. Analysis of multiple culture-independent survey data sets demonstrated the preference of trehalose-producing genera to saline and low salinity habitats, and the dominance of genera lacking trehalose production capabilities in permanently hypersaline habitats. This study demonstrates that, contrary to current assumptions, compatible solutes production and uptake represent a common mechanism of osmoadaptation within the Halobacteriales. PMID:24048226

  12. Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. A cDNA clone for BADH (1812 base pairs) was selected from a λgt10 cDNA library derived from leaves of salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to amino acid sequences of two peptides prepared from purified BADH. The authenticity of the clone was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis; this analysis demonstrated the presence of a 1491-base-pair open reading frame that contained sequences encoding 12 peptide fragments of BADH. The clone hybridized to a 1.9-kilobase mRNA from spinach leaves; this mRNA was more abundant in salt-stressed plants, consistent with the known salt induction of BADH activity. The amino acid sequence deduced for the BADH cDNA sequence showed substantial similarities to those for nonspecific aldehyde dehydrogenases from several sources, including absolute conservation of a decapeptide in the probable active site. Comparison of deduced and determined amino acid sequences indicated that the transit peptide may comprise only 7 or 8 residues, which is atypically short for precursors to stromal proteins

  13. cDNA cloning and analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, a salt inducible enzyme in sugar beet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, K.F.; Hanson, A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Betaine accumulates and serves as a compatible osmolyte in some plants subjected to drought or salinity stress. The last enzyme in the betaine biosynthetic pathway is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The activity of BADH increases in response to increasing salinity levels. This increase in activity corresponds to an increase in protein detectable by immunoblotting, and to an increase in the translatable BADH mRNA. BADH was cloned from a cDNA library constructed in {lambda}gt10 using poly(A){sup +} RNA from sugar beets salinized to 500 mM NaCl. cDNAs were size selected (>1kb) before ligation into the vector, and the library was screened with a spinach BADH cDNA probe. Three nearly full length clones obtained were confirmed as BADH by their nucleotide and deduced amino acid homology to spinach BADH. Clones averaged 1.8 kb and contained open reading frames of 500 amino acids at 80% identity with spinach BADH. RNA gel blot analysis of poly(A){sup +} RNA indicated that salinization to 500 mM NaCl resulted in a 5-fold increase of BADH mRNA level.

  14. Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weretilnyk, E A; Hanson, A D

    1990-04-01

    Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. A cDNA clone for BADH (1812 base pairs) was selected from a lambda gt10 cDNA library derived from leaves of salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to amino acid sequences of two peptides prepared from purified BADH. The authenticity of the clone was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis; this analysis demonstrated the presence of a 1491-base-pair open reading frame that contained sequences encoding 12 peptide fragments of BADH. The clone hybridized to a 1.9-kilobase mRNA from spinach leaves; this mRNA was more abundant in salt-stressed plants, consistent with the known salt induction of BADH activity. The amino acid sequence deduced from the BADH cDNA sequence showed substantial similarities to those for nonspecific aldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1.3 and EC 1.2.1.5) from several sources, including absolute conservation of a decapeptide in the probable active site. Comparison of deduced and determined amino acid sequences indicated that the transit peptide may comprise only 7 or 8 residues, which is atypically short for precursors to stromal proteins. PMID:2320587

  15. Both the folate cycle and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase contribute methyl groups for DNA methylation in mouse blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Denomme, Michelle M; White, Carlee R; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lee, Martin B; Greene, Nicholas D E; Mann, Mellissa R W; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2015-03-01

    The embryonic pattern of global DNA methylation is first established in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is produced in most cells through the folate cycle, but only a few cell types generate SAM from betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) via betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), which is expressed in the mouse ICM. Here, mean ICM cell numbers decreased from 18-19 in controls to 11-13 when the folate cycle was inhibited by the antifolate methotrexate and to 12-14 when BHMT expression was knocked down by antisense morpholinos. Inhibiting both pathways, however, much more severely affected ICM development (7-8 cells). Total SAM levels in mouse blastocysts decreased significantly only when both pathways were inhibited (from 3.1 to 1.6 pmol/100 blastocysts). DNA methylation, detected as 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) immunofluorescence in isolated ICMs, was minimally affected by inhibition of either pathway alone but decreased by at least 45-55% when both BHMT and the folate cycle were inhibited simultaneously. Effects on cell numbers and 5-MeC levels in the ICM were completely rescued by methionine (immediate SAM precursor) or SAM. Both the folate cycle and betaine/BHMT appear to contribute to a methyl pool required for normal ICM development and establishing initial embryonic DNA methylation. PMID:25466894

  16. Betaine treatment of cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria; does it work and can it be improved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclean KN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth N MacleanDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Inactivating mutations in cystathionine β-synthase result in classical homocystinuria (HCU and are typically accompanied by severe elevations of plasma and tissue homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and significantly decreased cysteine. HCU is usually accompanied by marfanoid skeletal abnormalities, osteoporosis, ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia, cognitive impairment, and a dramatically increased incidence of atherosclerosis and thromboembolic complications of variable presentation. If untreated, HCU is a serious life-threatening disease. Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine is a zwitterionic quaternary ammonium compound that can lower homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and increase cysteine in HCU by serving as a methyl donor for the remethylation of homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase. This review considers the clinical efficacy and safety of betaine treatment of HCU. Possible strategies by which the efficacy of this treatment might be improved are discussed.Keywords: homocystinuria, homocysteine, betaine, cystathionine beta-synthase, betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase

  17. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. PMID:26992491

  18. Molecular structure and spectroscopic properties of the 1:1 complex of quinuclidine betaine with L-tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2009-11-01

    The 1:1 complex of quinuclidine betaine (QNB) with L(+)-tartaric acid (TA) (1-carboxymethyl-1-azoniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane semi-tartrate) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. QNB-TA crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2 1. In the crystal quinuclidine betaine is protonated and interacts with semi-tartrate anion by the short O-H···O hydrogen bond of 2.472(4) Å. The semi-tartrate anions form infinite chains through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.585(5) Å. The FTIR spectrum shows broad bands in the 2700-2200 and 2000-500 cm -1 regions typical of such short hydrogen bonds and are consistent with the X-ray results. In the optimized structures of the title complex at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory both in the monomer, QNB-TA, and dimer, (QNB-TA) 2, the betaine molecules are not protonated. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra elucidate the structure of the complex investigated in aqueous solutions.

  19. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men. PMID:27079329

  20. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.

  1. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  2. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  3. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation. PMID:26302482

  4. A novel betaine type asphalt emulsifier synthesized and investigated by online FTIR spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Laishun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel betaine type asphalt emulsifier 3-(N,N,N-dimethyl acetoxy ammonium chloride-2-hydroxypropyl laurate was synthesized after three steps by the reaction of lauric acid, epichlorohydrin, dimethylamine and sodium chloroacetate. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained for the synthesis of the first step of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl laurate. The esterification yield reaches 97.1% at the optimum conditions of reaction temperature 80ºC, reaction time 6 h, feedstock mole ratio of epichlorohydrin to lauric acid 1.5, mass ratio of catalyst to lauric acid 2%. The chemical structure of the product was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR. The first synthesis step of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl laurate was monitored by online FTIR technique. The by-product was detected by the online FTIR analysis. Based upon the experimental data, a plausible reaction mechanism was proposed for the reaction. The CMC of the objective product has a lower value of 7.4×10-4 mol/L. The surface tension at CMC is 30.85 mN/m. The emulsifier is a rapid-set asphalt emulsifier.

  5. Homocysteine homeostasis and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in the brain of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zhang

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine is an important risk factor that increases cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease morbidity. In mammals, B vitamin supplementation can reduce homocysteine levels. Whether, and how, hibernating mammals, that essentially stop ingesting B vitamins, maintain homocysteine metabolism and avoid cerebrovascular impacts and neurodegeneration remain unclear. Here, we compare homocysteine levels in the brains of torpid bats, active bats and rats to identify the molecules involved in homocysteine homeostasis. We found that homocysteine does not elevate in torpid brains, despite declining vitamin B levels. At low levels of vitamin B6 and B12, we found no change in total expression level of the two main enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase, but a 1.85-fold increase in the expression of the coenzyme-independent betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT. BHMT expression was observed in the amygdala of basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex where BHMT levels were clearly elevated during torpor. This is the first report of BHMT protein expression in the brain and suggests that BHMT modulates homocysteine in the brains of hibernating bats. BHMT may have a neuroprotective role in the brains of hibernating mammals and further research on this system could expand our biomedical understanding of certain cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease processes.

  6. Study on Microwave Extraction Technology of Betaine from Lycium barbarum Leaves%微波法提取枸杞叶甜菜碱工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党军; 王瑛; 陶燕铎; 邵赞; 梅丽娟; 王启兰

    2011-01-01

    研究微波法提取枸杞叶中甜菜碱的最佳工艺,考察工艺参数对枸杞叶中甜菜碱提取率的影响.以甜菜碱提取率为指标,通过L9(3(4))正交实验与方差分析优选出枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取工艺条件.结果表明,最佳工艺为固液比为(g:ml)1:10,20 min,微波功率200 w.枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取率平均值可高达4.48%.该工艺简单、稳定、可行.%The optimum microwave extraction technology of betaine from Lycium, barbarum leaves was studied and the impacts of every technology parameter on extraction rate of betaine were investigated. Extraction rate of betaine was taken as index. L9(34) orthogonal design and analysis of variance were adopted to optimize the technological conditions of microwave extraction of betaine. The results sbowed that the rate of solid and liquid, extraction time and microwave power were 1:10 ( g:ml) , 20min, 200w, respectively, and the average of betaine extraction rate was up to 4.48%. The technology was simple, stable and feasible.

  7. 甜菜碱在肉鸡生产中的研究与应用%Research and Application of Betaine in Broiler Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 许丽

    2012-01-01

    在日粮中添加适量的甜菜碱可以提高肉鸡生产性能、胴体品质、抗应激能力和成活率,而用甜菜碱替代适量的蛋氨酸对肉鸡生产性能、胴体品质和成活率无显著影响。文章综述了甜菜碱的理化性质及其在动物生产的功能。%Add the right amount betaine in the diet of broiler can improve the performance, carcass quality, anti-ability and survival rate. Betaine substitute the right amout of methionine had no significant effect on perfor-mance, carcass quality and survival rate. This paper summarried physicochemical properties of betaine and its nutri-tional function in animal production.

  8. 三次采油中甜菜碱型表面活性剂的研究进展%Research progress of betaine surfactants used in EOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张微; 于涛

    2013-01-01

    The research status of the betaine surfactants used in flooding was reviewed simply .The synthesis process was smmarized; The performance of the betaine surfacants was introduced; The application feasibility of betaine surfactants in the enhanced oil recovery was discussed.%简述了驱油用甜菜碱型表面活性剂的研究现状.总结了几类甜菜碱的合成工艺进展;介绍了其在采油技术中的性能研究;探讨了该类表面活性剂在三次采油中应用的可行性.

  9. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial carried out with a fixed combination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and betaine versus amitriptyline in patients with mild depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Settembre, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a safe, endogenous, pleiotropic methyl donor well known for its antidepressant role, has been assumed to have a possible role in increasing plasma levels of compounds known to be able to raise cardiovascular risk. Although the issue is still being debated, betaine (trimethylglycine), a specific methyl donor involved in the homocysteine circuit, may be able to reduce such a risk and/or, by determining a sparing effect on endogenous SAMe, may be able to improve the clinical efficiency of SAMe itself. Indeed, preliminary results have shown clinical improvement determined by an add-on therapy with betaine administered along with SAMe, versus SAMe alone, to patients affected by mild/moderate depression. Aim To evaluate the safety and antidepressant role played by the association of SAMe plus betaine versus amitriptyline administered in untreated individuals with a recent diagnosis of mild depression. Methods This small, open-label, randomized, observational study enrolled 64 individuals with a diagnosis of mild depression according to the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. After randomization, they were treated with either Laroxyl® (amitriptyline, 75 mg/day) or DDM Metile® (enteric-coated SAMe, 500 mg/day, plus betaine, 250 mg/day) for 12 months. Assessment of clinical scores and tolerability was performed at T=0 and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Results After 3 months, both treatments showed a small and not statistically significant improvement. After 6 and 12 months, both treated groups demonstrated a more noticeable improved response, although the group treated with SAMe plus betaine showed better results in terms of score, number of individuals in remission, and side effects. Compliance was overlapping in both treatments. Conclusion The association of SAMe plus betaine seems to be a safe and effective tool to counteract mild depression and also when used as monotherapy in subjects with a recent diagnosis. PMID:25678811

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waditee, Rungaroon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Aoki, Kenji; Hibino, Takashi; Jikuya, Hiroshi; Takano, Jun; Takabe, Tetsuko; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2003-02-14

    Glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is an important osmoprotectant and is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses. Although almost all known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are two-step oxidation of choline, here we isolated two N-methyltransferase genes from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. One of gene products (ORF1) catalyzed the methylation reactions of glycine and sarcosine with S-adenosylmethionine acting as the methyl donor. The other one (ORF2) specifically catalyzed the methylation of dimethylglycine to betaine. Both enzymes are active as monomers. Betaine, a final product, did not show the feed back inhibition for the methyltransferases even in the presence of 2 m. A reaction product, S-adenosyl homocysteine, inhibited the methylation reactions with relatively low affinities. The co-expressing of two enzymes in Escherichia coli increased the betaine level and enhanced the growth rates. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the accumulation levels of both enzymes in A. halophytica cells increased with increasing the salinity. These results indicate that A. halophytica cells synthesize betaine from glycine by a three-step methylation. The changes of amino acids Arg-169 to Lys or Glu in ORF1 and Pro-171 to Gln and/or Met-172 to Arg in ORF2 significantly decreased V(max) and increased K(m) for methyl acceptors (glycine, sarcosine, and dimethylglycine) but modestly affected K(m) for S-adenosylmethionine, indicating the importance of these amino acids for the binding of methyl acceptors. Physiological and functional properties of methyltransferases were discussed. PMID:12466265

  11. Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on the performance, carcass yield, and intestinal morphometrics of broilers submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NK Sakomura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of betaine in methionine- and choline-reduced diets fed to broilers submitted to heat stress. In total, 1,408 male broilers were randomly distributed into eight treatments, according to 2 x 4 (environment x diet factorial arrangement, with eight replicates of 2 birds each. Birds were reared environmental chambers under controlled temperature (25-26 °C or cyclic heat-stressing temperature (25-31 °C. The following diets were tested: positive control (PC, formulated to meet broiler nutritional requirements; negative control (NC, with reduced DL-methionine and choline chloride levels; and with two supplementation levels of natural betaine to the negative control diet (NC+NB1 and NC+NB2. Live performance, carcass traits, and intestinal morphometrics were evaluated when broilers were 45 days of age. The results showed that all evaluated parameters were influenced by the interaction between environment and diet, except for breast meat drip loss. The breakdown of the interactions showed that birds fed the PC diet and reared in the controlled environment had greater breast drip loss than those submitted to the cyclic heat-stress environment. Birds submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed the PC diet presented the lowest feed intake. Feed conversion ratio was influenced only by diet. The FCR of broilers fed the NC+NB2 diet was intermediate relative to those fed the PC and NC diets. The addition of betaine in the diet, with 11.18% digestible methionine and 24.73% total choline reductions, did not affect broiler live performance, carcass yield, or intestinal morphometrics.

  12. NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine S.; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr;

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to explore the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a rye versus wheat-based fiber-rich diet in hypercholesterolemic pigs. The pigs were fed high-fat, high-cholesterol rye- (n = 9) or wheat- (n = 8) based buns with similar levels of dieta...... in this region. The 3.29 ppm signal is ascribed to N(CH(3))(3) protons in betaine, which may be an important contributor to the health promoting effects of rye....

  13. Exploring occurrence and molecular diversity of betaine lipids across taxonomy of marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañavate, José Pedro; Armada, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael

    2016-04-01

    Betaine lipids (BL) from ten microalgae species of the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista were identified and quantified by HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. Diacylgyceryl-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) was detected in Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species, whereas Tetraselmis suecica was described as the first green algae containing diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-beta-alanine (DGTA). DGTA molecular species where also characterized in Cryptophyceae species as well as in the Bacillariophyceae diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The Mediophyceae diatom Chaetoceros gracilis had no DGTA, but contained diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC). A principal coordinate (PCO) analysis of microalgae species revealed the existence of three main clusters around each BL type. The first PCO axis (43.9% of total variation) grouped Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species and positively correlated with DGTS. The second PCO axis (27.8% of total variation) segregated DGTA from DGCC containing species. Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Chlorodendrophyceae were the more closely associated species to DGTA. Mediophyceae and Dinophyceae species contained DGCC as the only BL. Molecular diversity varied from the simplest DGCC composition in Gyrodinium dorsum to the highest spectrum of ten different molecular species detected for DGTA (Rhodomonas baltica) and DGCC (C. gracilis). The fatty acid profile of DGTS was very dissimilar to that of the whole lipid cell content. DGTS from Nannochloropsis gaditana was highly unsaturated respecting to total lipids, whereas in Picochlorum atomus DGTS unsaturation was nearly one half to that of total lipids. Dissimilarity between DGTA and total lipid fatty acid profile was minimum among all BL and DGTA fatty acid unsaturation was the maximum observed in the study. New DGCC molecular species enriched in 20:5 were described in Mediophyceae diatoms. Multivariate microalgae ordination using BL as descriptors revealed a higher

  14. Surface modification with zwitterionic cysteine betaine for nanoshell-assisted near-infrared plasmonic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Chu, Sz-Hau; Li, Chien-Hung; Lee, T Randall

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles decorated with biocompatible coatings have received considerable attention in recent years for their potential biomedical applications. However, the desirable properties of nanoparticles for in vivo uses, such as colloidal stability, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics, require further research. In this work, we report a bio-derived zwitterionic surface ligand, cysteine betaine (Cys-b) for the modification of hollow gold-silver nanoshells, giving rise to hyperthermia applications. Cys-b coatings on planar substrates and nanoshells were compared to conventional (11-mercaptoundecyl)tri(ethylene glycol) (OEG-thiol) to investigate their effects on the fouling resistance, colloidal stability, environmental tolerance, and photothermal properties. The results found that Cys-b and OEG-thiol coatings exhibited comparable antifouling properties against bacteria of gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and bovine serum albumin. However, when the modified nanoshells were suspended at a temperature of 50°C in aqueous 3M NaCl solutions, shifts in the extinction maximum of the OEG-capped nanoshells with time were observed, while the corresponding spectra of nanoshells capped with Cys-b generally remained unchanged. In addition, when the nanoshells were continuously exposed to NIR irradiation, the temperature of the solution containing nanoshells capped with Cys-b increased to a plateau of 54°C, while that of the OEG-capped nanoshells gradually decreased after reaching a peak temperature. Accordingly, the Cys-b nanoshells were conjugated with anti-HER2 antibodies for targeted delivery to HER2-positive MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells for hyperthermia treatment. The results showed the selective delivery and effective photothermal cell ablation with the antibody-conjugated Cys-b nanoshells. Therefore, this work demonstrated the promise of bio-derived zwitterionic Cys

  15. Molecular mechanisms for interaction of glycine betaine with supra-molecular phycobiliprotein complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Glycine betaine(GB) is a biologically important small molecule protecting cells,proteins and enzymes in vivo and in vitro under environmental stresses.Recently,it was found that GB could also relax the structure and inactivate the function of phycobiliproteins and phycobilisome(PBS),a kind of supramolecular complexes,in cyanobacterial cells.The molecular mechanisms for the opposite phenomena are quite ambiguous.Taking PBS and a trimeric or monomeric C-phycocyanin(C-PC) as models,the molecular mechanism for the interaction of GB with supra-molecular complexes or nuclear proteins was investigated.The energetic decoupling of PBS components induced by GB suggests that the PBS core-membrane linking polypeptide was the most sensitive site while the rod-core linker was the next.Biochemistry analysis proves that PBS structure was loosened but not dissociated into the components.On the basis of the results and structure knowledge,it was proposed that GB screened the electrostatic attraction of the opposite charges on a linker and a protein leading to a much looser structure.It was observed that GB induced a spectral blue shift for trimeric C-PC but a red shift for a monomeric C-PC(a nuclear protein),which were ascribed to GB’s screening of the electrostatic attraction of a linker to a protein and strengthening of the hydrophobic interaction between C-PC monomers.The trimers and monomers’ forming of the same products under high concentration of GB was ascribed to a compromise of the opposite interaction forces.

  16. Surface modification with zwitterionic cysteine betaine for nanoshell-assisted near-infrared plasmonic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Chu, Sz-Hau; Li, Chien-Hung; Lee, T Randall

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles decorated with biocompatible coatings have received considerable attention in recent years for their potential biomedical applications. However, the desirable properties of nanoparticles for in vivo uses, such as colloidal stability, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics, require further research. In this work, we report a bio-derived zwitterionic surface ligand, cysteine betaine (Cys-b) for the modification of hollow gold-silver nanoshells, giving rise to hyperthermia applications. Cys-b coatings on planar substrates and nanoshells were compared to conventional (11-mercaptoundecyl)tri(ethylene glycol) (OEG-thiol) to investigate their effects on the fouling resistance, colloidal stability, environmental tolerance, and photothermal properties. The results found that Cys-b and OEG-thiol coatings exhibited comparable antifouling properties against bacteria of gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and bovine serum albumin. However, when the modified nanoshells were suspended at a temperature of 50°C in aqueous 3M NaCl solutions, shifts in the extinction maximum of the OEG-capped nanoshells with time were observed, while the corresponding spectra of nanoshells capped with Cys-b generally remained unchanged. In addition, when the nanoshells were continuously exposed to NIR irradiation, the temperature of the solution containing nanoshells capped with Cys-b increased to a plateau of 54°C, while that of the OEG-capped nanoshells gradually decreased after reaching a peak temperature. Accordingly, the Cys-b nanoshells were conjugated with anti-HER2 antibodies for targeted delivery to HER2-positive MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells for hyperthermia treatment. The results showed the selective delivery and effective photothermal cell ablation with the antibody-conjugated Cys-b nanoshells. Therefore, this work demonstrated the promise of bio-derived zwitterionic Cys

  17. Molecular mechanisms for interaction of glycine betaine with supra-molecular phycobiliprotein complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XiuLing; LI Heng; XIE Jie; ZHAO JingQuan

    2009-01-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is a biologically important small molecule protecting cells,proteins and enzymes in vivo and in vitro under environmental stresses.Recently,it was found that GB could also relax the structure and inactivate the function of phycobiliproteins and phycobilisome (PBS),a kind of supramolecular complexes,in cyanobacterial cells.The molecular mechanisms for the opposite phenomena are quite ambiguous.Taking PBS and a trimeric or monomeric C-phycocyanin (C-PC) as models,the molecular mechanism for the interaction of GB with supra-molecular complexes or nuclear proteins was investigated.The energetic decoupling of PBS components induced by GB suggests that the PBS core-membrane linking polypeptide was the most sensitive site while the rod-core linker was the next.Biochemistry analysis proves that PBS structure was loosened but not dissociated into the components.On the basis of the results and structure knowledge,it was proposed that GB screened the electrostatic attraction of the opposite charges on a linker and a protein leading to a much looser structure.It was observed that GB induced a spectral blue shift for trimeric C-PC but a red shift for s monomeric C-PC (a nuclear protein),which were ascribed to GB's screening of the electrostatic attraction of a linker to a protein and strengthening of the hydrophobic interaction between C-PC monomers.The trimers and monomers' forming of the same products under high concentration of GB was ascribed to a compromise of the opposite interaction forces.

  18. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of rare earths with the betaine-betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  19. Stress associated with road transportation in desert sheep and goats, and the effect of pretreatment with xylazine or sodium betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B H; Al-Qarawi, A A; Mousa, H M

    2006-06-01

    The present work investigates some clinical, endocrinological, biochemical and haematological variables in desert sheep and goats stressed in the course of individual road transportation, and the influence thereon of pretreatment with an established anti-stressor drug, xylazine HCl, and a test compound, sodium betaine (trimethylglycine). Road transportation for 2h resulted in variable and statistically insignificant increases in heart, pulse and respiratory rates in both control and experimental animals. Transportation stress significantly increased the concentrations of plasma cortisol, and glucose, and decreased that of magnesium. The endogenous thiocyanate concentration was unaffected. The stress also insignificantly decreased the haematocrit (PCV), and the number of lymphocytes, and increased the concentration of haemoglobin. Pretreatment of sheep and goats with xylazine at a single dose of 0.01 mg/kg by the intravenous route significantly ameliorated the effects induced by the stressful stimulus. The effects of pretreatment of the two species with sodium betaine (10 mg/kg) produced variable and insignificant effects. PMID:16181650

  20. Trimethylamine oxide, betaine and other osmolytes in deep-sea animals: depth trends and effects on enzymes under hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, P H; Rhea, M D; Kemp, K M; Bailey, D M

    2004-06-01

    Most shallow teleosts have low organic osmolyte contents, e.g. 70 mmol/kg or less of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). Our previous work showed that TMAO contents increase with depth in muscles of several Pacific families of teleost fishes, to about 180 mmol/kg wet wt at 2.9 km depth in grenadiers. We now report that abyssal grenadiers (Coryphaenoides armatus, Macrouridae) from the Atlantic at 4.8 km depth contain 261 mmol/kg wet wt in muscle tissue. This precisely fits a linear trend extrapolated from the earlier data. We also found that anemones show a trend of increasing contents of methylamines (TMAO, betaine) and scyllo-inositol with increasing depth. Previously we found that TMAO counteracts the inhibitory effects of hydrostatic pressure on a variety of proteins. We now report that TMAO and, to a lesser extent, betaine, are generally better stabilizers than other common osmolytes (myo-inositol, taurine and glycine), in terms of counteracting the effects of pressure on NADH Km of grenadier lactate dehydrogenase and ADP Km of anemone and rabbit pyruvate kinase. PMID:15529747

  1. Crystal and macular structure of 1:1 complex of N-methylmorpholine betaine with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a 1:1 complexes of complex of N-methylmorpholine betaine (MMB) with salicylic acid (SAL) has been determined by a single crystal X-ray analysis. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with a 9.4702(6), b = 13.0559(7) and c = 45.226(2) A (at 140 K). The asymmetric unit is composed of two MMB+·SAL- units (A and B) each formed by a short, nearly linear O-H...O hydrogen bond (2.542(2) and 2.474(2) A) between the carboxylic group of the betaine cation and carboxylate group of the anion. The salicylate anions form short intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds of 2. 472(2) and 2.525(2) A (O-H...O angles 160(2) and 149(2)o) for anion A and B, respectively, between the ortho hydroxyl donor and the COO- group, but the carboxylate acceptor O atom is in each case different. The morpholine rings are in a chair conformation with the -CH2COOH group in equatorial and the methyl group in axial positions. FTIR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the complex are discussed. (author)

  2. Role of betaine in improving the antidepressant effect of S-adenosyl-methionine in patients with mild-to-moderate depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Orsi, Rossana; Settembre, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) is a common add-on treatment used to counteract depressive symptoms in subjects with mild-to-moderate depression, who are low responders to other antidepressant drugs. However, there is some concern about the possible impact of SAMe therapy on homocysteine levels. Betaine is known both to counteract high level of homocysteine in plasma and to increase liquor and plasma levels of SAMe, thus potentiating its effect. Aim To evaluate the role played by betaine, administered along with SAMe, in potentiating the antidepressive role played by SAMe administered as such. Methods The study enrolled 46 subjects with a diagnosis of mild-to-moderate depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory Scale II. All the subjects had a suboptimal control of their symptoms. After randomization, they were treated with adjunctive treatment with either Samyr® (enteric-coated SAMe) or DDM Metile® (enteric-coated SAMe plus betaine) for 90 days. Results Both treatments acted similarly in improving symptoms such as anxiety, psychomotor agitation, feelings of helplessness and worthlessness, physical efficiency, and somatization, but treatment with DDM Metile® determined better statistically significant results following a 90-day therapy. Tolerability and compliance were overlapping in both the treatments. Conclusion The association of SAMe plus betaine seemed to demonstrate more effectiveness than SAMe alone when administered as an add-on therapy to subjects, affected by mild-to-moderate depression, who were low responders to conventional antidepressants. PMID:25653537

  3. The role of lipids and salts in two-dimensional crystallization of the glycine-betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Ching-Ju; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej;

    2007-01-01

    The osmoregulated and chill-sensitive glycine-betaine transporter (BetP) from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted into lipids to form two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The sensitivity of BetP partly bases on its interaction with lipids. Here we demonstrate that lipids and salts influence...

  4. Pharmacological Identification of a Guanidine-Containing β-Alanine Analogue with Low Micromolar Potency and Selectivity for the Betaine/GABA Transporter 1 (BGT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Khawaja, Anas Mohammad Ali; Petersen, Jette Gellert; Damgaard, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    identified: GAT1, GAT2, GAT3 and the betaine/GABA transporter 1 (BGT1). Owing to the lack of potent and subtype selective inhibitors of the non-GAT1 GABA transporters, the physiological role and therapeutic potential of these transporters remain to be fully understood. Based on bioisosteric replacement...

  5. Effect of Betaine on Vulcanization Characteristics of NR Latex Film%甜菜碱对天然胶乳胶膜硫化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文杰; 黎燕飞

    2014-01-01

    The effect of betaine on the vulcanization characteristics of NR latex iflm was studied with the use of an oscillating disc rheometer. The results showed thatMH,ML,t10 andt90 decreased with the addition of betaine. The parameters of curing kinetics were then calculated using Arrhenius equation. The curing reaction activation energy (Ea) of NR latex iflm with betaine was smaller than that of original NR latex iflm while the reaction rate constant (k) was higher. With the increase of betaine amount, the curing rate and crosslinking degree of the vulcanizates increased.%研究甜菜碱对天然胶乳胶膜硫化特性的影响,并通过Arrhenius方程对胶膜的硫化过程进行动力学分析。结果表明:添加甜菜碱,天然胶乳胶膜的MH和ML减小,t10和t90缩短;胶膜的硫化反应活化能减小,硫化反应速率常数增大,硫化速率提高,交联密度增大。

  6. Influence of Betaine on the Properties of Polyisoprene Rubber%甜菜碱对聚异戊二烯橡胶性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志芬; 罗文杰; 方林; 廖双泉; 赵艳芳; 李乐凡; 潘雪梅; 高扬建树

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the inlfuence of betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine, non-rubber component in natural rubber) on the curing characteristics, tensile properties and thermal stability of polyisoprene rubber (IR) was investigated. Compared with the IR compound without betaine, the curing rate of the compound with betaine IR increased signiifcantly, the crosslink density increased, tensile properties were improved and the thermal stability was slightly improved. The recommended addition level of betaine was 0.5 phr.%探讨甜菜碱(三甲铵乙内酯,天然橡胶非胶组分)对聚异戊二烯橡胶(IR)硫化特性、强伸性能和热稳定性能的影响。结果表明:与未加甜菜碱的IR相比,添加甜菜碱的IR硫化速度显著提高,交联密度增大,强伸性能改善,热稳定性能略有提高;当甜菜碱用量为0.5份时,IR的综合性能最佳。

  7. Maternal Betaine Supplementation throughout Gestation and Lactation Modifies Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolic Genes in Weaning Piglets via AMPK/LXR-Mediated Pathway and Histone Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Yuan, Mengjie; Liu, Haoyu; Pan, Shifeng; Ma, Wenqiang; Hong, Jian; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets. This was associated with the significantly elevated serum betaine and methionine levels and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) content. Concurrently, the hepatic nuclear transcription factor liver X receptor LXR was downregulated along with activated signal protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed lower LXR binding on CYP7a1 gene promoter and more enriched activation histone marker H3K4me3 on LDLR and SR-BI promoters. These results suggest that gestational and lactational betaine supplementation modulates hepatic gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism via an AMPK/LXR pathway and histone modification in the weaning offspring. PMID:27763549

  8. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial carried out with a fixed combination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and betaine versus amitriptyline in patients with mild depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Roberto Settembre2 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, Italy Background: S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe, a safe, endogenous, pleiotropic methyl donor well known for its antidepressant role, has been assumed to have a possible role in increasing plasma levels of compounds known to be able to raise cardiovascular risk. Although the issue is still being debated, betaine (trimethylglycine, a specific methyl donor involved in the homocysteine circuit, may be able to reduce such a risk and/or, by determining a sparing effect on endogenous SAMe, may be able to improve the clinical efficiency of SAMe itself. Indeed, preliminary results have shown clinical improvement determined by an add-on therapy with betaine administered along with SAMe, versus SAMe alone, to patients affected by mild/moderate depression. Aim: To evaluate the safety and antidepressant role played by the association of SAMe plus betaine versus amitriptyline administered in untreated individuals with a recent diagnosis of mild depression. Methods: This small, open-label, randomized, observational study enrolled 64 individuals with a diagnosis of mild depression according to the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. After randomization, they were treated with either Laroxyl® (amitriptyline, 75 mg/day or DDM Metile® (enteric-coated SAMe, 500 mg/day, plus betaine, 250 mg/day for 12 months. Assessment of clinical scores and tolerability was performed at T=0 and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: After 3 months, both treatments showed a small and not statistically significant improvement. After 6 and 12 months, both treated groups demonstrated a more noticeable improved response, although the group treated with SAMe plus betaine showed better results in terms of score, number of individuals in remission, and side effects. Compliance was overlapping in both treatments. Conclusion: The association of

  9. Effects of in ovo administration of betaine and choline on hatchability results, growth and carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gholami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of in ovo administration of different levels of betaine and choline on egg hatchability, immune response, growth and carcass traits of broiler chickens was studied. Four thousand hatching eggs from Ross 308 broiler breeder layers, weighed individually, were incubated for 21 days in a commercial hatchery. At 12th day of incubation, 3456 fertilized eggs were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups of 3 replicates each (144 eggs per replicate: negative control (NC – not injected; positive control (PC – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water; Bet 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble betaine; Chol 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble choline. Among the hatched chickens, 360 males were randomly chosen (45 for each group and were grown up to 42nd day of age. The embryo mortality, pecked eggs, infected eggs and hatchability percentages were similar among the experimental groups. The betaine and choline treatments improved hatching weight and final weight of chickens, while reduced feed conversion ratio and abdominal fat percentage. No effect on carcass yield, and breast muscle, leg and wings percentages, as well as on immunoglobulin M (IgM, G (IgG, and total antibody (IgT titers was observed. The treatments had little effect on internal organs.

