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Sample records for beta2-microglobulin quantitatively characterized

  1. Interconverting conformations of variants of the human amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin quantitatively characterized by dynamic capillary electrophoresis and computer simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Cheng, Lei; Schou, Christian; Nissen, Mogens H; Trapp, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    unified theory for dynamic chromatography and dynamic electrophoresis. The results are correlated with the outcome of independent experiments based on mass spectrometric measurement of H/D exchange. This study illustrates that dynamic capillary electrophoresis is suitable for the investigation of the......Capillary electrophoretic separation profiles of cleaved variants of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) reflect the conformational equilibria existing in solutions of these proteins. The characterization of these equilibria is of interest since beta2m is responsible for amyloid formation in dialysis...

  2. Congophilicity (Congo red affinity) of different beta2-microglobulin conformations characterized by dye affinity capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2000-01-01

    The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red-affinities of...

  3. Structural and conformational variants of human beta2-microglobulin characterized by capillary electrophoresis and complementary separation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Rovatti, Luca; Nissen, Mogens H;

    2003-01-01

    The small (Mr = 11729) serum protein beta2-microglobulin is prone to precipitate as amyloid in a protein conformational disorder (PCD) that occurs in a significant number of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Analyses by capillary electrophoresis (CE) were undertaken to study beta2-microglobulin...... capillary temperature, organic solvent concentration, and analysis time. The results suggest that the apparent beta2-microglobulin heterogeneity observed by CE is caused by two distinct protein conformations that are present in beta2-microglobulin under partly denaturing conditions and that Met99-oxidized...

  4. Expression and characterization of recombinant single-chain salmon class I MHC fused with beta2-microglobulin with biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Heng; Stet, René J M; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2008-01-01

    Heterodimeric class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules consist of a putative 45-kDa heavy chain and a 12-kDa beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) light chain. The knowledge about MHC genes in Atlantic salmon accumulated during the last decade has allowed us to generate soluble and stable ...... molecules by biosensor analysis. This production of sufficient amounts of class I MHC proteins may represent a useful tool to study the peptide-binding specificity of MHC class I molecules, in order to design a peptide vaccine against viral pathogens....... resistance to infectious salmon anaemia virus. The single-chain salmon MHC class I molecule has been designed and generated, in which the carboxyl terminus of beta2m is joined together with a flexible 15 or 20 amino acid peptide linker to the amino terminus of the heavy chain (Sasabeta2mUBA*0301). Monoclonal...

  5. Increased expression of beta 2-microglobulin and histocompatibility antigens on human lymphoid cells induced by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Heron, I; Berg, K

    1982-01-01

    Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of interferon for various incubation periods. Subsequently, the amount of beta 2-Microglobulin and HLA-A, B and C surface antigens was estimated by means of quantitative immunofluorescence (flow...... cytofluorometry) and by a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-Microglobulin. It was found that the amounts of these MHC antigens increased in a dose and time-dependent way after interferon treatment. Furthermore, the influence of different temperatures on this IFN-induced increase in beta 2-Microglobulin was gradually...... enhanced after incubation at 37 degrees C to 39 degrees C incubation mostly suppressed the beta 2-Microglobulin increase observed at 39 degrees C. The total amount of membrane associated beta 2-Microglobulin was estimated by a radioimmunoassay. After interferon treatment a beta 2-Microglobulin increase...

  6. Conformational intermediate of the amyloidogenic protein beta 2-microglobulin at neutral pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Kaarsholm, N C; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2001-01-01

    Aggregation and fibrillation of beta(2)-microglobulin are hallmarks of dialysis-related amyloidosis. We characterize perturbations of the native conformation of beta(2)-microglobulin that may precede fibril formation. For a beta(2)-microglobulin variant cleaved at lysine 58, we show using capillary...... organic solvent present. Circular dichroism showed a loss of beta-structures and gain of alpha-helices. Reversal to the native conformation occurred when removing the organics. Affinity capillary electrophoresis experiments showed increased specific interactions of the nonnative beta(2)-microglobulin...

  7. Purification and biochemical characterization of the complete structure of a proteolytically modified beta-2-microglobulin with biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Thim, L; Christensen, M

    1987-01-01

    . (1985) Clin. Chem. 31, 1411-1412; Nissen et al. (1984) Clin. Chim. Acta 141, 41-50]. In the present study we describe the purification and characterization of this modified human serum beta-2-m from patients with small-cell lung cancer. Purified urinary beta-2-m was added to the serum samples incubated...... analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical isoelectric focusing respectively. Amino acid analysis of m-beta-2-m revealed that the protein is missing one lysine residue compared to the composition deduced from the cDNA sequence of beta-2-m. Amino acid sequence...

  8. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  9. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and beta-2-microglobulin in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple myeloma is malignancy characterizing with autoimmune proliferation of malignant plasma cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and serum beta-2-microglobulin for diagnosis, staging and therapy control in patients with multiple myeloma. 67 patients with multiple myeloma were investigated. 42 patients ware in active state and 25 patients were in remission. Planar images and/ or SPECT were performed on the rotating gamma camera (Siemens) 30 minutes and 3 hours after i.v. injection of 555-740 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. The uptake patterns were grouped as normal, diffusely increased and focal increased. Beta-2-microglobulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI was true positive in 40 patients with MM. From them, 21 patients were with diffuse uptake and 19 were with focal uptake with 29 lesions. 99mTc-MIBl marrow uptake correlated with the percentage of bone marrow plasma cells. All samples from patients in active state had a serum beta-2-microglobulin above the normal range. In two patients with false negative scan, the results were compared with the data of CT images. Positive clinical findings and increased value of tumour marker were found in these patients. One patient was with false positive scintigraphy. After therapy, the scintigraphy was true negative in 25 patients. In these patients in remission, the levels of the serum beta-2-microglobulin were near to the normal levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the effectiveness of both methods - 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and serum beta-2-microglobulin in different stage of the disease for the diagnosis, staging and therapy control by patients with multiple myeloma. (authors)

  10. Enhanced expression of beta2-microglobulin and HLA antigens on human lymphoid cells by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Hokland, M; Berg, K

    1979-01-01

    Mononuclear cells from the blood of healthy normal humans were kept in cultures under nonstimulating conditions for 16 hr in the presence or absence of human interferon. The relative quantities of HLA antigens and beta(2)-microglobulin on the cultured cells were determined by quantitative...... immunofluorescence (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) and by the capacity of cells to absorb out cytotoxic antibodies against the relevant antigens. Interferons of different origin and purities enhanced the expression of HLA antigens and beta(2)-microglobulins, whereas membrane immunoglobulins and antigens...... recognized by antiserum raised against human brain and T cells were the same on interferon-treated and control cells. Similar interferon effects were observed on an Epstein-Barrvirus-negative Burkitt lymphoma cell line. The enhanced expression of histocompatibility antigen subsequent to intereferon treatment...

  11. The effect of surgery on the renal excretion of beta 2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenkamp, G H; Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B

    1983-03-28

    Surgical trauma causes an increase in the renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin whilst creatinine excretion is not influenced. The increase in the renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin is probably the result of an increased release of beta 2-microglobulin by the cells which exceeds a maximum in the active tubular reabsorption of the compound by the proximal tubule cell. The renal excretion of beta 2-microglobulin is proportional to the relative clinical trauma score. PMID:6189646

  12. Amino acid sequences and structures of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, K G; Jespersen, H M; Walther-Rasmussen, J; Skjødt, K

    The complete amino acid sequences of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulins have been determined by analyses of tryptic, V8-proteolytic and cyanogen bromide fragments, and by N-terminal sequencing. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken beta 2-microglobulin supports the sequence-derived Mr of 11......,048. The higher apparent Mr obtained for the avian beta 2-microglobulins as compared to human beta 2-microglobulin by SDS-PAGE is not understood. Chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin consist of 98 residues and deviate at seven positions: 60, 66, 74-76, 78 and 82. The chicken and turkey sequences are...... complex suggest that the seven chicken to turkey differences are exposed to solvent in the avian MHC class I complex. The key residues of beta 2-microglobulin involved in alpha chain contacts within the MHC class I molecule are highly conserved between chicken and man. This explains that heterologous...

  13. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion: an indicator of long term nephrotoxicity during cis-platinum treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Groth, S; Rørth, M

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the value of beta-2-microglobulin as an indicator of acute and long-term cis-platinum-induced nephrotoxicity, 51Cr-EDTA clearance and serum concentration and urinary excretion of beta-2-microglobulin were measured in 18 patients treated with a regimen including cis-platinum. Before......-microglobulin remained unchanged. The decrease in 51Cr-EDTA clearance was not correlated to either the peak increase in the beta-2-microglobulin excretion or to the time of occurrence of the peak (R = 0.3). Thus, it is not possible to predict the long-term nephrotoxicity of cis-platinum by measuring the beta-2...

  14. Rapidly reversible albumin and beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion in recent severe essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1983-01-01

    Seven young patients with newly diagnosed severe hypertension were studied for one week. The mean age was 34.9 years (range 28-44). The mean initial values +/- s.d. for systolic and diastolic pressures were 223 +/- 27 and 141 +/- 8 mmHg, respectively. Secondary hypertension was excluded by...... ensuing fall in blood pressure was rapidly and almost completely reversible in all but one patient during conventional treatment and the increased beta 2-microglobulin excretion was totally reversible in all but one patient. Both albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rate were positively correlated...... to arterial pressures in all patients. Thus glomerular and to some extent tubular protein handling were both affected in untreated patients, but rapidly reversible during initial antihypertensive treatment. The data indicate that the beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion is secondary to enhanced...

  15. Interaction between the renal excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and tobramycin in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Zweens, K; Huige, P J; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B

    1984-03-27

    The renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin in man is 127 +/- 98 ng/min at alkaline urine pH (pH 7). Tobramycin, up to intravenous doses of 160 mg (2 mg/kg) does not increase the renal excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin. Tobramycin must have less affinity than gentamicin for the tubular system for active reabsorption of amino groups containing organic compounds. Due to this reduced affinity tobramycin will be absorbed less by the proximal tubular cells, which may be one of the reasons for tobramycin being less toxic than gentamicin. beta 2-Microglobulin excretion can be used as a parameter for the relative binding affinity of aminoglycosides. PMID:6370509

  16. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M;

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  17. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E;

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...

  18. Seeding-dependent maturation of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Miho; Chatani, Eri; Sakai, Miyo; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2005-03-25

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-m) is a major component of amyloid fibrils deposited in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism by which amyloid fibrils are formed under physiological conditions, which had been difficult to reproduce quantitatively. Yamamoto et al. (Yamamoto, S., Hasegawa, K., Yamaguchi, I., Tsutsumi, S., Kardos, J., Goto, Y., Gejyo, F. & Naiki, H. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 11075-11082) showed that a combination of seed fibrils prepared under acidic conditions and a low concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate below its critical micelle concentration enabled extensive fibril formation at pH 7.0. Here, we found that repeated self-seeding at pH 7.0 with fibrils formed at the same pH causes a marked acceleration of growth, indicating the maturation of fibrils. The observed maturation can be simulated by assuming the existence of two types of fibrils with different growth rates. Importantly, some mutations of beta2-m or the addition of a low concentration of urea, both destabilizing the native conformation, were not enough to extend the fibrils at pH 7.0, and a low concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (i.e. 0.5 mM) was essential. Thus, even though the first stage fibrils in patients are unstable and require stabilizing factors to remain at neutral pH, they can adapt to a neutral pH with repeated self-seeding, implying a mechanism of development of amyloid deposition after a long latent period in patients. PMID:15659393

  19. Spontaneous inflammatory arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic mice lacking beta 2-microglobulin: a model of human spondyloarthropathies

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Human class I major histocompatibility complex allele HLA-B27 is associated with a group of human diseases called "spondyloarthropathies." Studies on transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and human beta 2-microglobulin have confirmed the role of HLA-B27 in disease pathogenesis. Here we report spontaneous inflammatory arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic mice lacking beta 2-microglobulin (B27+ beta 2m-/- ). In the absence of beta 2-microglobulin, B27+ beta 2m-/- animals do not express the HLA-B27 tran...

  20. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjoedt, K; Vainio, O; Thiery, J P; Imhof, B A

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... which suggest that beta 2m mediated chemotaxis is involved in the second wave. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Oct...

  1. [Compensatory changes in beta 2-microglobulin handling in the remnant tubules after contralateral nephrectomy. Observations of beta 2-microglobulin excretion into the urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Y; Kawamura, J; Yoshida, O

    1985-11-01

    Serum and urinary beta 2-microglobulin (S-, U-beta 2MG), and creatinine clearance (C-cr) were examined in 41 nephrectomy cases, and changes in glomerular and tubular handling of beta 2MG such as filtered beta 2MG (Fil-beta 2MG), reabsorption of beta 2MG (Reab-beta 2MG) and fractional excretion of beta 2MG (FE-beta 2MG) were studied. Serum creatinine (S-cr) and S-beta 2MG increased significantly after nephrectomy. C-cr decreased immediately after nephrectomy (80%), but recovered up to 87% in 2 to 4 days postoperatively. Fil-beta 2MG decreased immediately after nephrectomy, but increased up to more than the preoperative level in 2 to 4 days postoperatively. On the other hand, Reab-beta 2MG decreased significantly immediately after nephrectomy, and it took 5 to 8 days until recovery. Consequently, urinary excretion of beta 2MG (Ex-beta 2MG) and FE-beta 2MG increased significantly 0 to 4 days postoperatively. These increases in Ex-beta 2MG and FE-beta 2MG were much higher than those seen in diabetic nephropathy, cadmium nephropathy and Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP) intoxication, and were not due to drug intoxication such as general anesthesia or antibiotics, but due to glomerulo-tubular unbalance. Clinical data of renal tubular handling of beta 2-microglobulin in cases of interferon therapy or unilateral nephrectomy revealed many interesting aspects of glomerulo-tubular adaptations, and micropuncture study or isolated tubule perfusion study are awaited. PMID:3911767

  2. MHC class I phenotype and function of human beta 2-microglobulin transgenic murine lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerager, L; Pedersen, L O; Bregenholt, S; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claesson, M H

    1996-01-01

    Lymphoid cells from beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) knockout mice transgenic for human (h) beta 2m (C57BL/10 m beta 2m-/h beta 2m+) were compared with normal mice for their binding to exogenously added h beta 2m, binding to a H-2Db peptide and for functional activity in a one-way allogenic MLC...... normal splenocytes. In contrast, transgenic alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes developed earlier in MLC than their non-transgenic counterparts. These data indicate that the hybrid mouse heavy chain/h beta 2m complex alters the alloantigenic repertoire and influences important aspects of T...