  10. Dietary choline and betaine intake, choline-metabolising genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Feng; Luo, Wei-Ping; Lin, Fang-Yu; Lian, Zhen-Qiang; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Yan, Bo; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case-control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (P interaction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (P interaction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.

  11. 低温胁迫下外源甜菜碱对香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱合成的影响%Effects of Exogenous Betaine on the Endogenous Betaine Synthesis in Leaf and Root of Banana under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂富; 韦建学; 符良峰; 李绍鹏

    2011-01-01

    通过用不同浓度外源甜菜碱预处理香蕉幼苗后,置于人工气候箱中模拟低温胁迫,分别测定香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱的含量和甜菜碱合成关键酶甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)活性,以研究外源甜菜碱对香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱合成的影响.结果表明,一定浓度的外源甜菜碱可极显著提高香蕉幼苗叶片BADH活性,极显著促进叶片内源BT的积累,胁迫24h后根系内源甜菜碱的含量虽显著高于常温对照,但BADH活性却无显著提升.结论:外源甜菜碱可促进低温胁迫下香蕉内源甜菜碱的合成和积累,叶片是其主要合成器官,根系可作为甜菜碱的贮存场所.%After being treated with different concentration of BT, then stressed in the artificial bioclimatic chamber under 7℃ low temperature, the effects of exogenous betaine on the endogenous betaine synthesis in leaf and root of banana were studied by measuring the content of edogenous betaine and the activity of the betaine key synthetase BADH in the leaves and roots of banana seedlings. The results indicated that after being treated with suitable concentration of BT, the activity of BADH and the content of endogenous betaine in leaves were also increased with highly significant difference. Though the content of endogenous betaine in roots was significantly higher than that in controller which grows under normal circumstance, the activity of BADH was not significantly increased. So it could be drew a conclusion that exogenous betaine could improve the synthesis and content of endogenous betaine in banana under low temperature stress, and leave is the place for synthesis, root is the place for storage.

  12. Interaction of novel water-soluble and water-swelling betaine type polyampholytes with some heavy metals ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the effective methods of purification of natural and industrial wastewaters from heavy metal ions is application of functional polymers especially containing the acid-base groups. In this paper the interaction of linear and crosslinked poly-betaines with Cu2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ ions in aqueous solution is considered. The mixed solution of [polymer]:[metal ion] with the molar ratio 1:1; 2:1: 4:1 and 6:1 as well as pure polymer solution were titrated by 0.1 N NaOH. The titration curves of polymer-metal mixture are lower than that of pure polymer due to replacement of protons by metal ions

  13. Foliar urea application affects nitric oxide burst and glycine betaine metabolism in two maize cultivars under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliar urea has been proved to act a better role in alleviation of the negative effects of drought stress (DS). However, the modulation mechanism of foliar urea are not conclusive in view of nitric oxide (NO) burst and glycine betaine metabolism and their relationship. Two maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars (Zhengdan 958, JD958, Jundan 20, ZD20) were grown in hydroponic medium, which were treated with spraying of urea concentration of 15 g L/sup -1/ and two water regimes (non-stress and DS simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 15% w/v, MW 6000). The ten-day DS treatment increased betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity, choline content and nitric oxide (NO) content acted as the key enzyme, initial substrate and a nitrogenous signal substance respectively in GB synthesis metabolism, thus, induced to great GB accumulation. The accumulation of NO reached the summit earlier than that of GB. The more positive/less negative responses were recorded in JD958 as compared with ZD20 to DS. Addition of foliar ur ea could increase accumulation of choline and BADH activity as well as NO content, thereby, increase GB accumulation under DS. These positive effects of urea applying foliarly on all parameters measured were more pronounced in cultivar JD20 than those in ZD958 under drought. It is, therefore, concluded that increases of both BADH activity and choline content possibly resulted in enhancement of GB accumulation. Foliar urea application could provoke better GB accumulation by modulation of GB metabolism, possibly mediating by NO burst as a signal molecule during drought, especially in the drought sensitive maize cultivar. (author)

  14. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait

  15. Dissecting the Catalytic Mechanism of Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Using Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.; Gratson, A.A.; Evans, J.C.; Jiracek, J.; Collinsova, M.; Ludwig, M.L.; Garrow, T.A. (ASCR); (UIUC); (Michigan)

    2010-03-05

    Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) is a zinc-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from glycine betaine (Bet) to homocysteine (Hcy) to form dimethylglycine (DMG) and methionine (Met). Previous studies in other laboratories have indicated that catalysis proceeds through the formation of a ternary complex, with a transition state mimicked by the inhibitor S-({delta}-carboxybutyl)-l-homocysteine (CBHcy). Using changes in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence to determine the affinity of human BHMT for substrates, products, or CBHcy, we now demonstrate that the enzyme-substrate complex reaches its transition state through an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which Hcy is the first substrate to bind and Met is the last product released. Hcy, Met, and CBHcy bind to the enzyme to form binary complexes with K{sub d} values of 7.9, 6.9, and 0.28 {micro}M, respectively. Binary complexes with Bet and DMG cannot be detected with fluorescence as a probe, but Bet and DMG bind tightly to BHMT-Hcy to form ternary complexes with K{sub d} values of 1.1 and 0.73 {micro}M, respectively. Mutation of each of the seven tryptophan residues in human BHMT provides evidence that the enzyme undergoes two distinct conformational changes that are reflected in the fluorescence of the enzyme. The first is induced when Hcy binds, and the second, when Bet binds. As predicted by the crystal structure of BHMT, the amino acids Trp44 and Tyr160 are involved in binding Bet, and Glu159 in binding Hcy. Replacing these residues by site-directed mutagenesis significantly reduces the catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of the enzyme. Replacing Tyr77 with Phe abolishes enzyme activity.

  16. 椰油丙基酰胺甜菜碱/聚乙二醇水溶液的分相研究%Phase Separation Behavior of Cocamidopropyl Betaine/Water/Polyethylene Glycol System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游晓艳; 秦炜; 戴猷元

    2009-01-01

    Phase separation behavior of cocamidopropyl betaine/water/polyethylene glycol (PEG) system was studied. The effects of concentration and molecular weight of PEG on the phase separation behavior were investigated. Clouding occurred when the concentration of PEG was large enough in the betaine aqueous solution, and the concentration of PEG at cloud point decreased with the increase of PEG molecular weight for a constant betaine concentration. The bottom phase was the PEG-rich phase, and the upper phase was the betaine-rich phase. The volumetric ratio of PEG-rich phase to betaine-rich phase, at the same difference between the PEG concentration and the one at the cloud point, ΔC_(cp) (0.1 g·ml~(-1) ), decreased as the PEG molecular weight increased and approached 1 for higher PEG molecular weight (about 20000), which was similar to the typical aqueous two-phase system. This volumetric ratio depended on the initial PEG concentration, but independent of PEG molecular weight. The concentration ratio of betaine to PEG in both phases depended on the ΔC_(cp), independent of PEG molecular weight.

  17. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine and Betaine on Serum Biochemical Indices of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea Cultured in Floating Net Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guo Sang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical changes of large yellow croaker as affected by dietary supplements. Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea is a marine species that is widely cultured in China due to its high commercial value. However, the cage-cultured large yellow croakers were found to be less tasty compared with wild large yellow croakers due to high lipid in their body, which significantly impacts the commercial markets. Triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids are main lipid ingredients in the animal body. The fish were fed with basal diet or basal diet supplemented with L-carnitine (0.08% of dry weight diet or betaine (0.8% of dry weight diet for 12 weeks in seawater floating net cages (3×2×1.5 m each holding 60 fishes. Three net cages were assigned to each dietary treatment, as replications. The seawater temperature ranged from 18 to 31°C and salinity from 25 to 28 g/kg. Fish were hand-fed one of the experimental diets to apparent satiety twice daily (05:00 and 17:30 throughout the 12 week experimental period. The results indicate that L-carnitine or betaine in diets significantly reduced Serum Triglyceride (STG and Serum Cholesterol (SCH levels while increased Serum Free Fatty Acids (SFFA content (p<0.05. The diets of L-carnitine or betaine supplements on serum biochemical indices of that fish species have positive effects. These results suggested that the supplementation with L-carnitine or betaine is one of the effective ways to improve the meat quality of large yellow croakers cultured in floating net cages.

  18. The effect of betaine on the growth performance of animal%甜菜碱对动物生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧华; 周小秋; 冯琳

    2008-01-01

    甜菜碱(Betaine)作为甲基供体参与了体内蛋氨酸的循环,提高动物生产性能其作用主要通过节约部分Met实现.此外,甜菜碱也可通过影响动物体内激素水平而提高动物的生长性能.

  19. 芥酸酰胺丙基甜菜碱的合成与性能评价%Synthesis and Property Evaluation of Erucic Acid Amide Propyl Betaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With erucic acid, N, N - dimethyl trimethylene diamine and sodium chloroacetate as raw materials, erucic acid amide carboxy propyl betaine was synthesized via amidation and quaternarization reactions.The optimal synthesis conditions were studied. The target product was characterized by IR spectrum, and its property was evaluated. The results show that when the concentration of erucic acid amide propyl betaine is 4%, the concentration of HCl is 10%, the viscosity of acid liquid system is the maximum;When the concentration of erucic acid amide propyl betaine is more than 4%, the viscosity increase increases first and then decreases with temperature increasing;When the concentration of erucic acid amide propyl betaine is less than 4%, the viscosity decreases with temperature increasing.%以芥酸、N,N-二甲基-1,3-丙二胺与氯乙酸钠为原料,经过酰胺化和季铵化两步反应,合成了芥酸酰胺丙基甜菜碱。研究了最优合成条件,采用红外光谱对目标产物进行表征。芥酸酰胺丙基甜菜碱浓度为4%,HCl 浓度为10%时,酸液体系黏度最大。当芥酸酰胺丙基甜菜碱浓度大于4%时,黏度随温度升高而先增加后减小;当芥酸酰胺丙基甜菜碱浓度小于4%时,黏度随温度升高而降低。

  20. Plasma methionine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Nitter, Mathilde Hjelle; Norgård, Benedicte Wentzel; Vogel, Stefan; Eussen, Simone; Meyer, Klaus; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per Magne; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Bjørge, Tone; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cottet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. Patients and methods We conducted a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionin...

  1. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial carried out with a fixed combination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and betaine versus amitriptyline in patients with mild depression

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pierro F; Settembre R

    2015-01-01

    Francesco Di Pierro,1 Roberto Settembre2 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, Italy Background: S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a safe, endogenous, pleiotropic methyl donor well known for its antidepressant role, has been assumed to have a possible role in increasing plasma levels of compounds known to be able to raise cardiovascular risk. Although the issue is still being debated, betaine (trimethylglycine), a specific m...

  2. Endogenously synthesized (-)-proto-quercitol and glycine betaine are principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new isolates of phylogenetically related thraustochytrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Anita N; Aasen, Inga M; Strøm, Arne R

    2007-09-01

    We report that endogenously synthesized (-)-proto-quercitol (1D-1,3,4/2,5-cyclohexanepentol) and glycine betaine were the principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new osmotolerant isolates of thraustochytrids (strains T65, T66, and T67). The compatible solutes were identified and quantified by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and measurement of the specific optical rotation. The cellular content of compatible solutes increased with increasing NaCl concentration of a defined medium. (-)-proto-Quercitol was the dominating solute at all NaCl concentrations tested (0.25 to 1.0 M), e.g., cells of S8 and T66 stressed with 1.0 M NaCl accumulated about 500 micromol (-)-proto-quercitol and 100 micromol glycine betaine per g dry weight. To our knowledge, (-)-proto-quercitol has previously been found only in eucalyptus. The 18S rRNA gene sequences of the four (-)-proto-quercitol-producing strains showed 99% identity, and they displayed the same fatty acid profile. The only polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated were docosahexaenoic acid (78%) and docosapentaenoic acid (22%). A less osmotolerant isolate (strain T29), which was closely phylogenetically related to Thraustochytrium aureum (ATCC 34304), did not contain (-)-proto-quercitol or glycine betaine. Thus, the level of osmotolerance and the osmolyte systems vary among thraustochytrids.

  3. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cyano-bridged Bimetallic Complex [La(betaine)2(H2O)6Fe(CN)6]·2H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Shu-Hui; CHE Yun-Xia; ZHENG Ji-Min

    2005-01-01

    The title complex [La(betaine)2(H2O)6Fe(CN)6](2H2O (betaine = (CH3)3NCH2CO2) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis. The crystal crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 15.793(5), b = 8.927(3), c = 22.257(7) (A), β = 110.147(5)°, C16H38FeLaN8O12, Mr = 729.31, Z = 4, V = 2946.0(15) (A)3, Dc = 1.640 g/m3, μ(MoKα) = 1.988 mm-1, F(000) =1476, R = 0.0388 and wR = 0.0827 for 4237 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The La3+ ion is nine-coordinated by one cyano nitrogen atom and eight oxygen atoms of two betaine and six water molecules. Each complex molecule is connected to form a 3D network structure by some O-H…O and O-H…N hydrogen bonds.

  4. Expression of hepatic miRNAs targeting porcine glucocorticoid receptor (GR 3′UTR in the neonatal piglets under a maternal gestational betaine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid receptor (GR has been previously demonstrated an important transcriptional factor of hepatic metabolic genes in the neonates under a maternal gestational betaine supplementation (“Gestational dietary betaine supplementation suppresses hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in neonatal piglets through epigenetic and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms” Cai et al., 2015 [1]. Here we provide accompanying data about the expression of hepatic miRNAs targeting porcine GR 3′UTR in the neonatal piglets. Liver samples were obtained and RNA was isolated. RNA was polyadenylated by poly (A polymerase and then dissolved and reverse transcribed using poly (T adapter. The diluted cDNA were used in each real-time PCR assay. The sequences of all the porcine miRNAs were acquired from miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org/. miRNAs targeting GR were predicted using the PITA algorithm. Among all the predicted miRNAs, 4 miRNAs targeting GR were quantitated by real-time PCR and miRNA-124a, which has been identified to target GR 3′UTR [2,3], was more highly expressed in betaine-exposed neonatal livers.

  5. The influence of adding betaine on ECO-TILLING analysis%甜菜碱对ECO-TILLING分析的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 余舜武; 罗利军

    2011-01-01

    为了解决高GC含量基因分析中无法应用ECO-TILLING的问题,以高GC含量的基因组物种水稻为材料,在PCR反应体系中添加0.1 mmol/L的甜菜碱,随后直接利用CEL-I酶酶切.结果表明,添加甜菜碱能够明显提高PCR反应效率,而且不影响CEL-I的酶切活性.%In order to successfully apply the ECO-TILLING technology to the analysis of rice genomes with a high GC content,0.1 mmol/L betaine was added in the PCR system, and the PCR product was digested directly by CEL-I enzyme.The results showed that adding betaine could obviously improve the efficiency of PCR amplification and did not reduce the activity of CEL-I enzyme, which indicated that adding betaine at an appropriate concentration helps to apply the ECO-TILLING to the genomes with high GC content.

  6. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  7. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  8. Maternal Folate Status and the BHMT c.716G>A Polymorphism Affect the Betaine Dimethylglycine Pathway during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, Jose M.; Cavallé-Busquets, Pere; Fernàndez-Roig, Sílvia; Solé-Navais, Pol; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D.; Ballesteros, Mónica; Ueland, Per M.; Meyer, Klaus; Murphy, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the betaine: homocysteine methyltransferase BHMT c.716G>A (G: guanosine; A: adenosine) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BHMT pathway is unknown during pregnancy. We hypothesised that it impairs betaine to dimethylglycine conversion and that folate status modifies its effect. We studied 612 women from the Reus Tarragona Birth Cohort from ≤12 gestational weeks (GW) throughout pregnancy. The frequency of the variant BHMT c.716A allele was 30.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3, 33.5). In participants with normal-high plasma folate status (>13.4 nmol/L), least square geometric mean [95% CI] plasma dimethylglycine (pDMG, µmol/L) was lower in the GA (2.35 [2.23, 2.47]) versus GG (2.58 [2.46, 2.70]) genotype at ≤12 GW (p < 0.05) and in the GA (2.08 [1.97, 2.19]) and AA (1.94 [1.75, 2.16]) versus GG (2.29 [2.18, 2.40]) genotypes at 15 GW (p < 0.05). No differences in pDMG between genotypes were observed in participants with possible folate deficiency (≤13.4 nmol/L) (p for interactions at ≤12 GW: 0.023 and 15 GW: 0.038). PDMG was lower in participants with the AA versus GG genotype at 34 GW (2.01 [1.79, 2.25] versus 2.44 [2.16, 2.76] and at labour, 2.51 [2.39, 2.64] versus 3.00 [2.84, 3.18], (p < 0.01)). Possible deficiency compared to normal-high folate status was associated with higher pDMG in multiple linear regression analysis (β coefficients [SEM] ranging from 0.07 [0.04], p < 0.05 to 0.20 [0.04], p < 0.001 in models from early and mid-late pregnancy) and the AA compared to GG genotype was associated with lower pDMG (β coefficients [SEM] ranging from −0.11 [0.06], p = 0.055 to −0.23 [0.06], p < 0.001). Conclusion: During pregnancy, the BHMT pathway is affected by folate status and by the variant BHMT c.716A allele. PMID:27735840

  9. High-fat diet plus carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis is alleviated by betaine treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingül, İlknur; Aydın, A Fatih; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Çoban, Jale; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-10-01

    Steatosis, the first lesion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Steatosis predisposes the liver to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokines. Betaine (BET) has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. However, the effects of BET on liver fibrosis development are unknown. Rats were treated with high-fat diet (60% of total calories from fat) for 14weeks. Carbon tetrachloride (0.2mL/kg; two times per week; i.p.) was administered to rats in the last 6weeks with/without commercial food containing BET (2%; w/w). Serum liver function tests and tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin resistance, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels and oxidative stress parameters were determined along with histopathologic observations. Alpha-smooth muscle-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and type I collagen (COL1A1) protein expressions and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were evaluated. BET decreased TG and HYP levels, prooxidant status and fibrotic changes in the liver. α-SMA, COL1A1 and TGF-β1 protein expressions, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions diminished due to BET treatment. BET has an antifibrotic effect and this effect may be related to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions together with suppression on HSC activation.

  10. Effects of glycine betaine on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of glycine betaine (GB) on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays or carbon ions. C3H/He female mice received an i.p.-injection of GB before or after whole-body irradiation with gamma rays or 50 keV μm-1 carbon ions. The irradiated mice were observed to determine the mortality for 30 days after exposure. Mice were also killed at 3.5 days after the exposure to determine the intestinal damage. The numbers of crypts per transverse circumference were counted using a microscope. For the bone marrow death, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the percentage survival for both radiations. For the intestinal damage, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crypt survival for gamma rays, but not for carbon ions. GB might be a potential protector against normal tissue damage as a side effect in radiotherapy. (authors)

  11. Characterization and Crystal Structures of Two Copper(Ⅱ) Complexes Constructed by a Flexible Double Betaine Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ning-Yi; LI Song-Lin

    2007-01-01

    A flexible double betaine 1,4-bis(pyridinil-4-carboxylato)-1,4-dimethylbenzene L has been used to generate two Cu(Ⅱ)-containing metal complexes that exhibit different polymeric structures: [Cu(H2O)2 L]·2NO3 1 and [Cu(H2O)3 L]·2Cl·H2O 2. The crystal structures of 1 and 2have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. Crystal data for 1: triclinic, space group P1-, a = 5.253(2), b = 7.406(3), c = 14.792(5) (A), α = 84.195(5), β = 80.014(5), γ =78.053(5)°, V = 553.2(3) (A)3, Z = 1, F(000) = 293, Dc = 1.717 g/cm3, the final R = 0.0385 and wR =0.1079 for 1883 observed reflections (I> 2σ(Ⅰ)); and those for 2: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a =10.222(3), b = 25.287(7), c = 9.277(3) (A),β = 93.572(5)°, V = 2393.2(12) (A)3, Z = 4, F(000) = 1140,Dc = 1.540 g/cm3, the final R = 0.0472 and wR = 0.0956 for 3204 observed reflections (I >2σ(Ⅰ)).

  12. Molecular structure of hydrated complex of 1,4-dimethylpiperazine di-betaine with L-tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2008-12-01

    1,4-Dimethylpiperazine di-betaine (DBPZ) forms a crystalline complex with L-tartaric acid (TA) and two and a half water molecules. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The piperazine has a chair conformation with the methyl groups in the equatorial positions and the axial CH 2COO substituents. One of the CH 2COO group is protonated and forms with the neighboring DBPZ molecule the COO sbnd H⋯OOC hydrogen bond of the length 2.476(3) Å, which links them into a chain. The semi-tartrate anions, form a chain through the symmetrical, short COO⋯H⋯OOC hydrogen bond of 2.464(3) Å. The crystals have a layer structure, where hydrogen-bonded sheets of TA and water molecules are separated by the chains of DBPZ; no H-bonds between water and DBPZ are present. In the optimized molecules in the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, the tartaric acid interacts with the tartrate di-anions through the COO sbnd H⋯OOC hydrogen bonds of 2.506 Å, while the DBPZ has the same conformation as in the crystals. The FTIR spectrum of the solid complex is consistent with the X-ray results.

  13. Interactions and hybrid complex formation of anionic algal polysaccharides with a cationic glycine betaine-derived surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covis, Rudy; Vives, Thomas; Gaillard, Cédric; Benoit, Maud; Benvegnu, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between anionic algal polysaccharides ((κ)-, (ι)-, (λ)-carrageenans, alginate and ulvan) and a cationic glycine betaine (GB) amide surfactant possessing a C18:1 alkyl chain has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), zeta-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface tension measurements. It was observed that this cationic surfactant derived from renewable raw materials induced cooperative binding with the anionic polymers at critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and the CAC values are significantly lower than the corresponding critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the surfactant. The CMC of cationic GB surfactant was obtained at higher surfactant concentration in polysaccharide solution than in pure water. More interestingly, the presence of original polysaccharide/surfactant hybrid complexes formed above the CMC value was evidenced from (κ)-carrageenan by microscopy (TEM and AFM). Preliminary investigations of the structure of these complexes revealed the existence of surfactant nanoparticles surrounded with polysaccharide matrix, probably resulting from electrostatic attraction. In addition, ITC measurements clearly showed that the interactions of the κ-carrageenan was stronger than for other polysaccharides ((ι)-, (λ)-carrageenans, alginate and ulvan). These results may have important impact on the use of the GB amide surfactant in formulations based on algal polysaccharides for several applications such as in food, cosmetics, and detergency fields.

  14. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. PMID:27006213

  15. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  16. 两亲性结构修饰的非天然氨基酸及二肽的合成%Synthesis of Unusual Amino Acids and Dipeptides Modified with Amphipathic Betaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉健; 周宁; 刘克良

    2011-01-01

    目的 合成两亲性结构修饰的非天然氨基酸和二肽.方法 将具有两亲性结构特点的甜菜碱的羧基活化成酰氯,然后与对氨基苯丙氨酸的侧链氨基反应,制备甜菜碱修饰的非天然氨基酸构建单元和目标二肽,并进行油水分配系数的测定.结果 得到了1个甜菜碱修饰的非天然氨基酸和2个甜菜碱修饰的二肽.结论 甜菜碱修饰的二肽具有更强的两亲性,为增强药物两亲性,改善药学性质提供了一种新的选择.%Objective To synthesize unusual amino acid and dipeptides modified with an amphipathic structure. Methods The amphipathic betaine was activated as N-chlorobetainyl chloride and then coupled with to-a-mino of 4-amino phenylalanine to synthesize the target compound. The peptides were synthesized in the sold phase. Results One betaine-modified non-natural amino acid and two dipeptides were obtained. Conclusion One unusual amino acid and two dipeptides modified with betaine were synthesized. The carboxyl of betaine was activated with acyl chlorides and the reactivity of betaine was greatly increased. Betaine could smoothly couple with w-amino of amino acid, which provided a novel alternative for the amphipathic modification of peptides.

  17. 离子色谱法测定饲料中的甜菜碱%Determination of Betaine in Feed by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 王存进; 杜晓磊; 张巍

    2013-01-01

    建立了离子色谱法测定饲料中甜菜碱的方法。向饲料样品中加水并超声提取,加入三氯甲烷剧烈振摇,离心取上清液,以离子色谱非抑制电导检测器测定其中的甜菜碱。结果表明,甜菜碱的质量浓度在50~1000 mg/L的范围内与电导率线性关系良好,相关系数为0.9995。甜菜碱的定量限为41 mg/kg,优于国家标准的定量限(200 mg/kg),加标回收率为102.4%,重现性的相对标准偏差为1.19%(n=5)。该法可应用于饲料行业的例行检测。%A method was developed for the determination of betaine in feed by ion chromatography. The feed sample was treated by ultrasound in water and then chloroform was added with vigorous shaking and centrifugal treatment to obtain clear solution. Betaine in the feed sample was determined by ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection. The result demonstrated that the conductivity showed excellent linearity with concentration in the range of 50-1 000 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 5. The limit of quantitation for betaine was 41 mg/kg, which was superior to national standard method(200 mg/kg). The recovery was 102.4%, and the reproducibility(RSD,n=5)was 1.19%, respectively. The method could be applied to feed routine analysis.

  18. 比色法测定糖蜜中甜菜碱的含量%Determination the content of betain in molasses by using chromametry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳红; 原霞; 黄怡; 黄现青

    2004-01-01

    @@ 甜菜碱(Betaine)及其盐酸盐的结构式分别为(CH3)3N+CH2COO-和(CH3)3NCH2COO·HCl,分子量分别为117.11和153.61.是甜菜、肉苁蓉、糖蜜等许多植物、中药、工业副产品中的一种有机生物碱,其在日化、工业、医药、饲料、食品行业均有广泛的应用.

  19. 甜菜碱及其在饲料工业中的应用%The Betaine and Its Application in Feed Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2004-01-01

    甜菜碱(Betaine)是一种天然化合物,这种物质因最初从甜菜中提取而得名,它用作饲料添加剂已有50多年的历史。因其在动物的蛋白质与脂肪代谢等方面的重要作用而备受关注,并得到了广泛的应用。

  20. Hypotaurine, N-methyltaurine, taurine, and glycine betaine as dominant osmolytes of vestimentiferan tubeworms from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, M; Palmer, H R; Fyfe-Johnson, A L; Bedford, J J; Smith, R A; Yancey, P H

    2000-01-01

    Organic osmolytes, solutes that regulate cell volume, occur at high levels in marine invertebrates. These are mostly free amino acids such as taurine, which are "compatible" with cell macromolecules, and methylamines such as trimethylamine oxide, which may have a nonosmotic role as a protein stabilizer, and which is higher in many deep-sea animals. To better understand nonosmotic roles of osmolytes, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to analyze vestimentiferans (vestimentum tissue) from unusual marine habitats. Species from deep hydrothermal vents were Riftia pachyptila of the East Pacific Rise (2,636 m) and Ridgeia piscesae of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (2,200 m). Species from cold hydrocarbon seeps were Lamellibrachia sp. and an unnamed escarpid species from subtidal sediment seeps (540 m) off Louisiana and Lamellibrachia barhami from bathyal tectonic seeps (1,800-2,000 m) off Oregon. Riftia were dominated by hypotaurine (152 mmol/kg wet wt), an antioxidant, and an unidentified solute with an NMR spectrum consistent with a methylamine. Ridgeia were dominated by betaine (N-trimethylglycine; 109 mmol/kg), hypotaurine (64 mmol/kg), and taurine (61 mmol/kg). The escarpids were dominated by taurine (138 mmol/kg) and hypotaurine (69 mmol/kg). Both Lamellibrachia populations were dominated by N-methyltaurine (209-252 mmol/kg), not previously reported as a major osmolyte, which may be involved in methane and sulfate metabolism. Trunk and plume tissue of the Oregon Lamellibrachia were nearly identical to vestimentum in osmolyte composition. The methylamines may also stabilize proteins against pressure; they were significantly higher in the three deeper-dwelling groups. PMID:11073799

  1. Does Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid Ameliorate the Negative Effect of Drought on Wheat by Regulating Osmotic Adjustment through Solutes Accumulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Osmotic pressure, some osmolytes concentration and grain yield were determined. Water stress caused an increase in osmotic pressure, proline, total soluble nitrogen, total soluble sugars, organic acids, ions (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Cl- content as well as Na+/K+ ratio in cell sap flag leaves of both wheat cultivars. The resistant variety had higher values of osmotic pressure, proline, organic acids and ions content than the sensitive one. On the other hand, water stress induced marked decrease (P<0.05 in grain yield. The applied chemicals mitigated the effect of water stress on the used wheat cultivars. The effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine + salicylic acid treatment. The applied chemicals increased the osmotic pressure, the osmolytes concentrations as well as the grain yield. Furthermore, the osmotic pressure of flag leaf sap appeared to depend on proline, TSN, TSS, organic acids and the ions content. The economic yield (grain yield was positively correlated with proline, keto-acids and osmotic pressure but negatively correlated with TSN, TSS and citric acid.

  2. Theoretical study of heavy-atom tuning of nonlinear optical properties in group 15 derivatives of N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Bruce F; Nogueira, Fernando; Cardoso, Cláudia

    2013-03-14

    Nitrogen is a common structural element in the acceptor moieties of organic donor-acceptor nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores. In order to assess the effect of substitution with heavier group 15 elements, computational studies of the nonlinear optical properties of betaine derivatives, (CH(3))(3)X(+)CH(2)CO(2)(-) (X = N, P, As, Sb, Bi), have been performed. First hyperpolarisabilities, β(HRS)(-2ω; ω, ω), corresponding to hyper-Rayleigh scattering susceptibilities have been estimated for this series using TDDFT quadratic response calculations including polarisable-continuum method water solvation and show a five-fold increase on going from N to Bi. Differential frequency dispersion effects lead to a gradual increase in this ratio as the wavelength of the incident radiation is increased from 1907 nm to 800 nm. The depolarisation ratio of the NLO response indicates that the change in β is accompanied by a change in the type of chromophore from octupolar (X = N) to a linear donor-acceptor type (X = Bi). The observed increase of the NLO response correlates with the changing electronic configurations of the group 15 elements and alterations in the character of the frontier molecular orbitals. Relativistic effects are found to play an important part in enhancement of the NLO response in the Sb and Bi betaine derivatives. These results suggest that derivatisation of organic molecules that otherwise display small β values with heavy group 15 elements is a useful method for creating enhanced NLO chromophores. PMID:23299281

  3. Osmoregulation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: enhancement of anaerobic growth and nitrogen fixation under stress by proline betaine, gamma-butyrobetaine, and other related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rudulier, D; Bernard, T; Goas, G; Hamelin, J

    1984-03-01

    Exogenous proline betaine ( stachydrine or N- dimethylproline ) or gamma-butyrobetaine (gamma-trimethylaminobutyrate), at a concentration as low as 1 mM, were found to stimulate the growth rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, wild type M5A1 , in media of inhibitory osmotic strength (0.8 M NaC1). Simultaneously, nitrogen fixation by whole cells, a process particularly sensitive to osmotic stress, was strongly enhanced by these compounds. However, in the absence of sodium chloride, both the growth and nitrogen fixation were not affected by the addition of the methylammonium derivatives in the medium. The sensitivity of the nitrogen fixation to osmotic stress was used as a bioassay to evaluate the potentiality of osmoprotective compound in relation to the number of methyl groups on the nitrogen atom of glycine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyrate. Experiments with sarcosine ( monomethylglycine ), dimethylglycine, and glycine betaine ( trimethylglycine ), or experiments with mono- and di- methylproline or gamma-mono-, gamma-di, gamma-tri- methylaminobutyrate , indicated that the greatest stress tolerance was always obtained with the more N-methylated compounds. PMID:6372974

  4. 虫草/甜菜碱复合饲料液的HPLC分析(英文)%Determination of Cordyceps Sinensis/Betaine Compound Feed Nutriment by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煜

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对虫草/甜菜碱复合饲料液进行HPLC分析。[方法]以虫草/甜菜碱复合饲料液为样品溶液进行HPLC分析,以确定饲料中虫草发酵废液和甜菜碱的分离情况。[结果]该方法可很好的同时分离甜菜碱与虫草发酵废液中各组分。[结论]为测定饲料中虫草/甜菜碱复合饲料液的含量提供了较好的分离分析平台。%[Objective] The aim was to conduct HPLC analysis on Cordyceps Sinensis/Betaine compound feed nutriment. [Method] Cordyceps Sinensis/Betaine compound feed nutriment was under HPLC analysis to determine separation of Cordyceps Sinensis effluent and betaine. [Result] Different compositions in Cordyceps Sinensis/etaine compound feed nutriment would be well separated by the method. [Conclusion] The method provides a suitable platform of separation and analysis for Cordyceps Sinensis /Betaine compound feed nutriment.