  3. The relationship between the renal clearance of creatinine and the apparent renal clearance of beta-2-microglobulin in patients with normal and impaired kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B; Walenkamp, G H

    1981-07-18

    The renal clearances of creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin of patients with either normal or impaired kidney function were measured. The renal clearance of beta 2-microglobulin depends on the urinary pH and must be considered as an apparent renal clearance because after tubular reabsorption the compound is metabolized in the kidney. Impaired kidney function reduces the percentage of tubular reabsorption of beta 2-microglobulin. PMID:6166414

  4. Creatine kinase BB and beta-2-microglobulin as markers of CNS metastases in patients with small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A G; Bach, F W; Nissen, Mogens Holst;

    1985-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) and its BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) were measured in CSF in 65 evaluable patients suspected of CNS metastases secondary to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In addition, CSF and plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-m) were measured in a group of 73 evaluable patients. Of the 65...

  5. Corticosteroids decrease the expression of beta 2-microglobulin and histocompatibility antigens on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Larsen, B; Heron, I; Plesner, T

    1982-01-01

    . Both antigens were found to be decreased, dexamethasone typically in a concentration of 10-6 mol/l causing a decrease in surface beta 2-microglobulin of 15% after an incubation period of 24 hr. The expression of two other lymphocyte surface antigens, Igm and Thy antigens, measured in parallel with beta...

  6. A simple method for the preparation and purification of C1 complement cleaved beta 2-microglobulin from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Johansen, B; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik

    1997-01-01

    A simple method is described for the preparation of proteolytically processed forms of beta 2-microglobulin suitable for structural and biological studies. PEG 6000 was added to the serum of healthy individuals to precipitate the C1 complement complex from C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). After di...... component was seen by SDS-PAGE stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue....

  7. Neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin as serum markers in a placebo-controlled anti-HIV therapy trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstens, J; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Black, F T

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biologic immune activation markers neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin in monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with isoprinosine and placebo. Serum samples ...

  8. The Implication and Significance of Beta 2 Microglobulin: A Conservative Multifunctional Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Mei Dong; Xiao-Guang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review focuses on the current knowledge on the implication and significance of beta 2 microglobulin (β2M), a conservative immune molecule in vertebrate.Data Sources: The data used in this review were obtained from PubMed up to October 2015.Terms of β2M, immune response, and infection were used in the search.Study Selections: Articles related to β2M were retrieved and reviewed.Articles focusing on the characteristic and function of β2M were selected.The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies on β2M-related molecules.Results: β2M is critical for the immune surveillance and modulation in vertebrate animals.The dysregulation of β2M is associated with multiple diseases, including endogenous and infectious diseases.β2M could directly participate in the development of cancer cells, and the level of β2M is deemed as a prognostic marker for several malignancies.It also involves in forming major histocompatibility complex (MHC class Ⅰ or MHC Ⅰ) or like heterodimers, covering from antigen presentation to immune homeostasis.Conclusions: Based on the characteristic of β2M, it or its signaling pathway has been targeted as biomedical or therapeutic tools.Moreover, β2M is highly conserved among different species, and overall structures are virtually identical, implying the versatility of β2M on applications.

  9. Imaging of dialysis-related amyloid (AB-amyloid) deposits with 131I-beta 2-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloid (AB-amyloid) has been based usually on clinical and radiological criteria. Following the discovery that beta 2-microglobulin was the major protein of this amyloid, we isolated and radiolabelled uremic plasma beta 2-microglobulin. After intravenous injection, gamma-camera images of selected joint areas were obtained from 42 patients who were on regular hemodialysis therapy. Positive scans involving the shoulder, hip, knee and carpal regions were found in 13 of 14 patients treated for more than 10 years and 10 of 16 patients treated for 5 to 10 years. Patients treated for less time had negative scans. Specificity was indicated by negative scans in non-amyloid inflammatory lesions in control hemodialysis patients. Up to 48-fold tracer enrichment was detected in excised AB-amyloid containing tissue as compared to amyloid-free tissue. These findings suggest that circulating radiolabelled beta 2-microglobulin is taken up by the amyloid deposits. This method may non-invasively detect tissue infiltrates of amyloid. It may also permit prospective evaluation of the efficacy of prophylactic dialysis strategies which are designed to prevent or delay the onset of this complication of long-term dialysis

  10. Beta-2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase levels are useful prognostic markers in early stage primary gastric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, A; Narváez, B R

    1998-10-01

    The optimal management of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) remains undecided because a definitive classification for therapeutic decision is not available. The International Index Project has proved to be useful in patients with nodal disease, but in extranodal presentation it has not been tested. We reviewed 297 patients with early stage PGL. They were initially classified according to the prognostic features of the International Index Project. No influence on duration of time to treatment failure (TTF) or overall survival was observed. For this reason we developed a logistical model to identify prognostic factors in patients with early stage PGL. Levels of beta-2 microglobulin and lactic dehydrogenase were observed to have prognostic significance in both univariate and multivariate analysis. With these parameters we constructed a logistical model to identify patients at low risk (TTF = 76%; at 7 years overall survival was 96%), statistically different to patients at high risk (TTF = 34% and overall survival = 22%). The number of patients at intermediate risk were too small to compare with the other groups. Because pathological or other clinical or laboratory prognostic features cannot help in the identification of a prognostic model, we propose that the use beta-2 microglobulin and lactic dehydrogenase can define different groups at risk and develop a prognostic system to define the best therapeutic approach in this patients. PMID:9807677

  11. Cellular expression or binding of desLys58-beta2 microglobulin is not dependent on the presence of the tri-molecular MHC class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M; Corlin, D B; Heegaard, N H H; Claesson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2008-01-01

    significantly increased when cells were pre-incubated with dbeta2m and when TIB-202 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide. dbeta2m was also expressed on T leukaemic Jurkat cells as well as on low HLA-expressing erythroleukaemic K562 cells. beta2m gene-deleted murine splenocytes only bound 332-01 after pre......The monoclonal antibody 332-01 is a newly developed antibody which specifically recognizes human desLys58-beta2 microglobulin (dbeta2m). In the present study, we characterized the binding of 332-01 to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a number of human leukaemic and monocytic cell lines......, and beta2m gene-deleted murine lymphocytes. dbeta2m was found to be expressed on non-activated and activated monocytes. When cells were pre-exposed to dbeta2m, 332-01 also bound to non-activated T lymphocytes. dbeta2m was expressed on the monocytic cell lines U937 and TIB-202, and binding was...

  12. The chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene is located on a non-major histocompatibility complex microchromosome: a small, G+C-rich gene with X and Y boxes in the promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegert, P; Andersen, R; Bumstead, N;

    1996-01-01

    a similar genomic organization but smaller introns and higher G+C content than mammalian beta 2-microglobulin genes. The promoter region is particularly G+C-rich and contains, in addition to interferon regulatory elements, potential S/W, X, and Y boxes that were originally described for mammalian...... class II but not class I alpha or beta 2-microglobulin genes. There is a single chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene that has little polymorphism in the coding region. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms from Mhc homozygous lines, Mhc congenic lines, and backcross families, as well as in situ...

  13. Quantification of cleaved beta2-microglobulin in serum from patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corlin, Dorthe B; Sen, Jette W; Ladefoged, Søren;

    2005-01-01

    of beta(2)M amyloid fibrils. The state of the circulating population of beta(2)M molecules has not been characterized previously with high-resolution methods. METHODS: We used immunoaffinity-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of serum samples to examine whether structurally modified beta(2)M...

  14. Levels of beta 2 microglobulin have a prognostic relevance for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with regard to survival and the risk of transformation into acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Frank; Gattermann, Norbert; Barthelmes, Hans-Ulrich; Haas, Rainer; Germing, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the relevance of beta 2 microglobulin (B2M) plasma concentration in 109 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from the Duesseldorf registry. Sixty-five patients with B2M level > or =2mg/dl showed a significantly lower overall survival time with a median of 23 in comparison to 61 months for 44 patients with B2M below 2mg/dl. The risk of AML evolution was higher in patients with B2M> or =2mg/dl. Using multivariate analysis we found the B2M level at the time of diagnosis to be an independent prognostic parameter for survival and for the risk of developing AML in high-risk MDS patients. PMID:18639338

  15. The ESAT-6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with beta-2-microglobulin (β2M affecting antigen presentation function of macrophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalkrishna Sreejit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ESAT-6, an abundantly secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis is an important virulence factor, inactivation of which leads to reduced virulence of M. tuberculosis. ESAT-6 alone, or in complex with its chaperone CFP-10 (ESAT-6:CFP-10, is known to modulate host immune responses; however, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. The structure of ESAT-6 or ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex does not suggest presence of enzymatic or DNA-binding activities. Therefore, we hypothesized that the crucial role played by ESAT-6 in the virulence of mycobacteria could be due to its interaction with some host cellular factors. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified that ESAT-6 interacts with the host protein beta-2-microglobulin (β2M, which was further confirmed by other assays, like GST pull down, co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. The C-terminal six amino acid residues (90-95 of ESAT-6 were found to be essential for this interaction. ESAT-6, in complex with CFP-10, also interacts with β2M. We found that ESAT-6/ESAT-6:CFP-10 can enter into the endoplasmic reticulum where it sequesters β2M to inhibit cell surface expression of MHC-I-β2M complexes, resulting in downregulation of class I-mediated antigen presentation. Interestingly, the ESAT-6:β2M complex could be detected in pleural biopsies of individuals suffering from pleural tuberculosis. Our data highlight a novel mechanism by which M. tuberculosis may undermine the host adaptive immune responses to establish a successful infection. Identification of such novel interactions may help us in designing small molecule inhibitors as well as effective vaccine design against tuberculosis.

  16. Excretion of urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc in cadmium-exposed and nonexposed subjects, with special reference to urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin and metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Maki; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Inaba, Takeya; Kido, Teruhiko; Shaikh, Zahir A; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd), copper (U-Cu), and zinc (U-Zn) and the severity of two different indicators of renal toxicity (urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin [U-beta2-MG] and metallothionein [U-MT]) in Cd-exposed subjects compared to controls, and to assess the physiologic mechanisms by which the exposure to environmental Cd affects U-Cd, U-Cu, and U-Zn. The target population included 3508 Cd-exposed and 294 nonexposed participants who received a health survey conducted among the population of the Kakehashi River basin. Increases of U-Cd, U-beta2-MG, and U-MT in the Cd-exposed population were observed relative to excretion of these substances in controls. Regression analysis using a general linear model revealed that the correlations between U-Cd or U-Cu, and U-beta2-MG and between U-Cd, U-Cu or U-Zn, and U-MT were statistically significant in both sexes, but the correlation between U-Zn and U-beta2-MG excretion was significant only in men. These results suggest U-Cd and U-Cu is affected by dysfunction in renal tubular absorption (indicated by U-beta2-MG), whereas not only U-Cd and U-Cu but also U-Zn appear to be a function of renal cellular desquamation (indicated by U-MT). PMID:16327056

  17. HLA-B27 heavy chains contribute to spontaneous inflammatory disease in B27/human beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) double transgenic mice with disrupted mouse beta2m.

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, S D; Hansen, J.; Luthra, H S; David, C S

    1996-01-01

    MHC class I allele, HLA-B27, is strongly associated with a group of human diseases called spondyloarthropathies. Some of these diseases have an onset after an enteric or genitourinary infection. In the present study, we describe spontaneous disease in HLA-B27 transgenic mice where endogenous beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) gene was replaced with transgenic human beta2m gene. These mice showed cell surface expression of HLA-B27 similar to that of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addit...

  18. Calcium binding to beta-2-microglobulin at physiological pH drives the occurrence of conformational changes which cause the protein to precipitate into amorphous forms that subsequently transform into amyloid aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Using spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic methods, we demonstrate that calcium binds to beta-2-microglobulin (β2m under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength, in biological buffers, causing a conformational change associated with the binding of up to four calcium atoms per β2m molecule, with a marked transformation of some random coil structure into beta sheet structure, and culminating in the aggregation of the protein at physiological (serum concentrations of calcium and β2m. We draw attention to the fact that the sequence of β2m contains several potential calcium-binding motifs of the DXD and DXDXD (or DXEXD varieties. We establish (a that the microscopic aggregation seen at physiological concentrations of β2m and calcium turns into actual turbidity and visible precipitation at higher concentrations of protein and β2m, (b that this initial aggregation/precipitation leads to the formation of amorphous aggregates, (c that the formation of the amorphous aggregates can be partially reversed through the addition of the divalent ion chelating agent, EDTA, and (d that upon incubation for a few weeks, the amorphous aggregates appear to support the formation of amyloid aggregates that bind to the dye, thioflavin T (ThT, resulting in increase in the dye's fluorescence. We speculate that β2m exists in the form of microscopic aggregates in vivo and that these don't progress to form larger amyloid aggregates because protein concentrations remain low under normal conditions of kidney function and β2m degradation. However, when kidney function is compromised and especially when dialysis is performed, β2m concentrations probably transiently rise to yield large aggregates that deposit in bone joints and transform into amyloids during dialysis related amyloidosis.

  19. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ordered to monitor people who have had a kidney transplant to detect early signs of rejection. It may also be ordered to monitor people ... urine B2M in a person with a kidney transplant may indicate early kidney rejection. Increases in someone who is exposed to high ...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to real-world materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  2. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta(2)-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Rozlosnik, N.;

    2005-01-01

    . Using amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry, we show that Delta K58-beta(2)m has increased unfolding rates compared to wt-beta(2)m and that unfolding is highly temperature dependent. The unfolding rate is I order of magnitude faster in Delta K58-beta(2)M than in wt-beta(2)m...... fluorescence. After a few days at 37 degrees C, in contrast to wt-beta(2)M, Delta K-58-beta(2)M forms well-defined high molecular weight aggregates that are detected by size-exclusion chromatography. Atomic force microscopy after seeding with amyloid-beta(2)m fibrils under conditions that induce minimal...

  3. Urinary Beta 2 Microglobulin in Various Grades of Renal Scar in Pyelonephritis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    N Anvaripour; M Sharifian; Karimi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: For patients who have renal involvement during urinary infection or children with Vesico-ureteral Reflux (VUR), renal Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) scan is performed which exposes children to significant radiation. β²MG is a low molecular weight protein freely filtered by the glomeruli and then actively reabsorbed normally up to 99.9% in the proximal tubules; its urinary measurement is a good index of proximal tubular function of these cells as a primary screening test. Meth...

  4. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases the...... endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native...... human beta 2-m; and the modifying activity of murine MLC responder cells was blocked in an intermediary step by an alloantibody, which reacts specifically with murine major histocompatibility complex, class I-associated beta 2-m. These findings suggest that the modification process is preceded by an...

  5. Quality control of radioimmunoassays and validation of beta-2-microglobulin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to devise a quality check procedure for radioimmunological analyses, easily applicable in all laboratories. The parameters most commonly analysed during such a test are: non-specific activity; total binding capacity; reproducibility; sensitivity; accuracy; specificity; specific activity of the labelled substance; affinity constant of the antigen towards its specific antibody. In the method proposed the calibration curve of any series of measurements is established by Rodbard's method. For the reproducibility study the use of Ekins' method, modified by Grillet and Marchand, was preferred. From the results obtained it is possible to plot the error-response relationship (ERR) and to establish the accuracy profile which gives a good idea of the sensitivity of the analysis method. For the specificity study this method matches the usual operational conditions as closely as possible. The determination is made on the following mixture: a half-volume (with respect to the usual volume) of biological liquid studied and previously analysed for cold antigen Ag0; a half-volume of one of the dilutions prepared with the substance X liable to interfere during the Ag0 determination. Any interferences between the substance X and the antigen are then plotted on a graph representing: as abscisse, the concentration of substance X; as ordinates, the difference between the measured and theoretical Ag0 concentrations. This very simple representation shows the interference threshold of each substance X; accounting for its physiopathological concentration

  6. The Significance of Serum beta2-Microglobulin Measurement in Various Renal Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Oh, Ha Yong; Han, Jin Suk; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-03-15

    To evaluate change of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin concentration (sbeta{sub 2}-MG) and the usefulness of sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sbeta{sub 2}-MG/serum creatinine concentration (sCr) ratio in various renal diseases, sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr were measured in 25 normal controls and 90 patients of various renal diseases (16 cases of glomerulonephritis, 12 cases of acute renal failure, 8 cases of chronic renal failure, 24 cases of nephrotic syndrome, 15 cases of tubulointerstitial diseases and 15 cases of lupus nephritis) using Phadebas beta{sub 2}-Micro Test kits. The results were as follows; 1) In normal control, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 1.65+-0.41 mg/l and the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.14+-0.05. 2) In various renal diseases, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 6.74+-5.47 mg/l. The mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.24+-0.11 and significantly elevated than that of normal contro1. (P<0.05). 3) The correlation between sbeta-2-MG and sCr in glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.90 log sCr-0.48 and its correlation coefficient was 0.78 (P<0.05). 4) In glomerular disease, the correlation between sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.89 log sCr-0.46 (r-0.76) and in tubulointerstitial disease, it was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.95 1og sCr-0.59 (r-0.87). There was no significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05). 5) Among 32 cases of glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease patients, whose sCr was within normal range, 17 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG. The mean values of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio in these patients was 0.30+-0.14 and significantly elevated than that of normal control (p<0.05). 6) In 15 cases of lupus nephritis, 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG with normal sCr and 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio. With above results, It was found that the sbeta{sub 2}-MG can be used as an index of glomerular filtration rate as in the case of sCr and thats sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio can be used as a tool in early detection of slightly decreased glomerular filtration rate and in detection of the renal disease of increased beta{sub 2}-MG production.

  7. Neopterin and Beta-2 Microglobulin Relations to Immunity and Inflammatory Status in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships among serum neopterin (NPT, β2-microglobulin (β2-M levels, clinical status, and endomyocardial biopsy results of dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM. Methods. Serum NPT and β-2 M were determined in 172 nonischaemic DCM patients who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and 30 healthy subjects (ELISA test. The cryostat biopsy specimens were assessed using histology, immunohistology, and immunochemistry methods (HLA ABC, HLA DR expression, CD3 + lymphocytes, and macrophages counts. Results. The strong increase of HLA ABC or HLA DR expression was detected in 27.2% patients—group A—being low in 72.8% patients—group B. Neopterin level was increased in patients in group A compared to healthy controls 8.11 (4.50–12.57 versus 4.99 (2.66–8.28 nmol/L (P<0.05. β-2 microglobulin level was higher in DCM groups A (2.60 (1.71–3.58 and B (2.52 (1.51–3.72 than in the control group 1.75 (1.28–1.96 mg/L, P<0.001. Neopterin correlated positively with the number of macrophages in biopsy specimens (P<0.05 acute phase proteins: C-reactive proteins (P<0.05; fibrinogen (P<0.01; and NYHA functional class (P<0.05 and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (P<0.05. Conclusions. Neopterin but not β-2 microglobulin concentration reflected immune response in biopsy specimens. Neopterin correlated with acute phase proteins and stage of heart failure and may indicate a general immune and inflammatory activation in heart failure.

  8. Quantitative surface characterization using a Nomarski microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, H. van; Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Bijl, R.J.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    The use of a Nomarski microscope for the characterization of surface features will be presented. Since a Nomarski microscope measures slope values, the shape of a surface can be followed quantitatively. Besides, a Nomarski microscope can be used to analyze surface roughness in terms of rms value and

  9. Quantitative phosphoproteomics to characterize signaling networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2012-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of most, if not all, major cellular processes via dynamic signal transduction pathways. During the last decade quantitative phosphoproteomics have evolved from a highly specialized area to a powerful and versatile platform for...... analyzing protein phosphorylation at a system-wide scale and has become the intuitive strategy for comprehensive characterization of signaling networks. Contemporary phosphoproteomics use highly optimized procedures for sample preparation, mass spectrometry and data analysis algorithms to identify and...... quantify thousands of phosphorylations, thus providing extensive overviews of the cellular signaling networks. As a result of these developments quantitative phosphoproteomics have been applied to study processes as diverse as immunology, stem cell biology and DNA damage. Here we review the developments in...

  10. The interaction between beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and purified class-I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Hansen, A S; Olsen, A C;

    1994-01-01

    been generated recently and this paper reports on a similar assay for the interaction between beta 2m and class I. As a model system human beta 2m binding to mouse class I was used. The assay is strictly biochemical using purified reagents which interact in solution and complex formation is determined...... by size separation. It is specific and highly sensitive. The observed affinity of the interaction, KD, is close to 0.4 nM. The rate of association at 37 degrees C is very fast (the ka is around 5 x 10(4)/M/s) whereas the dissociation is slow (the kd is around 8 x 10(-6)/s); the ratio of dissociation...

  11. Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

    2000-07-01

    A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  12. Pure quantitative characterization of linear groups over the binary field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wu-jie; WANG Lin-hong; WANG Shao-heng

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pure scalar characterization of the automorphism group Aut(L5(2)) and the linear group L6(2).It is proved that Aut(L5(2)) and L6(2) can be characterized quantitatively by the set of element orders.The main results are obtained by using William's work on prime graph components of finite groups and Brauer characters in trivializing the possible 2-subgroups.

  13. CMOS APS detector characterization for quantitative X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, Marco, E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, Piernicola [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Golosio, Bruno [Sezione di Matematica, Fisica e Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Delogu, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray Imaging detector based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor and structured scintillator is characterized for quantitative X-ray imaging in the energy range 11–30 keV. Linearity, dark noise, spatial resolution and flat-field correction are the characteristics of the detector subject of investigation. The detector response, in terms of mean Analog-to-Digital Unit and noise, is modeled as a function of the energy and intensity of the X-rays. The model is directly tested using monochromatic X-ray beams and it is also indirectly validated by means of polychromatic X-ray-tube spectra. Such a characterization is suitable for quantitative X-ray imaging and the model can be used in simulation studies that take into account the actual performance of the detector.

  14. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF PURE COPPER PROCESSED BY ECAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šedivý

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM allows to measure crystallic orientations at the surface of the material. Digitalized data representing the orientations are processed to recognize the grain structure and they are visualized in crystal orientation maps. Analysis of the data firstly consists in recognition of grain boundaries followed by identification of grains themselves. Knowing the grain morphology it is possible to characterize the homogeneity of the structure and estimate structural parameters related to the physical properties of the material. The paper describes methods of imaging and quantitative characterization of the grain boundary structure in metals based on data from electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD.

  15. Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization Gene Expression in Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR in Human Normal Thyroid and Goiter Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR has been recognized as the most accurate method for quantifying mRNA transcripts, but normalization of samples is a prerequisite for correct data interpretation. So, this study aimed to evaluate the most stable reference gene for RT-qPCR in human normal thyroid and goiter tissues. Beta-actin (ACTB; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; succinate dehydrogenase, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp (SDHA; hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRTI; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ; and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M were evaluated in 14 thyroid tissue samples (7 normal and 7 goiter tissues by RT-qPCR. The mean Cq and the maximum fold change (MFC and NormFinder software were used to assess the stability of the genes. As a result, ACTB gene was more stable than GAPDH, SDHA, HPRTI, YWHAZ, and B2M. In conclusion, ACTB could be used to normalize RT-qPCR data in normal thyroid and goiter tissues.

  16. Quantitative characterization of porosity in laser welds of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standing-edge joints made by a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser are examined in 304L stainless steel to advance understanding of the linkage between processing and microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Microcomputed tomography combined with traditional metallography has provided qualitative and quantitative characterization of welds in this material system of broad use and applicability. Pore presence and variability have been examined three-dimensionally for average values, spatial distributions and morphology, and related to processing parameters such as weld speed, delivered power and focal lens.

  17. Fractal and Lacunarity Analyses: Quantitative Characterization of Hierarchical Surface Topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Edwin J Y; Servio, Phillip; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Biomimetic hierarchical surface structures that exhibit features having multiple length scales have been used in many technological and engineering applications. Their surface topographies are most commonly analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which only allows for qualitative visual assessments. Here we introduce fractal and lacunarity analyses as a method of characterizing the SEM images of hierarchical surface structures in a quantitative manner. Taking femtosecond laser-irradiated metals as an example, our results illustrate that, while the fractal dimension is a poor descriptor of surface complexity, lacunarity analysis can successfully quantify the spatial texture of an SEM image; this, in turn, provides a convenient means of reporting changes in surface topography with respect to changes in processing parameters. Furthermore, lacunarity plots are shown to be sensitive to the different length scales present within a hierarchical structure due to the reversal of lacunarity trends at specific magnifications where new features become resolvable. Finally, we have established a consistent method of detecting pattern sizes in an image from the oscillation of lacunarity plots. Therefore, we promote the adoption of lacunarity analysis as a powerful tool for quantitative characterization of, but not limited to, multi-scale hierarchical surface topographies. PMID:26758776

  18. Characterizing the anaerobic response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. A total of 2315 proteins were identified. Further analysis based on spectral counting clearly localized 606 of these proteins to the chloroplast, including many proteins of the fermentative metabolism. Comparative quantitative analyses were performed with the chloroplast-localized proteins using stable isotopic labeling of amino acids ([(13)C(6)]arginine/[(12)C(6)]arginine in an arginine auxotrophic strain). The quantitative data confirmed proteins previously characterized as induced at the transcript level as well as identified several new proteins of unknown function induced under anaerobic conditions. These proteins of unknown function provide new candidates for further investigation, which could bring insights for the engineering of hydrogen-producing alga strains. PMID:20190198

  19. A new method for quantitatively characterizing atmospheric oxidation capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG YanLi; WANG XueSong; LIU ZhaoRong; BAI YuHua; LI JinLong

    2008-01-01

    Based on atmospheric chemical kinetics, the rate constant of overall pseudo-first order oxidation re-moval of gaseous pollutants (Kpor.T) is proposed to characterize the atmospheric oxidation capacity in troposphere. Being a quantitative parameter, Kpor,T can be used to address the issues related to at-mospheric oxidation capacity. By applying this method, the regional oxidation capacity of the atmos-phere in Pearl River Delta (PRD) is numerically simulated based on CBM-Ⅳ chemical mechanism. Re-sults show the significant spatio-temporal variation of the atmospheric oxidation capacity in PRD. It is found that OH initiated oxidations, heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, and photolysis of aldehydes are the three most important oxidation processes influencing the atmospheric oxidation capacity in PRD.

  20. A new method for quantitatively characterizing atmospheric oxidation capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on atmospheric chemical kinetics, the rate constant of overall pseudo-first order oxidation re-moval of gaseous pollutants (Kpor,T) is proposed to characterize the atmospheric oxidation capacity in troposphere. Being a quantitative parameter, Kpor,T can be used to address the issues related to at-mospheric oxidation capacity. By applying this method, the regional oxidation capacity of the atmos-phere in Pearl River Delta (PRD) is numerically simulated based on CBM-IV chemical mechanism. Re-sults show the significant spatio-temporal variation of the atmospheric oxidation capacity in PRD. It is found that OH initiated oxidations, heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, and photolysis of aldehydes are the three most important oxidation processes influencing the atmospheric oxidation capacity in PRD.

  1. Quantitative characterization of nanoparticle agglomeration within biological media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondow, Nicole, E-mail: n.hondow@leeds.ac.uk; Brydson, Rik [University of Leeds, Institute for Materials Research (United Kingdom); Wang, Peiyi [University of Leeds, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology (United Kingdom); Holton, Mark D.; Brown, M. Rowan; Rees, Paul; Summers, Huw D. [Swansea University, Centre for Nanohealth, College of Engineering (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [University of Leeds, Institute for Materials Research (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle dispersion state within biological media is essential to understanding cellular uptake and the roles of diffusion, sedimentation, and endocytosis in determining nanoparticle dose. The dispersion of polymer-coated CdTe/ZnS quantum dots in water and cell growth medium with and without fetal bovine serum was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Characterization by TEM of samples prepared by plunge freezing the blotted solutions into liquid ethane was sensitive to the dispersion state of the quantum dots and enabled measurement of agglomerate size distributions even in the presence of serum proteins where DLS failed. In addition, TEM showed a reduced packing fraction of quantum dots per agglomerate when dispersed in biological media and serum compared to just water, highlighting the effect of interactions between the media, serum proteins, and the quantum dots. The identification of a heterogeneous distribution of quantum dots and quantum dot agglomerates in cell growth medium and serum by TEM will enable correlation with the previously reported optical metrology of in vitro cellular uptake of this quantum dot dispersion. In this paper, we present a comparative study of TEM and DLS and show that plunge-freeze TEM provides a robust assessment of nanoparticle agglomeration state.