  5. 乳熟期小麦喷施甜菜碱增产效果研究%Study on the Yield-increasing Effect by Foliar-application Betaine to Wheat during Milk Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泰; 谭延鸿; 董庆坤; 张凯; 邱念伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究非逆境条件下叶面喷施甜菜碱对小麦的增产效果.[方法]在小麦乳熟期给小麦叶片喷施5、10、15、20 mmol/L甜菜碱,测定叶片光合参数和叶片叶绿素含量.小麦成熟收获后测定千粒重,分析甜菜碱对小麦的增产效果.[结果]喷施甜菜碱的叶片叶绿素含量增加,叶片光合参数提高,叶片衰老减缓.千粒重测定结果显示,4种浓度的甜菜碱对小麦均有一定的增产效果.[结论]小麦乳熟期叶面喷施甜菜碱可增产,其中喷施浓度10 mmol/L浓度增产效果最好,增产率可达15.08%.%[Objective] The study aimed to analyze the yield-increasing effect of foliar-application betaine to wheat. [Method] Wheat were sprayed with 5,10,15,20 mmol/L betaine during milk stage, to determine photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll content of leaves, 1 000-grain weight after harvesting. Then, the yield-increasing effect of foliar-application betaine to wheat was analyzed. [ Result ] The leaves sprayed with betaine had more chlorophyll, improved photosynthetic parameters of leaves and aged more slowly. The results of 1 000-grain weight showed that 4 concentrations of betaine can increased the yield of wheat. [ Conclusion ] Foliar-application betaine to wheat could increase the yield during the milk stage. Among the different concentrations of betaine, the concentration of 10 mmol/L had the biggest yield-increasing effect and yield-increasing rate reached 15.08%.

  6. Research on Effect of Betaine Surfactant on Yumen Oil Interfacial Tension%甜菜碱体系对玉门油田界面张力影响规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志刚; 宋文玲; 赵丽娟

    2015-01-01

    研究了新型甜菜碱表面活性剂复配体系对玉门油田油水界面张力的影响情况。通过使用 Texas-500型界面张力仪,利用旋转滴法测定了甜菜碱表面活性剂的水溶液与玉门油田脱水原油之间的界面张力,讨论了活性剂浓度、碱的浓度、矿化度对甜菜碱复配体系油水界面张力的影响。实验结果表明:该甜菜碱活性剂与其它助剂有很好的协同作用,选择合适的助剂与其复配可以很大程度上减少该甜菜碱活性剂的用量,降低经济成本。碱对界面张力的影响较大,当碱浓度为0.8%时,可以使该复配体系与玉门原油油水界面张力达到10-3 mN/m。%Effect of a new type of betaine surfactant compound system on oil-water interfacial tension in the yumen oilfield was studied. Through use of Texas-500 interface tensiometer, spinning drop method was applied to determine the interfacial tension between betaine surfactant aqueous solution and dehydrated crude oil from yumen oilfield, the influence of the surfactant concentration, alkali concentration, and salinity on the interfacial tension of betaine distribution system was discussed. The experimental results show that: the betaine surfactant has good synergy with other additives, compounding suitable auxiliaries and betaine surfactant can largely reduce the quantity of the betaine surfactant to reduce the economic cost;the influence of alkali on the interfacial tension is bigger, when the alkali concentration is 0.8%, the oil/water interfacial tension between the betaine surfactant compound system and Yumen crude oil reaches 10-3 mN/m.

  7. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. PMID:24725863

  8. 五子衍宗丸中甜菜碱含量的HPLC测定%Determination of Betaine in Wuzi Yanzong Wan by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俊安

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the method for detemining the content of Betaine in Wuzi Yanzong Wan by HPLC. Methods The chromatographic column was shim-park Hypersil SCX, with acetonitrile-0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate-phosphoric acid (15 : 85 : 0.18) as the mobile phase, detection wavelength as 192 nm, and flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Results The calibration curve was linear at the range of 0.065~ 1.3 μg for Betaine and linear equation was Y=785 462.24X+46 547.37, r =0.999 7. The average recovery was 98.8% and the related standard deviation (RSD) was 1.11% (n=6). Conclusion This method was simple, accurate and proper, and the reduplication of the result was good. It provides scientific quantitative analysis method of Betaine in Wuzi Yanzong Wan.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定五子衍宗丸中甜菜碱含量的方法.方法 采用磺酸基团健合硅胶的阳离子交换剂(SCX)为填充剂;以乙睛-0.05 mol、L 磷酸二氮钾溶液-磷酸(15:85:0.18)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL/min,λ=192 nm.结果 甜莱碱在0.065~1.3μg范围内呈良好线性,回归方程为Y=785462.24X+46547.37,r=0.9997.平均加样回收率为98.8%,RSD=1.11%(n=6).结论 本方法简便、准确,专属性强,测定结果重复性好,为五子衍宗丸中甜莱碱的定量分析提供了有效方法.

  9. Development of method for determination of Sodium monochloroacetate and sodium dichloroacetate in Cocoamido Propyl Betaine by gas chromatography: FID, ECD and MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo Miyada; Amaral, Priscila Oliveira; Bustillos, Oscar Vega, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cocoamide Propyl Betaine is a feedstock for consumer products of cosmetic and household segments. Sodium monochloroacetate and sodium dichloroacetate impurities are toxic, irritating and harmful to the environment and lower concentrations - parts per million level - are required in process control of producers and regulatory affairs. Regarding analytical test method, two conditions should be met: quantification limit, precision and accuracy should be appropriate; different techniques for gas chromatography - ECD, FID and MS - should be available, since for manufacturer is not so easy to keep electron capture detector by radioactive source Ni 63 due to government control and need of qualified radiological protection. The samples are obtained at manufacturers; for the analyte separation, treatment methodologies are employed by liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction. Alternative detectors used in this study are: Flame Ionization and Mass Spectrometer with Electron Ionization. The validation process will be applied to methodology to ensure a selective, robust, accurate and reproducible analytical determination. (author)

  10. Effect of N-methyl-aspartate and Betaine on Growth Performance and Correlation Between Growth Hormone, Growth Performance and Carcass Composition in Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X(U) Zi-rong; FENG Jie; ZOU Xiao-ting

    2002-01-01

    Ninety finishing pigs were selected to study the effect of N-methyl-aspartate and betaine on the internal growth hormone level in the serum and the correlation between the growth hormone level, growth performance and carcass characteristic of finishing pig. The study showed that the two matters could improve pig growth and carcass composition significantly. The correlation analyses indicated that the growth hormone and IGF-I have a positive correlation with the growth rate. Carcass lean ratio, longissimus dorsi area, serum free fatty acid and lipase activity have a negative correlation with the feed conversion ratio, carcass fat ratio and urine nitrogen. But the growth hormone is more effective than IGF-I (P< 0.01 ). The results implicated that both the two matters may act through growth hormone axis(growth hormone - IGF-I) to manipulate pig growth.

  11. 甜菜碱营养生理功能研究进展%Advance in nutritional and physiological functions of betaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 姚军虎

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甜菜碱(Betaine,BET)又名三甲胺乙内酯(Trimethvlaminoacetate)或三甲基甘氨酸(N,N,N-Trimethylglycine).因为其独特的化学结构,甜菜碱在生命有机体中发挥着多种功能.它可提供三个不稳定的甲基,为多种物质合成提供原料,如肉碱、肌酸、嘌呤及蛋氨酸等.同时,经去甲基作用生成甘氨酸,进入氨基酸代谢池.南于甜菜碱可提供甲基和氨基酸,它可参与机体氨基酸代谢、脂肪代谢及DNA甲基化等过程.

  12. Drought Resistance of Maize Seedlings Induced by Betaine%甜菜碱对玉米幼苗抗旱性的诱导效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义春; 李建民; 段留生; 李召虎

    2011-01-01

    以旱玉5号和太单32为材料,在20%PEG模拟干旱条件下,研究外源甜菜碱对玉米幼苗抗旱性的诱导效应.结果表明,水分胁迫显著降低了玉米幼苗的生物量和叶片相对含水量,提高了幼苗的根冠比和渗透调节物质、抗氧化酶活性、ABA含量.喷施0.5 mmol/L的甜菜碱溶液能缓解玉米幼苗的水分胁迫,提高幼苗的生物量、叶片相对含水量、根冠比及渗透调节物质、抗氧化酶活性、ABA含量.%An experiment was conducted to invest the effects induced by external betaine to the drought resistance of maize seedlings grown under conditions simulated water stress with 20% PEG. The results showed that the drought decreased significantly the seedling biomass and relative water content of leaves, and increased the ration of root to shoot, contents of osmotic adjustment matters, and levels of antioxidant enzymes and ABA. Applying betaine solution of 0.5 mmol/L could reduce the drought stress of maize seedlings, and increase the seedling biomass, relative water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, and contents of osmotic adjustment matter, antioxidant enzymes and ABA.

  13. beta-Alanine betaine synthesis in the Plumbaginaceae. Purification and characterization of a trifunctional, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase from Limonium latifolium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinasabapathi, B; Fouad, W M; Sigua, C A

    2001-07-01

    beta-Alanine (beta-Ala) betaine is an osmoprotective compound accumulated by most members of the highly stress-tolerant family Plumbaginaceae. Its potential role in plant tolerance to salinity and hypoxia makes its synthetic pathway an interesting target for metabolic engineering. In the Plumbaginaceae, beta-Ala betaine is synthesized by S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent N-methylation of beta-Ala via N-methyl beta-Ala and N,N-dimethyl beta-Ala. It was not known how many N-methyltransferases (NMTases) participate in the three N-methylations of beta-Ala. An NMTase was purified about 1,890-fold, from Limonium latifolium leaves, using a protocol consisting of polyethylene glycol precipitation, heat treatment, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and two substrate affinity chromatography steps. The purified NMTase was trifunctional, methylating beta-Ala, N-methyl beta-Ala, and N,N-dimethyl beta-Ala. Gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that the native NMTase is a dimer of 43-kD subunits. The NMTase had an apparent K(m) of 45 microM S-adenosyl-l-methionine and substrate inhibition was observed above 200 microM. The apparent K(m) values for the methyl acceptor substrates were 5.3, 5.7, and 5.9 mM for beta-Ala, N-methyl beta-Ala, and N,N-dimethyl beta-Ala, respectively. The NMTase had an isoelectric point of 5.15 and was reversibly inhibited by the thiol reagent p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid. PMID:11457974

  14. 甜菜碱的营养功能及其在动物生产中的应用%Nutritional Function of Betaine and Its Application in Animal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德良; 宋明鑫

    2012-01-01

    甜菜碱作为饲料添加剂,具有提高生产性能、增强免疫功能、抗应激改善肉品质的作用。文章对甜菜碱的理化性质、营养功能及其在动物生产中的应用进行了综述。%Betaine had been widely used as feed additives in animal husbandry and feed industry, can improve performance, immune function, antitress and meat quality. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, nutritional function and animal production of the betaine were summarized.

  15. Effects of DMSO, glycerol, betaine and their combinations in detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene promoter sequence in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Vladimir; Obradović, Jasmina; Tošić, Natasa; Pavlović, Sonja; Kulić, Milan; Djordjević, Nataša

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of frequently used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) additives DMSO, glycerol and betaine on amplification of GC-rich epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene promoter region, in order to detect the presence of -216G>T and -191C>A gene variations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. PCR products and restriction fragments were detected by electrophoresis on 8% polyacrylamide gel and 3% agarose gel. Our analysis shows that single used additives including DMSO in concentration of 7% and 10%, glycerol in concentration of 10%, 15% and 20%, as well as betaine in concentration of 1M, 1.5M and 2M significantly enhanced the yield and specificity of PCR reaction. In addition, the combination of 10% DMSO with 15% glycerol has shown positive effects, whereas other analyzed combinations of additives failed to amplify the EGFR promoter region. PMID:27284695

  16. Function of Betaine and Its Prospect of Application on Livestock Husbandry%甜菜碱的作用机理及其在畜牧上的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奎; 洪作鹏

    2006-01-01

    甜菜碱(betaine)叉称三甲基甘氨酸,系一种季胺型生物碱.本文对甜菜碱的理化特性、种类、作用机理以及应用效果等方面做了一综述,甜菜碱作为一种新型的饲料添加剂具有广阔的应用前景.

  17. 甜菜碱生物学功能及其在改善猪肉质中的应用%Biological functions of betaine and its application for pork quality in swine production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧; 孙进华; 宋文涛; 孙岳丞; 单安山

    2016-01-01

    甜菜碱对机体营养物质代谢具有重要作用,可有效改善不同生长阶段猪生产性能、胴体品质和肉品质,通过母子效应传递给子代,对子代进行营养调控.文章从化学结构、生物学功能、营养物质代谢及母体效应等方面,系统阐述不同添加量甜菜碱在改善不同生长阶段猪的机体性能、胴体品质及肉品质方面作用.%Betaine was not only affected nutrient metabolism, but also improved swine performance and pork quality of swine in different growth period, and even effect on nutrient regulation of offspring by maternal. The progress in pig performance and pork quality with various levels of betaine in different growth period, which contained the aspects of biological functions, chemical structure, nutrient metabolism and maternal effect of betaine were summarized systematically in this paper.

  18. 月桂酸乙酯基甜菜碱表面活性剂的合成研究%Synthesis of lauroylethyl betaine surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王袆; 刘学民; 孙冬梅; 冯建飞; 唐蔚

    2011-01-01

    A novel betaine surfactant containing ester bond was synthesized through reactions between sodium chloroacetate and the intermediate lauroylethyl dimethyl tertiary amine,which was prepared using lauric acid and N,N-dimethyl ethanolamine as starting materials,p-to]uenesulfonic acid as catslyst. The optimum reaction conditions for the intermediate were obtained via the orthogonal experiments: N, N-dimethyl ethanolamine and laurie acid in a molar ratio of 1.6:1 reacted at 170 ℃ for 12 h,catalyst amount used 1.5%. The maximum yield is above 85%. The uniform experiment showed that the conversion rate of the second step is above 98% , which was undertaken through the reaction of the intermediate and sodium chloroacetate in a molar ratio 1: 2.2, at 90 ℃ for 21 h,isopropyl alcohol as solvent. The final product was recrystaled with acetone. HPL℃ showed the purity of the lauroylethyl betaine is beyond 99%. The product was confirmed by FT-IR、ESI-MS and 1HNMR spectrometry.%以N,N-二甲基乙醇胺与月桂酸为原料,对甲苯磺酸作催化剂,合成了月桂酸乙酯基二甲基叔胺中间体,继而与氯乙酸钠反应制得标题化合物.中间体合成的正交实验优化条件为:n(N,N二甲基乙醇胺):n(月桂酸)=1.6:1;催化剂用量为反应物总质量的1.5% ;170℃反应12 h,最高产率> 85%.最终产品合成的均匀实验优化结果:异丙醇为溶剂,n(中间体):n(氯乙酸钠)=1:2.2,90℃反应21 h,中间体转化率>8%.得到的标题化合物经丙酮重结晶提纯,HPLC法分析其质量分数>99%,使用FT-IR、ESI-MS 、1 HN M R进行了结构表征.

  19. Properties of the catalytic oxidative desulfurization of model oil using phosphotungstic acid alkyl betaine%磷钨酸烷基甜菜碱催化氧化燃料油脱硫的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 蔡蕾; 周环宇

    2014-01-01

    A study on the desulfurization of oil by catalytic oxidation in emulsion system with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant has been conducted,where the phosphotungstic acid alkyl betaine was used as a phase transfer catalyst. It investigated the catalytic properties of phosphotungstic acid C14 alky betaine,phosphotungstic acid C16 alky betaine and phosphotungstic acid C18 alky betaine. Influences of the amount of catalyst,reaction time,emulsion mixing speed and n(oxygen)/n(sulfur) on oil desulfurization were also tested. The results indicated that the longer the chain of the alkyl betaine, the better the catalytic effect. The ratio of n(oxygen)/n(sulfur) was 11,the desulfurization rate was up to 91.23%when the amount of catalyst was 0.003(the mass ratio of catalyst and model oil),reaction time was 8 minutes,and the emulsion mixing speed was 2500r/min.%以磷钨酸烷基甜菜碱为相转移催化剂,双氧水为氧化剂,在乳液体系下,催化氧化脱除燃料油中的硫化物,研究了磷钨酸十四烷基二甲基甜菜碱、磷钨酸十六烷基二甲基甜菜碱以及磷钨酸十八烷基二甲基甜菜碱的催化性能,考察了催化剂用量、制乳时间、制乳转速以及氧硫比对脱硫效果的影响。结果表明,烷基甜菜碱的烷基链越长,催化效果越好;在催化剂的用量为0.003(剂油比)、制乳时间8min、制乳转速2500r/min、氧硫比为11的条件下,脱硫率可达到91.23%。

  20. Investigations on ideal mode of cell disruption in extremely halophilic Actinopolyspora halophila (MTCC 263 for efficient release of glycine betaine and trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaranjan R. Kar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinopolyspora halophila produces glycine betaine and trehalose intracellularly in considerable quantities. These biomolecules are commercially important as they have applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural sector. Development of an efficient cell disruption technique is an important step for the release of these biomolecules. In this study, various cell disruption methods such as chemical, enzymatic, physico-mechanical and physical methods were evaluated. Cell disruption by osmotic shock was found to be the best suited method for A. halophila which also has a potential to be industrially scaled up. Cell bursting pressure that is generated during osmotic shock in A. halophila was computed using Morse equation and was found to be π = 238.37 ± 29.54 atm or 2.35 ± 0.29 kPa. In addition, it was found that osmotic shock followed a first order release rate kinetics in A. halophila. The findings can be used for commercially important biomolecules from other halophilic and/or halotolerant microbes.

  1. Determination of a solvent hydrogen-bond acidity scale by means of the solvatochromism of pyridinium-N-phenolate betaine dye 30 and PCM-TD-DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Carrasco, José P; Jacquemin, Denis; Laurence, Christian; Planchat, Aurélien; Reichardt, Christian; Sraïdi, Khadija

    2014-05-01

    Empirical parameters of solvents describing their hydrogen-bond (HB) acidity (e.g., the Kamlet-Taft α parameter) are often difficult to determine for new solvents because they are not directly related to a single definition process. Here, we propose a simple method based on one probe, the betaine dye 30, and one reference process, the solvatochromism of this dye, measured by its first electronic transition energy, ET(30). These ET(30) values are calculated within the time-dependent density functional theory framework, using a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM). The part of ET(30) values that is not included in the PCM calculation is taken as the HB component of the measured ET(30) values, allowing us to deduce a solvent HB acidity parameter α1. The validity of this simple model is assessed by good linear correlations between α1 and a variety of solute properties mainly depending on the solvent's HB acidity. The quality of fit observed with α1 is at least comparable with that obtained by previous solvent HB acidity scales. The simplicity of our method is illustrated by the determination of α1 and of its companion, the electrostatic solvent parameter ES, for some new green solvents derived from glycerol. PMID:24702635

  2. Rapid determination of cocamidopropyl betaine impurities in cosmetic products by core-shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

    2016-08-26

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a common surfactant widely used in personal care products. Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and lauramidopropyldimethylamine (LAPDMA) are two chemicals present as impurities in CAPB and have been reported as skin sensitizers. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, using a core shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column, has been developed to quantify DMAPA and LAPDMA in cosmetic products. Corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues of the above native compounds were used as internal standards to compensate for matrix effect and for loss of recovery. Each sample was first screened to determine whether the sample needed to be diluted to minimize matrix effects as well as to fit the calibration range. The concept of matrix effect factor (MEF) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate each sample with a unique matrix using the internal standards. Recoveries at three spiking levels of low, medium, and high concentrations ranged from 98.4 to 112% with RSDs less than 5%. This method has been validated and is the first UHPLC-MS/MS method, which uses core shell HILIC column and stable isotopically labeled internal standards to simultaneously determine these two CAPB impurities in cosmetic products. PMID:27473511

  3. 甜菜碱对肉鸭生长性能和胴体组成的影响%Effect of betaine on growth performance and carcass traits of meat ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪以真; 许梓荣

    2000-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of betaine on growth and carcass characteristics of meat ducks. Day-old commercial strain Cherry Valley meat ducks (n=690) were randomly allocated into five groups for a six-week feeding trial. Five dietary levels of betaine supplementation were arranged for each of the two experimental periods: and the finishing ducks (22-42 d) at 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1 000 mg/kg of diet. At the end of the feeding trial, 90 ducks (18 ducks per group) were selected to determine the carcass traits. Liver and breast muscle samples were also collected. For growing ducks, betaine supplementation (500~2 000 mg/kg) significantly increased average daily gain (ADG)(P<0.01). It also increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P<0.01) except for group 4 at 2 000 mg/kg as compared with the control group. However, such an increase the finishing period, ADG increased linearly and the feed-to-gain ratio decreased linearly with increasing betaine levels. Betaine supplementation at 750 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg improved ADG (P<0.05). Betaine supplementation at 1 000 mg/kg also significantly decreased the feed-to-gain ratio. Analysis of carcass traits indicated that betaine could increase the percentage of breast muscle (P<0.01) and decrease the percentage of abdominal fat (P<0.01) as compared with the control group. Betaine at 1 000 mg/kg increased the total and specific activities of betaine-homocysteins-methyltransferase (P<0.01), increased the content of free carnitine in the liver (P<0.01) and of acid insoluble carnitine in the breast muscle (P<0.01). These results imply that betaine could enhance synthesis of carnitine by improving methylation metabolism and stimulate β-oxidation of long chain fatty acids in the inner mitochondria membrane of muscle cells.%为了探讨甜菜碱对肉鸭(1~42日龄)生长及胴体组成的影响.把690羽1日龄的商品代樱桃谷肉鸭随机分成5个组,每组3个重复.饲养试验分成2

  4. Effects of Betaine on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Growing Pigs%甜菜碱对生长猪的生长性能和胴体组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余东游; 许梓荣

    2004-01-01

    选用96头杜长大生长猪,随机分成4组,以研究日粮中添加不同水平甜菜碱( 1 000、 1 500、 2 000 mg/kg)对猪生长性能、胴体组成及肉质的作用效果.试验结果表明,与对照组相比,日粮中添加 1 000 mg/kg和 1 500 mg/kg甜菜碱组猪日增重分别提高13.20%(P<0.01)、9.28%(P<0.05),日均采食量分别增加7.30%(P<0.05)、7.33%(P<0.01),料重比分别下降7.93%(P<0.01)、6.55%(P<0.05).此外, 1 000 mg/kg甜菜碱组猪的胴体瘦肉率和眼肌面积比对照组分别提高7.15%(P<0.05)、19.12%(P<0.05),胴体脂肪率与背膘厚分别减少27.21%(P<0.05)、 14.86%(P<0.05);背最长肌中的肌红蛋白和肌内脂肪分别提高34.21%(P<0.01)、29.56%(P<0.01).%Ninety six growing pigs(duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) were allocated to four groups and used to investigate the effects of betaine on growth, nutrient utilization, carcass composition and meat quality. Different levels of betaine in the diet was fed from 20 kg live weight until to 64 kg.In the 1 000 mg/kg and 1 500 mg/kg betaine treated groups obviously increased ADG by 13.20%(P<0.01) and 9.28%(P<0.05) and ADFI by 7.30%(P<0.05) and 7.33%(P<0.01) and decreased FCR by 7.93%(P<0.01) and 6.55%(P<0.05) compared to the control group. These differences were not found in the other betaine treated groups. Pigs fed 1 000 mg/kg betaine had 7.15%(P< 0.05) and 19.12%(P<0.05) higher carcass lean proportion, larger longissimus muscle area, while the carcass fat proportion were 27.21%(P<0.05) and fat depth were less 14.86%(P<0.05) compared to the control group. Adding 1 000 mg/kg betaine significantly increased the content of ether extract and myoglobin by 34.21%(P<0.01) and 29.56%(P<0.01) in longissimus dorsi.

  5. Osmotically induced trehalose and glycine betaine accumulation improves tolerance to desiccation, survival and efficacy of the postharvest biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaterra, Anna; Camps, Jaume; Montesinos, Emilio

    2005-09-01

    The application of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125 to unwounded fruits was practically ineffective for control of postharvest blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum when the treatment and subsequent wounding and pathogen inoculation were separated by periods of unfavourable conditions. This was due to a rapid decrease in viability of the alocthonous introduced biocontrol agent in the intact peel surface. A system for osmoadaptation of the biocontrol agent was developed by combining saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to the growth medium. Osmoadapted cells accumulated trehalose and glycine betaine (GB) intracellularly and showed a higher tolerance to desiccation than non-osmoadapted cells. Osmoadaptation in NaCl plus GB during inoculum preparation increased considerably survival on the peel surface of apple fruits. This effect was significant under low relative humidity (RH) and fluctuating RH conditions, but was not significant at high RH. Osmoadaptation significantly improved blue mould control under conditions where the standard biological control treatments were ineffective. The rot diameter was significantly reduced in apple fruits which were treated with EPS125 and incubated for several days under low, high or fluctuating RH, followed by wounding and inoculation of P. expansum. Growth of EPS125 with NaCl, either with or without the addition of GB, was an effective osmoadaptation treatment for improving blue mould rot control. However, the addition of GB to the NaCl amended growth medium increased 4-5-fold growth rate and OD of the cultures. This is an advantage for mass production of P. agglomerans EPS125 in a NaCl amended growth medium.

  6. Effects of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-Transgenic Soybean on Phosphatase Activities and Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of the Saline-Alkali Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic soybean has produced numerous economic benefits; however the potential impact of root exudates upon soil ecological systems and rhizospheric soil microbial diversity has also received intensive attention. In the present study, the influence of saline-alkali tolerant transgenic soybean of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase on bacterial community structure and soil phosphatase during growth stages was investigated. The results showed that, compared with nontransgenic soybean as a control, the rhizospheric soil pH of transgenic soybean significantly decreased at the seedling stage. Compared to HN35, organic P content was 13.5% and 25.4% greater at the pod-filling stage and maturity, respectively. The acid phosphatase activity of SRTS was significantly better than HN35 by 12.74% at seedling, 14.03% at flowering, and 59.29% at podding, while alkaline phosphatase achieved maximum activity in the flowering stage and was markedly lower than HN35 by 13.25% at pod-filling. The 454 pyrosequencing technique was employed to investigate bacterial diversity, with a total of 25,499 operational taxonomic units (OTUs obtained from the 10 samples. Notably, the effect of SRTS on microbial richness and diversity of rhizospheric soil was marked at the stage of podding and pod-filling. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla among all samples. Compared with HN35, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was lower by 2.01%, 2.06%, and 5.28% at the stage of seedling, at pod-bearing, and at maturity. In genus level, the relative abundance of Gp6, Sphingomonas sp., and GP4 was significantly inhibited by SRTS at the stage of pod-bearing and pod-filling.

  7. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside

  8. 外源甜菜碱对PEG胁迫下小桐子种子萌发和幼苗生长的保护作用%Protective Action of Exogenous Betaine on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Jatropha curcas Under PEG Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锁链; 李忠光; 龚明

    2011-01-01

    外源甜菜碱对小桐子种子和幼苗分别进行浸种和灌根处理,结果表明,外源甜菜碱浸种可提高小桐子种子在PEG胁迫下的发芽率和改善幼苗的生长状况.外源甜菜碱浸种和灌根,可提高幼苗在PEG胁迫下的存活率.此外,PEG胁迫可提高小桐子幼苗中的内源甜菜碱含量.结果表明,外源甜菜碱处理不仅可提高小桐子种子在PEG胁迫下的发芽率,而且可提高幼苗对PEG胁迫的抵抗能力.%Seeds and seedlings of Jatropha curcas were treated by seed soaking or root watering using exogenous betaine, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment of seed soaking with exogenous betaine could improve germination percentage and ameliorate growth status of Jatropha curcas under PEG stress. Pretreatment of seed soaking or root irrigating also could enhance survival percentage in Jatropha curcas. In addition,PEG stress could increase content of endogenous betaine in Jatropha curcas seedlings. These results illustrated that pretreatment of exogenous betaine not only could improve germination percentage, but also enhance resistance of seedlings of Jatropha curcas to PEG stress.

  9. Use of urea and glycine betaine to quantify coupled folding and probe the burial of DNA phosphates in lac repressor-lac operator binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiang; Capp, Mike W; Saecker, Ruth M; Record, M Thomas

    2005-12-27

    Thermodynamic analysis of urea-biopolymer interactions and effects of urea on folding of proteins and alpha-helical peptides shows that urea interacts primarily with polar amide surface. Urea is therefore predicted to be a quantitative probe of coupled folding, remodeling, and other large-scale changes in the amount of water-accessible polar amide surface in protein processes. A parallel analysis indicates that glycine betaine [N,N,N-trimethylglycine (GB)] can be used to detect burial or exposure of anionic (carboxylate, phosphate) biopolymer surface. To test these predictions, we have investigated the effects of these solutes (0-3 m) on the formation of 1:1 complexes between lac repressor (LacI) and its symmetric operator site (SymL) at a constant KCl molality. Urea reduces the binding constant K(TO) [initial slope dlnK(TO)/dm(urea) = -1.7 +/- 0.2], and GB increases K(TO) [initial slope dlnK(TO)/dm(GB) = 2.1 +/- 0.2]. For both solutes, this derivative decreases with an increase in solute concentration. Analysis of these initial slopes predicts that (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(3) A2 of polar amide surface and (4.5 +/- 1.0) x 10(2) A2 of anionic surface are buried in the association process. Analysis of published structural data, together with modeling of unfolded regions of free LacI as extended chains, indicates that 1.5 x 10(3) A2 of polar amide surface and 6.3 x 10(2) A2 of anionic surface are buried in complexation. Quantitative agreement between structural and thermodynamic results is obtained for amide surface (urea); for anionic surface (GB), the experimental value is approximately 70% of the structural value. For LacI-SymL binding, two-thirds of the structurally predicted change in amide surface (1.0 x 10(3) A2) occurs outside the protein-DNA interface in protein-protein interfaces formed by folding of the hinge helices and interactions of the DNA binding domain (DBD) with the core of the repressor. Since urea interacts principally with amide surface, it is

  10. Application of the local-bulk partitioning and competitive binding models to interpret preferential interactions of glycine betaine and urea with protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felitsky, Daniel J; Record, M Thomas

    2004-07-20

    Two thermodynamic models have been developed to interpret the preferential accumulation or exclusion of solutes in the vicinity of biopolymer surface and the effects of these solutes on protein processes. The local-bulk partitioning model treats solute (and water) as partitioning between the region at/or near the protein surface (the local domain) and the bulk solution. The solvent exchange model analyzes a 1:1 competition between water and solute molecules for independent surface sites. Here we apply each of these models to interpret thermodynamic data for the interactions of urea and the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine; GB) with the surface exposed in unfolding the marginally stable lacI HTH DNA binding domain. The partition coefficient K(P) quantifying accumulation of urea at this protein surface (K(P) approximately equal 1.1) is only weakly dependent on urea concentration up to 6 M urea. However, K(P) quantifying exclusion of GB from the vicinity of this protein surface increases from 0.83 (extrapolated to 0 M GB) to 1.0 (indicating that local and bulk GB concentrations are equal) at 4 M GB (activity > 40 M). We interpret the significant concentration dependence of K(P) for GB, predicted to be general for excluded, nonideal solutes such as GB, as a modest (8%) attenuation of the GB concentration dependence of solute nonideality in the local domain relative to that in the bulk solution. Above 4 M, K(P) for the interaction of GB with the surface exposed in protein unfolding is predicted to exceed unity, which explains the maximum in thermal stability observed for RNase and lysozyme at 4 M GB (Santoro, M. M., Liu, Y. F., Khan, S. M. A., Hou, L. X., and Bolen, D. W. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 5278-5283). Both thermodynamic models provide good two-parameter fits to GB and urea data for lacI HTH unfolding over a wide concentration range. The solute partitioning model allows for a full spectrum of attenuation effects in the local domain

  11. Alleviation of chronic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of betaine and turmeric rhizome powder: dynamics of performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Salamat, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. THeat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. The treatment groups were as follows: thermoneutral control (TN-CON), HS-CON, HS-Bet, HS-TRP, and HS-BT (fed Bet and TRP). The results showed that decreases in body weight gain, feed intake, and increases in feed-to-gain ratio and mortality induced by HS were partially restored by dietary supplementation of Bet and TRP. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total, and IgG antibody titers against sheep red blood cell for secondary responses in the HS-TRP and HS-BT groups were also similar to those of the broilers in the TN

  12. 甜菜碱对载脂蛋白E基因缺陷小鼠抗动脉粥样硬化的作用%Anti-atherosclerotic effect of betaine in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范锐心; 吕史维; 杜艳平; 侯孟君; 朱惠莲

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究甜菜碱对载脂蛋白E(ApoE)基因缺陷小鼠动脉粥样硬化斑块形成的影响并对其抗炎机制进行初步探讨.方法 7周龄ApoE基因缺陷小鼠(品系C57BL/6J)按体重随机分为4组:模型组和3个甜菜碱组,同龄同品系野生型小鼠作为正常对照组.各组均喂饲AIN-93G基础饲料.3个甜菜碱组分别加入1%、2%、4%甜菜碱.于0、7、14周时测定血清肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、单核细胞趋化蛋白-1、血脂水平以及主动脉TNF-α基因启动子的甲基化状况;于14周时测定主动脉窦脂质斑块占管腔面积百分比.结果 2%、4%甜菜碱组主动脉窦斑块面积占管腔总面积百分比分别为(11.43±2.65)%和(12.09 ±3.07)%,与模犁组(19.31±5.42)%相比差异有统计学意义(t值分别为3.117和3.010,P值均小于0.01);3个甜菜碱组血清TNF-α分别为(56.33±3.86)、(63.04±4.67)、(65.52±3.97)pg/ml,均明显低于模型组(79.40 ±4.68)pg/ml(t值分别为9.270、6.571、5.576,P值均小于0.001).结论 甜菜碱口J能通过抗炎作用而抑制ApoE基因缺陷小鼠动脉粥样硬化斑块的形成.%Objective To study the effect of betaine on the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) -deficient mice and explore its anti-inflammatory mechanism. Methods Seven-week-old ApE-deficient mice (C57BL/6J background) were divided into four groups randomly based on body weight: model group and three betaine groups. Wild-type mice with the same age and genetic background were used as control group. The control group and model group were fed AIN-93G diet. Three betaine groups were fed AIN-93G diet supplemented with 1,2, 4 g betaine/100 g diet, respectively. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), monocytc chemoattractant protein-I, lipid levels and methylation status of TNF-α promotor in arota were determined at 0,7 and 14 weeks. The percentage of arota sinus plaque to lumen area was measured at 14-week. Results The percentage of arota