  2. New quantitative, in-situ characterization of weathering in geomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep; Yus Gonzalez, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The mineralogical and microtextural analyses of weathered rocks and mortars are the main diagnostic tools to address the materials exposed under different environmental conditions in order to enucleate and mitigate the decay factors. The characterization of weathering intensity is mostly descriptive and non-quantitative (ICOMOS Glossary, 2008); the Fitzner indexes in arenites (Fitzner et al., 2002) and more recently applied to marbles (Scrivano et al., 2013) provide an operator dependent method. The current diagnostic of decay (Drdàcky & Slìzkovà, 2014) based on a scotch tape tearing off the surface was improved by a specifically adapted pocket penetrometer, and a joint gravimetric + minero-chemical analysis under SEM of ablational decay products. The steps are the following: i) Preparation of stubs for SEM with adherent conductive carbon tape (surface area 1.3 cm2) ii) Weighing of stub + tape + its plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision iii) Connecting the stub to a pocket penetrometer iv) Non invasive sampling of the incoherent dust applying a constant pressure of 2 kgf for 1 minute, and then packing away the stub without loosing grains v) Weighing of stub + tape + weathering products + their plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision vi) Recast the weight of removed material vii) Addressing the weathering products to SEM - EDS. Our quantitative peeling test was applied on a 96m long cladded wall in the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery in Genoa. The wall shows weathering gradients due to a neighbouring interred stream and to different insulation. Slabs of ophicalcite marble were tested from three different areas (5 samples were collected to the E, 5 samples at the centre, 5 samples to the W). The results highlighted capillary rise up to 2 meters height and a more weathered central area. On the whole, our protocol allows a delicate, virtually not impacting and reproducible factual sampling. Moreover, if carried out on a statistically significant population, the decay

  3. Intracranial Calcifications and Hemorrhages: Characterization with Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weiwei; Zhu, Wenzhen; Kovanlikaya, IIhami; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Shuai; Salustri, Carlo; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping demonstrates the negative susceptibility of calcification and the positive susceptibility of hemorrhage and is superior to phase imaging in the specific detection of intracranial calcifications and accurate detection of intracranial hemorrhages.

  4. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Ryan S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A, ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein—zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. Conclusions BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species.

  5. Alpha-interferon induces enhanced expression of HLA-ABC antigens and beta-2-microglobulin in vivo and in vitro in various subsets of human lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Larsen, J K; Plesner, T; Olesen, B K; Ernst, P

    1987-01-01

    saturating amounts of FITC conjugated monoclonal anti-HLA-ABC or anti-beta-2-m. Phycoerythrin conjugated monoclonal antibodies were simultaneously used for the selection of T lymphocytes. T helper lymphocytes, T suppressor lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and monocytes. In vitro, alpha-IFN induced a significant...

  6. Frequent lack of translation of antigen presentation-associated molecules MHC class I, CD1a and Beta(2)-microglobulin in Reed-Sternberg cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.; Visser, L; Eberwine, J; Dadvand, L; Poppema, S

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells of a substantial proportion of Hodgkin's lymphoma cases. Most EBV-positive cases are also MHC class I-positive, whereas the majority of EBV-negative cases lack detectable levels of MHC class I expression. Application of the SAGE techni

  7. Modification of beta 2-microglobulin in serum from patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung--correlation with the clinical course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Plesner, T; Rørth, M

    1984-01-01

    before clinical or radiological evidence of disease progression. Total serum beta 2m was measured by radioimmunoassay. Elevated values (greater than 200 nmol/l) was found in 14 of 48 patients with small cell lung cancer. No correlation with the clinical course was found in patients monitored during...... demonstrated in 49 of 54 patients with small cell lung cancer. The values returned to normal (less than 0.30 A.U.) in eight of the ten patients achieving complete remission (CR) and in three of seven patients achieving partial remission (PR) after chemotherapy. The decrease was more pronounced (median 0...... chemotherapy. Estimation of total beta 2m is of no clinical value in small cell lung cancer. Estimation of beta 2m 'modifying activity, provides clinically relevant information, but is too laborious for routine clinical application. The biochemical process underlying this phenomenon should be studied further...

  8. Normal luminal bacteria, especially Bacteroides species, mediate chronic colitis, gastritis, and arthritis in HLA-B27/human beta2 microglobulin transgenic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, H C; Herfarth, H H; Ikeda, J S; Grenther, W B; Hamm, T E; Balish, E; Taurog, J D; Hammer, R. E.; Wilson, K H; Sartor, R B

    1996-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis of clinical and experimental chronic intestinal inflammation. We investigated the influence of normal luminal bacteria and several groups of selected bacterial strains on spontaneous gastrointestinal and systemic inflammation in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Rats maintained germfree for 3-9 mo were compared with littermates conventionalized with specific pathogen-free bacteria. Subsequently, germfree transgenic rats were colonized...

  9. HLA-E: strong association with beta2-microglobulin and surface expression in the absence of HLA class I signal sequence-derived peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lo Monaco, E.; Sibilio, L.; Melucci, E.; Tremante, E.; Suchánek, M.; Hořejší, Václav; Martayan, A.; Giacomini, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 8 (2008), s. 5442-5450. ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HLA-E * MHC * monoclonal antibodies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  10. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    sensory system either by mechanical, thermal or electrical stimuli, with assessment of the evoked psychophysical response. QST has been used in prospective assessments of how and why some individuals develop persistent postoperative pain. This comprehensive review describes, first, QST as a predictive......Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation of the...

  11. Identification of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Hongju; Zhang, Yuqing; Deng, Ruyuan; Shao, Li; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is becoming increasingly important in the effort to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying adipogenesis. However, the expression profile of a target gene may be misinterpreted due to the unstable expression of the reference genes under different experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. The mRNA expression levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and transferrin receptor (TFRC) significantly increased during the course of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which was decreased by berberine, an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Three popular algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, identified 18 ribosomal RNA and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) as the most stable reference genes, while GAPDH and TFRC were the least stable ones. Peptidylprolyl isomerase A [PIPA (cyclophilin A)], ribosomal protein, large, P0 (36-B4), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), α1-tubulin, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and β-actin showed relatively stable expression levels. The choice of reference genes with various expression stabilities exerted a profound influence on the expression profiles of 2 target genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ2 and C/EBPα. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that the increased protein expression of GAPDH was markedly inhibited by berberine during adipocyte differentiation. This study highlights the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression during the process of adipogenesis. PMID:24626784

  12. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Erin E.; West, Brooke S.; Roth, Alexis M.; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, ‘place’, including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions. PMID:27191846

  13. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Erin E; West, Brooke S; Roth, Alexis M; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions. PMID:27191846

  14. Quantitative Adhesion Characterization of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Ryan; Rewari, Raunaq; Novoa, Fernando D.; Hebert, Peter; Ermer, James; Miller, David C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method, which enables the quantitative measurement of adhesion on the thin and fragile substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. In particular, we address the adhesion of several 2- and 3-layer antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology through processing, we demonstrate the marked effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We demonstrate that even with germanium substrates that fracture relatively easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  15. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Conners

    Full Text Available Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC, whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1 Participatory mapping; 2 Quantitative interviews; 3 Sex work venue field observation; 4 Time-location-activity diaries; 5 In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions.

  16. Dissection of a Synthesized Quantitative Trait to Characterize Transgene Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan-Peter; Conner, Anthony J.; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Stiekema, Willem J.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1997-01-01

    Six transgenic tobacco lines, each homozygous for the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene at a different locus, and wild type were selfed and intercrossed to evaluate GUS activity in all possible hemizygous, homozygous and dihybrid combinations of GUS alleles. The transgenic lines are characterized by their

  17. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation of the...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third, the...... implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  18. Quantitative characterization of microstructure of pure copper processed by ECAP:

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Šedivý; Viktor Beneš; Petr Ponížil; Petr Král; Václav Sklenička

    2013-01-01

    Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) allows to measure crystallic orientations at the surface of a material. Digitalized data representing the orientations are processed to recognize the grain structure and they are visualized in crystal orientation maps. Analysis of the data firstly consists in recognition of grain boundaries followed by identification of grains themselves. Knowing the grain morphology, it is possible to characterize the grain size homogeneity and estimate structural paramet...

  19. Quantitative Characterization of Phosphor Detector for Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments made to characterize phosphor screens with application as broadband radiation detectors, are described. Several radiation sources, covering the spectral range between the ultraviolet and X ray, were used. In addition, details are given of three original phosphor-screen-based detectors that were designed for use as broadband detectors in magnetically confined fusion devices. The first measurements obtained with these detectors in plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator device are presented together with the analysis performed. (Author)

  20. Quantitative characterization of animal behavior following blast exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Paul Ernest

    2007-01-01

    The simplest approach to quantifying animal behavior begins by identifying a list of discrete behaviors and observing the animal’s behavior at regular intervals for a specified period of time. The behavioral distribution (the fraction of observations corresponding to each behavior) is then determined. This is an incomplete characterization of behavior, and in some instances, mild injury is not reflected by statistically significant changes in the distribution even though a human observer can ...

  1. Quantitative Characterization Guidelines of Erionite Series Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, A.; Dogan, M.

    2013-05-01

    Erionite is a major health problem where contaminates an environment, which human population exists. Erionite - mesothelioma relationship was first observed in Turkey in 1980's and now the problem is emerging in other places in the world including Mexico. In the past, there have been in vivo or in vitro biological experiments performed using "not correctly characterized" erionite minerals. In addition, in 1997, the erionite was elevated to series status and new erionite minerals - erionite-Na, -K, -Ca - have been proposed. In 2008, erionite characterization guidelines have been proposed (Dogan and Dogan, 2008) and using these criteria, published data was re-evaluated and re-classified; and new mean chemical formula of erionite-Na, -K, -Ca was proposed. If data do not pass the E% and Mg-tests, then any reference to them in the literature is proposed to be disregarded. In some cases, different results have been reported for erionites from the same location by different authors. In these cases, if data do pass both tests but are characterized as from more than one type of erionite, then the mineral should be classified as "undifferentiated" until further clarification. Therefore, we propose (i) Erionite should be correctly characterized using proposed "positive" identification guidelines. (ii) Erionite species (whether it is -Na or -K or -Ca) should be correctly identified. (iii) There should be a close collaboration between medical community researchers and mineralogists in this field so that animal and cell experiments should be performed only with minerals that have passed "positive" identification tests. (iv) An international data bank should be established at one of the mineralogical societies and new data must be evaluated rigorously before being accepted. (v) Regulatory Agencies should ensure that the proposed guidelines for "positive" identification of erionite series minerals, both for a single fiber and a bulk mineral, are followed closely. (vi) Finally, the

  2. Quantitative morphological characterization of bicontinuous Pickering emulsions via interfacial curvatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew; Stratford, Kevin; Thijssen, Job H J

    2016-05-14

    Bicontinuous Pickering emulsions (bijels) are a physically interesting class of soft materials with many potential applications including catalysis, microfluidics and tissue engineering. They are created by arresting the spinodal decomposition of a partially-miscible liquid with a (jammed) layer of interfacial colloids. Porosity L (average interfacial separation) of the bijel is controlled by varying the radius (r) and volume fraction (ϕ) of the colloids (L∝r/ϕ). However, to optimize the bijel structure with respect to other parameters, e.g. quench rate, characterizing by L alone is insufficient. Hence, we have used confocal microscopy and X-ray CT to characterize a range of bijels in terms of local and area-averaged interfacial curvatures; we further demonstrate that bijels are bicontinuous using an image-analysis technique known as 'region growing'. In addition, the curvatures of bijels have been monitored as a function of time, which has revealed an intriguing evolution up to 60 minutes after bijel formation, contrary to previous understanding. PMID:27035101

  3. Quantitative microstructure characterization and elastic properties upscaling of carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Most Rock Physics models commonly used to predict elastic properties rely on a very simplified representation of the pore and grains geometry. Initially developed for siliclastic rocks, they do not apply easily and/or with as much success, to rocks with more complicated microstructure such as carbonates, which exhibit complex relationships between geophysical attributes and rock properties, such as P-wave velocity versus porosity. Furthermore, until recently, most microstructure imaging techniques such as optical microscopy, SEM, X-ray micro-CT, etc., only give a qualitative description of the pore and grain arrangement. Nano-indentation technique is a method that gives quantitative information by mean of local (micrometer size) measurements of elastic moduli. We used this technique to obtain 300 μm * 300 μm maps of Young's moduli (around 1000 data points) of two microporous carbonates of same mineralogy but of two different microstructures. As the size of the indenter tip is much smaller than the characteristic length of the heterogeneities in microstructure, the distribution of the Young's moduli can be deconvolved into its component parts (i.e. phases). SEM imaging of the same areas than the ones mapped by nano-indentation shows correlations between type of micrite and phases of different mean Young's modulus: tight micrites exhibiting a higher Young's modulus (up to 64 GPa) than microporous micrites (as low as 9 GPa). We then investigate different ways to upscale the measurements in order to get the effective bulk and shear moduli, from simply using volume fractions of the different phases, classical Hashin-Shrikman bounds, and Hill average; to using micro-CT imaging and analysis combined with rock physics models. Though more work is still needed to render nano-indentation technique a robust method for rock physics, both on the theory behind and on the upscaling of the measurements, these results that use nano-indentation method in a statistical way are very

  4. Selection and validation of reference house-keeping genes in the J774A1 macrophage cell line for quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F B; Fernandez, J H

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are essential components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, playing a decisive role in atherosclerosis, asthma, obesity, and cancer. The differential gene expression resulting from adhesion of macrophages to the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) has been studied in the J774A1 murine macrophage cell line using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The goal of this study was to identify housekeeping genes (HKGs) that remain stable and unaltered under normal culture conditions and in the presence of laminin after a time lapse of 6 and 24 h. The expression stabilities of eight commonly used reference genes were analyzed by determining the comparative threshold cycle ((ΔΔ)Ct) values, and using the BestKeeper, NormFinder, and geNorm algorithms. BestKeeper analysis revealed that the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A) genes were highly stable, confirming the results of the (ΔΔ)Ct analysis. On the other hand, NormFinder proposed RPL13A and beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) to be the most suitable combination, and geNorm adjudged RPL13A, PPIA, and GUSB to be the most stable across all culture conditions. All programs discarded the use of actin beta and beta-2-microglobulin for normalization. The collected data indicated that RPL13A, PPIA, GAPDH, and GUSB as highly suitable as reference genes for qPCR analysis of murine macrophages under normal and ECM-simulated culture conditions. This study also emphasizes the importance of evaluating HKGs used for normalization to ensure the accuracy of qPCR data. PMID:26985962

  5. Pulmonary nodule characterization: A comparison of conventional with quantitative and visual semi-quantitative analyses using contrast enhancement maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    less effective in distinguishing malignant from benign lesions, with an average AUC of 0.62. The visually scored pattern of enhancement was found to be more effective with an average AUC of 0.79. From the statistical analysis performed to combine the texture features to a single factor, the area under the ROC curve was 0.84. Conclusion: The present study suggests that visual semi-quantitative and quantitative characterization of contrast enhancement patterns may potentially enhance the discrimination between benign and malignant nodules. Further studies and correlation with pathologic material will be important to better understand the potential interplay between CT enhancement features, host stromal elements, and neovascularity that may contribute to these patterns

  6. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre;

    2006-01-01

    method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus......Background: The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: ( 1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and ( 2) to use the...

  7. Distribution, quantitative load and characterization of Salmonella associated with swine farms in upper-northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Kumpapong, Kittipong; Sinthuya, Danai; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Nuanualsuwan, Supachai; Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Molla, Bayleyegn Z.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48~4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean ± standard...

  8. Pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantitative ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    One potential approach to the quantitative acquisition of discriminatory information that can isolate a single structural state is pattern recognition. The pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantiative ultrasonics are outlined. The concepts, terminology, and techniques of statistical pattern recognition are reviewed. Feature extraction and classification and states of the structure can be determined via a program of ultrasonic data generation.

  9. Quantitative analysis of estimated scattering coefficient and phase retardation for ovarian tissue characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2012-01-01

    In this report, optical scattering coefficient and phase retardation quantitatively estimated from polarization-sensitive OCT (PSOCT) were used for ovarian tissue characterization. A total of 33 ex vivo ovaries (normal: n = 26, malignant: n = 7) obtained from 18 patients were investigated. A specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 86% were achieved by using estimated scattering coefficient alone; and a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 43% were obtained by using phase retardation alon...

  10. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    We present two new types of microfluidic passive magnetic bead separator systems as well as methods for performing quantitative characterizations of them. Both systems consist of a microfluidic channel with long rectangular magnetic elements of permalloy that are placed by the sides of the channel...... and magnetized by an external magnetic field. In one of the systems, a staggered herringbone microfluidic mixer is integrated in the channel. The characterization of the systems includes magnetic measurements of the capture-and-release efficiencies, estimates of distributions of captured beads in a...

  11. Noninvasive Characterization of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Textural Analysis of Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Tadayyon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The identification of tumor pathologic characteristics is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning but currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, we investigated a noninvasive quantitative ultrasound method for the characterization of breast tumors in terms of their histologic grade, which can be used with clinical diagnostic ultrasound data. METHODS: Tumors of 57 locally advanced breast cancer patients were analyzed as part of this study. Seven quantitative ultrasound parameters were determined from each tumor region from the radiofrequency data, including mid-band fit, spectral slope, 0-MHz intercept, scatterer spacing, attenuation coefficient estimate, average scatterer diameter, and average acoustic concentration. Parametric maps were generated corresponding to the region of interest, from which four textural features, including contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation, were determined as further tumor characterization parameters. Data were examined on the basis of tumor subtypes based on histologic grade (grade I versus grade II to III. RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis of the means of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 79%. On the other hand, the linear combination of the texture features of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 82%. Finally, when both the means and textures of the parametric maps were combined, the best classification accuracy was obtained (86%. CONCLUSIONS: Textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provided discriminant information about different types of breast tumors. The use of texture features significantly improved the results of ultrasonic tumor characterization compared to conventional mean values. Thus, this study suggests that texture-based quantitative ultrasound analysis of in vivo breast tumors can provide complementary diagnostic information about tumor histologic

  12. Quantitative data analysis methods for 3D microstructure characterization of Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    . Alignment of the individual image slices is performed by automatic detection of ducial marks. Uneven illumination is corrected by tting hypersurfaces to the spatial intensity variation in the 3D image data. Routine use of quantitative three dimensional analysis of microstructure is generally restricted by...... for gaining further fundamental understanding of how microstructure affects performance. In this work, methods for automatic 3D characterization of microstructure are studied: from the acquisition of 3D image data by focused ion beam tomography to the extraction of quantitative measures that......The performance of electrochemical ceramic devices such as solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells depends on the distribution of constituent phases on the micro or nano scale, also known as the microstructure. The microstructure governs key properties such as ion, electron and gas transport...

  13. Quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography for noncontact mechanical characterization of myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging low-coherence imaging technique that provides noninvasive assessment of tissue biomechanics with high spatial resolution. Among various OCE methods, the capability of quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity is of great importance for tissue characterization and pathology detection across different samples. Here we report a quantitative OCE technique, termed quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (Q-SWI-OCT), which enables noncontact measurement of tissue Young's modulus based on the ultra-fast imaging of the shear wave propagation inside the sample. A focused air-puff device is used to interrogate the tissue with a low-pressure short-duration air stream that stimulates a localized displacement with the scale at micron level. The propagation of this tissue deformation in the form of shear wave is captured by a phase-sensitive OCT system running with the scan of the M-mode imaging over the path of the wave propagation. The temporal characteristics of the shear wave is quantified based on the cross-correlation of the tissue deformation profiles at all the measurement locations, and linear regression is utilized to fit the data plotted in the domain of time delay versus wave propagation distance. The wave group velocity is thus calculated, which results in the quantitative measurement of the Young's modulus. As the feasibility demonstration, experiments are performed on tissuemimicking phantoms with different agar concentrations and the quantified elasticity values with Q-SWI-OCT agree well with the uniaxial compression tests. For functional characterization of myocardium with this OCE technique, we perform our pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with two studies, including 1) elasticity difference of cardiac muscle under relaxation and contract conditions and 2) mechanical heterogeneity of the heart introduced by the muscle fiber orientation. Our results suggest the

  14. Quantitative characterization of the filiform mechanosensory hair array on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense.

  15. Satellite Perspective of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport: From Qualitative Tracking to Quantitative Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT, beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. After an overview of these advances, we review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  16. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefel, Denis, E-mail: Denis.Kiefel@airbus.com, E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Stoessel, Rainer, E-mail: Denis.Kiefel@airbus.com, E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com [Airbus Group Innovations, Munich (Germany); Grosse, Christian, E-mail: Grosse@tum.de [Technical University Munich (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  17. Thermographic detection and quantitative characterization of corrosion by application of thermal line source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.; Reid, Dan; Johnson, Jane

    1999-02-01

    Wall thinning in utility boiler waterwall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proved to be very labor intensive and slow. This has resulted in a `spot check' approach to inspections, making thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source, coupled with this analysis technique, represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler waterwalls while still providing high-resolution thickness measurements. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented thus demonstrating the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, results of laboratory experiments on flat panel specimens with fabricated material loss regions will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Additionally, the results of applying this technology to actual waterwall tubing samples will be presented.

  18. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  19. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefel, Denis; Stoessel, Rainer; Grosse, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  20. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented

  1. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed

  2. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadayyon, Hadi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Czarnota@sunnybrook.ca [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1P5 (Canada); Wirtzfeld, Lauren [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Wright, Frances C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  3. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  4. Quantitative characterization of the x-ray imaging capability of rotating modulation collimators with laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither Iii, C C; Schmahl, E J; Crannell, C J; Dennis, B R; Lang, F L; Orwig, L E; Hartman, C N; Hurford, G J

    1996-12-01

    We developed a method for making quantitative characterizations of bi-grid rotating modulation collimators (RMC's) that are used in a Fourier transform x-ray imager. With appropriate choices of the collimator spacings, this technique can be implemented with a beam-expanded He-Ne laser to simulate the plane wave produced by a point source at infinity even though the RMC's are diffraction limited at the He-Ne wavelength of 632.8 nm. The expanded beam passes through the grid pairs at a small angle with respect to their axis of rotation, and the modulated transmission through the grids as the RMC's rotate is detected with a photomultiplier tube. In addition to providing a quantitative characterization of the RMC's, the method also produces a measured point response function and provides an end-to-end check of the imaging system. We applied our method to the RMC's on the high-energy imaging device (HEIDI) balloon payload in its preflight configuration. We computed the harmonic ratios of the modulation time profile from the laser measurements and compared them with theoretical calculations, including the diffraction effects on irregular grids. Our results indicate the 25-in. (64-cm) x-ray imaging optics on HEIDI are capable of achieving images near the theoretical limit and are not seriously compromised by imperfections in the grids. PMID:21151253

  5. A quantitative approach for hydrological drought characterization in southwestern China using GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Nengfang; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Chao, Dingbo

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative approach for hydrological drought characterization, based on non-seasonal water storage deficit data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, is assessed. Non-seasonal storage deficit is the negative terrestrial water storage after deducting trend, acceleration and seasonal signals, and it is designated as a drought event when it persists for three or more continuous months. The non-seasonal water storage deficit is used for measuring the hydrological drought in southwestern China. It is found that this storage-deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end and duration, and quantifies instantaneous severity, peak drought magnitude, and time to recovery. Moreover, it is found that severe droughts have frequently struck southwestern China in the past several decades, among which, the drought of 2011-2012 was the most severe; the duration was 10 months, the severity was -208.92 km3/month, and the time to recovery was 17 months. These results compare well with the National Climate Center of China drought databases, which signifies that the GRACE-based non-seasonal water storage deficit has a quantitative effect on hydrological drought characterization and provides an effective tool for researching droughts.

  6. A quantitative approach for hydrological drought characterization in southwestern China using GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Nengfang; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Chao, Dingbo

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative approach for hydrological drought characterization, based on non-seasonal water storage deficit data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, is assessed. Non-seasonal storage deficit is the negative terrestrial water storage after deducting trend, acceleration and seasonal signals, and it is designated as a drought event when it persists for three or more continuous months. The non-seasonal water storage deficit is used for measuring the hydrological drought in southwestern China. It is found that this storage-deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end and duration, and quantifies instantaneous severity, peak drought magnitude, and time to recovery. Moreover, it is found that severe droughts have frequently struck southwestern China in the past several decades, among which, the drought of 2011-2012 was the most severe; the duration was 10 months, the severity was -208.92 km3/month, and the time to recovery was 17 months. These results compare well with the National Climate Center of China drought databases, which signifies that the GRACE-based non-seasonal water storage deficit has a quantitative effect on hydrological drought characterization and provides an effective tool for researching droughts.

  7. Quantitative Characterization of Inclusions in Continuously Cast High-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Masoumeh; Wilcox, David P.; Thackray, Richard; Howe, Andrew A.; Todd, Iain; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2015-12-01

    Existing standards for the characterization of the size, morphology, chemistry, and distribution of inclusions in steels using different techniques are briefly reviewed in this work. Strengths and shortfalls of different methods are discussed, and a combination of different criteria is used to quantitatively characterize the inclusions in a continuously cast high-carbon steel. It is shown that the main elements in the inclusions for the studied steel were Mn, S, Ti, Al, and oxygen and that alongside MnS and some Al2O3 inclusions many non-metallic inclusions appeared in complex forms, consisting of silicates, sulfides, and different types of oxides. Duplex inclusions, mainly cores of Al2O3, or SiO2 surrounded by MnS were the most common complex multiphase inclusions in this steel. An industrial approach was used to classify the inclusions into thirteen different oxide types. Based upon this approach, data are presented according to the chemistry of inclusions using diagrams featuring different quantitative parameters. Furthermore, it is shown that the number of oxides per unit area and the size of oxides, respectively, decreased and increased with increasing distance from the surface of the bloom which had solidified at the highest cooling rate.

  8. Quantitative impedance characterization of sub-10 nm scale capacitors and tunnel junctions with an interferometric scanning microwave microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method to characterize sub-10 nm capacitors and tunnel junctions by interferometric scanning microwave microscopy (iSMM) at 7.8 GHz. At such device scaling, the small water meniscus surrounding the iSMM tip should be reduced by proper tip tuning. Quantitative impedance characterization of attofarad range capacitors is achieved using an ‘on-chip’ calibration kit facing thousands of nanodevices. Nanoscale capacitors and tunnel barriers were detected through variations in the amplitude and phase of the reflected microwave signal, respectively. This study promises quantitative impedance characterization of a wide range of emerging functional nanoscale devices. (paper)

  9. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  10. Validation of putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma using real-time quantitative RT-PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The selection of reference genes is critical for gene expression studies because the expression of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Here, a systematic evaluation of six putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is presented. Six genes, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethyl-bilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and ubiquitin C (UBC), with distinct functional characteristics and expression patterns were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Inhibitory substances in RNA samples were quantitatively assessed and controlled using an external RNA control. The stability of selected reference genes was analyzed using both geNorm and NormFinder software. HMBS and GAPDH were identified as the optimal reference genes for normalizing gene expression data between paired tumoral and adjacent non-tumoral tissues derived from patients with HCC. HMBS, GAPDH and UBC were identified to be suitable for the normalization of gene expression data among tumor tissues; whereas the combination of HMBS, B2M, SDHA and GAPDH was suitable for normalizing gene expression data among five liver cancer cell lines, namely Hep3B, HepG2, HuH7, SK-HEP-1 and SNU-182. The determined gene stability was increased after exclusion of RNA samples containing relatively higher inhibitory substances. Of six genes studied, HMBS was found to be the single best reference gene for gene expression studies in HCC. The appropriate choice of combination of more than one reference gene to improve qRT-PCR accuracy depends on the kind of liver tissues or cells under investigation

  11. Activation energies of colloidal particle aggregation: towards a quantitative characterization of specific ion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Rui; Yang, Gang; Li, Hang; Gao, Xiaodan; Liu, Xinmin; Zhu, Hualing; Tang, Ying

    2014-05-21

    A quantitative description of specific ion effects is an essential and focused topic in colloidal and biological science. In this work, the dynamic light scattering technique was employed to study the aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles in the various alkali ion solutions with a wide range of concentrations. It indicated that the activation energies could be used to quantitatively characterize specific ion effects, which was supported by the results of effective hydrodynamic diameters, aggregation rates and critical coagulation concentrations. At a given concentration of 25 mmol L(-1), the activation energies for Li(+) are 1.2, 5.7, 28, and 126 times as much for Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+), respectively. Most importantly, the activation energy differences between two alkali cation species increase sharply with decrease of electrolyte concentrations, implying the more pronounced specific ion effects at lower concentrations. The dominant role of electrolyte cations during the aggregation of negatively charged colloidal particles was confirmed by alternative anions. Among the various theories, only the polarization effect can give a rational interpretation of the above specific ion effects, and this is substantially supported by the presence of strong electric fields from montmorillonite surfaces and its association mainly with electrolyte cations and montmorillonite particles. The classical induction theory, although with inclusion of electric field, requires significant corrections because it predicts an opposite trend to the experimentally observed specific ion effects. PMID:24603654

  12. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography. (paper)

  13. Quantitative performance characterization of three-dimensional noncontact fluorescence molecular tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favicchio, Rosy; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Schönig, Kai; Bartsch, Dusan; Mamalaki, Clio; Papamatheakis, Joseph; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins and dyes are routine tools for biological research to describe the behavior of genes, proteins, and cells, as well as more complex physiological dynamics such as vessel permeability and pharmacokinetics. The use of these probes in whole body in vivo imaging would allow extending the range and scope of current biomedical applications and would be of great interest. In order to comply with a wide variety of application demands, in vivo imaging platform requirements span from wide spectral coverage to precise quantification capabilities. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) detects and reconstructs in three dimensions the distribution of a fluorophore in vivo. Noncontact FMT allows fast scanning of an excitation source and noninvasive measurement of emitted fluorescent light using a virtual array detector operating in free space. Here, a rigorous process is defined that fully characterizes the performance of a custom-built horizontal noncontact FMT setup. Dynamic range, sensitivity, and quantitative accuracy across the visible spectrum were evaluated using fluorophores with emissions between 520 and 660 nm. These results demonstrate that high-performance quantitative three-dimensional visible light FMT allowed the detection of challenging mesenteric lymph nodes in vivo and the comparison of spectrally distinct fluorescent reporters in cell culture.