  13. Low-dose gamma irradiation induces water activity, leaf K+/Na+, glycine betaine, antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation and protease activity to enhance salt tolerance in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. The present study evaluates the physiological and biochemical basis of radiation affect on salt tolerance response of pigeonpea. Seed gamma irradiation, in general, at 1.92 (control), 5.86 (80 mM) and 8.02 dSm-1 (100 mM) soil electrical conductivity (NaCl stress), enhanced seedling establishment, plant growth, carbon metabolism and gas exchange characteristics such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Further, an improvement in salt tolerance response of gamma irradiated (<10 Gy) pigeonpea was related to high seed water activity and leaf K+/Na+, glycine betaine, membrane stability index and enzymic antioxidant activity. (author)

  14. Isolation and Induced Expression of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene from Spinach%菠菜甜菜碱醛脱氢酶基因的分离和诱导表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 王蒂; 司怀军

    2004-01-01

    植物体内的甜菜碱由胆碱经两步不可逆的氧化反应合成,甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase,BADH)是合成甜菜碱的关键酶,催化甜菜碱醛氧化为甜菜碱。本研究从菠菜叶片中分离了BADH基因,并将该基因与其它植物的BADH序列作了同源性分析,同时,证实了菠菜BADH基因的转录与表达受干旱和盐胁迫的诱导。

  15. 甜菜碱促进小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖作用的钙通道机制研究%Calcium channel mechanism by which betaine promotes proliferation of lymphocytes in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季宇彬; 高世勇; 冯小燕; 何立巍

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study how the way in which betaine promotes the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes is related to calcium channels. Method:BALB/c mice were used for this experiment. Mouse spleen lymphocytes were obtained through in vitro cultivation after they had been separated, and were divided into a negative control group, a ConA group, and 0. 04, 0. 4, 4, and 20 mmol·L~(-1) betaine groups. MTT was used to observe the effect of betaine on the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes; flow cytometry was used to measure the changes in the cell cycle of mouse spleen lymphocytes; and laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to observe the changes in the intracellular [ Ca~(2+) ]; of mouse spleen lymphocytes after betaine or different calcium channel blockers were applied. Result; Betaine was found to promote the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes 12 h after it had been applied in vitro in concentrations of 4 and 20 mmol·L~(-1). It was also found to promote the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes 24 h and 48 h after it had been applied in vitro in concentrations of 0. 04, 0. 4, 4, and 20 mmol·L~(-1), with the effect being most marked for the 4 mmol·L~(-1) group 24 h after its application. It was found to facilitate the entry of mouse spleen lymphocytes from the G_0/G_1 to the S phase 4, 6, 18, and 24 h after it had been applied to mouse spleen lymphocytes in a concentration of 4 mmol·L~(-1) , with the effect being most marked at 18 h after its application. Intracellular [ Ca~(2+) ]; in mouse spleen lymphocytes increased significantly (P < 0.01 ) 6,12, 18 h after 4 mmol·L~(-1) betaine had acted on the lymphocytes, with the effect being most marked at 6 h. The calcium channel blockers nifidipine, dihiazem, mibefradil, and genistein had no effect on the increase of the intracellular [ Ca~(2+) ] ; in mouse spleen lymphocytes due to the application of betaine, while verapamil, mycifradin, heparin, and procaine could block such increase

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD+. Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress

  17. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine as protectants against osmotic and cold stress: uptake through the SigB-controlled betaine-choline- carnitine transporter-type carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Anne U; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bursy, Jan; Jebbar, Mohamed; Bremer, Erhard

    2011-09-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus has been shown to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine in response to high salinity or low growth temperature. We found that exogenously provided ectoine and hydroxyectoine also serve as protectants against these challenges. Transport studies with [(14)C]ectoine revealed that both types of stress induced a high-affinity ectoine uptake activity in V. pantothenticus. By using an Escherichia coli mutant defective in osmoprotectant uptake systems, a functional complementation approach for osmostress resistance in the presence of ectoine was employed to retrieve a gene encoding an ectoine transporter from V. pantothenticus. The cloned gene (ectT) encodes a protein (EctT) that is a member of the BCCT (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter) family of carriers. Osmoprotection assays demonstrated that the EctT carrier mediates the preferential import of ectoine and hydroxyectoine but also possesses minor uptake activities for the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine. Northern blot analysis with RNA isolated from V. pantothenticus revealed that a rise in the external osmolality or a reduction in growth temperature strongly increased the transcription of the ectT gene. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that ectT was transcribed under these conditions from a SigB-type promoter. SigB is the master regulator of the general stress regulon of bacilli and provides protection to cells against various challenges, including high salinity and low temperature. Both the synthesis of ectoine and the EctT-mediated uptake of ectoine and hydroxyectoine are triggered by the same environmental cues, high salinity and cold stress, and thereby provide, in a concerted fashion, the protection of V. pantothenticus against these challenges. PMID:21764932

  18. Neutron scattering techniques for betaine calcium chloride dihydrate under applied external field (temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure); Etude par diffusion de neutrons du chlorure de calcium et de betaine dihydrate sous champ externe applique (temperature, champ electrique et pression hydrostatique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O

    1997-11-17

    We have studied with neutron scattering techniques betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD), a dielectric aperiodic crystal which displays a Devil`s staircase type phase diagram made up of several incommensurate and commensurate phases, having a range of stability very sensitive to temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure. We have measured a global hysteresis of {delta}(T) of about 2-3 K in the two incommensurate phases. A structural study of the modulated commensurate phases 1/4 and 1/5 allows us to evidence that the atomic modulation functions are anharmonic. The relevance of the modelization of the modulated structure by polar Ising pseudo-spins is then directly established. On the basis of group theory calculation in the four dimensional super-space, we interpret this anharmonic modulation as a soliton regime with respect to the lowest-temperature non modulated ferroelectric phase. The continuous character of the transition to the lowest-temperature non modulated phase and the diffuse scattering observed in this phase are accounted for the presence of ferroelectric domains separated by discommensurations. Furthermore, we have shown that X-rays induce in BCCD a strong variation with time of irradiation of the intensity of satellite peaks, and more specifically for third order ones. This is why the `X-rays` structural model is found more harmonic than the `neutron` one. Under electric field applied along the vector b axis, we confirm that commensurate phases with {delta} = even/odd are favoured and hence are polar along this direction. We have evidenced at 10 kV / cm two new higher order commensurate phases in the phase INC2, corroborating the idea of a `complete` Devil`s air-case phase diagram. A phenomenon of generalized coexistence of phases occurs above 5 kV / cm. We have characterized at high field phase transitions between `coexisting` phases, which are distinguishable from classical lock-in transitions. Under hydrostatic pressure, our results

  19. The effect of external betaine on membrane lipid peroxidation of wheat seedling under water stress%外源甜菜碱对干旱胁迫下小麦幼苗膜脂过氧化作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文越; 王辉; 黄久常

    2001-01-01

    用PEG4000溶液对小麦(Triticum aestivum L.heimang)幼苗进行胁迫处理和加入外源甜菜碱(Betaine)作同样处理,6、12、18和24 h测定生理变化。结果表明,与对照相比,外源甜菜碱导致小麦幼苗叶片含水量下降,相对膜透性增大,MDA含量升高,SOD和POD活性先降后增,同时脯氨酸大量积累。说明外源甜菜碱对小麦幼苗受伤害程度有明显加深作用。%Using solution of PEG4000 to deal with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.heimang) seedling as control,we add betaine to solution of PEG4000 to deal with wheat seedling for spans of 6 hours,12 hours,18 hours and 24 hours,and determine the physiological changes in leaves of wheat seedling.The results indicated that,making all possible comparisons with control,treating wheat seedling with solution of external betaine and PEG4000 decreased the water content of wheat seedling leaves,increased the membrane relative permeability of wheat seedling leaves;increased the content of MDA of wheat seedling leaves,decreased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat seeding leaves at first,then increased them;at the same time,led to large accumulation of proline of wheat seeding leaves.Conclusively,external betaine can enhances the degree of injury of wheat seedling.

  20. 盐胁迫下三色苋甜菜碱及有关酶含量的变化%Changes in Glycine Betaine and Related Enzyme Contents in Amaranthus tricolor Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羽梅; 孟玉玲; 新居直佑

    2004-01-01

    三色苋(Amaranthus tricolor)不同器官中的甜菜碱(GB)含量显著不同.除子叶外,根、茎和叶的GB含量和茎、叶中的胆碱单加氧酶(CMO)含量都因300 mmol/L的NaCl处理而增加.甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)的表达无论盐处理与否在所有器官中都能检测到,其含量变化不大.当种子发芽时,具备合成GB的能力,CMO含量增加;在此之前未能检测到CMO,也不能合成GB.研究结果表明三色苋响应盐胁迫而合成GB的关键酶是CMO.%The glycine betaine (GB) and related enzymes contents, i.e., choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), of seeds, roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves, and flowers in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress were determined. GB content varied significantly among different organs. GB content in the leaves was higher at the beginning of unfolding stage and decreased during maturation and senescence. GB content in the roots was very low through the life of plant. GB content in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers increased by exposure to NaC1 300 mmol/L, except in the cotyledon where it was low and remained unchanged under salt stress. Induction of GB increase by salt stress was greater in mature and old leaves than in younger leaves.CMO protein content was low in the all organs, but that in stems and leaves was significantly increased by the addition of NaC1 300 mmol/L, and was concomitant with the accumulation of GB in their tissues. BADH protein was detected in all organs. But, the levels of BADH protein did not always vary among different organs as a result of salt stress. The effect of salt stress on BADH protein content was small and in consistent in mature and old leaves. Seeds after being soaked in water for 24 h were unable to synthesize GB. When the seeds started to germinate after being in water for 48 h, they showed an ability to synthesize GB under salt stress. This was accompanied with an increase in their CMO protein content, whereas their

  1. 体检人群血清甜菜碱、胆碱水平及其影响因素分析%SERUM LEVELS OF BETAINE AND CHOLINE AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES AND LIFE STYLE RELATED FACTORS IN PEOPLE UNDERGOING PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓玲; 常颖; 王丽君; 周瑞芬; 刘燕; 朱惠莲

    2015-01-01

    目的胆碱和甜菜碱是体内重要的甲基供体,探讨性别、年龄、体格测量指标、吸烟、饮酒等因素与血清甜菜碱、胆碱水平的关联性,为甜菜碱和胆碱在慢病防治中的应用提供流行病学依据。方法采用问卷调查的方法收集1643例(男1078,女565)体检人群的一般情况和生活行为方式资料,测量身高、体重、腰围、臀围并计算体质指数(body mass index,BMI)和腰臀比率,采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法检测血清中甜菜碱、胆碱的水平。结果男性血清甜菜碱、胆碱水平分别比女性高16.9%和12.0%;65岁及以上人群血清甜菜碱和胆碱水平显著高于其他年龄组人群;与 BMI、腰围、腰臀比率正常的人群相比,诊断为肥胖的人群血清甜菜碱水平均显著降低,但血清胆碱水平无统计学差异;不饮酒者血清甜菜碱水平高于饮酒者,但只与酒精摄入量≥21g/d 的饮酒者间的差异有统计学意义,血清甜菜碱的水平在不同吸烟状态的人群中无统计学差异,血清胆碱水平在不同吸烟状态及不同酒精摄入量的人群中差异均无统计学意义。结论男性血清胆碱、甜菜碱水平高于女性,中老年人血清胆碱、甜菜碱水平较高,肥胖人群血清甜菜碱水平较低,过量饮酒可能会降低血清甜菜碱的水平。[营养学报,2015,37(3):239-244]%Objective Choline and betaine are major methyl donors. This study investigated the association between serum betaine/choline and gender, age, anthropometric indices,smoking and drinking. Method A questionnaire containing information of general characteristics and lifestyle behavior was used for 1643 participants (1078 males, 565 females). Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference were measured and BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio) were calculated. Serum betaine and choline concentrations were assayed by HPLC

  2. 甜菜碱浸种对盐胁迫下棉花种子发芽及其幼苗生理活性的影响%Effect of Seed Soaking with Different Concentrations of Betain on Germination and Seedling Physiological Properties of Cotton under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟乃家; 刘蔚霞; 乔健; 黄志银

    2012-01-01

    Using the cotton varieties Zhongmian 12 and Zhongmian 19 with different salt tolerance as the materials, the effect of seed soaking with different concentrations of betain on germination and protective enzyme activity in cotton seedlings were studied under salt stress in this paper. The results indicated that salt stress inhibited the germination and root development, but increased the activity of SOD, POD and CAT. Soaking seed with lower concentration of betain could promote the development of roots, and increase the activity of SOD, POD and CAT and the content of praline. The effect was the best when the betain concentration was 600 n^/inl. The two cotton cultivars had the same reaction trends.%以耐盐能力不同的中棉所12号和中棉所19号为材料,研究其在盐胁迫下甜菜碱浸种对棉花种子发芽及其幼苗防御性保护酶活性的影响.结果显示,盐胁迫抑制发芽和幼苗根系发育,但提高幼苗的SOD、POD和CAT活性;甜菜碱浸种,在一定浓度范围内可促进幼苗根系发育,提高其SOD、POD和CAT活性,增加脯氨酸含量,浓度600 μg/ml时最高.两品种对盐胁迫及甜菜碱浸种后的反应一致.

  3. Adsorption of betaine amphoteric surfactants on sandstone surface under reservoir conditions of high temperature and high salinity%甜菜碱型两性表面活性剂在高温高矿化度油藏条件下砂岩表面的吸附规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伟; 江依昊; 吴玉娜; 李思琦

    2014-01-01

    UV spectrophotometry was used to determine adsorption of betaine zwitterionic surfactant on three types of sandstone surface. Adsorption isotherms with betaine zwitterionic surfactant under Shengli reservoir were studied,and enthalpies of adsorption were calculated. Adsorption of betaine zwitterionic surfactant on the surface of quartz sand,net sand and oil sand was studied in terms of kinetics and thermodynamics. Adsorption of betaine zwitterionic surfactant obeyed the Langmuir equation with adsorption amount:quartz sand>net sand>oil sand. Enthalpy change at 60~70℃ was less than enthalpy change at 70~80℃,becoming smaller with increasing temperature. The kinetic results showed that change of adsorption capacity with time could be described by the Elovich equation.%利用紫外分光光度法测定了甜菜碱型两性离子表面活性剂在3种不同砂岩表面的吸附量,研究了甜菜碱型两性离子表面活性剂在胜利油藏环境下的吸附等温线,分别从吸附热力学和吸附动力学角度考察了两性离子表面活性剂在砂岩表面上的吸附规律,并对两性离子表面活性剂在石英砂、净砂、油砂表面吸附规律进行对比。结果表明,甜菜碱型两性离子表面活性剂在砂岩表面吸附符合Langmuir吸附规律,在石英砂上的吸附量最多,净砂次之,在油砂上的吸附量最少。温度由60~70℃的焓变小于温度为70~80℃的焓变,随温度升高影响趋势逐渐变小。Elovich方程能更好的描述吸附量随时间的变化关系。

  4. Determination and Taste Evaluation of Betaine Present in Common Aquatic Products from Beibu Gulf in Guangxi%广西北部湾常见水产品中甜菜碱含量测定及呈味效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德慰; 苏键; 颜栋美; 刘小玲; 林莹

    2011-01-01

    The betaine present in muscles of fresh aquatic products is extracted by water, and determined by method of colorimetry. Taste impact of betaine present in muscles of fresh aquatic products from Beibu Gulf in Guang Xi, was evaluated by taste active values (TAVs) methods. The range of betaine contents in muscles is 2.2~8.0 mg/g, and recoveries of samples is 80%-123%. Equation of linear regression is y=0.148lx-0.0023 (R2=0.9962); linearity range is 0.20~1.00 mg/mL; and the detection limit of the method is 0.02 mg/mL. The TAVs indicated that the betaine present in muscles contributed an obvious sweet taste to these aquatic products (TAVs rather than 1.0), except for Navodon septentrionalis (TAV is 0.9).%采用水提法提取生鲜水产品肌肉中的甜菜碱,然后采用比色法对其含量进行测定,最后采用味道强度值(Taste active value,TAV)评价其呈味作用.测得甜菜碱含量范围为2.2~8.0mg/g,加标回收率为80%~123%,线性回归方程y=0.1481x-0.0023(R2=0.9962),线性范围0.20~1.00mg/mL,方法检出限是0.02mg/mL.除马面鱼中甜菜碱TAV值为0.9之外,其它水产品中的TAV值均大于1.0,TAV结果说明甜菜碱对大多数水产品肌肉呈甜味具有显著作用.

  5. 饲粮中添加甜菜碱对断奶仔猪生长性能和血清生化指标的影响%Effects of Betaine on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weaner Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冠; 杨维仁; 杨在宾; 姜淑贞; 张桂国; 郭凯

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加甜菜碱对断奶仔猪生长性能和血清生化指标的影响.选用体重(7.12±0.11)kg断奶后1周的“杜×长×大”仔猪160头,随机分为4组,每组4个重复,每个重复10头.对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组分别饲喂在基础饲粮上添加600、900、1 200 mg/kg甜菜碱的试验饲粮.试验期28 d.结果表明,饲粮中添加甜菜碱能够显著提高仔猪的平均日采食量和平均日增重(P<0.05),显著增加血清生长激素和胰岛素样生长因子Ⅰ的含量(P<0.05).600mg/kg甜菜碱显著降低了血清尿素氮和低密度脂蛋白含量(P<0.05).但饲粮中添加甜菜碱对血清中总蛋白、白蛋白、甘油三酯、胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白含量和代谢酶的活性无显著影响(P>0.05).由此可见,饲粮中添加甜菜碱可以提高断奶仔猪的生长性能,促进蛋白质的沉积和脂肪代谢,其中以添加量600 mg/kg效果最好.%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary betaine on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters of weaner piglets. A total of 160 "Duroc x Yorkshire x Landrace" weaner piglets with an average body weight of(7.12±0.11) kg were randomly divided into 4 groups with 4 replicates per group and 10 piglets in each replicate. Piglets in control group were fed a basal diet, and the others in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 600, 900 and 1 200 mg/kg betaine, respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The results showed as follows: supplementation of betaine could significantly improve average daily feed intake and average daily gain (P 0. 05). In conclusion, supplementation of betaine can improve growth performance of weaner piglets, promote protein deposition and fat metabolism, and the optimum supplemental level of betaine is 600 mg/kg.

  6. 甜菜碱对奥尼罗非鱼生长、体脂含量及血清生化指标的影响%Effects of dietary Betaine on growth, fat content and biochemical indexs in blood of tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochrmis aureus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱定贵; 于丹; 陈涛; 战歌; 黄凯; 麻艳群; 杨思华

    2011-01-01

    750 juvenile tilapia( Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochrmis aureu.s ) were randomly allotted to five groups, and were fed diets supplemented with different level Betaine (0、0.15% 、0.30% 、0.45% and 0.60% ) for 65 d to investigate the effects of Betaine on growth, fat content and biochemical indexs of blood of tilapia.The results showed that tilapia' WGR were 19.52%、 16.63% and 21.38% higher than that of control group ( P < 0.05 ) respectively when tilapia feed were added with 0.30% - 0.60% Betaine; FRC reduced by 25.55% 、20.44 % and 29.93% ( P < 0.05 ) respectively; the HSI reduced by 9.29% 、38.57% and 29.29% ( P < 0.05 ); the contents of TG in Tilapia' s plasma reduced by 66.28% 、55.81% and 80.23% (P <0.05) respectively; the activities of AMY in Tilapia' s plasma reduced by 88.78% 、37.59% and 62.41% ( P < 0.05 ); the contents of ALB and TP in Tilapia' s plasma were improved, the contents of CHOL in Tilapia' s plasma reduced; the activities of LDH、 ALT and AST in Tilapia' s plasma reduced respectively.Therefore, under this research condition, it is suggested that the supplement of Betaine in diets of juvenile tilapia was the best at 0.45% ~ 0.60%.%取奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochrmis aureus)750尾,随机分为5组,分别饲喂甜菜碱(Betaine)添加量为0、0.15%、0.30%、0.45%和0.60%的饲料,饲养65 d,以研究甜菜碱对奥尼罗非鱼生长、体脂含量及血清生化指标的影响.结果表明:当甜菜碱添加量为0.30%~0.60%时,罗非鱼的增重率较对照组分别提高19.52%、16.63%和21.38%;饲料系数分别降低25.55%、20.44%和29.93%;肝体比降低9.29%、38.57%和29.29%;血清中甘油三酯含量较对照组分别降低66.28%、55.81%和80.23%;淀粉酶活性降低88.78%、37.59%和62.41%;白蛋白和总蛋白含量升高,胆固醇含量显著降低;谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶、乳酸脱氧酶活性均有所降低.在本研究条件下,

  7. Effects of Exogenous Glycine Betaine on Oxidation Metabolism in Cucumbers during Low-temperature Storage%外源甜菜碱处理对黄瓜冷藏期间活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽; 陈湘宁; 张海英; 韩涛; 王富贵

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to analyze the effects of different concentra-tions of glycine betaine (GB) on oxidation metabolism in cucumbers under low-tem-perature stress and to investigate the possible mechanism of low-temperature resis-tance in cucumber during low-temperature storage. [Method] Cucumber cultivar Zhongnong No.8 was treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 mmol/L GB solutions for 15 min and stored at 4 ℃. Changes in oxidative metabolism-related parameters were ob-served. [Result] Increasing exogenous GB concentration could enhance GB content in cucumbers, decline lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, improve peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities, remove effectively hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reduce the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). [Conclusion] Treating cucumbers with 10 mmol/L GB exhibited the most remarkable effect.%[目的]研究不同浓度的外源甜菜碱(GB)处理对低温胁迫下黄瓜抗氧化作用的影响,探讨甜菜碱对黄瓜抗冷性作用的机理。[方法]以“中农8号”黄瓜为试材,分别用浓度0、5、10、15 mmol/L的甜菜碱浸泡黄瓜15 min,置于4℃条件贮藏。[结果]外源甜菜碱处理提高了黄瓜甜菜碱含量,降低果实中脂氧合酶(LOX)活性、增强过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性并有效清除过氧化氢(H2O2)、减少丙二醛(MDA)积累。[结论]以10 mmol/L甜菜碱处理黄瓜效果最为明显。

  8. Estresse salino associado à aplicação exógena de espermidina no acúmulo de glicina betaína em Guandu Salt stress associated to exogenous spermidine application on the accumulation of glycine betaine in pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Vinícius Pereira Destro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito do estresse salino associado à aplicação exógena de espermidina (Spd nos genótipos de guandu, IAC Fava Larga e Caqui, no acúmulo de glicina betaína (GB, visando propor a sua utilização como marcador bioquímico-fisiológico à salinidade. O experimento foi instalado na Unesp, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, em Jaboticabal (SP, no período de outubro a novembro de 2005, conduzido em sala de crescimento, com irradiância de 190 µmol m-2 s-1, fotoperíodo de 12 horas, temperatura de 25ºC e U.R. de 40%. A semeadura foi realizada em areia estéril, com adequado suprimento hídrico. Após 10 dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para solução nutritiva por 20 dias para aclimatação. A seguir, as plântulas foram alocadas nos tratamentos, sendo utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 4 com os fatores genótipos (IAC Fava Larga e Caqui, Spd (0,0 e 0,5 mM e estresse salino (0, 20, 60 e 80 mM de NaCl. Após 20 dias sob estresse, foram determinados os teores de GB. Pelos resultados obtidos, a GB pode ser indicada como um marcador bioquímico-fisiológico do estresse salino para o 'IAC Fava Larga'.This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of salt stress associated to exogenous spermidine (Spd application on the accumulation of glycine betaine in the pigeonpea genotypes IAC Fava Larga and Caqui. The use of this compatible osmolyte as a biochemical-physiological indicator of salinity was also evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Unesp, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, in Jaboticabal (SP, from October to November 2005, in a grow room with irradiance of 190 µmol m-2 s-1, photoperiod of 12 hours, temperature set to 25 ºC and the RH to 40%. Seeds were sowed in sterile sand with adequate water supply. After 10 days, seedlings were transferred to nutritive solution during 20 days for acclimation

  9. 共固定甘氨酸甜菜碱与植物乳杆菌在高盐稀态酱油酿造中的应用%Co-immobilized glycine betaine with Lactobacillus plantarum used for the fermentation of high salt liquid-state soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海朋; 吴惠玲; 魏鲁宁; 袁国新; 颜喆; 成姗; 刘秉杰; 杨益衡; 余德民

    2013-01-01

    报道了甘氨酸甜菜碱对高渗条件下植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum YSQ18)形态的影响,并研究了甜菜碱与乳杆菌共固定化技术对提高高盐稀态酿造酱油蛋白质转化率、缩短酱油发酵周期等的作用.利用包埋法将甜菜碱与乳杆菌制成共固定化颗粒,加入酱醪自然发酵.电镜观察显示,外源添加甜菜碱时,处在高盐环境的植物乳杆菌YSQ18生长良好,细胞形态与正常培养相近.发酵结果表明,共固定化组氨基酸态氮、全氮相比空白组分别增加0.234 g/100 mL和0.358 g/100 mL.氨基酸态氮生成率和蛋白质转化率比空白组分别提高1.7%和6.7%,比单独固定乳杆菌和添加游离乳杆菌与甜菜碱的实验组平均提前约1周时间达到发酵终点,与空白组相比提前幅度更为明显.因此,该共固定化技术在酱油酿造中具有较好的应用价值.%The effects of glycine betaine (GB) (one of compatible solutes) on the morphology of Lactobacillus plantarum under high osmotic pressure were studied.Co-immobilized GB with lactic acid bacterium,Lactobacillus plantarum,were used in a pilot scale high salt liquid-state soy sauce fermentation process to improve the conversion rate of the protein and shorten the fermentation period.The embedding method of sodium alginate was conducted for the co-immobilizing of GB and lactic acid bacterium into particles which was added to the fermented soy sauce mash,and measured the total acid and amino acid during the fermentation process.It was showed by electron microscopy that Lactobacillus plantarum with GB grew well under high salt condition,and the cell morphology was similar to the one with normal culture.The soy sauce pilot showed that,compared to the normal control group,the amino acid nitrogen of the co-immobilized group increased 0.234 g/100mL,the total nitrogen content increased 0.358 g/100mL,and the amino acid conversion and protein utilization increased by 1.7% and 6.7

  10. Determination of betaine in betaine feed additive and betaine premix by colorimetry%比色法测定甜菜碱和甜菜碱预混剂中甜菜碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彩虹; 夏枚生

    2001-01-01

    采用比色法,对甜菜碱和甜菜碱预混剂中甜菜碱含量进行测定并寻找了最佳测定条件.甜菜碱浓度在0.25mg/ml~1.5mg/ml内符合比尔定律(r=0.999 8,n=6).相对标准偏差为0.28%~0.63%,回收率为98.6%~100.3%.

  11. Niedervalente Bismut-Organyle, chirale Stibane und Antimon-Analoge des Betains und Cholins

    OpenAIRE

    Balazs Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The cyclobismuthanes (RBi):sub:n:/sub:, [R = 2-(Me:sub:2:/sub:NCH:sub:2:/sub:)C:sub:6:/sub:H:sub:4:/sub:, n = 3 (:b:1a:/b:), 4 (:b:1b:/b:)] were synthesized by reduction of RBiCl:sub:2:/sub: with Na in liquid ammonia or by reaction of R:sub:2:/sub:BiCl with LiAlH:sub:4:/sub: in ether. The reaction of :b:1a / b:/b: with W(CO):sub:5:/sub:THF (THF = tetrahydrofuran) gives the bismuthinidene complex RBi[W(CO):sub:5:/sub:]:sub:2:/sub: (:b:2:/b:). R:sub:2:/sub:BiCl reacts with Mg in THF to give R:s...

  12. Preparation and Reactions of Pyridinium Ylids via Decarboxylation of Pyridinium Betaines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pyridinium ylids 4 were generated as reaction intermediates from the decarboxylation of pyridinium bctaincs 3, which were preparcd from the reactions of x-amino acid ester hydrochlorides with 2, 4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. Protonation, addition and substitution reactions of 4 with electrophiles werc studied in this paper.

  13. Effect of exogenous proline, betaine, and carnitine on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a minimal medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Beumer, R. R.; te Giffel, M.C.; Cox, L.J.; Rombouts, F M; Abee, T

    1994-01-01

    Three Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food or food-processing environments were used to assess the response of this species to salinity in a chemically defined minimal medium. Growth in a minimal medium containing five essential amino acids and glucose as a carbon and energy source was comparable to growth in a rich medium (brain heart infusion broth). In the absence and presence of 3% NaCl the final cell numbers reached in minimal medium were 10(9) and 10(7) CFU/ml, respectively...

  14. Metabolic Shift of Escherichia coli under Salt Stress in the Presence of Glycine Betaine

    OpenAIRE

    Metris, A.; George, S. M.; Mulholland, F.; Carter, A T; Baranyi, J.

    2014-01-01

    An important area of food safety focuses on bacterial survival and growth in unfavorable environments. In order to understand how bacteria adapt to stresses other than nutrient limitation in batch cultures, we need to develop mechanistic models of intracellular regulation and metabolism under stress. We studied the growth of Escherichia coli in minimal medium with added salt and different osmoprotectants. To characterize the metabolic efficiency with a robust parameter, we identified the opti...

  15. Betaine: a potential agent for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Araújo, Guilherme; Domenici, Fernanda; Elias, Jorge; Vannucchi, Hélio

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: La hepatopatía asociada con el síndrome del intestino corto (SIC) es una enfermedad multifactorial asociada con un mal pronóstico. Además de trasplante intestinal, ningún otro tratamiento ha demostrado ser eficaz. El actual estudio evaluó la eficacia de la betaína para el tratamiento de la hepatopatía asociada a la SIC. Métodos: Fue realizado un estudio prospectivo, unicéntrico, no controlado con placeb. Después de la evaluación inicial, 10 g de betaína anhidra fue administrado a pacientes con SIC en dos dosis divididas durante tres meses. La esteatosis hepática se evaluó a través de resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN), la respuesta inflamatoria por la interleucina-6 (IL-6), factor de necrosis tumoral-(TNF-) y la ferritina, además de la lesión hepática por medio de enzimas hepáticas y de la bilirrubina. Además, el efecto de la betaína sobre la homocisteína fue evaluada así como su seguridad y tolerabilidad en este grupo de pacientes. Resultados: Después de la administración de la betaína por tres meses, los pacientes mostraron disminución de la porcentaje de grasa hepática (p = 0,03) demosntrado por examen de RMN trifásico. No hubo una reducción significativa de los niveles séricos de proteínas inflamatorias y marcadores de lesión hepática. La homocisteína también no presentó disminución significativa. Los efectos secundarios más frecuentes fueron diarrea y náuseas, presentado en 62% de los participantes, sin embargo, estos síntomas fueron transitorios y no lo suficientemente graves como para justificar la interrupción del tratamiento. Pacientes dependientes de nutrición parenteral no presentaron diferentes grados de lesión hepática en comparación con los pacientes que no necesitan el uso prolongado de la misma. Conclusiones: La betaína demostró ser un agente potencial para el tratamiento de la hepatopatía asociada a la SIC, que se evidenció mediante RMN, a pesar de los marcadores de lesión hepática no presentaron disminución significativa.

  16. Proton glass behaviour in a solid solution of gamma-irradiated deuterated betaine phosphate sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 betaine phosphite sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5

    CERN Document Server

    Banys, J; Klimm, C; Voelkel, G; Kloepperpieper, A

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the dielectric permittivity are reported for a deuterated solid solution of gamma-irradiated antiferroelectric (betainephosphate) sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 ferroelectric (betainephosphite) sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 at frequencies 20 H sub Z

  17. Pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, Candida oleophila with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. These phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeas...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of betaine-like diacyl lipids: zwitterionic lipids with the cationic amine at the bilayer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Aditya G; Walsh, Colin L; Szoka, Francis C

    2012-02-01

    We synthesized and characterized a series of zwitterionic, acetate-terminated, quaternized amine diacyl lipids (AQ). These lipids have an inverted headgroup orientation as compared to naturally occurring phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids; the cationic group is anchored at the membrane interface, while the anionic group extends into the aqueous phase. AQ lipids preferentially interact with highly polarizable anions (ClO(4)(-)) over less polarizable ions (Cl(-)), in accord with the Hofmeister series, as measured by the change in zeta potential of AQ liposomes. Conversely, AQ lipids have a weaker association with calcium than do PC lipids. The transition temperatures (Tm) of the AQ lipids are similar to the Tm observed with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids of the same chain length. AQ lipids form large lipid sheets after heating and sonication; however, in the presence of cholesterol (Chol), these lipids form stable liposomes that encapsulate carboxyfluorescein. The AQ:Chol liposomes retain their contents in the presence of serum at 37°C, and when injected intravenously into mice, their organ biodistribution is similar to that observed with PC:Chol liposomes. AQ lipids demonstrate that modulating the headgroup charge orientation significantly alters the biophysical properties of liposomes. For the drug carrier field, these new materials provide a non-phosphate containing zwitterlipid for the production of lipid vesicles. PMID:22301334

  19. Betaine treatment of cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria; does it work and can it be improved?

    OpenAIRE

    Maclean KN

    2012-01-01

    Kenneth N MacleanDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Inactivating mutations in cystathionine β-synthase result in classical homocystinuria (HCU) and are typically accompanied by severe elevations of plasma and tissue homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and significantly decreased cysteine. HCU is usually accompanied by marfanoid skeletal abnormalities, osteoporosis, ectopia lentis and/or seve...

  20. Preparation of Cocoamidopropyl Betaine Directly from Coconut Oil%用椰子油直接制备椰油酰胺丙基甜菜碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱初洪

    2004-01-01

    介绍了用椰子油制备椰油酰胺丙基甜菜碱的方法,并用高氯酸电位滴定法对其活性物含量进行了测定;考查了反应物物质的量比及反应时间对活性物含量的影响.结果表明:在椰子油与N,N-二甲氨基丙胺的物质的量比是1:1.04、氯乙酸加入量为1.03mol、缩合反应时间和季铵化反应时间分别为8h和6h的情况下,产品中活性物含量达32%,可获得最佳反应结果.

  1. Deletion of the betaine-GABA transporter (BGT1; slc6a12) gene does not affect seizure thresholds of adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, A C; Rowley, N M; Zhou, Y;

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Once released, it is removed from the extracellular space by cellular uptake catalyzed by GABA transporter proteins. Four GABA transporters (GAT1, GAT2, GAT3 and BGT1) have been identified. Inhibition ...

  2. Growth and characterization of {beta}-In N films on Mg O: the key role of a {beta}-Ga N buffer layer in growing cubic In N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro C, H.; Perez C, M.; Rodriguez, A. G.; Lopez L, E.; Vidal, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Cubic In N samples were grown on Mg O (001) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. In general, we find that In N directly deposited onto the Mg O substrate results in polycrystalline or columnar films of hexagonal symmetry. We find that adequate conditions to grow the cubic phase of this compound require the growth of an initial cubic Ga N buffer interlayer ({beta}-t Ga N) on the Mg O surface. Subsequently, the growth conditions were optimized to obtain good photoluminescence (Pl) emission. The resultant In N growth is mostly cubic, with very small hexagonal inclusions, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. Good crystalline quality requires that the samples to be grown under rich Indium metal flux. The cubic {beta}-t In N/Ga N/Mg O samples exhibit a high signal to noise ratio for Pl at low temperatures (20 K). The Pl is centered at O.75 eV and persist at room temperature. (Author)

  3. Les dérivés tensioactifs de la glycine bétaïne : méthodes de synthèse et potentialités d'utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsimba, ZF.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine surfactant derivatives: synthesis methods and potentialities of use. The term "betaine" is used to refer to the glycine betaine, but also its derivatives and an organic compound carrying a quaternary nitrogen. Glycine betaine is an amphoteric small compound, very polar that acts as osmoprotectant in plants and protective agent of the liver, of the heart and of the vessels in human. In order to exploit its numerous effects, researchers synthesized surfactant derivatives including alkylbetaines, alkylamidobetaines, betainates (esters of glycine betaine monomers, geminis and bolaforms and betainamides (amides of glycine betaine. Alkylbetaines and alkylamidobetaines are produced on the industrial scale and are used as amphoteric surfactants in cosmetics. They are less irritating compared to sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS. Betainates and betainamides are produced on laboratory scale. Betainates monomers are more biodegradable than the current esters while betainates geminis and bolaforms present respectively surface and membrane activities more interesting compared to their analogous monomers. Only the chemical way is used until now for their synthesis.

  4. The study of oxidative desulfurization with alkyl betaine as phase transfer catalyst%烷基甜菜碱为相转移催化剂的氧化脱硫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 杨阳; 代跃利

    2012-01-01

    Refined gasoline and catalytically cracked gasoline were deep desulfurized in emulsion system with catalytic oxidation method. The 1-hexadecanaminium and 1-octadecanaminium were used as phase transfer catalyst,and hydrogen peroxide was used as oxidant. The effects of catalyst to gasoline ratio,oxidant to gasoline ratio,and the agitation speed and time in emulsion preparation on the desulfurization were investigated. The results showed that the sulphur content can reduce to 38 μg/g (desulfurization ratio 84. 0%)and 36 μg/g (desulfurization ratio 88. 4%)for refined gasoline and catalytically cracked gasoline,respectively.%以烷基甜菜碱为相转移催化剂,过氧化氢为氧化剂,在乳液体系下对成品汽油和催化裂化汽油进行催化氧化深度脱硫.考察了十六烷基甜菜碱和十八烷基甜菜碱的性能,以及催化剂的用量、氧化剂的用量、乳液制备时的转速和反应时间对脱硫效果的影响.结果显示,成品汽油的w(硫)可以降到38 μg/g,脱硫率为84%,催化裂化汽油的w(硫)可以降到36 μg/g,脱硫率为88.4%.

  5. 应用甜菜碱及球虫疫苗防治肉鸡球虫病的效果试验%Effect of Betaine and Coccidian Vaccine on Prevention of Broiler Coccidiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟武; 谢正; 金明升; 刘国军; 吴利雯

    2006-01-01

    球虫病是危害养鸡生产的主要疫病之一。据报道,球虫疫苗作为一种有效的预防免疫手段,在国内外的养鸡生产中已大面积应用。但接种球虫疫苗有引起亚临床球虫病的危险,生产性能也会受到一定的影响。甜菜碱作为一种维生素原,在鸡体内可明显降低球虫的侵袭性,增强离子载体类抗球虫药的活性。为此,我们设计了以下试验,旨在研究防治肉鸡球虫病的组合新技术。

  6. Modified cetyl betaine surfactants in personal care%改性十六烷基甜菜碱表面活性剂在个人护理品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan X M Dong; Branko Sajic; Anatoly Dameshek; 谢文炳

    2012-01-01

    开发了一种温和的源自天然原料的表面活性剂。它能够与各种水溶助长性表面活性剂复配并有效地提高护发和护肤产品的温和性、黏度及发泡性。%Stepan researchers have developed a mild surfactant, derived from natural feedstocks, that works effectively with various hydrotropic surfactants to improve viscosity, foaming and mildness in hair and skin care products.

  7. Changes of the Levels of Abscisic Acid and Betaine in the Pear Leaves under Water Stress%水分胁迫下梨树叶片中脱落酸与甜菜碱水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志辉; 任永玲; 闫根柱; 顾蓉; 高秀萍

    2015-01-01

    脱落酸(ABA)是公认的植物感应干旱等环境胁迫的信号分子,甜菜碱是植物在干旱等环境胁迫下体内积累的渗透保护物质.但ABA是否参与了干旱诱导植物叶片中甜菜碱生物合成的信号转导过程,目前还存在争议.以梨树为试材,应用活体试验和离体试验一致证明,在梨树(Pyrus bretschneideri Redh.cv.Suli)遭受水分胁迫期间,叶片中ABA浓度显著增加,与此同时,甜菜碱水平也显著增加,表明水分胁迫下梨树叶片中甜菜碱水平是随ABA内源水平的升高而升高,这为ABA介导干旱胁迫原初物理信号、启动细胞内甜菜碱的生物合成与积累提供了又一明确的证据.

  8. Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Nutrients on Blood Lipids: Result from Four Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Studies in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Margreet R Olthof; Trinette van Vliet; Petra Verhoef; Peter L Zock; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatid...

  9. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.;

    2012-01-01

    plasma samples were extracted to analyze the content of free choline and betaine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma choline was only increased in mink kits fed the highest level of choline whereas plasma choline dit not change in full-grown mink irrespectively of choline level in the feed....... Plasma betaine increased when the level of choline in the diet increased. The changes in plasma betaine were most prominent in mink kits. The present study shows that plasma betaine may be a more reliable marker of choline status than plasma choline, especially in mink kits....

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0203 ref|NP_692179.1| glycine betaine transporter [Oceanobacillus ihey...ensis HTE831] dbj|BAC13214.1| glycine betaine transporter [Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831] NP_692179.1 0.15 22% ...

  11. Sequence Classification: 488938 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|28870233|ref|NP_792852.1| glycine betaine... ABC transporter, periplasmic glycine betaine-binding protein || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/28870233 ...

  12. 甜菜碱的生物学功能及其在猪生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单冬丽

    2014-01-01

    The biological functions of betaine and its influence facters,and application of betaine in pig production were reviewed.%本文就甜菜碱的生物学功能,影响甜菜碱作用效果的因素及其在猪生产中的应用作一综述。

  13. Sequence Classification: 611500 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|71909972|ref|YP_281522.1| glycine betaine...-binding protein/glycine betaine transport system permease protein || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/71909972 ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0449 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0449 ref|ZP_00992065.1| putative choline-glycine betaine transporter [...Vibrio splendidus 12B01] gb|EAP92909.1| putative choline-glycine betaine transporter [Vibrio splendidus 12B01] ZP_00992065.1 0.016 26% ...

  15. Sequence Classification: 194260 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|53717244|ref|YP_105328.1| glycine betaine.../L-proline ABC transporter, periplasmic glycine betaine/L-proline-binding protein || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/53717244 ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0449 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0449 ref|ZP_01158965.1| putative choline-glycine betaine transporter [...Photobacterium sp. SKA34] gb|EAR57370.1| putative choline-glycine betaine transporter [Photobacterium sp. SKA34] ZP_01158965.1 0.016 23% ...

  17. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: Results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Vliet, T. van; Verhoef, P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals a

  18. Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Nutrients on Blood Lipids: Result from Four Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Studies in Healthy Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Vliet, van T.; Verhoef, P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals ar

  19. Luminescence of LaF3:Ln3+ Nanocrystal Dispersions in Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Lunstroot, Kyra; Baeten, Linny; Nockemann, Peter; Martens, Johan; Verlooy, Pieter; Ye, Xingpu; Gorler-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen; Driesen, Kris

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids were used as solvents for dispersing luminescent lanthanide-doped LaF3:Ln(3+) nanocrystals (Ln(3+) = Eu3+ and Nd3+). To increase the solubility of the inorganic nanoparticles in the ionic liquids, the nanocrystals were prepared with different stabilizing ligands, i.e., citrate, N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), and lauryldimethylglycine (lauryl betaine). LaF3:5%Ln(3+) :betaine could successfully be dispersed in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(tiifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C(4...

  20. Drug: D06709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Lycium mature fruit Major component: Betaine [CPD:C00719] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06709 Lycium fruit Crude drugs

  1. 1, 3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction between Vinyl Acetate and N-Alkyl Hydroxypyridinium Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1, 3 Dipolar cycloaddition reaction between vinyl acetate and 3-hydroxypyridiniun betaine was performed under solid-liquid phase transfer catalytic condition. This reaction has been successfully used on the synthesis of an analogue of Bao-Gong-Teng A.

  2. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Rask; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior...

  3. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja;

    2006-01-01

    to a significantly higher content of betaine in WGD plasma samples compared with NWD samples. In an identical study with the same diets, urine samples were collected, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. PLS-DA on spectra obtained for urine samples revealed changes in the intensities of spectral regions, which...... could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  4. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja;

    2006-01-01

    to a significantly higher content of betaine in WGD plasma samples compared with NWD samples. In an identical study with the same diets, urine samples were collected, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. PLS-DA on spectra obtained for urine samples revealed changes in the intensities of spectral regions, which...... could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  5. Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline→betaine aldehyde→glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. And Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. Tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42℃), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4℃), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.

  6. Molecular analysis of the biomass of a fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic vinasse at anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, E.; Lopes, A.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) established in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor used to treat synthetic vinasse (betaine, glucose, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. This study was focu

  7. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Doğru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB and coconut diethanolamide (CDEA, which are manufactured from coconut oil, are widely used as chemical substances with surfactant property in shampoo, liquid soap and skin cleaners. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD may occur against these substances, especially cocamidopropyl betaine. ACD developing against these two substances is rarely seen in the literature. Here we reported a case of ACD caused by CABP and CDEA which admitted with complaints of redness,peeling and cracking of hands.

  8. Metabolomic profiles of colostrum and milk from lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtasu, Mihai Victor; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2016-01-01

    -acetylcarnitine, 2-metylbutyroylcarnitine), glycerophosphocholine, and betaine. l-Acetylcarnitine and 2-metylbutyroylcarnitine, involved in the metabolism and transport of fatty acids, decreased in milk compared to colostrum, whereas l-carnitine presented an opposite trend (P ..., glycerophosphocholine and choline decreased from colostrum to milk, whereas betaine showed higher values in milk compared to colostrum. The use of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolomics as a hypothesis generator tool opens up new questions with regard to the origin and function of mammary gland...

  9. Osmoprotectant-dependent expression of plcH, encoding the hemolytic phospholipase C, is subject to novel catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, A E; Vasil, M L

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is induced under phosphate starvation conditions or in the presence of the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine. Because choline and glycine betaine may serve as carbon and energy sources in addition to conferring osmoprotection to P. aeruginosa, it seemed possible that induction of plcH is subject to catabolite repression control (CRC) by tricarboxylic cycle intermediates such as succinate. Total phospholipas...

  10. Inhibition of insulin fibrillation by osmolytes: Mechanistic Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Sinjan Choudhary; Nand Kishore; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied here using a number of biophysical tools the effects of osmolytes, betaine, citrulline, proline and sorbitol which differ significantly in terms of their physical characteristics such as, charge distribution, polarity, H-bonding abilities etc, on the fibrillation of insulin. Among these, betaine, citrulline, and proline are very effective in decreasing the extent of fibrillation. Proline also causes a substantial delay in the onset of fibrillation in the concentration range (5...

  11. The role of glycine betaine and molecular chaperone dnaK from Tetragenococcus halophilus on salinity adaptation%甘氨酸甜菜碱和分子伴侣dnaK在嗜盐四联球菌耐盐机制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢良坤; 罗立新; 黎攀; 成丽丽

    2013-01-01

    能耐高盐的嗜盐四联球菌CICC 10469是从传统的酱料中分离得到.为研究耐盐特性与相容性溶质积累和分子伴侣dnaK特性的关系,使用核磁共振来检测其主要的相容性溶质.不同盐浓度对耐盐的嗜盐四联球菌和不耐盐的乳酸乳球菌MG 1363的生长的影响通过测量OD600来获得.盐浓度对分子伴侣dnaK表达的影响通过实时荧光定量RT-PCR来检测.相容性溶质和可溶性蛋白随盐浓度的变化通过HPLC和酶标仪来检测.结果显示嗜盐四联球菌以甘氨酸甜菜碱作为主要的相容性溶质.适合的盐浓度能够促进菌体的生长,在一定盐浓度范围内,甘氨酸甜菜碱,可溶性蛋白和分子伴侣dnaK随盐浓度的增加而升高,然而超过一定盐浓度范围后,表达量将会减少.这表明细菌能够根据外部环境做出适当的调整以维持细胞的正常生理功能.而乳酸乳球菌MG1363很少有相容性溶质和分子伴侣dnaK以耐受外部盐浓度.这表明相容性溶质和分子伴侣dnak在嗜盐四联球菌生长中起重要的作用.总之,中度嗜盐菌的主要耐盐机制是通过快速合成和释放甘氨酸甜菜碱及分子伴侣dnaK高活性表达来完成.

  12. Oxygen-18 and deuterium labeling studies of choline oxidation by spinach and sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, C; Hanson, A D; Rhodes, D

    1988-11-01

    Chenopods synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline: choline --> betaine aldehyde --> betaine. The pathway is chloroplastic; the first step has been shown in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts to be O(2)- and light-dependent, the role of light being to provide reducing power (P Weigel, EA Weretilnyk, AD Hanson 1988 Plant Physiol 86: 54-60). Here, we report use of in vivo(18)O- and (2)H-labeling in conjunction with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry to test for two hypothetical choline-oxidizing reactions that would explain the observed requirements for O(2) and reductant: a desaturase or an oxygenase. Simple syntheses for (2)H(3)-choline, (2)H(3), (18)O-choline, and (2)H(3), (18)O-betaine are given. A desaturase mechanism was sought by giving choline deuterated at the 2-carbon, or choline unlabeled at this position together with (2)H(2)O and by analyzing newly synthesized betaine. About 15% of the (2)H at C-2 was lost during oxidation of choline to betaine, and about 10% of the betaine made in the presence of 50% (2)H(2)O was monodeuterated. These small effects are more consistent with chemical exchange than with a desaturase, because 10 to 15% losses of (2)H from the C-2 position also occurred if choline was converted to betaine by a purified bacterial choline oxidase. To test for an oxygenase, the incorporation of (18)O from (18)O(2) into newly synthesized betaine was compared with that from (18)O-labeled choline, in light and darkness. Incorporation of (18)O from (18)O-choline was readily detectable and varied from about 15 to 50% of the theoretical maximum value; the (18)O losses were attributable to exchange of the intermediate betaine aldehyde with water. In darkness, incorporation of (18)O from (18)O(2) approached that from (18)O-choline, but in the light was severalfold lower, presumably due to isotopic dilution by photosynthetic (16)O(2). These data indicate that the chloroplast choline-oxidizing enzyme is an oxygenase

  13. Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Labeling Studies of Choline Oxidation by Spinach and Sugar Beet 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1988-01-01

    Chenopods synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline: choline → betaine aldehyde → betaine. The pathway is chloroplastic; the first step has been shown in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts to be O2- and light-dependent, the role of light being to provide reducing power (P Weigel, EA Weretilnyk, AD Hanson 1988 Plant Physiol 86: 54-60). Here, we report use of in vivo18O- and 2H-labeling in conjunction with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry to test for two hypothetical choline-oxidizing reactions that would explain the observed requirements for O2 and reductant: a desaturase or an oxygenase. Simple syntheses for 2H3-choline, 2H3, 18O-choline, and 2H3, 18O-betaine are given. A desaturase mechanism was sought by giving choline deuterated at the 2-carbon, or choline unlabeled at this position together with 2H2O and by analyzing newly synthesized betaine. About 15% of the 2H at C-2 was lost during oxidation of choline to betaine, and about 10% of the betaine made in the presence of 50% 2H2O was monodeuterated. These small effects are more consistent with chemical exchange than with a desaturase, because 10 to 15% losses of 2H from the C-2 position also occurred if choline was converted to betaine by a purified bacterial choline oxidase. To test for an oxygenase, the incorporation of 18O from 18O2 into newly synthesized betaine was compared with that from 18O-labeled choline, in light and darkness. Incorporation of 18O from 18O-choline was readily detectable and varied from about 15 to 50% of the theoretical maximum value; the 18O losses were attributable to exchange of the intermediate betaine aldehyde with water. In darkness, incorporation of 18O from 18O2 approached that from 18O-choline, but in the light was severalfold lower, presumably due to isotopic dilution by photosynthetic 16O2. These data indicate that the chloroplast choline-oxidizing enzyme is an oxygenase. PMID:16666370

  14. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  15. Oxoaporphine alkaloids: conversion of lysicamine into liriodendronine and its 2-O-methyl ether, and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuccuoglu, V; Rozwadowska, M D; Brossi, A; Clark, A; Hufford, C D; George, C; Flippen-Anderson, J L

    1991-01-01

    Pschorr reaction of diazonium salt 7 in aqueous methanolic sulfuric acid afforded, besides lysicamine 2, the orange colored sulfate of oxodibenzopyrrocoline (8). The structure is fully supported by an X-ray analysis of its picrate salt. Selective ether cleavage of lysicamine (2) with 48% HBr afforded a hydrobromide of 9, and free betaine 9 on treatment with pyridine-water. Both compounds methylated on treatment with etherial diazomethane on nitrogen to give the known 2-O,N-dimethylliriodendronine (11). Liriodendronine (10) was obtained from lysicamine (2) on heating with pyridine HBr at 189 degrees C, and treatment with pyridine-water, as a dark violet betaine. Betaine 12 was obtained by heating 11.HCl to 200 degrees C. The quaternary salts of lysicamine, lysicamine methiodide (3) and lysicamine methosulfate (4) were comparable in anticandidal activity to liriodenine (1), but were not as active as liriodenine methiodide (13). PMID:2043039

  16. The role of sulfur in osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are involved in osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in some cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes. Glycinebetaine, the osmolyte of the halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica, requires the sulfonium compound. S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) for its synthesis. Glutamate is the nitrogen source, SAM is the methyl carbon and serine the carbon backbone source of this unique osmolyte. Inhibitor studies suggest that photorespiration interacts with sulfur metabolism to control betaine synthesis in cyanobacteria. The limiting factor for SAM synthesis is formate from photorespiration. SAM is, in turn, the methyl donor for betaine synthesis from serine. The nitrogen component of serine is from glutamate. Betaine synthesis is hypothesized to be regulated via potassium. The biosynthesis of dimethyl-B-propiothetin (DMPT, which is the same as beta-dimethyl sulfonioprpionate) and diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol were elucidated as having their roles in osmoregulation and salinity tolerance. The relation between these sulfolipids and the sulfur cycle was discussed.

  17. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  18. Influence of heavy metals on the accumulation of trimethylglycine, putrescine and spermine in food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, H; Machelett, B; Lippmann, B; Friedrich, Y

    2001-01-01

    Increased contents of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals in barley plants enhanced the accumulation of trimethylglycine (betaine), putrescine and spermine. Higher contents of heavy metals in barley were caused by soil enrichment with heavy metals and by soil salinity. The highest accumulation of spermine and betaine (increase 3-fold or 5-fold in comparison to untreated soil substrates) was obtained at the highest concentration of heavy metals in plants. Consequently the betaine-N/protein-N-ratio and the spermine-N/protein-N-quotient increased 3-fold in plants with high heavy metal contents. The biomass formation was not changed significantly by the different experimental treatments. PMID:11354608

  19. Quorum sensing regulates the osmotic stress response in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Julia C; Rutherford, Steven T; Cong, Jian-Ping; Quinodoz, Sofia; Healy, James; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to monitor cell density and to alter behavior in response to fluctuations in population numbers. Previous studies with Vibrio harveyi have shown that LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator, activates and represses >600 genes. These include six genes that encode homologs of the Escherichia coli Bet and ProU systems for synthesis and transport, respectively, of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant used during osmotic stress. Here we show that LuxR activates expression of the glycine betaine operon betIBA-proXWV, which enhances growth recovery under osmotic stress conditions. BetI, an autorepressor of the V. harveyi betIBA-proXWV operon, activates the expression of genes encoding regulatory small RNAs that control quorum-sensing transitions. Connecting quorum-sensing and glycine betaine pathways presumably enables V. harveyi to tune its execution of collective behaviors to its tolerance to stress.

  20. The use of trimethylamine N-oxide as a primary precipitating agent and related methylamine osmolytes as cryoprotective agents for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Haley; Venkat, Murugappan; Hti Lar Seng, Nang San; Cahn, Jackson [Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington (United States); Juers, Douglas H., E-mail: juersdh@whitman.edu [Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington (United States); Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The stabilizing osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is shown to be an efficient primary precipitant for protein crystal growth. In addition to TMAO, two other methylamine osmolytes, sarcosine and betaine, are shown to be effective cryoprotective agents for protein crystal cooling. Both crystallization and cryoprotection are often bottlenecks for high-resolution X-ray structure determination of macromolecules. Methylamine osmolytes are known stabilizers of protein structure. One such osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), has seen occasional use as an additive to improve macromolecular crystal quality and has recently been shown to be an effective cryoprotective agent for low-temperature data collection. Here, TMAO and the related osmolytes sarcosine and betaine are investigated as primary precipitating agents for protein crystal growth. Crystallization experiments were undertaken with 14 proteins. Using TMAO, seven proteins crystallized in a total of 13 crystal forms, including a new tetragonal crystal form of trypsin. The crystals diffracted well, and eight of the 13 crystal forms could be effectively cryocooled as grown with TMAO as an in situ cryoprotective agent. Sarcosine and betaine produced crystals of four and two of the 14 proteins, respectively. In addition to TMAO, sarcosine and betaine were effective post-crystallization cryoprotective agents for two different crystal forms of thermolysin. Precipitation reactions of TMAO with several transition-metal ions (Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}) did not occur with sarcosine or betaine and were inhibited for TMAO at lower pH. Structures of proteins from TMAO-grown crystals and from crystals soaked in TMAO, sarcosine or betaine were determined, showing osmolyte binding in five of the 12 crystals tested. When an osmolyte was shown to bind, it did so near the protein surface, interacting with water molecules, side chains and backbone atoms, often at crystal contacts.

  1. Suppression of TNF-alpha production by S-adenosylmethionine in human mononuclear leukocytes is not mediated by polyamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, J.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Sauter, S.

    2006-01-01

    precursors or metabolites [phosphatidylcholine, choline, betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)] have a modulating effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by endotoxin-stimulated human mononuclear leukocytes and whether SAM-dependent polyamines (spermidine, spermine) are mediators of SAM......-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha synthesis. Methionine and betaine had a moderate stimulatory effect on TNF-alpha production, whereas phosphatidylcholine (ID(50) 5.4 mM), SAM (ID(50) 131 microM), spermidine (ID(50) 4.5 microM) and spermine (ID(50) 3.9 microM) had a predominantly inhibitory effect. Putrescine did...

  2. Dynamic light scattering study on vesicles of Netaine-Cholesterol system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenaizi, R.; Radiman, S.; Mohamed, F.; Rahman, I. Abdul [Nuclear Science Program, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The morphology of vesicles system with defined particle size and shape is one of interest in our technical applications. Here we have used dynamic light scattering technique and transmission electron microscopy for structural characterization of N-dimethylglycine Betaine with 5-cholesten-3β-ol vesicles in aqueous solutions. An isotropic one phase region is found in the very diluted regions depending on Betaine/Cholesterol ratio. The isotropic region was stable for more than 3 months at room temperature, with monodispersed unilamellar vesicles ∼ 300nm.

  3. Controlled immobilization of palladium nanoparticles in two different fluorinated polymeric aggregate cores and their application in catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Tetsushi; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja;

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroalkyl end-capped betaine-type cooligomeric nanocomposites-immobilized palladium nanoparticles were prepared by the reactions of palladium chloride with sodium acetate in the presence of sodium chloride and the corresponding fluorinated cooligomers. Outer blocks of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro......Fluoroalkyl end-capped betaine-type cooligomeric nanocomposites-immobilized palladium nanoparticles were prepared by the reactions of palladium chloride with sodium acetate in the presence of sodium chloride and the corresponding fluorinated cooligomers. Outer blocks of poly(2...

  4. Osmoregulation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abee, T; Palmen, R; Hellingwerf, K J; Konings, W N

    1990-01-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) functioned most effectively as an osmoprotectant in osmotically stressed Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells during aerobic growth in the dark and during anaerobic growth in the light. The presence of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-alanine, or L-proline in the growth medium did not result in a significant increase in the growth rate at increased osmotic strengths. The addition of choline to the medium stimulated growth at increased osmolarities but only under aerobic conditions. Under these conditions choline was converted via an oxygen-dependent pathway to betaine, which was not further metabolized. The initial rates of choline uptake by cells grown in media with low and high osmolarities were measured over a wide range of concentrations (1.9 microM to 2.0 mM). Only one kinetically distinguishable choline transport system could be detected. Kt values of 2.4 and 3.0 microM and maximal rates of choline uptake (Vmax) of 5.4 and 4.2 nmol of choline/min.mg of protein were found in cells grown in the minimal medium without or with 0.3 M NaCl, respectively. Choline transport was not inhibited by a 25-fold excess of L-proline or betaine. Only one kinetically distinguishable betaine transport system was found in cells grown in the low-osmolarity minimal medium as well as in a high-osmolarity medium containing 0.3 M NaCl. In cells grown and assayed in the absence of NaCl, betaine transport occurred with a Kt of 15.1 microM and a Vmax of 3.2 nmol/min . mg of protein, whereas in cells that were grown and assayed in the presence of 0.3 M NaCl, the corresponding values were 18.2 microM and 9.2 nmol of betaine/min . mg of protein. This system was also able to transport L-proline, but with a lower affinity than that for betaine. The addition of choline of betaine to the growth medium did not result in the induction of additional transport systems. PMID:2294084

  5. 1-Carboxymethyl-1′-carboxylatomethyl-3,3′-[p-phenylenebis(oxymethylene]dipyridinium bromide dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Pan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title salt, C22H21N2O6+·Br−·2H2O, pairs of betaine molecules are bridged by protons (the bridging proton is disordered, forming strong and symmetrical O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to an infinite chain along the b axis. The water molecules are linked to the betaine molecule and the bromide ion through O—H...O and O—H...Br interactions. The central ring, located on an inversion centre, makes dihedral angles of 1.2 (2° with the outer rings. One of the carboxylic acid groups is deprotonated.

  6. A case study on stress preconditioning of a Lactobacillus strain prior to freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Åsa Schoug; Wessman, Per; Wuttke, Anne; Håkansson, Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    Freeze-drying of bacterial cells with retained viability and activity after storage requires appropriate formulation, i.e. mixing of physiologically adapted cell populations with suitable protective agents, and control of the freeze-drying process. Product manufacturing may alter the clinical effects of probiotics and it is essential to identify and understand possible factor co-dependencies during manufacturing. The physical solid-state behavior of the formulation and the freeze-drying parameters are critical for bacterial survival and thus process optimization is important, independent of strain. However, the maximum yield achievable is also strain-specific and strain survival is governed by e.g. medium, cell type, physiological state, excipients used, and process. The use of preferred compatible solutes for cross-protection of Lactobacilli during industrial manufacturing may be a natural step to introduce robustness, but knowledge is lacking on how compatible solutes, such as betaine, influence formulation properties and cell survival. This study characterized betaine formulations, with and without sucrose, and tested these with the model lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3. Betaine alone did not act as a lyo-protectant and thus betaine import prior to freeze-drying should be avoided. Differences in protective agents were analyzed by calorimetry, which proved to be a suitable tool for evaluating the characteristics of the freeze-dried end products.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Arsenic-Resistant Haladaptatus sp. Strain R4 Isolated from Ramnagar, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Urmimala; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of Haladaptatus sp. strain R4, a halophilic archaea that produces an orange-pink pigment and is capable of growing in a wide salinity range. The genome assembly shows genes for arsenic resistance, siderophore production, trehalose and glycine betaine biosynthesis, uptake and transporters of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. PMID:27660791

  8. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a ß-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in Escherichi

  9. Luminescent Surface Quaternized Carbon Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2012-01-10

    Thermal oxidation of a salt precursor made from the acid base combination of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and betaine hydrochloride results in light-emitting surface quaternized carbon dots that are water-dispersible, display anion exchange properties, and exhibit uniform size/surface charge. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Chemical chaperones improve protein secretion and rescue mutant factor VIII in mice with hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie D Roth

    Full Text Available Inefficient intracellular protein trafficking is a critical issue in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and in recombinant protein production. Here we investigated the trafficking of factor VIII (FVIII, which is affected in the coagulation disorder hemophilia A. We hypothesized that chemical chaperones may be useful to enhance folding and processing of FVIII in recombinant protein production, and as a therapeutic approach in patients with impaired FVIII secretion. A tagged B-domain-deleted version of human FVIII was expressed in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to mimic the industrial production of this important protein. Of several chemical chaperones tested, the addition of betaine resulted in increased secretion of FVIII, by increasing solubility of intracellular FVIII aggregates and improving transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Similar results were obtained in experiments monitoring recombinant full-length FVIII. Oral betaine administration also increased FVIII and factor IX (FIX plasma levels in FVIII or FIX knockout mice following gene transfer. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo applications of betaine were also able to rescue a trafficking-defective FVIII mutant (FVIIIQ305P. We conclude that chemical chaperones such as betaine might represent a useful treatment concept for hemophilia and other diseases caused by deficient intracellular protein trafficking.

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_003264.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003264.2 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM-COUPLED GLYCINE BETAINE SYMPORTER... BETP FROM CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM WITH BOUND SUBSTRATE p2wita_ chr11/NP_003264.2/NP_003264.2_holo_12-404.pdb swppa 110A,111L,113V,115L,130L,134A,135F,258M BET 0 ...

  12. EIF4A2 is a positional candidate gene at the 3q27 locus linked to type 2 diabetes in French families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheyssac, Claire; Dina, Christian; Leprêtre, Frédéric;

    2006-01-01

    RNA translation and protein synthesis rate in pancreatic beta-cells, and our data indicates that EIF4A2 is downregulated by high glucose in rat beta-INS832/13 cells. The potential role of EIF4A2 in glucose homeostasis and its putative contribution to type 2 diabetes in the presence of metabolic stress...

  13. Genetic variants associated with glycine metabolism and their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Weijia; Wood, Andrew R; Lyssenko, Valeriya;

    2013-01-01

    , and Stanford], MAGIC, and DIAGRAM). We identified four associations with three metabolites-glycine (rs715 at CPS1), serine (rs478093 at PHGDH), and betaine (rs499368 at SLC6A12; rs17823642 at BHMT)-and one association signal with glycine-to-serine ratio (rs1107366 at ALDH1L1). There was no robust evidence...

  14. Metabonomics in Ulcerative Colitis: Diagnostics, Biomarker Identification, And Insight into the Pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Hao, Fuhua;

    2010-01-01

    levels of antioxidants and of a range of amino acids, but lower levels of lipid, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol, and betaine were found, whereas the colonocytes only displayed low levels of GPC, myo-inositol and choline. Interestingly, 20% of inactive UC patients had similar profiles to those...