  14. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  15. Distribution, quantitative load and characterization of Salmonella associated with swine farms in upper-northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Kumpapong, Kittipong; Sinthuya, Danai; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Nuanualsuwan, Supachai; Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Molla, Bayleyegn Z; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48 ˜ 4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.11 ± 0.57. AMP/S/TE (ampicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline) was the highest frequency antimicrobial resistance pattern found in this study. In addition, Salmonella Rissen was the primary serotype in this region. PFGE results indicated the occurrence of infection by cross contamination among pig farms. Our study showed that pork is easily contaminated with this pathogen. Farm control programs must be based on strict biosecurity and hygienic measures, which could further reduce the contamination pressure at slaughterhouses or retail shops. PMID:24675839

  16. COMPARATIVE, QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHEMOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AMONG NORTH INDIAN TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashwani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, Several medicinal plant species are used in herbal drug industries, whereas Tribulus terrestris extract has an ancient tradition in folk medicine and in ayurveda as a diuretic, mood enhancer, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent. Due to few phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are no quality criteria for this Tribulus terrestris species as raw material. In this work, we present unique fingerprints of six samples of Tribulus terrestris population relating to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloid and saponins. Qualitative analysis of the phytochemicals of methanolic extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins in all the plants. Quantitative analysis showed that the crude saponin was the major phytochemical constituent present in highest percentage followed by crude tannin in all six plants. These chemical characterizations can provide, for example, authentication of samples, detection of adulterations, and differentiation between closely related species.

  17. Quantitative characterization of the reliability of simplex buses and stars to compare their benefits in fieldbuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldbuses targeted to highly dependable distributed embedded systems are shifting from bus to star topologies. Surprisingly, despite the efforts into this direction, engineers lack of analyses that quantitatively characterize the system reliability achievable by buses and stars. Thus, to guide engineers in developing adequate bus and star fieldbuses, this work models, quantifies and compares the system reliability provided by simplex buses and stars for the case of the Controller Area Network (CAN). It clarifies how relevant dependability-related aspects affect reliability, refuting some intuitive ideas, and revealing some previously unknown bus and star benefits. - Highlights: • SANs models that quantify the reliability of simplex buses/stars in fieldbuses. • Models cover system relevant dependability-related features abstracted in the literature. • Results refute intuitive ideas about buses and stars and show some unexpected effects. • Models and results can guide the design of reliable simplex bus/stars fieldbuses

  18. Impact Assessment of Abiotic Resources in LCA: Quantitative Comparison of Selected Characterization Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbech, Jakob Thaysen; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment...... results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247...... individual market inventory data sets covering a wide range of societal activities (ecoinvent database v3.0). Log–linear regression analysis was carried out for all pairwise combinations of the 11 methods for identification of correlations in CFs (resources) and total impacts (inventory data sets) between...

  19. Quantitative characterization of initiation and propagation in stress corrosion cracking. An approach of a phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl2 aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a 'riddle' for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author)

  20. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis. PMID:18558710

  1. a Quantitative Procedure for the Spatial Characterization of Urban Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decraene, James; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Hung, Terence Gih Guang

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a procedure that characterizes the land use pattern of an urban system using: (a) Spatial entropy that measures the extent of spread of residential, business and industrial sectors; and (b) Index of dissimilarity that quantifies the degree of mixing in space of different sectors. The approach is illustrated by using the land use zoning maps of the city state of Singapore and a selection of North American cities. We show that a common feature of most cities is for the industrial areas to be highly clustered while at the same time segregated from the residential or business districts. We also demonstrate that the combination of entropy of residential and dissimilarity index between residential and business areas provides a quantitative and potentially useful means of differentiating the land use pattern of different cities.

  2. Quantitative characterization of the microstructure and properties of nanocrystalline WC–Co bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Microstructure of the nanocrystalline WC–Co cermet bulk was quantitatively described by transmission electron microscopy based precession electron diffraction technology. It is discovered that the fraction of the Σ2 grain boundaries increases with the decrease of WC grain size. The effect of microstructure on mechanical properties depends on Co distribution, Σ2 boundaries fraction and WC grain contiguity. -- Nanocrystalline WC–Co bulk was prepared using a novel route that combined in situ reactions and subsequent spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy-based precession electron diffraction technology. The nanocrystalline microstructure has a high WC grain contiguity. The fraction of Σ2 boundaries increases with a decrease in WC grain size. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties was analyzed in terms of the correlations between Co distribution, Σ2 boundary fraction and WC grain contiguity.

  3. Morphologic characterization and quantitative analysis on in vitro bacteria by nuclear techniques of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great difficulty to identify microorganisms (bacteria) from infectious processes is related to the necessary time to obtain a reliable result, about 72 hours. The purpose of this work is to establish a faster method to characterize bacterial morphologies through the use of neutron radiography, which can take about 5 hours. The samples containing the microorganisms, bacteria with different morphologies, after the appropriate microbiologic procedures were incubated with B10 for 30 minutes and soon after deposited in a plate of a solid detector of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), denominated CR-39. To obtain the images relative to bacteria, the detector was submitted to the flow of thermal neutrons of the order of 2.2 x 105 n/cm2.s from the J-9 channel of the Reactor Argonauta (IEN/CNEN). To observe the images from bacteria in each sample under an optical microscope, the sheets were chemically developed. The analysis of the images revealed morphologic differences among the genera (Gram positive from Gram-negative and coccus from bacillus), in samples containing either isolated or mixed bacteria. We thus verified the viability of the technique to achieve morphological characterization of different microorganisms. A quantitative approach seemed also to be feasible with the technique. The whole process took about 2 hours. (author)

  4. On the application of Quantitative EEG for characterizing autistic brain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Billeci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are thought to be associated with abnormalities in neural connectivity at both the global and local levels. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG is a non-invasive technique that allows a highly precise measurement of brain function and connectivity. This review encompasses the key findings of QEEG application in subjects with ASD, in order to assess the relevance of this approach in characterizing brain function and clustering phenotypes. QEEG studies evaluating both the spontaneous brain activity and brain signals under controlled experimental stimuli were examined. Despite conflicting results, literature analysis suggests that QEEG features are sensitive to modification in neuronal regulation dysfunction which characterize autistic brain. QEEG may therefore help in detecting regions of altered brain function and connectivity abnormalities, in linking behavior with brain activity, and subgrouping affected individuals within the wide heterogeneity of ASD. The use of advanced techniques for the increase of the specificity and of spatial localization could allow finding distinctive patterns of QEEG abnormalities in ASD subjects, paving the way for the development of tailored intervention strategies.

  5. Mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for HLA class I antigen: a plasma membrane marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, O W; Borregaard, N

    1990-03-01

    This study introduces a simple, reproducible assay for HLA class I antigen using antibodies against beta 2-microglobulin and the heavy chain on HLA. The sandwich technique was named mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA), and was designed for identification of plasma membranes in neutrophil subcellular fractions. The subcellular localization of HLA was identical to that of other plasma membrane markers, [3H]concanavalin A and detergent-independent alkaline phosphatase, and was unchanged by stimulation of cells by weak and strong secretagogues. In addition to the presence as part of the HLA complex in the plasma membrane uncomplexed beta 2-microglobulin is present in the specific granules of neutrophils. However, the release of beta 2-microglobulin from intact neutrophils stimulated with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine was much higher than could be explained by exocytosis of specific granules. Subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that beta 2-microglobulin is localized in fractions characterized by latent alkaline phosphatase and released from this novel secretory compartment in response to stimulation with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine. PMID:2181625

  6. Quantitative characterization of fractures and pores in shale beds of the Lower Silurian, Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractures and pores are important storage and percolation spaces in tight reservoirs, and the identification, characterization and quantitative evaluation on them are the key aspects and difficulties in shale gas reservoir evaluation. In view of this, quantitative evaluation was performed on the fracture porosity of organic-rich shale intervals of Longmaxi Fm, Lower Silurian, Sichuan Basin (Wufeng Fm, Upper Ordovician included, after a dual-porosity medium porosity interpretation model was built on the basis of drilling data of Fuling Gasfield and Changning gas block in the Sichuan Basin. And then, the following conclusions are reached. First, shale fracture porosity interpretation by using dual-porosity medium model is the effective method to evaluate quantitatively the fracture porosity of shale reservoirs, and the development of quantitative characterization techniques of marine shale reservoir spaces. Second, the matrix pore volume of the principal pay zones in this area and its constitution regions are stably distributed with matrix porosity generally in the range of 4.6%–5.4%. And third, the development characteristics of fracture porosity vary largely in different tectonic regions and indifferent wellblocks and intervals even in the same tectonic region, presenting strong heterogeneity in terms of shale reservoir storage and percolation properties. It is indicated by quantitative characterization of fractures and pores that there are two types of shale gas reservoirs in Wufeng Fm – Longmaxi Fm, Sichuan Basin, including matrix porosity + fracture type and matrix porosity type. The former are mainly developed in the areas with special structure settings and they are characterized by developed fracture pores, high gas content, high free gas content, thick pay zones and high single-well production rate. And in the Sichuan Basin, its distribution is possibly in a restricted range. The latter are characterized by high matrix porosity

  7. A single-chain fusion molecule consisting of peptide, major histocompatibility gene complex class I heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin can fold partially correctly, but binds peptide inefficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C; Buus, S

    1999-01-01

    was denatured, extracted, purified and folded using a recently developed in vitro reiterative refolding strategy. This led to the formation of soluble, recombinant MHC-I molecules, which migrated as monomers of the expected size when submitted to non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel...... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Serological analysis revealed the presence of some, but not all, MHC-I-specific epitopes. Biochemically, PepSc could bind peptide, however, rather ineffectively. We suggest that a partially correctly refolded MHC-I has been obtained....

  8. Enhanced expression in vivo of HLA-ABC antigens and beta 2-microglobulin on human lymphoid cells induced by human interferon-alpha in patients with lung cancer. Enhanced expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens prior to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Plesner, T; Larsen, J K;

    1985-01-01

    .1 and P greater than 0.5, respectively) by day-to-day analysis of an untreated healthy control group. An increased expression of both HLA-ABC (mean 55%, P less than 0.0005) and beta 2m (mean 23%, P less than 0.01) was also observed prior to treatment in the lung cancer patients when compared to a group....... A significant increase in the mean fluorescence intensity of HLA-ABC (median 59%, P less than 0.001) and beta 2m (median 57%, P less than 0.001) on small lymphoid cells was observed 24 h after initiation of IFN-alpha treatment (50 X 10(6) units IFN-alpha/m2 three times a week). The enhanced...... of age matched healthy individuals. Treatment with IFN-alpha caused a significant redistribution of mononuclear cells resulting in both absolute and relative lymphopenia. Pre-treatment lymphocyte counts were 1.09 X 10(9)/1 (range 0.49-1.73), post-treatment counts were 0.55 X 10(9)/1 (range 0.39-1.06)....

  9. Characterizing trabecular bone structure for assessing vertebral fracture risk on volumetric quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Checefsky, Walter A.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Tsai, Halley; Wang, Xixi; Hobbs, Susan K.; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-03-01

    While the proximal femur is preferred for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in fracture risk estimation, the introduction of volumetric quantitative computed tomography has revealed stronger associations between BMD and spinal fracture status. In this study, we propose to capture properties of trabecular bone structure in spinal vertebrae with advanced second-order statistical features for purposes of fracture risk assessment. For this purpose, axial multi-detector CT (MDCT) images were acquired from 28 spinal vertebrae specimens using a whole-body 256-row CT scanner with a dedicated calibration phantom. A semi-automated method was used to annotate the trabecular compartment in the central vertebral slice with a circular region of interest (ROI) to exclude cortical bone; pixels within were converted to values indicative of BMD. Six second-order statistical features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and the mean BMD within the ROI were then extracted and used in conjunction with a generalized radial basis functions (GRBF) neural network to predict the failure load of the specimens; true failure load was measured through biomechanical testing. Prediction performance was evaluated with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) metric. The best prediction performance was observed with GLCM feature `correlation' (RMSE = 1.02 ± 0.18), which significantly outperformed all other GLCM features (p < 0.01). GLCM feature correlation also significantly outperformed MDCTmeasured mean BMD (RMSE = 1.11 ± 0.17) (p< 10-4). These results suggest that biomechanical strength prediction in spinal vertebrae can be significantly improved through characterization of trabecular bone structure with GLCM-derived texture features.

  10. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types

  11. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  12. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  13. Quantitative characterization of agglomerates and aggregates of pyrogenic and precipitated amorphous silica nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    De Temmerman Pieter-Jan; Van Doren Elke; Verleysen Eveline; Van der Stede Yves; Francisco Michel Abi; Mast Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The interaction of a nanomaterial (NM) with a biological system depends not only on the size of its primary particles but also on the size, shape and surface topology of its aggregates and agglomerates. A method based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to visualize the NM and on image analysis, to measure detected features quantitatively, was assessed for its capacity to characterize the aggregates and agglomerates of precipitated and pyrogenic synthetic amorphous ...

  14. Clinical characterization of a competitive PCR assay for quantitative testing of hepatitis C virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Miskovsky, E P; Carrella, A V; Gutekunst, K; Sun, C. A.; Quinn, T C; Thomas, D L

    1996-01-01

    Rational clinical application of quantitative assessments of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA depends on an understanding of factors affecting the assay and its intrinsic variability. The effects of three types of blood collection tubes, two storage temperatures, five processing times, and two laboratories on a commercially available quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay (AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR) were evaluated. HCV RNA concentrations were assessed in 356 specimens representing 178 aliquots fr...

  15. Quantitative characterization of solid state phases by secondary neutral mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsner, H.; Getto, R.; Kopnarski, M.

    2009-03-01

    The quantitative determination of chemical solid phases by secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) based on the quantitative character of this technique is described and demonstrated for several thin film structures. The intermetallic phases in a Ni-Zn coating on Fe are shown to be achieved directly from the concentration ratios determined by SNMS. When correlating the local elemental concentration tupels with the corresponding phase fractions by a matrix equation, the determination of chemical solid phase depth profiles becomes possible. This is exemplified by the detection of temperature induced chemical phases in Ni and Ti/Si films on SiC substrates.