  15. A possible role of the non-GAT1 GABA transporters in transfer of GABA from GABAergic to glutamatergic neurons in mouse cerebellar neuronal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suñol, C; Babot, Z; Cristòfol, R;

    2010-01-01

    . The distribution of GAD, GABA and the vesicular glutamate transporter VGlut-1 was assessed using specific antibodies combined with immunofluorescence microscopy. Additionally, tiagabine, SKF 89976-A, betaine, beta-alanine, nipecotic acid and guvacine were used to inhibit the GAT1, betaine/GABA (BGT1), GAT2 and GAT...... neurons constituting the majority of the cells. GABA uptake exhibited the kinetics of high affinity transport and could be partly (20%) inhibited by betaine (IC(50) 142 microM), beta-alanine (30%) and almost fully (90%) inhibited by SKF 89976-A (IC(50) 0.8 microM) or nipecotic acid and guvacine at 1 m...... is not likely involved in this redistribution since addition of 15 microM tiagabine (GAT1 inhibitor) to the culture medium had no effect on the overall GABA content of the cells. Likewise the BGT1 transporter cannot alone account for the redistribution since inclusion of 3 mM betaine in the culture medium had...

  16. Ligand Binding and Crystal Structures of the Substrate-Binding Domain of the ABC Transporter OpuA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina C.; Berntsson, Ronnie P-A.; Gul, Nadia; Karasawa, Akira; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis transports glycine betaine upon activation by threshold values of ionic strength. In this study, the ligand binding characteristics of purified OpuA in a detergent-solubilized state and of its substrate-binding domain produced as soluble protein (OpuA

  17. Molecular characterization of five patients with homocystinuria due to severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urreizti, R; Moya-García, A A; Pino-Ángeles, A;

    2010-01-01

    , and is being treated with betaine and folinic acid. The other two patients, with an early diagnosis and a severe course of the disease, are currently improving under treatment. MTHFR enzyme activity in the fibroblasts of four of the patients was practically undetectable. We found four novel mutations, three...

  18. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Ti-containing Molecular Sieves via A Novel Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermally stable mesoporous silica and Ti-containing molecular sieves have been synthesized at mild temperature using low-cost and biodegradable---amphoteric tetradecyl betaine as template. The physicochemical characterizations proved that Ti(Ⅳ) could be incorporated in the mesoporous struture.

  19. Distribution of terfenadine and its metabolites in locusts studied by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line Rørbæk; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    imaging studies on insects, a method for cryosectioning of whole locusts was developed, and the distributions of a number of endogenous compounds are reported, including betaine and a number of amino acids and phospholipids. Terfenadine was detected in the stomach region and the intestine walls, whereas...

  20. Carrier-mediated ¿-aminobutyric acid transport across the basolateral membrane of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Carstensen, Mette; Brodin, Birger

    2012-01-01

    -affinity transporter is Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent. The substrate specificity of the high-affinity transporter was further studied and Gly-Sar, Leucine, gaboxadol, sarcosine, lysine, betaine, 5-hydroxythryptophan, proline and glycine reduced the GABA uptake to approximately 44-70% of the GABA uptake in the absence...

  1. Selective GABA transporter inhibitors tiagabine and EF1502 exhibit mechanistic differences in their ability to modulate the ataxia and anticonvulsant action of the extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor agonist gaboxadol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten Kirkegaard; Ebert, Bjarke; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius;

    2011-01-01

    on GABA(A) receptors, inhibits both GAT1 and the extrasynaptic GABA and betaine transporter BGT1, and exerts a synergistic anticonvulsant effect when tested in combination with tiagabine. In the present study, the anticonvulsant activity and motor impairment associated with systemic administration...

  2. Interactions of a zwitterionic thiophene-based conjugated polymer with surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Telma; De Azevedo, Diego; Stewart, Beverly;

    2015-01-01

    SBDEAHT-zwitterionic cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) surfactant complexes showed a specific structural organization of the system. The CAPB surfactant promotes a structural transition from pure P3SBDEAHT 3-dimensional aggregates (radius of gyration ∼85 Å) to thick cylindrical aggregates (∼20 Å) where all...

  3. Neuronal and non-neuronal GABA transporters as targets for antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten K; White, H Steve; Schousboe, Arne

    2010-01-01

    of such transporters pointing in particular to an interesting role of the transporters located extrasynaptically. It is suggested that the betaine-GABA transporter BGT1 should receive particular interest in this context as the GABA analogue EF 1502 (N-[4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-thienyl)-3-butenyl]-4-(methylamino)-4...

  4. Comparative nontargeted profiling of metabolic changes in tissues and biofluids in high-fat diet-fed Ossabaw pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Barri, Thaer; Kolehmainen, Marjukka;

    2013-01-01

    to reveal metabolite groups for generating new hypotheses of obesity-related metabolic disturbances produced in an animal model. A large spectrum of metabolites in the semi-polar region, including small water soluble molecules like betaine and dihydroxyindole, and a wide range of bile acids as well...

  5. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species...

  6. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower...

  7. Effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolytes in Halocnemum strobilaceum under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianPeng Gao; Rui Guo; XiangWen Fang; ZhiGang Zhao; GuoHua Chang; YinQuan Chen; Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The seedlings ofHalocnermum strobilaceum were cultivated in 0.5% hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.0%, 0.9%, 2.7% and 5.4% of NaCl as well as composite salt (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Si4+) for 20 days; all the contents are in weight ratio. Succulent level, inorganic ions (Na+, K+), organics such as betaine, proline, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) were measured to reveal its salt tolerance mechanism. When the composite salt concentration reaches 5.4%, SOD activity level, and MDA content is five times the control group; when it reaches 2.7%, the succulent level of seedlings, and the content of K+ in roots is nearly two times the NaCl treatment; the dry weight is more than three times the control group; with the NaCl treatment, MDA is three times the contrast; when the salt concentration is 2.7%, POD reaches the maximum. Results indicate that Si4+, K+, and Ca2+ from composite salt in the roots ofH. strobilaceum improved the water-holding capacity. The activities of antioxidant enzyme were raised by the accumulation of proline and betaine, which increased the salt tolerance. The absorption of K+ promoted the high ratio of K+/Na+ and alleviated the damage of cell membranes ofH. strobilaceum, which is associated with osmotic contents such as betaine and proline.

  8. Network analysis of metabolite GWAS hits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matone, Alice; Scott-Boyer, Marie-Pier; Carayol, Jerome;

    2016-01-01

    could be linked to metabolic health and insulin sensitivity through the betaine osmolyte. These considerations, and the results from the present study, highlight a possible role of CPS1 and related pathways in weight loss maintenance, suggesting that it might be partly genetically determined in humans....

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain HAL1, a Moderately Halophilic Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Gold-Mine Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yanbing; Fan, Haoxin; Hao, Xiuli; Johnstone, Laurel; Hu, Yao; Wei, Gehong; Alwathnani, Hend A.; Wang, Gejiao; Rensing, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of arsenite-oxidizing Halomonas sp. strain HAL1, isolated from the soil of a gold mine. Genes encoding proteins involved in arsenic resistance and transformation, phosphate utilization and uptake, and betaine biosynthesis were identified. Their identification might help in understanding how arsenic and phosphate metabolism are intertwined.

  10. Analysis of an SFP marker in the Rice fgr/BAD2 gene and fragrance in US rice germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15862-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ohexanone... 212 6e-53 AY083902_1( AY083902 |pid:none) Atriplex prostrata betaine a...de dehydrogenase 5, mitochondrial; ... 212 6e-53 AY123972_4( AY123972 |pid:none) Arthrobacter sp. BP2 cycl

  12. Genome Sequence of the Arsenic-Resistant Haladaptatus sp. Strain R4 Isolated from Ramnagar, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Urmimala; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of Haladaptatus sp. strain R4, a halophilic archaea that produces an orange-pink pigment and is capable of growing in a wide salinity range. The genome assembly shows genes for arsenic resistance, siderophore production, trehalose and glycine betaine biosynthesis, uptake and transporters of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. PMID:27660791

  13. The importance of (early) folate status to primary and secondary coronary artery disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Folate, methionine, betaine, choline, zinc and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and B-2 are involved in one-carbon metabolism, which includes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) substrated methylation. Inadequate enzyme activities and imbalances of substrates and cofactors in one-carbon metabolism, together referred to as

  14. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  15. Trimethylglycine complexes with carboxylic acids and HF: solvation by a polar aprotic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Koeppe, Benjamin; Tolstoy, Peter M

    2011-02-14

    A series of strong H-bonded complexes of trimethylglycine, also known as betaine, with acetic, chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, trifluoroacetic and hydrofluoric acids as well as the homo-conjugated cation of betaine with trifluoroacetate as the counteranion were investigated by low-temperature (120-160 K) liquid-state NMR spectroscopy using CDF(3)/CDF(2)Cl mixture as the solvent. The temperature dependencies of (1)H NMR chemical shifts are analyzed in terms of the solvent-solute interactions. The experimental data are explained assuming the combined action of two main effects. Firstly, the solvent ordering around the negatively charged OHX region of the complex (X = O, F) at low temperatures, which leads to a contraction and symmetrisation of the H-bond; this effect dominates for the homo-conjugated cation of betaine. Secondly, at low temperatures structures with a larger dipole moment are preferentially stabilized, an effect which dominates for the neutral betaine-acid complexes. The way this second contribution affects the H-bond geometry seems to depend on the proton position. For the Be(+)COO(-)···HOOCCH(3) complex (Be = (CH(3))(3)NCH(2)-) the proton displaces towards the hydrogen bond center (H-bond symmetrisation, O···O contraction). In contrast, for the Be(+)COOH···(-)OOCCF(3) complex the proton shifts further away from the center, closer to the betaine moiety (H-bond asymmetrisation, O···O elongation). Hydrogen bond geometries and their changes upon lowering the temperature were estimated using previously published H-bond correlations. PMID:21132169

  16. Intestinal Microbiota-Dependent Phosphatidylcholine Metabolites, Diastolic Dysfunction and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson Tang, W. H.; Wang, Zeneng; Shrestha, Kevin; Borowski, Allen G; Wu, Yuping; Troughton, Richard W; Klein, Allan L; Hazen, Stanley L

    2014-01-01

    Background Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We aim to determine the prognostic value of TMAO and its dietary precursors, choline and betaine, in heart failure (HF). Methods and Results In 112 patients with chronic systolic HF with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, we measured plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine by mass spectrometry. Median TMAO levels, choline, and betaine levels were 5.8 [3.6, 12.1] μM, 10.9 [8.4, 14.0] μM, 43.8 [37.1, 53.0] μM, respectively, and were correlated with each other (all p<0.0001 for both). TMAO levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus (9.4 [4.9, 13.2] vs 4.8 [3.4, 9.8] μM, p=0.005) and in subjects with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or greater (7.0 [4.7, 14.8] vs 4.7 [3.4, 11.3] μM, p=0.02). Elevated TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were each associated with higher plasma NT-proBNP levels and more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not systolic dysfunction or inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers. Higher choline (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.64 [95% CI: 1.22 2.20], p=0.001), betaine (HR 1.51 [1.10–2.08], p=0.01), and TMAO (HR 1.48 [1.10–1.96], p=0.01) predicted increased risk for 5-year adverse clinical events (death/transplant). Only higher TMAO levels predicted incident adverse clinical events independent of age, eGFR, mitral E/septal Ea, and NT-proBNP levels (HR 1.46 [1.03 2.14], p=0.03). Conclusion Elevated plasma TMAO, choline and betaine levels are each associated with more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and portend poorer long-term adverse clinical outcomes in chronic systolic HF. However, only higher plasma TMAO levels was associated with poor prognosis after adjustment for cardio-renal indices. PMID:25459686

  17. Study on the Relationship between the Main Secondary Metabolites and Polysaccharide in Fruits of Lycium barbarum at Different Application Amounts of Nitrogen%不同施氮水平下枸杞主要次生代谢产物与多糖的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建宏; 吴宏亮; 杨涓; 杨剑涛

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the optimum application amount of nitrogen in Lycium barbarum based on considering the re-lationship between main secondary metaholites and polysaccharide. [Method] Under field conditions, the effects of different application amounts of nitro-gen on main secondary metabolites of betaine, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum and the relationship between main secondary metabolites and pol-ysaccharide. [Result] The main secondary metabolites of betainc, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum varied under different application amounts of nitrogen. The proper application amuant of nitrogen (600 -900 kg/hm2) was beneficial to the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Correlation analysis results showed that polysaccharide were negatively correlated with betaine, carotenoid and flavone at significant probability level. [Conclusion] Considering the relationship between the output and quality of the fruits of Lycium barbarum, the optimum nitrogen application a-mount should be 600 -900 kg/hm2.

  18. Narrow-spectrum chemoreceptor cells in the walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus: taste specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1982-01-01

    The chemoreceptors in the legs of lobsters function in the localization and handling of food. By single-unit extracellular recording techniques, the specificity of single primary chemoreceptor cells is described here in detail. In contrast to what is known in vertebrates, narrow-spectrum chemoreceptors of several different types were found, each type responding with maximal sensitivity to only one of the following compounds: L-glutamate, L-glutamine, L-arginine, taurine, betaine, and ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride sensitive cells were also highly specific. Other groups of narrow-spectrum cells - L-arginine, L-glutamine, taurine, and betaine sensitive chemoreceptors - showed equally strong specificity. These results indicate that the peripheral coding system in the legs of lobsters is based largely but perhaps not exclusively on narrow-spectrum chemoreceptor cells.

  19. Effects of New Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Quality in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to explore the effects of new plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of potato, we conduct potato tubers with different concentrations of the regulators and cultivated in the seedling pot, with water as the control treatment. The results showed that sorbic amide (5%, sorbic amide quaternary ammonium salt (5%, Cinnamamide (5%, betaine Cinnamamide (5%, naphthalene dicarboxamide (5%, betaine naphthalenedicarboxamide (5% these 6 new regulators have good activity in improving and enhancing the content of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar and free amino acids with 400 times dilution and 800 times dilution on potato seedling. At the same time, we compared the changes of the physiological indexes in different periods. As can be seen from the experiment, these 6 compounds have a strong role in promoting growth and improving the quality of the potato so that they can be called plant growth regulators.

  20. 玉米BADH基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequencing of BADH Gene from Maize(Zea mays)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余爱丽; 徐景升; 周会; 张木清; 陈如凯

    2004-01-01

    Betaine was accumulated as a nontoxic and protective osmolyte in water-dificit and salt-stressed plants.Be-taine aldehyde dehydrogenase for glycine betaine synthesis is an important enzyme.The BADH gene of Maizewas cloned by RT-PCR and RACE.The gene is 1 762 bp in length,including an open reading frame of 1 515 bp.Its nucleotide sequence shares 95% with the the partial cDNA of BADH1 from Sorghum bicolor.Its deducedamino acid sequence contains the conserved domain sequence "VTLELGGKSP" of ALDH,and a tripeptide SKLat its C-terminal,a signal targetting to the microbodies.The phylogenetic tree of 20 BADHs was constructed,which corresponds to the classical botanical division of plant,the BADH of maize is closest to the one of Oryza Sativa.GenBank accession No.AY587278.

  1. Manual dishwashing detergent formulation%手洗餐具洗涤剂的配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝丽丽

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses creatively SLES,LAS,cocamidopropyl betaine,cocamide DEA,etc.to develop the optimum hand dishwashing liquid detergent formulations.%创造性地利用十二烷基聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠(SLES)、烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)椰油酰胺丙基甜菜碱和椰油酰胺DEA等来研发最佳餐洗洗涤剂的配方。

  2. Effects of hypernatremia on organic brain osmoles.

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Y H; Shapiro, J I; Chan, L

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of varying degrees and durations of hypernatremia on the brain concentrations of organic compounds believed to be important, so-called "idiogenic" osmoles in rats by means of conventional biochemical assays, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no changes in the concentrations of these osmoles (specifically myoinositol, sorbitol, betaine, glycerophosphorylcholine [GPC], phosphocreatine, glutamine, glutamate, and...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_110434.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_110434.2 chr22 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM-COUPLED GLYCINE BETAINE SYMPORTER... BETP FROM CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM WITH BOUND SUBSTRATE p2wita_ chr22/NP_110434.2/NP_110434.2_holo_16-502.pdb swppa 109N,110I,112V,114S,115A,117I,118L,129E,131I,330L BET 0 ...

  4. Preparation and Investigation of Diamond-like Carbon Stripper Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Qi-wen; DU; Ying-hui; ZHANG; Rong; XU; Guo-ji

    2013-01-01

    1 Preparation of DLC stripper foils For DLC stripper foils of about 5μg/cm2 thickness,the following methods were used.The DLC foils of about 4μg/cm2 thicknesses were produced by FCVA onto glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent,which was previously covered with the evaporated carbon layers of about 1μg/cm2

  5. Preparation of U-Shape Carbon Stripper Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Rong; FAN; Qi-wen; DU; Ying-hui

    2012-01-01

    <正>In an experiment for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility, the self-supportting U-shape carbon foils are strongly required to serve as the stripper foils. The preparation procedures are as following. First, the carbon foils with thickness of about 60 μg/cm2 were deposited by the CAA (Controlled AC Arc-discharge) method onto the glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent. The parameters in preparation are listed in Table 1.

  6. Production and identification of salt_tolerant transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To relieve the damage of salt to the cell, many plants accumulated some low_molecular weight organic compounds, which were called osmoprotectant, such as betaine, mannitol, and sorbitol. Therefore if the gene_encoding enzyme responsible for synthesizing the osmoprotectant was transformed into rice plants, the salt_tolerance capacity of the transgenic plants would be increased, and the enormous loss caused by salinization of soil would be reduced.

  7. Osmoregulation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    OpenAIRE

    Abee, T; Palmen, R; Hellingwerf, K J; Konings, W N

    1990-01-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) functioned most effectively as an osmoprotectant in osmotically stressed Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells during aerobic growth in the dark and during anaerobic growth in the light. The presence of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-alanine, or L-proline in the growth medium did not result in a significant increase in the growth rate at increased osmotic strengths. The addition of choline to the medium stimulated growth at increased osmolarities but only under aerobi...

  8. Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia coli Viability Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Vanhauteghem; Geert Paul Jules Janssens; Angelo Lauwaerts; Stanislas Sys; Filip Boyen; Eric Cox; Evelyne Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometr...

  9. Whole genome sequencing of Halomonas sp. SUBG004 isolated from Little Rann of Kutch, a desert of India

    OpenAIRE

    Jigna H. Patel; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2015-01-01

    A salt tolerant strain, designated as SUBG004, was isolated from the desert of India, Little Rann of Kutch. The organism is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and rod shaped bacterium. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties were consistent with its classification in the genus Halomonas. Here we report the whole genome sequence of Halomonas sp. SUBG004 deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number JPEU0100000 which provides insights for salt stress adaptation through betaine ...

  10. Whole genome sequencing of Halomonas sp. SUBG004 isolated from Little Rann of Kutch, a desert of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigna H; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2015-12-01

    A salt tolerant strain, designated as SUBG004, was isolated from the desert of India, Little Rann of Kutch. The organism is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and rod shaped bacterium. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties were consistent with its classification in the genus Halomonas. Here we report the whole genome sequence of Halomonas sp. SUBG004 deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number JPEU0100000 which provides insights for salt stress adaptation through betaine synthesis. PMID:26697321

  11. Whole genome sequencing of Halomonas sp. SUBG004 isolated from Little Rann of Kutch, a desert of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna H. Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A salt tolerant strain, designated as SUBG004, was isolated from the desert of India, Little Rann of Kutch. The organism is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and rod shaped bacterium. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties were consistent with its classification in the genus Halomonas. Here we report the whole genome sequence of Halomonas sp. SUBG004 deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number JPEU0100000 which provides insights for salt stress adaptation through betaine synthesis.

  12. Spontaneous vesicle formation from DSB/AOT mixed system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenjun; ZHAI Limin; LI Ganzuo; MENG Xiangguang; ZENG Xiancheng

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous vesicles from the aqueous mixtures of dodecyl sulfonate betaine (DSB) and sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) at certain mixingratios have been demonstrated by using calorimetry, freeze-frac- ture transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), negative- staining TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. The addition of NaCl will promote vesicle formation and the heat effect of monodisperse vesicle system is greatest. Meanwhile the mechanism was analyzed from the viewpoint of packing parameter f, molecular geometry structure and interaction.

  13. Association between BHMT gene rs3733890 polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Yue; Yan, Cunye; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Song, Fan; TAI, SHENG; Yang, Cheng; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Yue Xu,1,* Cunye Yan,2,* Zongyao Hao,1 Jun Zhou,1 Song Fan,1 Sheng Tai,1 Cheng Yang,1 Li Zhang,1 Chaozhao Liang1 1Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and Institute of Urology, 2First School of Clinical Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: The gene betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) has drawn much attenti...

  14. The origin and evolution of fragrance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovach, Michael J.; Calingacion, Mariafe N.; Fitzgerald, Melissa A.; McCouch, Susan R

    2009-01-01

    Fragrance in the grain is one of the most highly valued grain quality traits in rice, yet the origin and evolution of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (BADH2) underlying this trait remains unclear. In this study, we identify eight putatively nonfunctional alleles of the BADH2 gene and show that these alleles have distinct geographic and genetic origins. Despite multiple origins of the fragrance trait, a single allele, badh2.1, is the predominant allele in virtually all fragrant rice va...

  15. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lynne M; Tan, Wen-Hann; Bacino, Carlos A; Peters, Sarika U; Skinner, Steven A; Anselm, Irina; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Bauer-Carlin, Astrid; Gentile, Jennifer K; Glaze, Daniel G; Horowitz, Lucia T; Mohan, K Naga; Nespeca, Mark P; Sahoo, Trilochan; Sarco, Dean; Waisbren, Susan E; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is due to deficient ubiquitin protein ligase 3a, the gene for which (UBE3A) maps to chromosome 15q11-q13 and is imprinted such that only the maternally inherited gene is expressed. The paternally inherited UBE3A gene is silenced, a process mediated by an antisense transcript. We conducted a trial using methylation-promoting dietary supplements (betaine, metafolin, creatine, and vitamin B(12) ) in an attempt to reduce antisense transcript production, increase UBE3A expression, and ameliorate the symptoms of AS. Neuropsychological evaluations, biochemical testing, and assessment of DNA methylation were performed at the beginning and at the end of 1 year of supplementation. The primary outcome measures were changes in the level of developmental function (cognitive, motor, and language) as measured using standardized instruments. The secondary outcomes measures were changes in biochemical parameters and global DNA methylation. These data were compared to those of a control group from a previous randomized double-blind trial using folic acid and betaine. There were no statistically significant changes in the developmental performance of children treated with supplements. There were no unexpected changes in biochemical parameters and no change in site-specific DNA methylation when comparing samples from before and after treatment. There were 10 adverse events that resulted in study withdrawal of 7 participants (worsening of seizures, onset, or worsening of sleep problems, constipation, and anorexia). Supplementation with betaine, metafolin, creatine, and vitamin B(12) appears safe but ineffective in decreasing the severity of AS.

  16. Effect of drought and abscisic acid application on the osmotic adjustment of four wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of osmolytes in leaf tissues and the abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure are well-recognized mechanisms associated with drought tolerance in crop plants. We determine the response in terms of osmotic potential and the contents of leaf proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugar at booting and grain filling stages of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to drought and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) in a pot study. Leaf sample were collected 3, 6 and 9 days after drought induction and at 48 and 72 h of re-watering (recovery). Marked decreases in osmotic potential associated with the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars occurred under conditions of drought stress Accession 011320 was most sensitive to drought and showed the largest decrease in osmotic potential and least accumulation of proline, sugar and glycine betaine The inhibitory effects of drought stress were ameliorated by exogenous application of ABA. This ameliorating effect was more pronounced at the booting than at grain filling stage particularly in the sensitive accession 011320. Upon rewatering the recovery from drought stress was found to be greater in case of abscisic acid application. The leaf praline content is seen to be a suitable indicator for selecting drought-tolerant genotypes. (author)

  17. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  18. Amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex innervating the maxillary barbel in the Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, John; Shimohara, Mami; Marui, Takayuki; Kohbara, Jun; Harada, Shuitsu; Kiyohara, Sadao

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus, possesses taste and solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) located on the external body surface that detect specific water-soluble substances. Here, we identify two major fiber types of the facial/trigeminal complex that transmit amino acid information to the medulla. Both single and few fiber preparations respond to amino acid stimulation in the 0.1 μM to mM range. One fiber type responds best to glycine and l-alanine (i.e. Gly/Ala fibers) whereas the other fiber type is best stimulated by l-proline and glycine betaine (hereafter referred to only as betaine) (i.e. Pro/Bet fibers). We demonstrate that betaine, which does not alter the pH of the seawater and therefore does not activate the animals' highly sensitive pH sensors (Caprio et al., Science 344:1154-1156, 2014), is sufficient to elicit appetitive food search behavior. We further show that the amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex in P. japonicus is different from that in Ariopsis felis (Michel and Caprio, J. Neurophysiol. 66:247-260, 1991; Michel et al., J. Comp. Physiol. A. 172:129-138, 1993), a representative member of the only other family (Ariidae) of extant marine catfishes.

  19. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Heng [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xie Jie [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhao Jingquan [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: zhaojq@iccas.ac.cn

    2007-01-15

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the L{sub CM} with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of L{sub CM} with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC.

  20. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the LCM with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of LCM with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC

  1. Inhibition of insulin fibrillation by osmolytes: Mechanistic Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied here using a number of biophysical tools the effects of osmolytes, betaine, citrulline, proline and sorbitol which differ significantly in terms of their physical characteristics such as, charge distribution, polarity, H-bonding abilities etc, on the fibrillation of insulin. Among these, betaine, citrulline, and proline are very effective in decreasing the extent of fibrillation. Proline also causes a substantial delay in the onset of fibrillation in the concentration range (50-250 mM) whereas such an effect is seen for citrulline only at 250 mM, and in case of betaine this effect is not seen at all in the whole concentration range. The enthalpies of interaction at various stages of fibrillation process have suggested that the preferential exclusion of the osmolyte and its polar interaction with the protein are important in inhibition. The results indicate that the osmolytes are most effective when added prior to the elongation stage of fibrillation. These observations have significant biological implications, since insulin fibrillation is known to cause injection amyloidosis and our data may help in designing lead drug molecules and development of potential therapeutic strategies.

  2. Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: Effect of aeration conditions and pH control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Lutoslawski; Agnieszka Ryznar-Luty; Edmund Cibis; Malgorzata Krzywonos; Tadeusz Mi(s)kiewicz

    2011-01-01

    The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38℃ with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Lactococcus,Streptococcus,Bacillus,Rhodopseudomonas,and Saccharomyces.The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control,an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control,and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control,respectively.All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0.The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR,where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms.The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures:organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (CODsum,85.5%),total organic carbon (TOC,78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5,98.6%).The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments,as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing,failed to provide complete betaine assimilation.As a consequence,reduction in CODwum,TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR.

  3. NaCl胁迫对转甜菜碱醛脱氢酶基因美丽胡枝子生理的影响%Effects of NaCl Stress on Some Physiological Indices of Transgenic Lespedeza formosa Expressing BADH Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓红; 陈晓阳; 隗晓丹; 王颖; 周伟; 李守菊

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to explore the effects of exogenous gene introduction on osmotic adjustment of plants. [Method] After pot culture with same time, the transgenic plants expressing betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (BADH) and non-transgenic plants of Lespedeza formosa were treated with different concentrations (0, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%) of NaCl solution for 30 h and some physiological indices including proline, betaine, soluble sugar, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity were assayed. [Result] There was no significant difference on the indices mentioned above between transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants under the salt-free treatment. With the increase of NaCl concentration, the transgenic plants accumulated much higher level of proline, betaine, soluble sugar and lower level of MDA than non-transgenic plants. But the differences of SOD activity increase degrees between transgenic and non-transgenic plants were not significant. Performances of the three transgenic lines were different to some extent. [Conclusion] The introduction of exogenous BADH gene enhanced the osmotic adjustment ability of L. formosa, furthermore; different transgenic lines performed differently.

  4. Role of transmethylation reactions in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major health care problem worldwide. Findings from many laboratories, induding ours,have demonstrated that ethanol feeding impairs several of the many steps involved in methionine metabolism.Ethanol consumption predominantly results in a decrease in the hepatocyte level of S-adenosylmethionine and the increases in two toxic metabolites, homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine. These changes, in turn,result in serious functional consequences which include decreases in essential methylation reactions via inhibition of various methyltransferases. Of particular interest to our laboratory is the inhibition of three important enzymes, phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase,isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase and protein L-isoaspartate methyltransferase. Decreased activity of these enzymes results in increased fat deposition, increased apoptosis and increased accumulation of damaged proteinsall of which are hallmark features of alcoholic liver injury.Of all the therapeutic modalities available, betaine has been shown to be the safest, least expensive and most effective in attenuating ethanol-induced liver injury. Betaine, by virtue of aiding in the remethylation of homocysteine,removes both toxic metabolites (homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine), restores S-adenosylmethionine level, and reverses steatosis, apoptosis and damaged proteins accumulation. In conclusion, betaine appears to be a promising therapeutic agent in relieving the methylation and other defects associated with alcoholic abuse.

  5. Glycine and its N-methylated analogues cause pH-dependent membrane damage to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, D; Janssens, G P J; Lauwaerts, A; Sys, S; Boyen, F; Kalmar, I D; Meyer, E

    2012-07-01

    The current study first investigates the emulsifying potential of glycine and its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine), N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine) under varying pH conditions. Subsequently, the effect of these test compounds on the membrane integrity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was evaluated. Oil in water emulsions containing each compound show that DMG is a more potent enhancer of emulsification than glycine, sarcosine and betaine under the conditions tested. Flow cytometry was used to investigate whether the emulsifying potential is associated with an effect on ETEC membrane integrity. The bacteria were exposed to each of the test compounds under varying pH conditions and membrane integrity was assessed using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit. Results show a membrane deteriorating effect caused by glycine, sarcosine and DMG, but not by betaine. This effect is pH- and time-dependent and has an apparent threshold at pH 9.0. Conventional plate counts confirmed concomitant changes in culturability of the membrane comprised bacteria. PMID:21912862

  6. Effect of pressure on methylated glycine derivatives: relative roles of hydrogen bonds and steric repulsion of methyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, Eugene A; Minkov, Vasily S; Boldyreva, Elena V

    2014-06-01

    Infinite head-to-tail chains of zwitterions present in the crystals of all amino acids are known to be preserved even after structural phase transitions. In order to understand the role of the N-H...O hydrogen bonds linking zwitterions in these chains in structural rearrangements, the crystal structures of the N-methyl derivatives of glycine (N-methylglycine, or sarcosine, with two donors for hydrogen bonding; two polymorphs of N,N-dimethylglycine, DMG-I and DMG-II, with one donor for hydrogen bond; and N,N,N-trimethylglycine, or betaine, with no hydrogen bonds) were studied at different pressures. Methylation has not only excluded the formation of selected hydrogen bonds, but also introduced bulky mobile fragments into the structure. The effects of pressure on the systems of the series were compared with respect to distorting and switching over hydrogen bonds and inducing reorientation of the methylated fragments. Phase transitions with fragmentation of the single crystals into fine powder were observed for partially methylated N-methyl- and N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas the structural changes in betaine were continuous with some peculiar features in the 1.4-2.9 GPa pressure range and accompanied by splitting of the crystals into several large fragments. Structural rearrangements in sarcosine and betaine were strongly dependent on the rate of pressure variation: the higher the rate of increasing pressure, the lower the pressure at which the phase transition occurred. PMID:24892599

  7. A unified rapid PCR method for detection of normal and expanded trinucleotide alleles of CAG repeats in huntington chorea and CGG repeats in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Tihomir; Todorova, Albena; Georgieva, Bilyana; Mitev, Vanyo

    2010-06-01

    We report on a unified rapid betaine-based-PCR protocol for amplification of the (CAG)n region in Huntington disease (HD) and the (CGG)n region in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), followed by an electrophoretic separation on automated sequencer for precise determination of the triplet numbers. The high betaine concentration (2.5 M betaine) permits precise amplification of the CAG and CGG repeats. Ten HD affected patients and 10 healthy individuals from HD families were re-evaluated. For FXS the CGG region in normal individuals and premutations of about 100 repeats were precisely amplified by this protocol. Ten unrelated FXS premutation carriers and 24 mentally retarded non-FXS affected boys were re-examined by this method. The results totally coincided with the previous ones. This protocol is a good choice as a fast screening test. Within 24 h we can have preliminary information on the patient's genetic status. Normal individuals, CGG premutation carriers up to 100 repeats, as well as HD patients carrying an expansion up to 50 CAG repeats can be easily clarified. This accounts for a relatively large proportion (about 90%) of the suspected HD and FXS patients, referred to our laboratory for genetic analysis. The calculation of the repeat's number is more accurate for the correct interpretation of the results, screening tests and genetic counselling.

  8. Inhibition of insulin fibrillation by osmolytes: Mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2015-01-01

    We have studied here using a number of biophysical tools the effects of osmolytes, betaine, citrulline, proline and sorbitol which differ significantly in terms of their physical characteristics such as, charge distribution, polarity, H-bonding abilities etc, on the fibrillation of insulin. Among these, betaine, citrulline, and proline are very effective in decreasing the extent of fibrillation. Proline also causes a substantial delay in the onset of fibrillation in the concentration range (50-250 mM) whereas such an effect is seen for citrulline only at 250 mM, and in case of betaine this effect is not seen at all in the whole concentration range. The enthalpies of interaction at various stages of fibrillation process have suggested that the preferential exclusion of the osmolyte and its polar interaction with the protein are important in inhibition. The results indicate that the osmolytes are most effective when added prior to the elongation stage of fibrillation. These observations have significant biological implications, since insulin fibrillation is known to cause injection amyloidosis and our data may help in designing lead drug molecules and development of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:26616401

  9. Investigating multiple candidate genes and nutrients in the folate metabolism pathway to detect genetic and nutritional risk factors for lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Swartz

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Folate metabolism, with its importance to DNA repair, provides a promising region for genetic investigation of lung cancer risk. This project investigates genes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS, SHMT1, TYMS, folate metabolism related nutrients (B vitamins, methionine, choline, and betaine and their gene-nutrient interactions. METHODS: We analyzed 115 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 15 nutrients from 1239 and 1692 non-Hispanic white, histologically-confirmed lung cancer cases and controls, respectively, using stochastic search variable selection (a Bayesian model averaging approach. Analyses were stratified by current, former, and never smoking status. RESULTS: Rs6893114 in MTRR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10; 95% credible interval [CI]: 1.20-3.48 and alcohol (drinkers vs. non-drinkers, OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.26-0.84 were associated with lung cancer risk in current smokers. Rs13170530 in MTRR (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10-2.87 and two SNP*nutrient interactions [betaine*rs2658161 (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.88 and betaine*rs16948305 (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.91] were associated with lung cancer risk in former smokers. SNPs in MTRR (rs13162612; OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; rs10512948; OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41-0.90; rs2924471; OR = 3.31; 95% CI: 1.66-6.59, and MTHFR (rs9651118; OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.95 and three SNP*nutrient interactions (choline*rs10475407; OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42; choline*rs11134290; OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27-0.92; and riboflavin*rs8767412; OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.15-0.95 were associated with lung cancer risk in never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified possible nutrient and genetic factors related to folate metabolism associated with lung cancer risk, which could potentially lead to nutritional interventions tailored by smoking status to reduce lung cancer risk.

  10. The Influence of Osmolytes on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, Neiunna L.

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are gaining popularity as antimicrobial agents due to their broad- spectrum activity and lower propensity to develop resistance in bacteria. However, with increased frequency of use, there remains a possibility for bacteria to develop resistance or adaptive mechanisms against Ag-NPs overtime. Mechanisms used by bacteria to resist antimicrobial agents include efflux pumps, heat shock proteins (Hsp) and accumulation of compatible solutes, generally referred to as osmolytes. The latter mechanism is typically employed when bacteria are under osmotic stress they accumulate osmolytes either through de novo synthesis or exogenously. Osmolytes act to stabilize the bacterial cell membrane by maintaining the native protein structure, while at the same time, ensuring compatibility with other cellular structures and functions. The most common osmolytes accumulated by bacteria are glycine betaine, proline, carnitine, choline, trehalose and glutamate. Since Ag-NPs target the cell membrane it is conceivable that osmolytes may suppress its bactericidal activity. In the present study, we assess the antimicrobial efficacy of Ag-NPs in the presence of glycine betaine and proline. Exponential phase cultures (106 cfu/ml) of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were exposed to a predetermined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.4 mM of citrate-stabilized Ag-NPs and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. This was replicated with the addition of 1 mM of either glycine betaine or proline. Growth was monitored by optical density, standard plate count, resazurin assay and LIVE/DEAD analyses. The result showed that Ag-NPs had no detectable effect on osmolyte treated cells. The average plate count of cultures supplemented with either glycine betaine or proline ranged from 108 to 109 cfu/ml after 48 h. Resazurin assay also showed that there was a significant increase in the cells supplemented with

  11. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Sjöström, Michael; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Owen, Jennifer R; Zeisel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Academic achievement in adolescents is correlated with 1-carbon metabolism (1-CM), as folate intake is positively related and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) negatively related to academic success. Because another 1-CM nutrient, choline is essential for fetal neurocognitive development, we hypothesized that choline and betaine could also be positively related to academic achievement in adolescents. In a sample of 15-yr-old children (n= 324), we measured plasma concentrations of homocysteine, choline, and betaine and genotyped them for 2 polymorphisms with effects on 1-CM, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, rs1801133, and phosphatidylethanolamineN-methyltransferase (PEMT), rs12325817 (G>C). The sum of school grades in 17 major subjects was used as an outcome measure for academic achievement. Lifestyle and family socioeconomic status (SES) data were obtained from questionnaires. Plasma choline was significantly and positively associated with academic achievement independent of SES factors (paternal education and income, maternal education and income, smoking, school) and of folate intake (P= 0.009,R(2)= 0.285). With the addition of thePEMTrs12325817 polymorphism, the association value was only marginally changed. Plasma betaine concentration, tHcy, and theMTHFR677C>T polymorphism did not affect academic achievement in any tested model involving choline. Dietary intake of choline is marginal in many adolescents and may be a public health concern.-Nilsson, T. K., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Sjöström, M., Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Owen, J. R., Zeisel, S. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents. PMID:26728177

  12. Reply to 'Some More Comments on Folate Deficiency in Chronic Pancreatitis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M Braganza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir, Dr Wagner’s erudite comments in the present issue of JOP. J Pancreas (Online [1] further illuminate the complex interactions between micronutrient deficiency, electrophilic stress, and disrupted methionine homeostasis, that together seem to precipitate chronic pancreatitis by impairing the exocytosis of zymogen granules from pancreatic acinar cells [2, 3]. Dr Wagner’s studies and arguments [1] underline the essentiality of methyl moieties for exocytosis. They act directly (by carboxymethylating small G proteins in the apical membrane, and indirectly by incorporation into phosphatidylcholine for granule membrane-apical membrane fusion during the exocytosis process. Dietary methionine is the main source of methyl groups, delivered via its first metabolite Sadenosylmethionine (SAM. Dietary folic acid - in concert with vitamin B12 and ascorbic acid (bioactive fraction of vitamin C - facilitates methionine regeneration from homocysteine. Dietary betaine and choline provide pre-formed methyl groups. The ancillary methyl sources (folic acid, betaine, choline could determine whether or not exocytosis can proceed when methionine intake falls short of need, as it does (along with insufficiency of vitamin C in chronic pancreatitis wherein demand increases due to cytochrome P450 induction [4], with increased release of reactive oxygen and xenobiotic species [2]. The vulnerability to the ensuing electrophilic stress of enzymes such as that which catalyses the conversion of methionine to SAM [5] rationalizes both the surge in circulating level of methionine and SAM in an acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis [6, 7], and evidence that the methionine metabolic pathway remains fractured thereafter [8]. A supplement of methionine (or SAM plus vitamin C curbs attacks, and additional choline (theoretically betaine alternatively [1] is helpful when treatment fails [2]. All these observations indicate the clinical relevance of methionine plus

  13. Wilson disease: changes in methionine metabolism and inflammation affect global DNA methylation in early liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Woods, Rima; Liu, Sarah; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Török, Natalie J.; Jiang, Joy X.; Havel, Peter J.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Halsted, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic methionine metabolism may play an essential role in regulating methylation status and liver injury in Wilson disease (WD) through the inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) by copper (Cu) and the consequent accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). We studied the transcript levels of selected genes related to liver injury, levels of SAHH, SAH, DNA methyltransferases genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) and global DNA methylation in the tx-j mouse (tx-j), an animal model of WD. Findings were compared to those in control C3H mice, and in response to Cu chelation by penicillamine (PCA) and dietary supplementation of the methyl donor betaine to modulate inflammatory and methylation status. Transcript levels of selected genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation were down-regulated at baseline in tx-j mice, further down-regulated in response to PCA, and showed little to no response to betaine. Hepatic Sahh transcript and protein levels were reduced in tx-j mice with consequent increase of SAH levels. Hepatic Cu accumulation was associated with inflammation, as indicated by histopathology and elevated serum ALT and liver tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α) levels. Dnmt3b was down-regulated in tx-j mice together with global DNA hypomethylation. PCA treatment of tx-j mice reduced Tnf-α and ALT levels, betaine treatment increased S-adenosylmethionine and up-regulated Dnmt3b levels, and both treatments restored global DNA methylation levels. Conclusion: reduced hepatic Sahh expression was associated with increased liver SAH levels in the tx-j model of WD, with consequent global DNA hypomethylation. Increased global DNA methylation was achieved by reducing inflammation by Cu chelation or by providing methyl groups. We propose that increased SAH levels and inflammation affect widespread epigenetic regulation of gene expression in WD. PMID:22945834

  14. Identification of feeding stimulants for shrimp%摄食促进剂对对虾生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to screen 5'-inosine- monophosphate,betaine,fish hydrolysate,TMA-O and DMPT as feeding stimulants for shrimp.Feeding stimulants carrier was non-attractive diet.The first experiment was conducted to observe the attractant response.The maximum attractant response was attained when the diet contained DMPT.The second experiment was to observe the effect of attractant on growth and FCR of shrimp.The maximum weight gain rate and the minimum FCR was attained when the diet contained DMPT.

  15. Limit theorems for one and two-dimensional random walks in random scenery

    CERN Document Server

    Castell, Fabienne; Pène, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Random walks in random scenery are processes defined by $Z_n:=\\sum_{k=1}^n\\xi_{X_1+...+X_k}$, where $(X_k,k\\ge 1)$ and $(\\xi_y,y\\in{\\mathbb Z}^d)$ are two independent sequences of i.i.d. random variables with values in ${\\mathbb Z}^d$ and $\\mathbb R$ respectively. We suppose that the distributions of $X_1$ and $\\xi_0$ belong to the normal basin of attraction of stable distribution of index $\\alpha\\in(0,2]$ and $\\beta\\in(0,2]$. When $d=1$ and $\\alpha\

  16. A local limit theorem for random walks in random scenery and on randomly oriented lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Castell, Fabienne; Pène, Françoise; Schapira, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Random walks in random scenery are processes defined by $Z_n:=\\sum_{k=1}^n\\xi_{X_1+...+X_k}$, where $(X_k,k\\ge 1)$ and $(\\xi_y,y\\in\\mathbb Z)$ are two independent sequences of i.i.d. random variables. We assume here that their distributions belong to the normal domain of attraction of stable laws with index $\\alpha\\in (0,2]$ and $\\beta\\in (0,2]$ respectively. These processes were first studied by H. Kesten and F. Spitzer, who proved the convergence in distribution when $\\alpha\

  17. Analysis of the role of OpuC, an osmolyte transport system, in salt tolerance and virulence potential of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Sleator, R.D.; Wouters, J.; Gahan, C.G.M.; Abee, T; Hill, C.

    2001-01-01

    The success of Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen owes much to its ability to survive a variety of stresses, both in the external environment prior to ingestion and subsequently within the animal host. Growth at high salt concentrations and low temperatures is attributed mainly to the accumulation of organic solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine. We utilized a novel system for generating chromosomal mutations (based on a lactococcal pWVO1-derived Ori+ RepA− vector, pORI19...

  18. Multiple deletions of the osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC of Listeria monocytogenes affect virulence and growth at high osmolarity

    OpenAIRE

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, H.H.; Wouters, J.A.; Sleator, R.D.; Gahan, C.G.M.; Hill, C.; Abee, T

    2002-01-01

    The success of Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen owes much to its ability to survive a variety of stresses, both in the food environment and, after ingestion, within the animal host. Growth at high salt concentrations is attributed mainly to the accumulation of organic solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine. We characterized L. monocytogenes LO28 strains with single, double, and triple deletions in the osmolyte transport systems BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. When single deletion m...

  19. Chemosensitivity of walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus: neurophysiological response spectrum and thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1982-01-01

    Responses of chemoreceptors in the walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus to 35 individual compounds and 3 mixtures (prey odours and extracts) were studied using extracellular recording techniques. Compared against a standard mussel (Mytilus edulis) extract, these receptors were most sensitive to the amino acids L-glutamate, hydroxy-L-proline, L-aspartate, L-arginine, glycine, taurine, and L-alanine, as well as such other compounds as ammonium chloride, betaine, and the tripeptide glutathione. Most of these excitants are among those compounds most prevalent in the prey of lobsters.

  20. Osmoregulation Mechanism of Drought Stress and Genetic Engineering Strategies for Improving Drought Resistance in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Jinyou; Chen Xiaoyang; Li Wei; Gao Qiong

    2004-01-01

    Drought, one of the main adverse environmental factors, obviously affected plant growth and development. Many adaptive strategies have been developed in plants for coping with drought or water stress, among which osmoregulation is one of the important factors of plant drought tolerance. Many substances play important roles in plant osmoregulation for drought resistance, including proline, glycine betaine, Lea proteins and soluble sugars such as levan, trehalose, sucrose, etc. The osmoregulation mechanism and the genetic engineering of plant drought-tolerance are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Task-specific ionic liquid for solubilizing metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Pittois, Stijn; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Kirchner, Barbara; Binnemans, Koen

    2006-01-01

    Protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide is an ionic liquid with the ability to dissolve large quantities of metal oxides. This metal-solubilizing power is selective. Soluble are oxides of the trivalent rare earths, uranium(VI) oxide, zinc(II) oxide, cadmium(II) oxide, mercury(II) oxide, nickel( II) oxide, copper(II) oxide, palladium(II) oxide, lead(II) oxide, manganese(II) oxide, and silver(I) oxide. Insoluble or very poorly soluble are iron(III), manganese(IV), and cobalt oxide...

  2. Metal-mediated aminocatalysis provides mild conditions: Enantioselective Michael addition mediated by primary amino catalysts and alkali-metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Leven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four catalysts based on new amides of chiral 1,2-diamines and 2-sulfobenzoic acid have been developed. The alkali-metal salts of these betaine-like amides are able to form imines with enones, which are activated by Lewis acid interaction for nucleophilic attack by 4-hydroxycoumarin. The addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to enones gives ee’s up to 83% and almost quantitative yields in many cases. This novel type of catalysis provides an effective alternative to conventional primary amino catalysis were strong acid additives are essential components.

  3. The Reactivity of 2,4,6-Tirphenylpyridinium Ylids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Triphenylpyridinium ylid 2, generated by the decarboxylation of betaine 1, were noted to react with acetyl chloride, chloroform or acetone to form addition-elimination product and proton extraction - carbanion addition products, respectively. The reaction with chloroform was determined as pseudo first order from kinetic experiments. The values of kobsd and t1/2 for decarboxylation at 20, 40 and 50°C were calculated to be 4.6 x 10-4, 8.8 x 10-3, 2.8 x 10-2 min-1 and 1.5 x 103, 78, 24 minutes, respectively.

  4. 甜菜碱的产品控制及含量测定%Products controlling and content determine of lycine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周历岚

    2010-01-01

    @@ 甜菜碱(Betaine)是一种能为动物提供高效活性甲基的类维生素的营养添加剂,最早发现于19世纪的欧州,因它主要存在于甜菜的糖蜜中,故而得名.甜菜碱的化学名称是1-羧基-N,N,N-三甲基乙内脂,分子式为C5H11NO2,化学结构与甘氨酸类似,属于季胺碱类.

  5. catena-Poly[[[diaquacopper(II]-μ-2,2′-{[p-phenylenebis(oxymethylene]bis(pyridinium-3,1-diyl}diacetate] dibromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Pan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title centrosymmetric coordination polymer, {[Cu(C22H20N2O6(H2O2]Br2}n, formed by the reaction of the flexible double betaine ligand 2,2′-{[p-phenylenebis(oxymethylene]bis(pyridine-3,1-diyl}diacetic acid with CuBr2, contains a Cu(II atom (overline1 symmetry which is surrounded by two water molecules and bridged by two anions in a square-planar coordination. In the crystal, polymeric zigzag chains are linked via O—H...Br interactions, forming a two-dimensional network extending parallel to (011.

  6. 甜菜碱含量测定与工业制备方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳红; 黄现青

    2002-01-01

    @@ 甜菜碱(Betaine)作为甜菜化学成分中可溶性含氮非糖成分,在四、五十年代前早被确认为一种生物碱,所以得名为甜菜碱.其最早是在欧洲被发现的,主要存在于甜菜糖的糖蜜中.相继有许多学者对甜菜碱的分离和综合利用作过不少研究.

  7. 甜菜碱及其在饲料工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2004-01-01

    甜菜碱(Betaine)是一种天然化合物,这种物质因最初从甜菜中提取而得名,它用作饲料添加剂已有50多年的历史。因其在动物的蛋白质与脂肪代谢等方面的重要作用而倍受关注,并得到了广泛的应用。

  8. Synthesis and structures of novel octadecanuclear clusters [Cu12RE6(μ3-OH)24(pyb)12(H2O)18(μ12-ClO4)]17+(RE=Sm, Eu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小明; 吴玉銮; 王如骥

    1996-01-01

    The novel octadecanudear Cu-RE cluster haw been isolated from the reaction system of aqueous Cu2+-RE3+-pyb (RE=Sm, Eu; pyb=pyridine betaine) and characterized by single-crystal structural analysis. The results show that the clusters comprise a [Cu12RE6(μ3-OH)24(μ12-ClO4)]17+ octahedral core, which encapsulates a ClO4- ion and has 18 water molecules and 12 bridging pyb carboxylato ligands as external ligands.

  9. Osmotically Regulated Transport of Proline by Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, J. B.; Kashket, E R

    1991-01-01

    We reported previously that, when exposed to high osmotic pressure, Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532 cells accumulated N,N,N-trimethylglycine (glycine betaine), which serves as a compatible intracellular solute. When grown in medium with high osmotic pressure, these cells also accumulated one amino acid, proline. The uptake of [3H]proline by resting, glucose-energized cells was stimulated by increasing the osmotic pressure of the assay medium with 0.5 to 1.0 M KCl, 1.0 M NaCl, or 0.5 M sucr...

  10. Effects of a Pre-workout Supplement on Lean Mass, Muscular Performance, Subjective Workout Experience and Biomarkers of Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Kedia, A. William; Hofheins, Jennifer E; Habowski, Scott M; Ferrando, Arny A.; Gothard, M. David; Lopez, Hector L

    2014-01-01

    In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, trial conducted in two parts, we examined the effects of a multi-ingredient pre-exercise workout supplement blend of creatine, betaine and a dendrobium extract (MMP) on safety, performance, and body composition in healthy men and women undergoing a supervised program of resistance exercise. Part 1 was an acute hemodynamic safety study wherein forty young, healthy men and women (26.2 ± 5.3 years, 70.4 ± 3.3 inches, 83.7 ± 14.9 kg, 26.0 ± 3.2 kg●m-...

  11. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP, with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP.

  12. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  13. Response of Osmotic Adjustment of Lactobacillus bulgaricus to NaCl Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chun; Liu Li-bo; Sun Di; Chen Jing; Liu Ning

    2012-01-01

    Growth and osmotic response of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 under hyperosmotic constraint were investigated in a chemically defined medium (CDM) and MRS medium. NaCl could inhibit the growth of L. bulgaricus which decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. In the MRS, NaCl of 1.0 mol·L-1 was the biggest salt stress concentration; in the CDM, 0.8 mol·L-1 was the biggest inhibition concentration. In contrast to what was observed in other lactic acid bacteria, proline, glycine betaine and related molecules were unable to relieve inhibition of growth of L. bulgaricus under osmotic constraint. This was correlated to the absence of sequences homologous to the genes coding for glycine-betaine and/or proline transporters described in Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis. The amino acid aspartate and alanine were proved to be osmoprotective under NaCl stress. Addition of peptone (0.25% w/v) in the presence of salt led to a stimulation of the growth, as the decrease of the lag time and generation time, and the final biomass increased from 0.31 to 0.64.

  14. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysne, Vegard; Bjørndal, Bodil; Vik, Rita; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Skorve, Jon; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP), with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP. PMID:26053618

  15. Task-specific ionic liquid for solubilizing metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Pittois, Stijn; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Kirchner, Barbara; Binnemans, Koen

    2006-10-26

    Protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is an ionic liquid with the ability to dissolve large quantities of metal oxides. This metal-solubilizing power is selective. Soluble are oxides of the trivalent rare earths, uranium(VI) oxide, zinc(II) oxide, cadmium(II) oxide, mercury(II) oxide, nickel(II) oxide, copper(II) oxide, palladium(II) oxide, lead(II) oxide, manganese(II) oxide, and silver(I) oxide. Insoluble or very poorly soluble are iron(III), manganese(IV), and cobalt oxides, as well as aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The metals can be stripped from the ionic liquid by treatment of the ionic liquid with an acidic aqueous solution. After transfer of the metal ions to the aqueous phase, the ionic liquid can be recycled for reuse. Betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide forms one phase with water at high temperatures, whereas phase separation occurs below 55.5 degrees C (temperature switch behavior). The mixtures of the ionic liquid with water also show a pH-dependent phase behavior: two phases occur at low pH, whereas one phase is present under neutral or alkaline conditions. The structures, the energetics, and the charge distribution of the betaine cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, as well as the cation-anion pairs, were studied by density functional theory calculations. PMID:17048916

  16. Breeding L-arginine-producing strains by a novel mutagenesis method: Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Guo, Yanfeng; Xu, Kai; Su, Cunsheng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2016-07-01

    A plasma jet, driven by an active helium atom supplied with an atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) biological breeding system, was used as a novel method to breed L-arginine high-yielding strains. A mutant with resistance to L-homoarginine and 8-azaguaine, ARG 3-15 (L-HA(r), 8-AG(r), L-His(-)), was screened after several rounds of screening. The L-arginine production of these mutants was more than that of the original strain, increased by 43.79% for ARG 3-15. Moreover, N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase activity of these mutants was also increased. After a series of passages, the hereditary properties of these mutants were found to be stable. Interestingly, beet molasses was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and benefited to increase the productivity by 5.88%. Moreover, the fermentation with 1.0 g/L betaine could produce 9.33% more L-arginine than without betaine. In fed-batch fermentation, C. glutamicum ARG 3-15 began to produce L-arginine at the initial of logarithmic phase, and continuously increased over 24 hr to a final titer of 45.36 ± 0.42 g/L. The L-arginine productivity was 0.571 g/L/hr and the conversion of glucose (α) was 32.4% after 96 hr. These results indicated that C. glutamicum ARG 3-15 is a promising industrial producer.

  17. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Skogen Chauton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development.

  18. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  19. The freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum transformed with ApGSMT-DMT exhibited enhanced salt tolerance and protection to nitrogenase activity, but became halophilic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Sharma, Naveen K; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Yadav, Suresh Singh; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2013-03-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmolyte synthesized in response to different abiotic stresses, including salinity. The two known pathways of GB synthesis involve: 1) two step oxidation of choline (choline → betaine aldehyde → GB), generally found in plants, microbes and animals; and 2) three step methylation of glycine (glycine → sarcosine → dimethylglycine → GB), mainly found in halophilic archaea, sulphur bacteria and the cyanobacterium Aphanothece (Ap.) halophytica. Here, we transformed a salt-sensitive freshwater diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (An.) doliolum with N-methyltransferase genes (ApGSMT-DMT) from Ap. halophytica using the triparental conjugation method. The transformed An. doliolum synthesized and accumulated GB in cells, and showed increased salt tolerance and protection to nitrogenase activity. The salt responsiveness of the transformant was also apparent as GB synthesis increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the nutrient solution, and maximal [12.92 µmol (g dry weight)(-1)] in cells growing at 0.5 M NaCl. Therefore, the transformed cyanobacterium has changed its behaviour from preferring freshwater to halophily. This study may have important biotechnological implications for the development of stress tolerant nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria as biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture.

  20. Mechanism of choline deficiency and membrane alteration in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome primary skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Laila C; Singh, Ratnesh K; Michel, Vera; Zeisel, Steven H; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Johnson, Amy R; Mudd, Harvey S; Bakovic, Marica

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblasts from a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), who presented with low plasma choline and betaine, were studied to determine the metabolic characteristics of the choline deficiency. Choline is required for the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and for betaine, an important osmoregulator. Here, choline transport, lipid homeostasis, and mitochondria function were analyzed in skin fibroblasts from POTS and compared with control cells. The choline transporter-like protein 1/solute carrier 44A1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) and mRNA expression were 2-3 times lower in POTS fibroblasts, and choline uptake was reduced 60% (P < 0.05). Disturbances of membrane homeostasis were observed by reduced ratios between PC:phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin:cholesterol, as well as by modified phospholipid fatty acid composition. Choline deficiency also impaired mitochondria function, which was observed by a reduction in oxygen consumption, mitochondrial potential, and glycolytic activity. When POTS cells were treated with choline, transporter was up-regulated, and uptake of choline increased, offering an option for patient treatment. The characteristics of the POTS fibroblasts described here represent a first model of choline and CTL1/SLC44A1 deficiency, in which choline transport, membrane homeostasis, and mitochondrial function are impaired.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  2. Biochemical effects of gadolinium chloride in rats liver and kidney studied by 1H NMR metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Peiqiu; WEI Lai; Wu Huifeng; LI Weisheng; WU Yijie; LI Xiaojing; NI Jiazuan; PEI Fengkui

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical effects of gadolinium chloride were studied using high-resolution IH nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spec-troscopy to investigate the biochemical composition of tissue (liver and kidney) aqueous extracts obtained from control and gadolinium chlo-ride (GdCl3) (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) treated rats. Tissue samples were collected at 48, 96 and 168 h p.d. after exposure to GdCl3, and extracted using methanol/chloroform solvent system. 1H NMR spectra of tissue extracts were analyzed by pat-tern recognition using principal components analysis. The liver damages caused by GdCl3 were characterized by increased succinate and de-creased glycogen level and elevated lactate, alanine and betaine concentration in liver. Furthermore, the increase of creatine and lactate, and decrease of glutamate, alanine, phosphocholine, glycophosphocholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositoi and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)levels in kidney illustrated kidney disturbance induced by GdCl3.

  3. The effect of organic osmoprotectors on Aeromonas trota and A. hydrophila grown under high sodium chloride concentrations Efeito de osmoprotetores orgânicos sobre Aeromonas trota e A. hydrophila cultivada em concentrações de cloreto de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula L. Delamare

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic solutes on the growth of Aeromonas trota and A. hydrophila was evaluated. Proline and glutamic acid were not effective as osmoprotectors, but betaine exerts osmoprotection allowing the growth of both strains in inhibitory concentrations of NaCl. Growth kinetics suggests that the halotolerance difference between the strains is associated with the synthesis of osmolytes rather than betaine uptake.O efeito de solutos orgânicos no crescimento de Aeromonas trota e A. hydrophila foi avaliado. A prolina e o ácido glutâmico não apresentaram efeito osmoprotetor, mas a betaina exerceu osmoproteção permitindo o crescimento de ambas bactérias em concentrações inibitórias de NaCl. A cinética do crescimento sugere que a diferença em halotolerância entre as linhagens está associada à síntese de osmolitos, mais do que à capacidade de acúmulo de betaina.

  4. Estimulantes alimentares para larvas de pacu Feeding stimulants for pacu lavae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Tesser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar o efeito estimulante de cinco aminoácidos (alanina, arginina, glicina, histidina e lisina da betaína e de suas misturas sobre a taxa de ingestão de dieta microencapsulada durante o desenvolvimento larval de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Os resultados da análise estatística comprovaram a existência de efeito significativo, tanto da idade das larvas como dos aminoácidos, sobre a taxa de ingestão. No entanto, não houve significância estatística para a interação dos dois fatores. A glicina, a lisina e a beta��na foram considerados bons estimuladores do comportamento alimentar de larvas de pacu.The present study aimed to investigate the stimulant effect of five amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, histidine and lysine from betaine and their mixtures on the ingestion rates of formulated diet during the larval development of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. The statistical results showed significant effect of age and treatment. However, no significant effect was observed for the interaction of both factors. Glycine, lysine and betaine are considered good stimulants of the pacu feeding behavior.

  5. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane(Saccharum officinarum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok; A.Nikam; Rachayya; M.; Devarumath; Akash; Ahuja; Harinath; Babu; Mahadeo; G.Shitole; Penna; Suprasanna

    2015-01-01

    Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt(NaC l) tolerance were investigated in sugarcane(Saccharum officinarum L.). Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated(10 to 80 Gy) and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaC l(0, 50, 100,150, 200, and 250 mmol L-1). Increasing NaC l concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+and K+concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaC l stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+concentration increased and K+concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed50–60% regeneration under NaC l stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%,number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  6. The F309S mutation increases factor VIII secretion in human cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daianne Maciely Carvalho Fantacini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The capacity of a human cell line to secrete recombinant factor VIII with a F309S point mutation was investigated, as was the effect of the addition of chemical chaperones (betaine and sodium-4-phenylbutyrate on the secretion of factor VIII. METHODS: This work used a vector with a F309S mutation in the A1 domain to investigate FVIII production in the HEK 293 human cell line. Factor VIII activity was measured by chromogenic assay. Furthermore, the effects of chemical drugs on the culture were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of the F309S mutation to a previously described FVIII variant increased FVIII secretion by 4.5 fold. Moreover, the addition of betaine or sodium-4-phenylbutyrate increased the secretion rate of FVIIIΔB proteins in HEK 293 cells, but the same effect was not seen for FVIIIΔB-F309S indicating that all the recombinant protein produced had been efficiently secreted. CONCLUSION: Bioengineering factor VIII expressed in human cells may lead to an efficient production of recombinant factor VIII and contribute toward low-cost coagulation factor replacement therapy for hemophilia A. FVIII-F309S produced in human cells can be effective in vivo.

  7. Functional Genomics of Novel Secondary Metabolites from Diverse Cyanobacteria Using Untargeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Gugger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become a powerful tool for the detection of metabolites in complex biological systems and for the identification of novel metabolites. We previously identified a number of unexpected metabolites in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, such as histidine betaine, its derivatives and several unusual oligosaccharides. To test for the presence of these compounds and to assess the diversity of small polar metabolites in other cyanobacteria, we profiled cell extracts of nine strains representing much of the morphological and evolutionary diversification of this phylum. Spectral features in raw metabolite profiles obtained by normal phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS were manually curated so that chemical formulae of metabolites could be assigned. For putative identification, retention times and MS/MS spectra were cross-referenced with those of standards or available sprectral library records. Overall, we detected 264 distinct metabolites. These included indeed different betaines, oligosaccharides as well as additional unidentified metabolites with chemical formulae not present in databases of metabolism. Some of these metabolites were detected only in a single strain, but some were present in more than one. Genomic interrogation of the strains revealed that generally, presence of a given metabolite corresponded well with the presence of its biosynthetic genes, if known. Our results show the potential of combining metabolite profiling and genomics for the identification of novel biosynthetic genes.

  8. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  9. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vanhauteghem

    Full Text Available Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG, but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine, under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  10. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition. PMID:27080407

  11. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  12. NMR-based microbial metabolomics and the temperature-dependent coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujerdi, Arezue F B; Vizcaino, Maria I; Meyers, Alexander; Pollock, Elizabeth C; Huynh, Sara Lien; Schock, Tracey B; Morris, Pamela J; Bearden, Daniel W

    2009-10-15

    Coral bleaching occurs when the symbioses between coral animals and their zooxanthellae is disrupted, either as part of a natural cycle or as the result of unusual events. The bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus (type strain ATCC BAA-450) has been linked to coral disease globally (for example in the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Great Barrier Reef) and like many other Vibrio species exhibits a temperature-dependent pathogenicity. The temperature-dependence of V. corallillyticus in regard to its metabolome was investigated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained of methanol-water extracts of intracellula rmetabolites (endometabolome) from multiple samples of the bacteria cultured into late stationary phase at 27 degrees C (virulent form) and 24 degrees C (avirulent form). The spectra were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA), and significant temperature-based separations in PC1, PC2, and PC3 dimensions were observed. Betaine, succinate, and glutamate were identified as metabolites that caused the greatest temperature-based separations in the PC scores plots. With increasing temperature, betaine was shown to be down regulated, while succinate and glutamate were up regulated.

  13. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  14. Characterization of Cichopeptins, New Phytotoxic Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 and Their Role in Bacterial Midrib Rot Disease of Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Jui; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; Leclère, Valerie; Jacques, Philippe; Bleyaert, Peter; Höfte, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The lettuce midrib rot pathogen Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 produces seven bioactive compounds with biosurfactant properties. Two compounds exhibited necrosis-inducing activity on chicory leaves. The structure of the two phytotoxic compounds, named cichopeptin A and B, was tentatively characterized. They are related cyclic lipopeptides composed of an unsaturated C12-fatty acid chain linked to the N-terminus of a 22-amino acid peptide moiety. Cichopeptin B differs from cichopeptin A only in the last C-terminal amino acid residue, which is probably Val instead of Leu/Ile. Based on peptide sequence similarity, cichopeptins are new cyclic lipopeptides related to corpeptin, produced by the tomato pathogen Pseudomonas corrugata. Production of cichopeptin is stimulated by glycine betaine but not by choline, an upstream precursor of glycine betaine. Furthermore, a gene cluster encoding cichopeptin synthethases, cipABCDEF, is responsible for cichopeptin biosynthesis. A cipA-deletion mutant exhibited significantly less virulence and rotten midribs than the parental strain upon spray inoculation on lettuce. However, the parental and mutant strains multiplied in lettuce leaves at a similar rate. These results demonstrate that cichopeptins contribute to virulence of P. cichorii SF1-54 on lettuce. PMID:25961750

  15. 枸杞活性成分提取分离方法研究进展%Progress on Active Constituents in Fruit of Lycium Barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳华; 李涛; 覃世民; 胡元斌

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum L. has very high nutritional value and medicinal health benefits. It is an important economic plant and medicine&food. Its main chemical composition and function of factor is lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), carotenoids, and betaine. LBP was reported in many papers at home and abroad, but few studies on betaine and carotenoids. The nature, extraction, separation and purification of Lycium barbarum L were summarized in this paper which designed to provide the scientific reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of Lycium barbarum L.%枸杞具有极高的营养价值和药用保健功效,是我国重要的经济植物及药食兼用的佳品,其主要活性成分为枸杞多糖、类胡萝卜素、甜菜碱等。目前国内外有关枸杞多糖的研究报道较多,但有关甜菜碱和类胡萝卜素的研究较少。本文主要对枸杞中的枸杞多糖、类胡萝卜素和甜菜碱的性质、提取、分离纯化等方面进行了概述,旨在为枸杞的综合开发利用提供科学的参考。

  16. Investigating alcohol-induced congenital heart defects using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Ma, Pei; Karunamuni, Ganga; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome commonly results in neurological and craniofacial defects, additionally, as high as 54% of live-born children with this syndrome also possess cardiac abnormalities. We have previously shown that CNCC-ablated embryos exhibit similar structural and functional phenotypes as ethanol-exposed embryos. Here, we present progress on two fronts toward understanding the association between CNCC dysfunction and FAS-related CHDs. We have developed a technique for measuring the thickness of the cardiac cushions throughout the heart. These values were then mapped onto a surface mesh of the myocardial wall for 3-D visualization. The cushions were observed to be significantly reduced in the outflow tract of CNCC-ablated embryos. We also observed a correlation between abnormal pulsed Doppler waveforms and increased separation of the atrioventricular inferior and superior cushions. This correlation between function and structure will enable rapid phenotyping of perturbed embryos. Finally, we present our preliminary results using methyl donors to rescue ethanol-exposed embryonic CHDs. Betaine was administered along with the ethanol injection to embryos at 21 hours of development. The embryos were then analyzed at day 8 for survival and heart morphology. The administration of betaine resulted in a significant increase in survival and normalization of atrioventricular valve leaflet volume and interventricular septum thickness.