  16. The quantitative characterization of free radical sources and traps by electromigration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donáth-Nagy, Gabriella; Buchwald, Peter; Vancea, Szende; Croitoru, Mircea; Tokés, Béla

    2008-04-24

    Nowadays, very diverse human activities generate urgent demands for fast, sensitive reliable innovative tools capable of detecting major industrial, military, and other dangerous products. An important part of these compounds are free radicals. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), especially in its miniaturized format (lab-on-a-chip), and other electromigration methods offer special possibilities to resolve this problem. These measurements have a great opportuness because of very wide chemical and biological role of free radicals. Several compounds, e.g. monomers and some biologically important groups (as are nitrones) oppose oxidative challenges by virtue of their trap very rapidly oxygen- or carbon-centered radicals and generating other radical species which are stable and biochemically less harmful than the original ones. In many cases, conventionally, the relative trap capacity is measured against tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBH). In this lecture are presented numerous important free radical species (active oxygen-, nitrogen- and carbon-centered ones, as HO, NO etc) and their adequate in vitro and in vivo applied bioanalytical methods, including liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence analysis. A simple and highly sensitive method is the capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD); It was introduced to determine indirectly OH by analysing its reaction products with salicylic and dihydroxybenzoic acids. Hydroxylated radical products of these acids are often used as a relative measurement in free radical research. Accurate determination of pK(a) values is important for proper characterization of newly synthesized molecules. CZE method was used for determination of their values. Are initiated new research fields as Fenton-, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton chemistry and foreseen their

  17. A method of quantitative characterization for the component of C/C composites based on the PLM video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. X.; Qi, L. H.; Song, Y. S.; Li, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    PLM video is used for studying the microstructure of C/C composites, because it contains the structure and motion information at the same time. It means that PLM video could provide more comprehensive microstructure features of C/C composites, and then the microstructure could be quantitatively characterized by image processing. However, several unavoidable displacements still exist in the PLM video, which could occur during the process of image acquisition. Therefore, an image registration method was put forward to correct the displacements by the phase correlation, and further to achieve the quantitative characterization of component combined with image fusion and threshold segmentation based on the PLM video of C/C composites. Specifically, PLM video was decomposed to a frame sequence firstly. Then a series of processes was carried out on this basis, including selecting the frame as equal interval, segmenting the static and dynamic regions and correcting the relative displacements between the adjacent frames. Meanwhile, the result of image registration was verified through image fusion, and it indicates that the proposed method could eliminate the displacements effectively. Finally, some operations of image processing were used to segment the components and calculate their fractions, thus the quantitative calculation was achieved successfully.

  18. Quantitative characterization of agglomerates and aggregates of pyrogenic and precipitated amorphous silica nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Temmerman Pieter-Jan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of a nanomaterial (NM with a biological system depends not only on the size of its primary particles but also on the size, shape and surface topology of its aggregates and agglomerates. A method based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM, to visualize the NM and on image analysis, to measure detected features quantitatively, was assessed for its capacity to characterize the aggregates and agglomerates of precipitated and pyrogenic synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS, or silica, NM. Results Bright field (BF TEM combined with systematic random imaging and semi-automatic image analysis allows measuring the properties of SAS NM quantitatively. Automation allows measuring multiple and arithmetically complex parameters simultaneously on high numbers of detected particles. This reduces operator-induced bias and assures a statistically relevant number of measurements, avoiding the tedious repetitive task of manual measurements. Access to multiple parameters further allows selecting the optimal parameter in function of a specific purpose. Using principle component analysis (PCA, twenty-three measured parameters were classified into three classes containing measures for size, shape and surface topology of the NM. Conclusion The presented method allows a detailed quantitative characterization of NM, like dispersions of precipitated and pyrogenic SAS based on the number-based distributions of their mean diameter, sphericity and shape factor.

  19. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with quantitative perfusion analysis for objective characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Onofrio, Mirko; Canestrini, Stefano; Crosara, Stefano; Robertis, Riccardo De; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) quantitative perfusion analysis allows an objective characterization of ductal adenocarcinoma (ADK) of the pancreas. Patients with pancreatic ADK underwent CEUS. All examinations were performed on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) after the iv administration of 2.4 mL contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan, Italy). All lesions were pathologically proved. An operator manually drew different regions of interest within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma to allow the quantitative perfusion analysis. The mean values of peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were calculated and compared using the Student’s t test. The quantitative perfusion analysis was possible in all lesions. The mean values of the peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were 17.19%, 7.97 s and 159.52% s within the tumor and 33.57%, 8.89 s and 355.29% s within the adjacent parenchyma. The peak of enhancement and the ascending curve values were significantly different within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma. Thus, CEUS allows the quantitative perfusion analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24765238

  20. Characterization of ubiquitination dependent dynamics in growth factor receptor signaling by quantitative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akimov, Vyacheslav; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Nielsen, Mogens M;

    2011-01-01

    investigating ubiquitination on a proteomic scale, mainly due to the inherited complexity and heterogeneity of ubiquitination. We describe here a quantitative proteomics strategy based on the specificity of ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs) and Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) for...

  1. Localized Quantitative Characterization of Chemical Functionalization Effects on Adhesion Properties of SWNT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical modification of single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWNT) has been found to be an excellent method to promote SWNT dispersion, and possibly to improve interaction with matrices via covalent bonding. It is thus a quite promising technique to enhance the mechanical properties of SWNT-reinforced nano composites. However, the underlying mechanism of SWNT chemical functionalization effects on interfacial strength is not quantitatively understood, limiting their usefulness in the design of nano composites. In this work, an atomic force microscopy (AFM-) based adhesive force mapping technique combined with a statistical analysis method were developed and implemented to study adhesive interactions of small SWNT bundles functionalized by amino, epoxide, and hydroperoxide groups as compared to SDS-treated SWNT in controlled environment. Finally, the importance of such localized quantitative measurements in SWNT-reinforced nano composites design and fabrication was also discussed.

  2. Quantitative linear and nonlinear resonant inspection techniques for characterizing thermal damage in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, C; Ulrich, T.J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; M Guimaraes

    2012-01-01

    In the context of license renewal in the field of nuclear energy, maintaining in service and re-qualifying existing concrete structures for ten years is a great challenge. The integrity of concrete in the concrete pedestal and biological shield wall in nuclear plants remains unknown. These structures have been subjected to radiation and medium temperature for a long period of time. This paper aims at providing some quantitative information related to the degree of micro-cracking of concrete a...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the in vitro dehydration process of hydrogel contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; López-Alemany, António; Parafita, Manuel A.; Almeida, José B.; Refojo, Miguel F.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the in vitro dehydration process of conventional hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials. METHODS: Eight conventional hydrogel and five silicone-hydrogel contact lenses were dehydrated under controlled environmental conditions on an analytical balance. Data were taken at 1-min intervals and dehydration curves of cumulative dehydration (CD), valid dehydration (VD), and dehydration rate (DR) were obtained. Several quantitative descriptors of the dehydration...

  4. Quantitative seafloor characterization using angular backscatter data of the multi-beam echo-sounding system - Use of models and model free techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    For quantitative seafloor roughness characterization and classification using multi-beam processed backscatter data, a good correlation is indicated among the power law parameters (composite roughness model) and hybrid ANN architecture results...

  5. Quantitative characterization of myocardial infarction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts future cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauly John M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can provide quantitative data of the myocardial tissue utilizing high spatial and temporal resolution along with exquisite tissue contrast. Previous studies have correlated myocardial scar tissue with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether characterization of myocardial infarction by CMR can predict cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM. Results We consecutively studied 86 patients with ICM (LVEF Conclusion Quantification of the scar volume and scar percentage by CMR is superior to LVEDV, LVESV, and LVEF in prognosticating the future likelihood of the development of cardiovascular events in patients with ICM.

  6. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved....... Comparing the plate and bar samples, the most refined and least heterogeneous microstructure was observed in the route Bc bar sample. The differences in the microstructure are reflected in the hardness data; the hardness is lowest after ECAE via route A and greatest in the bar sample processed using route...

  7. Development of a quantitative method for the characterization of hole quality during laser trepan drilling of high-temperature alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Xiangchao; Yan, Yu; Wang, Rong

    2016-02-01

    Short-pulsed lasers are of significant industrial relevance in laser drilling, with an acceptable compromise between accuracy and efficiency. However, an intensive research with regard to qualitative and quantitative characterization of the hole quality has rarely been reported. In the present study, a series of through holes were fabricated on a high-temperature alloy workpiece with a thickness of 3 mm using a LASERTEC 80 PowerDrill manufacturing system, which incorporated a Nd:YAG millisecond laser into a five-axis positioning platform. The quality of the holes manufactured under different laser powers (80-140 W) and beam expanding ratios (1-6) was characterized by a scanning electron microscope associated with an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, focusing mainly on the formation of micro-crack and recast layer. Additionally, the conicity and circularity of the holes were quantitatively evaluated by the apparent radius, root-mean-square deviation, and maximum deviation, which were calculated based on the extraction of hole edge through programming with MATLAB. The results showed that an amount of melting and spattering contents were presented at the entrance end and the exit end of the holes, and micro-cracks and recast layer (average thickness 15-30 µm) were detected along the side wall of the holes. The elemental composition of the melting and spattering contents and the recast layer was similar, with an obvious increase in the contents of O, Nb, and Cr and a great reduction in the contents of Fe and Ni in comparison with the bulk material. Furthermore, the conicity and circularity evaluation of the holes indicated that a laser power of 100 W and a beam expanding ratio of 4 or 5 represented the typical optimal drilling parameters in this specific experimental situation. It is anticipated that the quantitative method developed in the present study can be applied for the evaluation of hole quality in laser drilling and other drilling conditions.

  8. Quantitative characterization of X-ray lenses from two fabrication techniques with grating interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Frieder J; Detlefs, Carsten; Schröter, Tobias J; Kunka, Danays; Last, Arndt; Mohr, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Refractive X-ray lenses are in use at a large number of synchrotron experiments. Several materials and fabrication techniques are available for their production, each having their own strengths and drawbacks. We present a grating interferometer for the quantitative analysis of single refractive X-ray lenses and employ it for the study of a beryllium point focus lens and a polymer line focus lens, highlighting the differences in the outcome of the fabrication methods. The residuals of a line fit to the phase gradient are used to quantify local lens defects, while shape aberrations are quantified by the decomposition of the retrieved wavefront phase profile into either Zernike or Legendre polynomials, depending on the focus and aperture shape. While the polymer lens shows better material homogeneity, the beryllium lens shows higher shape accuracy. PMID:27137533

  9. Quantitative characterization of crosstalk effects for friction force microscopy with scan-by-probe SPMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunici, Pavel; Hess, Peter

    2008-06-01

    If the photodetector and cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) are not properly adjusted, crosstalk effects will appear. These effects disturb measurements of the absolute vertical and horizontal cantilever deflections, which are involved in friction force microscopy (FFM). A straightforward procedure is proposed to study quantitatively crosstalk effects observed in scan-by-probe SPMs. The advantage of this simple, fast, and accurate procedure is that no hardware change or upgrade is needed. The results indicate that crosstalk effects depend not only on the alignment of the detector but also on the cantilever properties, position, and detection conditions. The measurements may provide information on the origin of the crosstalk effect. After determination of its magnitude, simple correction formulas can be applied to correct the crosstalk effects and then the single-load wedge method, using a commercially available grating, can be employed for accurate calibration of the lateral force. PMID:18035500

  10. Quantitative Raman characterization of cross-linked collagen thin films as a model system for diagnosing early osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Durney, Krista M.; Fomovsky, Gregory; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    The onset of osteoarthritis (OA)in articular cartilage is characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Specifically, breakage of cross-links between collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage leads to loss of structural integrity of the bulk tissue. Since there are no broadly accepted, non-invasive, label-free tools for diagnosing OA at its early stage, Raman spectroscopyis therefore proposed in this work as a novel, non-destructive diagnostic tool. In this study, collagen thin films were employed to act as a simplified model system of the cartilage collagen extracellular matrix. Cross-link formation was controlled via exposure to glutaraldehyde (GA), by varying exposure time and concentration levels, and Raman spectral information was collected to quantitatively characterize the cross-link assignments imparted to the collagen thin films during treatment. A novel, quantitative method was developed to analyze the Raman signal obtained from collagen thin films. Segments of Raman signal were decomposed and modeled as the sum of individual bands, providing an optimization function for subsequent curve fitting against experimental findings. Relative changes in the concentration of the GA-induced pyridinium cross-links were extracted from the model, as a function of the exposure to GA. Spatially resolved characterization enabled construction of spectral maps of the collagen thin films, which provided detailed information about the variation of cross-link formation at various locations on the specimen. Results showed that Raman spectral data correlate with glutaraldehyde treatment and therefore may be used as a proxy by which to measure loss of collagen cross-links in vivo. This study proposes a promising system of identifying onset of OA and may enable early intervention treatments that may serve to slow or prevent osteoarthritis progression.

  11. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  12. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  13. Quantitative characterization of inertial confinement fusion capsules using phase contrast enhanced x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current designs for inertial confinement fusion capsules for the National Ignition Facility consist of a solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layer inside of a copper doped beryllium, Be(Cu), shell. Phase contrast enhanced x-ray imaging is shown to render the D-T layer visible inside the Be(Cu) shell. Phase contrast imaging is experimentally demonstrated for several surrogate capsules and validates computational models. Polyimide and low density divinyl benzene foam shells were imaged at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron. The surrogates demonstrate that phase contrast enhanced imaging provides a method to characterize surfaces when absorption imaging cannot be used. Our computational models demonstrate that a rough surface can be accurately characterized using phase contrast enhanced x-ray images

  14. Quantitative characterization of microstructure of two phase materials : the case of pearlite

    OpenAIRE

    Walentek, Artur

    2007-01-01

    The strength of heavily drawn pearlitic wires can reach values exceeding 4GPa. However, to obtain this effect a careful control of the drawing process and of the pearlite microstructure is necessary. In the latter case, microstructural investigations should provide information allowing for an optimal design of a failure-free production process. Yet, the number of methods for the characterization of pearlite, despite a large variety of its possible microstructure forms, is limited. This, in tu...

  15. A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Toshi; JOHNSTON, ROBYN; SELEZNYOVA, ALLA

    2003-01-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized....

  16. Linear Nitramine (DNDA-57): Synthesis, Scale-Up, Characterization, and Quantitative Estimation by GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Naik, N. H.; Gore, G. M.; Sikder, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Dinitro-diaza-alkanes (DNDA-57) are linear nitramine plasticizers and find use in low-temperature sensitivity coefficient propellants. DNDA-57 is a mixture of 2,4-dinitro-2,4-diazapentane (DNDA-5), 2,4-dinitro-2,4-diazahexane (DNDA-6), and 3,5-dinitro-3,5-diazaheptane (DNDA-7) with percentage composition of 40 ± 5%, 44 ± 5% and 11 ± 2%, respectively. The synthesis process of DNDA-57 was established with slight modification of the reaction parameters to obtain good yield and the process was scaled up. The synthesized compound was thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic as well as thermal methods. The present study emphasizes gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) characterization by electron impact (EI) mode and chemical ionization (CI) mode to determine the fragmentation pattern. Further, the identified components were confirmed with general characterization. The study reveals that DNDA-5, DNDA-6, and DNDA-7 follow identical decomposition pattern. The friction and impact sensitivity study unveils the insensitive nature of DNDA-57.