  17. Enzymatic selective synthesis of 1,3-DAG based on deep eutectic solvent acting as substrate and solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Qi, Sui-Jian; Xin, Rui-Pu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2015-11-01

    In this study, enzymatic selective esterification of oleic acid with glycerol based on deep eutectic solvent acting as substrate and solvent was studied. As choline chloride (ChCl) or betaine can effectively change the chemical reaction characteristics of glycerol when they are mixed with a certain molar ratio of glycerol, several factors crucial to the lipase catalytic esterification of glycerol with oleic acid was investigated. Results showed that, betaine had more moderate effects than ChCl on the lipase, and water content had an important influence of the esterification and the enzyme selectivity. Significant changes of the glyceride compositions and enzyme selectivity were found in ChCl adding system compared with pure glycerol system; optimum accumulation of DAG especially 1,3-DAG because of the eutectic effect of ChCl was found in this system. Furthermore, in a model 1,3-DAG esterification synthesis system catalyzed by Novozym 435, high content (42.9 mol%) of the 1,3-DAG could be obtained in ChCl adding system within 1 h. PMID:26210852

  18. Strain-specific salt tolerance and osmoregulatory mechanisms in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Nagarajan, Thirunavukkarasu; Tripathi, Rachna; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Le Rudulier, Daniel; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2007-02-01

    Salinity stress inhibits the growth and nitrogen fixation ability of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Five strains of A. brasilense were isolated from the rhizosphere of Indian cereals and grasses and identified on the basis of their phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The five Indian isolates and two standard strains of A. brasilense, Sp7 and Cd, showed notable differences in growth, acetylene-reducing activity under salt stress, and ability to take up and use glycine betaine for the restoration of growth and acetylene-reducing activity under salt stress. Salt stress also enhanced the production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregates, the extent of which varied in different strains of A. brasilense at different carbon to nitrogen ratios in the culture medium. It can be concluded that the production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregates is a more consistent physiological response of A. brasilense to salt stress than is the uptake and osmoprotection by glycine betaine.

  19. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  20. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Garg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  1. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  2. Effects of Salt and Water Stress on Plant Growth and on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Compounds in Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad AL HASSAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt and water stress on growth and several stress markers were investigated in cherry tomato plants. Some growth parameters (stem length and number of leaves and chlorophyll contents were determined every third day during plant growth, and leaf material was collected after 25 and 33 days of treatment. Both stresses inhibited plant growth; chlorophyll levels, however, decreased only in response to high NaCl concentrations. Proline contents largely increased in leaves of stressed plants, reaching levels high enough to play a major role in cellular osmotic adjustment. Despite reports indicating that tomato does not synthesize glycine betaine, the stress-induced accumulation of this osmolyte was detected in cherry tomato, albeit at lower concentration than that of proline. Therefore, it appears that the plants are able to synthesise glycine betaine as a secondary osmolyte under strong stress conditions. Total sugars levels, on the contrary, decreased in stress-treated plants. Both stress treatments caused secondary oxidative stress in the plants, as indicated by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA contents. Water stress led to an increase in total phenolics and flavonoid contents and a reduction of carotenoid levels in the leaves; flavonoids also increased under high salinity conditions.

  3. 辽宁碱蓬胆碱单加氧酶基因克隆及转基因烟草的耐盐性%Cloning of cDNA Encoding Choline Monooxygenase from Suaeda liaotungensis and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋莉; 刘大伟; 高晓蓉; 苏乔; 安利佳

    2003-01-01

    甜菜碱是生物体内普遍存在的一种很有效的渗透调节剂.在高等植物中,甜菜碱由胆碱经两步酶催氧化得到,即:胆碱→甜菜碱醛→甜菜碱,催化第一步反应的酶是胆碱单加氧酶(choline monooxygenase,CMO).用RT-PCR和RACE技术从盐生植物辽宁碱蓬(Suaeda liaotungensis Kitag)中分离了CMO cDNA全序列,其中包括5′端非编码区123 bp, 3′端非编码区368 bp, 开放阅读框1 329 bp,编码一个由442个氨基酸构成的多肽,与菠菜、甜菜和山菠菜CMO的氨基酸序列同源性分别为77%、72% 和74%.克隆了其编码区,构建了植物表达载体pBI121-CMO,根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)介导转化烟草(Nictiana tabacum L.cv.89),获得卡那霉素抗性植株.PCR和Southern杂交均证明外源CMO基因已整合到烟草基因组中,转基因烟草的甜菜碱含量明显高于对照,转基因烟草膜的相对电导率明显低于对照,说明盐胁迫下转基因烟草的膜结构所受损伤小于对照,转基因烟草具有一定的耐盐性,能在含250 mmol/L NaCl的培养基中正常生长.%Betaine is a very effective osmoprotectant found in many organisms. In high plants, betaine is synthesized by oxidation of choline in two sequential steps: choline→betaine aldehyde→betaine. The first step is catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO). In this study, the full-length CMO cDNA (1 820 bp) was cloned from halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis Kitag by RT-PCR and RACE. It included a 123 bp 5′ UTR, a 368 bp 3′ UTR and a 1 329 bp open reading frame encoding a 442-amino-acid polypeptide with 77%, 72% and 74% sequence identity compared to CMOs from spinach, sugar beet and Atriplex hortensis, respectively. The CMO open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and the plant expression vector pBI121-CMO was constructed. It was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. 89) via Agrobacterium mediation. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that the CMO gene was integrated

  4. The thickening properties of propylene glycol monolaurate%丙二醇单月桂酸酯的增稠性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春涛

    2015-01-01

    Propylene glycol monolaurate ( PGM) is a kind of dear ester nonionic surface activeagent.Through the study of thickening performance of detergent andcosmetics wo found that PGM had good thickeni- -ng properties in betaine and salt sulfate surfactant system in detergent, and Its thickening properties in the same condition was better than that of coconut oil fatty acid monoethanolamide (CME) thickener. In the betaine surfactant system and salt sulfate surfactant system in the detergent had good foaming performance of PGM. In AES-Na, AES-TEA, and betaine surfactant system in the detergent PGM under the condition of low temperature, stable system would not became turbid. PGM also had good thickening properties in the cleansing, liquid washing and skin care cosmetics.%丙二醇单月桂酸酯(简称PGM)是一种亲酯性非离子型表面活性剂。通过对PGM在洗涤剂和化妆品的增稠性能研究发现,PGM在甜菜碱和硫酸酯盐表面活性剂体系的洗涤剂中有良好的增稠性能,并且其增稠性能在相同条件下要好于椰子油脂肪酸单乙醇酰胺(CME)增稠剂。在甜菜碱表面活性剂体系和硫酸酯盐表面活性剂体系的洗涤剂中PGM具有良好起泡性能。在甜菜碱、AES-Na和AES-TEA表面活性剂体系的洗涤剂中PGM在低温条件下,体系稳定不会变浑浊。PGM在洁肤类、液洗类和护肤类化妆品中也有良好的增稠性能。

  5. Environmentally Benign and Permanent Modifications to Prevent Biofouling on Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-04-19

    Semprus Biosciences is developing environmentally benign and permanent modifications to prevent biofouling on Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Biofouling, including growth on external surfaces by bacteria, algae, barnacles, mussels, and other marine organisms, accumulate quickly on MHK devices, causing mechanical wear and changes in performance. Biofouling on crucial components of hydrokinetic devices, such as rotors, generators, and turbines, imposes substantial mass and hydrodynamic loading with associated efficiency loss and maintenance costs. Most antifouling coatings leach toxic ingredients, such as copper and tributyltin, through an eroding process, but increasingly stringent regulation of biocides has led to interest in the development of non-biocidal technologies to control fouling. Semprus Biosciences research team is developing modifications to prevent fouling from a broad spectrum of organisms on devices of all shapes, sizes, and materials for the life of the product. The research team designed and developed betaine-based polymers as novel underwater coatings to resist the attachment of marine organisms. Different betaine-based monomers and polymers were synthesized and incorporated within various coating formulations. The formulations and application methods were developed on aluminum panels with required adhesion strength and mechanical properties. The coating polymers were chemically stable under UV, hydrolytic and oxidative environments. The sulfobetaine formulations are applicable as nonleaching and stable underwater coatings. For the first time, coating formulations modified with highly packed sulfobetaine polymers were prepared and demonstrated resistance to a broad spectrum of marine organisms. Assays for comparing nonfouling performance were developed to evaluate protein adsorption and bacteria attachment. Barnacle settlement and removal were evaluated and a 60-day field test was performed. Silicone substrates including a commercial

  6. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels in patients with homocystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, G; Burlina, A; Sbarai, A; Motta, G; Girolami, A; Berrettini, M; Strauss, W

    2000-06-01

    Thrombotic events are a well-recognized complication of homocystinuria. However, the mechanisms involved in the atherogenic and thrombotic effects of homocyst(e)ine remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the role of endothelial cell activation/damage as indicated by levels of thrombomodulin, tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and factor VII activity in patients with homocystinuria. Six patients with homocystinuria, nonresponsive to pyridoxine, treated only with trimethylglycine (betaine) were injected with a bolus of 20 IU/kg body weight of unfractionated commercial heparin to induce the release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor from the vascular endothelium. Tissue factor, thrombomodulin, and factor VII activity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and clotting assay before heparin administration. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor antigen and activity were measured before and 5 minutes after the bolus of heparin. Levels of homocyst(e)ine were elevated (patients: 144.2+/-19.2 micromol/L; controls: 10.2+/-0.9 micromol/L); however, levels of thrombomodulin, tissue factor, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor antigen were not statistically different from the control group. In contrast, tissue factor pathway inhibitor activity showed a significantly increased level (patients: 2.09+/-0.34 U/L; controls: 1.14+/-0.20 U/L; p<0.05) that was correlated with homocyst(e)ine. Factor VII activity was significantly decreased (patients: 64.7+/-5.1%; controls: 91.4+/-4.7%; p<0.05) and inversely correlated with homocyst(e)ine. After heparin the patients released higher amounts of tissue factor pathway inhibitor antigen and activity compared with the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Although not treated with antithrombotic drugs, none of the patients had any thromboembolic complications after starting betaine. In addition to betaine treatment, the enhanced factor pathway

  7. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Lisa M; Hyde, Andrew S; MacGregor, Barbara J; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis - previously developed based on (14)C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  8. Renewal theorems for random walks in random scenery

    CERN Document Server

    Guillotin-Plantard, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Random walks in random scenery are processes defined by $Z_n:=\\sum_{k=1}^n\\xi_{X_1+...+X_k}$, where $(X_k,k\\ge 1)$ and $(\\xi_y,y\\in\\mathbb Z)$ are two independent sequences of i.i.d. random variables. We suppose that the distributions of $X_1$ and $\\xi_0$ belong to the normal domain of attraction of strictly stable distributions with index $\\alpha\\in[1,2]$ and $\\beta\\in(0,2)$ respectively. We are interested in the asymptotic behaviour as $|a|$ goes to infinity of quantities of the form $\\sum_{n\\ge 1}{\\mathbb E}[h(Z_n-a)]$ (when $(Z_n)_n$ is transient) or $\\sum_{n\\ge 1}{\\mathbb E}[h(Z_n)-h(Z_n-a)]$ (when $(Z_n)_n$ is recurrent) where $h$ is some complex-valued function defined on $\\mathbb{R}$ or $\\mathbb{Z}$.

  9. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  10. Changes in metabolome and in enzyme activities during germination of Trichoderma atroviride conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliňák, Michal; Simkovič, Martin; Zemla, Peter; Matata, Matej; Molnár, Tomáš; Liptaj, Tibor; Varečka, L'udovít; Hudecová, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the metabolic changes during germination of Trichoderma atroviride conidia along with selected marker enzyme activities. The increase in proteinogenic amino acid concentrations together with the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase activity suggests a requirement for nitrogen metabolism. Even though the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes also increased, detected organic acid pools did not change, which predisposes this pathway to energy production and supply of intermediates for further metabolism. The concentrations of many metabolites, including the main osmolytes mannitol and betaine, also increased during the formation of germ tubes. The activities of H(+)-ATPase and GDPase, the only marker enzymes that did not have detectable activity in non-germinated conidia, were shown with germ tubes.

  11. The study on Buthus martensii Karsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through the literatures on the effects of Buthus martensii Karsch, we are finding out the clinical possibility and revealing the more effctive to intractable diseases. Method: We investigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Buthus martensii Karsch. Results: 1. The taste of Buthus martensii Karsch is salty, hot and toxic, and the effect of this is tetanus, headache, facial palsy and convulsion. 2. The venom of Buthus martensii Karsch is anaesthetic and toxic protein, composed of buthotoxin, lecithin, trimethylamine, betaine, taurine, cholesterol, stearic acid and palmitic acid and similar to the snake venom. 3. The pharmacological effects ofButhus martensii Karsch are anti-convulsion, depressor, anesthesia, anti-thrombosis and anti-cancer. 4. Symptoms of Buthotoxin poisoning are local pain, vomiting, fever, hypertension and palpitaion, and critical condition to Dyspnea, coma and death.

  12. A QM/MM Approach Using the AMOEBA Polarizable Embedding: From Ground State Energies to Electronic Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loco, Daniele; Polack, Étienne; Caprasecca, Stefano; Lagardère, Louis; Lipparini, Filippo; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-08-01

    A fully polarizable implementation of the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach is presented, where the classical environment is described through the AMOEBA polarizable force field. A variational formalism, offering a self-consistent relaxation of both the MM induced dipoles and the QM electronic density, is used for ground state energies and extended to electronic excitations in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory combined with a state specific response of the classical part. An application to the calculation of the solvatochromism of the pyridinium N-phenolate betaine dye used to define the solvent ET(30) scale is presented. The results show that the QM/AMOEBA model not only properly describes specific and bulk effects in the ground state but it also correctly responds to the large change in the solute electronic charge distribution upon excitation.

  13. Use of statistical modeling to predict the effect of formulation composition on coacervation, silicone deposition, and conditioning sensory performance of cationic cassia polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepilleur, Carole; Mullay, John; Kyer, Carol; McCalister, Pam; Clifford, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Formulation composition has a dramatic influence on coacervate formation in conditioning shampoo. The purpose of this study is to correlate the amount of coacervate formation of novel cationic cassia polymers to the corresponding conditioning profiles on European brown hair using silicone deposition, cationic polymer deposition and sensory evaluation. A design of experiments was conducted by varying the levels of three surfactants (sodium lauryl ether sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and cocamidopropyl betaine) in formulations containing cationic cassia polymers of different cationic charge density (1.7 and 3.0m Eq/g). The results show formulation composition dramatically affects physical properties, coacervation, silicone deposition, cationic polymer deposition and hair sensory attributes. Particularly, three parameters are of importance in determining silicone deposition: polymer charge, surfactant (micelle) charge and total amount of surfactant (micelle aspect ratio). Both sensory panel testing and silicone deposition results can be predicted with a high confidence level using statistical models that incorporate these parameters.

  14. A thermolabile aldolase A mutant causes fever-induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoune, Asmaa; Bahuau, Michel; Hamel, Yamina; Serre, Valérie; Pelosi, Michele; Habarou, Florence; Nguyen Morel, Marie-Ange; Boisson, Bertrand; Vergnaud, Sabrina; Viou, Mai Thao; Nonnenmacher, Luc; Piraud, Monique; Nusbaum, Patrick; Vamecq, Joseph; Romero, Norma; Ottolenghi, Chris; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2014-11-01

    Aldolase A deficiency has been reported as a rare cause of hemolytic anemia occasionally associated with myopathy. We identified a deleterious homozygous mutation in the ALDOA gene in 3 siblings with episodic rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia. Myoglobinuria was always triggered by febrile illnesses. We show that the underlying mechanism involves an exacerbation of aldolase A deficiency at high temperatures that affected myoblasts but not erythrocytes. The aldolase A deficiency was rescued by arginine supplementation in vitro but not by glycerol, betaine or benzylhydantoin, three other known chaperones, suggesting that arginine-mediated rescue operated by a mechanism other than protein chaperoning. Lipid droplets accumulated in patient myoblasts relative to control and this was increased by cytokines, and reduced by dexamethasone. Our results expand the clinical spectrum of aldolase A deficiency to isolated temperature-dependent rhabdomyolysis, and suggest that thermolability may be tissue specific. We also propose a treatment for this severe disease.

  15. A perturbative study on the analytic continuation for generalized gravitational entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the analytic continuation used by Lewkowycz and Maldacena to prove the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for entanglement entropy, which is the holographic dual of the trace of the $\\beta$-power of the time evolution operator when $\\beta\\in \\mathbb{R}$. This will be done perturbatively by using a weakly time dependent Hamiltonian, corresponding to a small shift of the dual static background. Depending on the periodicity we impose on the gravitational solution, we consider two different possibilities and compare the associated entropies with the results obtained through a minimal area computation. To our surprise we discover that, at first order, both choices correctly reproduce the associated entanglement entropy. Furthermore we find unexpected divergent contributions that we have to discard in order to fit the minimal area computation, and an additional requirement that needs to be imposed on the $\\beta$ dependence on the metric.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic Species in Rays from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Šlejkovec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste in relation to their size (age was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g−1 of total arsenic. This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila.

  17. On the reality of spectra of $\\boldsymbol{U_q(sl_2)}$-invariant XXZ Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Ruelle, Philippe; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    A new inner product is constructed on each standard module over the Temperley-Lieb algebra $\\mathsf{TL}_n(\\beta)$ for $\\beta\\in \\mathbb R$ and $n \\ge 2$. On these modules, the Hamiltonian $h = -\\sum_i e_i$ is shown to be self-adjoint with respect to this inner product. This implies that its action on these modules is diagonalisable with real eigenvalues. A representation theoretic argument shows that the reality of spectra of the Hamiltonian extends to all other Temperley-Lieb representations. In particular, this result applies to the celebrated $U_q(sl_2)$-invariant XXZ Hamiltonian, for all $q+q^{-1}\\in \\mathbb R$.

  18. Cold acclimation induced genes of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can-kui; Lang, Ping; Dane, Fenny; Ebel, Robert C; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D; Dozier, William A

    2005-03-01

    Commercial citrus varieties are sensitive to low temperature. Poncirus trifoliata is a close relative of Citrus species and has been widely used as a cold-hardy rootstock for citrus production in low-temperature environments. mRNA differential display-reverse transcription (DDRT)-PCR and quantitative relative-RT-PCR were used to study gene expression of P. trifoliata under a gradual cold-acclimation temperature regime. Eight up-regulated cDNA fragments were isolated and sequenced. These fragments showed high similarities at the amino acid level to the following genes with known functions: betaine/proline transporter, water channel protein, aldo-keto reductase, early light-induced protein, nitrate transporter, tetratricopeptide-repeat protein, F-box protein, and ribosomal protein L15. These cold-acclimation up-regulated genes in P. trifoliata are also regulated by osmotic and photo-oxidative signals in other plants.

  19. NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Huanglongbing-Asymptomatic and -Symptomatic Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Deisy dos Santos; Carlos, Eduardo Fermino; Gil, Márcia Cristina Soares de Souza; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2015-09-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most severe diseases that affects citrus trees worldwide and is associated with the yet uncultured bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. To assess the metabolomic differences between HLB-asymptomatic and -symptomatic tissues, extracts from leaf and root samples taken from a uniform 6-year-old commercial orchard of Valencia trees were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics. The results show that the symptomatic trees had higher sucrose content in their leaves and no variation in their roots. In addition, proline betaine and malate were detected in smaller amounts in the HLB-affected symptomatic leaves. The changes in metabolic processes of the plant in response to HLB are corroborated by the relationship between the bacterial levels and the metabolic profiles.

  20. Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-08-15

    In this work a NMR metabolomics approach was applied to analyze changes in the metabolic profile of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis upon storage at 0°C and 4°C for 10 and 6 days, respectively. The most significant microbial groups involved in spoilage of mussels were also investigated. The time-related metabolic signature of mussels was analysed by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) which revealed a clear discrimination between the fresh samples and those stored at 0°C and 4°C. The results evidenced a noticeable increase in acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, trimethylamine and a progressive decline of osmolytes like betaine, homarine and taurine during storage. Exploration of the correlations of these metabolites with microbial counts suggested their use as potential biomarkers of spoilage. The results support the use of NMR metabolomics as a valuable tool to provide information on seafood freshness.

  1. Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-08-15

    In this work a NMR metabolomics approach was applied to analyze changes in the metabolic profile of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis upon storage at 0°C and 4°C for 10 and 6 days, respectively. The most significant microbial groups involved in spoilage of mussels were also investigated. The time-related metabolic signature of mussels was analysed by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) which revealed a clear discrimination between the fresh samples and those stored at 0°C and 4°C. The results evidenced a noticeable increase in acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, trimethylamine and a progressive decline of osmolytes like betaine, homarine and taurine during storage. Exploration of the correlations of these metabolites with microbial counts suggested their use as potential biomarkers of spoilage. The results support the use of NMR metabolomics as a valuable tool to provide information on seafood freshness. PMID:27006214

  2. Designing a new strategy for the formation of IL-in-oil microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Ghosh, Surajit; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Brahmachari, Udita; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2012-03-01

    Due to the increasing applicability of ionic liquids (ILs) as different components of microemulsions (as the polar liquid, the oil phase, and the surfactant), it would be advantageous to devise a strategy by which we can formulate a microemulsion of our own interest. In this paper, we have shown how we can replace water from water-in-oil microemulsions by ILs to produce IL-in-oil microemulsions. We have synthesized AOT-derived surface-active ionic liquids (SAILs) which can be used to produce a large number of IL-in-oil microemulsions. In particular, we have characterized the phase diagram of the [C(4)mim][BF(4)]/[C(4)mim][AOT]/benzene ternary system at 298 K. We have shown the formation of IL-in-oil microemulsions using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique and using methyl orange (MO), betaine 30, and coumarin-480 (C-480) as probe molecules. PMID:22329703

  3. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  4. Drought Tolerance Induced by Foliar Application of Abscisic Acid and Sulfonamide Compounds in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Zeinali Yadegari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exogenous abscisic acid and two sulfonamide compounds: Sulfacetamide and Sulfasalazine were studied on tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Super chief under drought stress and compared with abscisic acid effects. Eight-week old plants were treated with ABA (10 and 25 mg/L, Sulfacetamide (25, 50 and 100 mg/L and Sulfasalazine (25, 50 and 100 mg/L. Solutions were sprayed daily and sampling was done at 0 h, 48 h, 96 h, 144 h and 48 h after re-watering (recovery phase or 192 h. Treated plants showed relatively greater drought tolerance. This indicates that, Sulfacetamide and Sulfasalazine may improve resistance in tomato, like ABA, increasing levels of proline, glycine betaine and malondialdehyde and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase. Daily application of Sulfasalazine and Sulfacetamide during drought stress period was effective in increasing tomato plants tolerance to drought as was ABA.

  5. A new protocol for the in situ generation of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and unsaturated diazo compounds and its application in catalytic and asymmetric epoxidation of carbonyl compounds. Extensive studies to map out scope and limitations, and rationalization of diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varinder K; Alonso, Emma; Bae, Imhyuck; Hynd, George; Lydon, Kevin M; Palmer, Matthew J; Patel, Mamta; Porcelloni, Marina; Richardson, Jeffery; Stenson, Rachel A; Studley, John R; Vasse, Jean-Luc; Winn, Caroline L

    2003-09-10

    enantioselectivity was small, the efficiency of diazo compound generation was influenced, and CH(3)CN and 1,4-dioxane emerged as the optimum solvents. A general rationalization of the factors that influence both relative and absolute stereochemistry for all of the different substrates is provided. Reversibility in formation of the betaine intermediate is an important issue in the control of diastereoselectivity. Hence, where low diastereocontrol was observed, the results have been rationalized in terms of the factors that contribute to the reduced reversion of the syn betaine back to the original starting materials. The enantioselectivity is governed by ylide conformation, facial selectivity in the ylide reaction, and, again, the degree of reversibility in betaine formation. From experimental evidence and calculations, it has been shown that sulfide 7 gives almost complete control of facial selectivity, and, hence, it is the ylide conformation and degree of reversibility that are responsible for the enantioselectivity observed. A simple test has been developed to ascertain whether the reduced enantioselectivity observed in particular cases is due to poor control in ylide conformation or due to partial reversibility in the formation of the betaine.

  6. Synthesis, structures and magnetic properties of a series of polynuclear copper(II)-lanthanide(III) complexes assembled with carboxylate and hydroxide ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Xiao-Ming; YANG, Yang-Yi

    2000-01-01

    Heteromnetallic copper(I)-lanthanide(Ⅲ) complexes have been made with a variety of exclusively O-donor ligands in cluding betaines (zwitterionic carboxylates) and chloroac etate, which are dinuclear CuLn, tetranuclear Cu2Ln2, pen tanuclear Cu3Ln2, and octadecanuclear Cu12 Ln3 complexes. Tne results show that subtle changes in both the carboxylates and acidity of the reaction solution can cause drastic changoes in the structures of the products. Magnetic studies exhibit that shieldirng of the Ln3+ 4f electrons by the outer shell electrons is very effective to preclude significant coutpling interaction be tween the Ln3+ 4f electrons and Cu2+ 3d electrons in either a mono-atomic hydroxide-bridged, or a carboxylate-bridged system.

  7. A thermolabile aldolase A mutant causes fever-induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Mamoune

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aldolase A deficiency has been reported as a rare cause of hemolytic anemia occasionally associated with myopathy. We identified a deleterious homozygous mutation in the ALDOA gene in 3 siblings with episodic rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia. Myoglobinuria was always triggered by febrile illnesses. We show that the underlying mechanism involves an exacerbation of aldolase A deficiency at high temperatures that affected myoblasts but not erythrocytes. The aldolase A deficiency was rescued by arginine supplementation in vitro but not by glycerol, betaine or benzylhydantoin, three other known chaperones, suggesting that arginine-mediated rescue operated by a mechanism other than protein chaperoning. Lipid droplets accumulated in patient myoblasts relative to control and this was increased by cytokines, and reduced by dexamethasone. Our results expand the clinical spectrum of aldolase A deficiency to isolated temperature-dependent rhabdomyolysis, and suggest that thermolability may be tissue specific. We also propose a treatment for this severe disease.

  8. The effectiveness of a course of the drug " Alakton " in the preparation of skilled wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonov V.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . The influence of the new domestic preparation on the performance of functional readiness and psychophysiological performance athletes. Material and methods . The study involved 12 qualified wrestlers (age 17-19 years with the written consent. The drug contains chelated magnesium glycinate cocarboxylase and betaine. Course reception - within seven days of shock microcycle. Results . Found that course reception has a positive impact on health and the special recovery processes athletes. Also found a positive effect on physiological indicators. The authentic reduction in travel time distance shuttle run 4 x 9 m, increase in the coefficient of special endurance, increase the number of repetitions in the test. Showed a reduction in the coefficient of restitution and increasing the number of shots (mill in this test. Conclusions . The data obtained suggest appropriate use of the drug in the practice of preparing skilled fighters.

  9. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tateki [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Aichi (Japan)

    2015-01-22

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF{sub 6}]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  10. Secondary Metabolites from Halostachys caspica and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglin Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine secondary metabolites have been isolated from the aerial parts of Halostachys caspica C. A. Mey. (Chenopodiaceae. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as betaine (1, diphenylamine (2, benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, β-sitosterol (4, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (5, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (6, 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (7, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid (8, and 3,4-dihydroxy benzeneacrylic acid (9. All compounds were isolated from this plant species for the first time. They were screened to exhibit antimicrobial and antioxidant activities to some extent except for the compounds 1 and 3. The results indicated that the isolated phenol acids and diphenylamine (2 could be the main bioactive components in the crude ethanol extract of H. caspica.

  11. Preparation of Beryllium Targets by Vacuum Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus is shown in Fig.1, which is mounted within a conventional metal bell jar 45 cm in diameter and 70 cm high. The boat source could be seen through the windows of the appratus and the bell jar.There was no straight-line exit from the apparatus to the interor of the bell jar for Be vapor originating at the boat.Tantalum boat, 13 mm wide, 28 mm long, and 0.1 mm thick, was used as evaporation source. The distance from the boat to the substrate was 15 cm. Microscope glass slide coated with betaine as substrate.The Be foils produced by resistance heating were removed from the glass by dissolving the

  12. 枸杞子的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 邱阳; 等

    1998-01-01

    从宁夏枸杞(Licium barbarum L.)的果实(枸杞子)中分离得到13个化合物,经光谱等方法鉴定其结构为8个长链脂肪酸(1-8),对羟基桂皮酸(p-coumaric acid,9),胡萝卜甙(daucosterol,10),β-谷甾醇-(β-sitosterol,11),甜菜碱(betaine,12),莨菪亭(scopoletin,13)。其中化合物1-10为首次从枸杞了中得到。

  13. 甜菜碱处理对桑种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国英

    2003-01-01

    甜菜碱(betaine)是一种季铵类化合物,广泛存在于植物、动物、微生物中,特别是糖用甜菜的根中含量较多,甜菜碱制备方便且无环境污染,为此得到世界各国的关注。40年代初,研究人员发现甜菜碱对动物体内的甲基代谢有显著的营养调控作用,开始被用于养殖生产。

  14. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Mammad Oglu Rashydov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011. The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  15. Beskrivelse af næringsstofomsætning med metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2010-01-01

    I et forsøg med mink med lav eller høj foderkonvertering er der blevet taget blodprøver på tre tidspunkter. Blodprøverne er blevet taget i en periode, hvor minkene er blevet fodret restriktivt (en prøve) og i en periode med ad libitum fodring (to prøver). Blodprøverne blev analyseret ved hjælp af...... fra restriktivt fodrede mink end i plasma fra ad libitum fodrede mink - betain og carnitin. Derudover er der en lang række andre metabolitter, som også findes i forskellig koncentration som endnu ikke er identificeret....

  16. Consequences of dietary methyl donor supplements: Is more always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Kimberly R; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age. PMID:25841986

  17. Betainium trifluoroacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, V H; Paixão, J A; Costa, M M; Matos Beja, A

    2001-06-01

    The title compound, C5H12NO2+*C2F3O2- or BET+*CF3COO- [BET is trimethylglycine (betaine); IUPAC: 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner salt], contains pairs of betainium and trifluoroacetate ions forming a dimer bridged by a strong hydrogen bond between the carboxyl and carboxylate groups of the two ions. The molecular symmetry of the cation is close to Cs, with protonation occurring at the carboxy O atom positioned anti to the N atom. The trifluoroacetate anions are disordered over two positions. In one, the conformation of the CF3 group is staggered with respect to the carboxylate group, in the other, it is close to an eclipsed conformation. The sole hydrogen bond present in the structure is the strong O-H...O bond between the anion and the cation. PMID:11408698

  18. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.

  19. Sugar beet molasses as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Šarić, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses is a raw material with high potential to be a functional ingredient in baked goods. This paper investigated the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies enriched with sugar beet molasses. At all enrichment levels and forms tested (liquid and dry), the addition of beet molasses improved the micronutrient pattern and antioxidative status of gluten-free cookies. The cookies prepared with molasses were significantly higher in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, betaine, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. Molasses contributed to wider spectra of phenolic compounds. The dominating phenolic compounds in the molasses-enriched cookies were catechin, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid. Molasses also contributed to the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the cookies. Addition of molasses increased the content of hydroxymethyfurfural in the cookies, but not above values commonly reported for this product type. Molasses addition improved the overall acceptance of gluten-free cookies up to 30% enrichment level. PMID:26947667

  20. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuradha Alahari; Shree Kumar Apte

    2004-06-01

    Potassium deficiency enhanced the synthesis of fifteen proteins in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa and of nine proteins in Escherichia coli. These were termed potassium deficiency-induced proteins or PDPs and constitute hitherto unknown potassium deficiency–induced stimulons. Potassium deficiency also enhanced the synthesis of certain osmotic stress-induced proteins. Addition of K+ repressed the synthesis of a majority of the osmotic stress-induced proteins and of PDPs in these bacteria. These proteins contrast with the dinitrogenase reductase of A. torulosa and the glycine betaine-binding protein of E. coli, both of which were osmo-induced to a higher level in potassium-supplemented conditions. The data demonstrate the occurrence of novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulons and a wider role of K+ in regulation of gene expression and stress responses in bacteria.