  17. Quantitative characterization of highly efficient correlated photon-pair source using biexciton resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuo; Oohata, Goro; Mizoguchi, Kohji

    2016-03-21

    A high efficiency method for the generation of correlated photon pairs accompanied by reliable means to characterize the efficiency of that process is needed in the study of entangled states, which have important potential applications in quantum information and quantum communication. In this study, we report the first characterization of the efficiency of generation of correlated photon pairs emitted from a CuCl single crystal using the biexciton-resonance hyper-parametric scattering (RHPS) method which is the highly efficient method of generation of correlated photon pairs. In order to characterize the generation efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of correlated photon pairs using this method, we investigated the pump power dependence on the photon counting rate and coincidence counting rate under resonant excitation. The pump power dependence shows that the power characteristic of the photon counting rates changes from linear to quadratic dependence of the pump power. This behavior represents a superposition of contributions from correlated photon pairs and non-correlated photons. The analysis of the pump power dependence shows that one photon-pair is produced by a pump pulse with 2 x 106 photons. Moreover, the generation efficiency of this method obtained by calculating the number of generated photon pairs per pump power is comparable to that of several methods based on the χ(3) parametric process. PMID:27136797

  18. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g-1, 141-237 ng g-1 and 413-755 ng g-1, respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (< C8) in some individual cases, PFOA and PFOS were still the major pollution compounds in most cases and they constituted 2-34% and 1-9% of the total PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.

  19. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Díaz Barriga-Castro, Enrique [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Vega, Víctor; García, Javier [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Luna, Carlos [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Manuel Prida, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); and others

    2015-04-01

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena.

  20. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena

  1. A Quantitative Characterization of Nucleoplasmin/Histone Complexes Reveals Chaperone Versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivero, Noelia; Franco, Aitor; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrian; Alonso, Edurne; Muga, Arturo; Prado, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoplasmin (NP) is an abundant histone chaperone in vertebrate oocytes and embryos involved in storing and releasing maternal histones to establish and maintain the zygotic epigenome. NP has been considered a H2A-H2B histone chaperone, and recently it has been shown that it can also interact with H3-H4. However, its interaction with different types of histones has not been quantitatively studied so far. We show here that NP binds H2A-H2B, H3-H4 and linker histones with Kd values in the subnanomolar range, forming different complexes. Post-translational modifications of NP regulate exposure of the polyGlu tract at the disordered distal face of the protein and induce an increase in chaperone affinity for all histones. The relative affinity of NP for H2A-H2B and linker histones and the fact that they interact with the distal face of the chaperone could explain their competition for chaperone binding, a relevant process in NP-mediated sperm chromatin remodelling during fertilization. Our data show that NP binds H3-H4 tetramers in a nucleosomal conformation and dimers, transferring them to DNA to form disomes and tetrasomes. This finding might be relevant to elucidate the role of NP in chromatin disassembly and assembly during replication and transcription. PMID:27558753

  2. Quantitative and functional characterization of the hyper-conserved protein of Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Whidden

    Full Text Available A large fraction of any bacterial genome consists of hypothetical protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs. While most of these ORFs are present only in one or a few sequenced genomes, a few are conserved, often across large phylogenetic distances. Such conservation provides clues to likely uncharacterized cellular functions that need to be elucidated. Marine cyanobacteria from the Prochlorococcus/marine Synechococcus clade are dominant bacteria in oceanic waters and are significant contributors to global primary production. A Hyper Conserved Protein (PSHCP of unknown function is 100% conserved at the amino acid level in genomes of Prochlorococcus/marine Synechococcus, but lacks homologs outside of this clade. In this study we investigated Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT 9313 and Synechococcus sp. strain WH 8102 for the transcription of the PSHCP gene using RT-Q-PCR, for the presence of the protein product through quantitative immunoblotting, and for the protein's binding partners in a pull down assay. Significant transcription of the gene was detected in all strains. The PSHCP protein content varied between 8±1 fmol and 26±9 fmol per ug total protein, depending on the strain. The 50 S ribosomal protein L2, the Photosystem I protein PsaD and the Ycf48-like protein were found associated with the PSHCP protein in all strains and not appreciably or at all in control experiments. We hypothesize that PSHCP is a protein associated with the ribosome, and is possibly involved in photosystem assembly.

  3. Quantitative characterization for dielectrophoretic behavior of biological cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Soo; Hee Park, Se; Woo Lee, Sang; Sung Yoon, Dae; Kim, Beop-Min

    2014-02-01

    We report a method to precisely quantify dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces and cutoff frequencies (fc) of viable and nonviable yeast cells. The method consists of a two-step process in which generated DEP forces act upon a cell through a micro-electrode device, followed by direct measurement of DEP forces using optical tweezers. DEP behaviors of viable and nonviable yeast cells are monitored as a function of AC frequency. We believe that the proposed method can be used as a powerful platform for cell-based assays to characterize the DEP behavior of various cell types including cancer and normal cells.

  4. Quantitative void characterization in structural ceramics using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D.J.; Generazio, E.R.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) to characterize artificially seeded voids in sintered silicon nitride structural ceramic specimens was investigated. Using trigonometric relationships and Airy's diffraction theory, predictions of internal void depth and size were obtained from acoustic diffraction patterns produced by the voids. Agreement was observed between actual and predicted void depths. However, predicted void diameters were generally much greater than actual diameters. Precise diameter predictions are difficult to obtain due to measurement uncertainty and the limitations of 100 MHz SLAM applied to typical ceramic specimens.

  5. Quantitative characterization of corn plant components according to planting time and grain maturity stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz de Andrade Rezende Pereira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to characterize the dry matter production of vegetative components (stalk, leaf, husk, and cob and reproductive components (grain of the corn plant according to planting time and the grain maturity stage. Eight corn hybrids with different agronomic characteristics were used to carry out the experiments. Two experiments were performed with planting undertaken on 11/11/2007 and 12/12/2007 under a conventional tillage system. The eight corn cultivars were harvested at three grain maturity stages, half milk line, three quarters milk line and black layer. An 8 × 3 factorial (eight hybrids and the three cutting times randomized blocks design was used, with three replications. Individual analysis of variance was performed for each experiment. Then joint analysis of variance was performed involving the two planting times. The means were grouped and the hybrids used as replications to characterize the components. Delay in planting significantly reduced the dry matter productivity of the whole plant; however, it did not reduce its degradability. The greatest dry matter productivity obtained was that of grain, followed by stalk, leaf, husk and cob. The vegetative components, leaves and husk, lose quality with delay in planting. The leaf is the vegetative component of highest quality, while the cob is the worst. Delay in planting increases the neutral detergent fiber content of the stalk, husk and cob.

  6. Characterization of global yeast quantitative proteome data generated from the wild-type and glucose repression Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: The comparison of two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Wohlschlegel, James; Venable, John D.;

    2008-01-01

    -type yeast and yeast strains lacking key components of the Snf1 kinase complex. Four different strains were grown under well-controlled chemostat conditions. Multidimensional protein identification technology followed by quantitation using either spectral counting or stable isotope labeling approaches was...... labeling strategy. The stable isotope labeling based quantitative approach was found to be highly reproducible among biological replicates when complex protein mixtures containing small expression changes were analyzed. Where poor correlation between stable isotope labeling and spectral counting was found...

  7. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Chaojie, E-mail: myrazh@mail.tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g{sup -1}, 141-237 ng g{sup -1} and 413-755 ng g{sup -1}, respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (

  8. Characterization of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Pedigrees from Colombia and Costa Rica Ascertained for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christine B.; Service, Susan K.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Gao, Fuying; Zelaya, Ivette; Teshiba, Terri M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cantor, Rita M.; Reus, Victor I.; Macaya, Gabriel; López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Bogomolov, Marina; Benjamini, Yoav; Eskin, Eleazar; Coppola, Giovanni; Freimer, Nelson B.; Sabatti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The observation that variants regulating gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) are at a high frequency among SNPs associated with complex traits has made the genome-wide characterization of gene expression an important tool in genetic mapping studies of such traits. As part of a study to identify genetic loci contributing to bipolar disorder and other quantitative traits in members of 26 pedigrees from Costa Rica and Colombia, we measured gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 786 pedigree members. The study design enabled us to comprehensively reconstruct the genetic regulatory network in these families, provide estimates of heritability, identify eQTL, evaluate missing heritability for the eQTL, and quantify the number of different alleles contributing to any given locus. In the eQTL analysis, we utilize a recently proposed hierarchical multiple testing strategy which controls error rates regarding the discovery of functional variants. Our results elucidate the heritability and regulation of gene expression in this unique Latin American study population and identify a set of regulatory SNPs which may be relevant in future investigations of complex disease in this population. Since our subjects belong to extended families, we are able to compare traditional kinship-based estimates with those from more recent methods that depend only on genotype information. PMID:27176483

  9. Characterization of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Pedigrees from Colombia and Costa Rica Ascertained for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christine B; Service, Susan K; Jasinska, Anna J; Gao, Fuying; Zelaya, Ivette; Teshiba, Terri M; Bearden, Carrie E; Cantor, Rita M; Reus, Victor I; Macaya, Gabriel; López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Bogomolov, Marina; Benjamini, Yoav; Eskin, Eleazar; Coppola, Giovanni; Freimer, Nelson B; Sabatti, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    The observation that variants regulating gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) are at a high frequency among SNPs associated with complex traits has made the genome-wide characterization of gene expression an important tool in genetic mapping studies of such traits. As part of a study to identify genetic loci contributing to bipolar disorder and other quantitative traits in members of 26 pedigrees from Costa Rica and Colombia, we measured gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 786 pedigree members. The study design enabled us to comprehensively reconstruct the genetic regulatory network in these families, provide estimates of heritability, identify eQTL, evaluate missing heritability for the eQTL, and quantify the number of different alleles contributing to any given locus. In the eQTL analysis, we utilize a recently proposed hierarchical multiple testing strategy which controls error rates regarding the discovery of functional variants. Our results elucidate the heritability and regulation of gene expression in this unique Latin American study population and identify a set of regulatory SNPs which may be relevant in future investigations of complex disease in this population. Since our subjects belong to extended families, we are able to compare traditional kinship-based estimates with those from more recent methods that depend only on genotype information. PMID:27176483

  10. Quantitative characterization of modulation-doped strained quantum wells through line-shape analysis of room-temperature photoluminescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Steven K.

    1993-08-01

    Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) was presented as a nondestructive characterization method for modulation-doped strained quantum well epitaxial structures suited for pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs). Though the spectra showed broad peaks, in contrast to the sharp, well-defined peaks in low-temperature PL spectra, quantitative energy data was obtained through fitting a phenomenological line-shape model to the spectra. This model included the four transitions linking the first two electron subbands and the first two heavy-hole subbands, which can take credit for all of the peaks noted in pHEMT epitaxial configurations at realistic doping levels. The obtained results revealed that by using a simple line-shape model to the room-temperature PL spectrum of a pHEMT, a substantial amount of detailed structural and electronic data can be acquired regarding the quantum well.

  11. Quantitative characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in air applying non-calibrated spectrometer, current measurement and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-calibrated spectrometer is used for quantitative characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air wherein optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is completed by current measurement and numerical simulation. This diagnostic method is applicable when the cross-sectional area of the active plasma volume and the current density can be determined. The nitrogen emission in the spectral range of 330–406 nm is used for OES diagnostics. The electric field in the active plasma volume is determined by applying the measured spectrum, well-known Franck–Condon factors for nitrogen transitions and numerically simulated electron distribution functions. The measured electric current density is used for the determination of electron density in plasma. Using the determined plasma parameters, the dissociation rates of nitrogen and oxygen in active plasma volume are calculated, which can be used for the simulation of chemical kinetics. (paper)

  12. Segmentation of nanotomographic cortical bone images for quantitative characterization of the osteoctyte lacuno-canalicular network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciani, A.; Kewish, C. M. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, 91192 Saint-Aubin (France); Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Diaz, A.; Holler, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pallu, S.; Achiou, Z.; Jennane, R.; Toumi, H.; Lespessailles, E. [Univ Orléans, I3MTO, Ea 4708, 45000 Orléans (France)

    2016-01-28

    A newly developed data processing method able to characterize the osteocytes lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) is presented. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in the bone, living in spaces called lacunae embedded inside the bone matrix and connected to each other with an extensive network of canals that allows for the exchange of nutrients and for mechanotransduction functions. The geometrical three-dimensional (3D) architecture is increasingly thought to be related to the macroscopic strength or failure of the bone and it is becoming the focus for investigating widely spread diseases such as osteoporosis. To obtain 3D LCN images non-destructively has been out of reach until recently, since tens-of-nanometers scale resolution is required. Ptychographic tomography was validated for bone imaging in [1], showing clearly the LCN. The method presented here was applied to 3D ptychographic tomographic images in order to extract morphological and geometrical parameters of the lacuno-canalicular structures.

  13. Segmentation of nanotomographic cortical bone images for quantitative characterization of the osteoctyte lacuno-canalicular network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed data processing method able to characterize the osteocytes lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) is presented. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in the bone, living in spaces called lacunae embedded inside the bone matrix and connected to each other with an extensive network of canals that allows for the exchange of nutrients and for mechanotransduction functions. The geometrical three-dimensional (3D) architecture is increasingly thought to be related to the macroscopic strength or failure of the bone and it is becoming the focus for investigating widely spread diseases such as osteoporosis. To obtain 3D LCN images non-destructively has been out of reach until recently, since tens-of-nanometers scale resolution is required. Ptychographic tomography was validated for bone imaging in [1], showing clearly the LCN. The method presented here was applied to 3D ptychographic tomographic images in order to extract morphological and geometrical parameters of the lacuno-canalicular structures

  14. Quantitative Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Capsules Using Phase Contrast Enhanced X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current designs for inertial confinement fusion capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) consist of a solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layer inside of a copper doped beryllium capsule. Phase contrast enhanced x-ray imaging is shown to render the D-T layer visible inside the Be(Cu) capsule. Phase contrast imaging is experimentally demonstrated for several surrogate capsules and validates computational models. Polyimide and low density divinyl benzene foam capsules were imaged at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron. The surrogates demonstrate that phase contrast enhanced imaging provides a method to characterize surfaces when absorption imaging cannot be used. Our computational models demonstrate that a rough surface can be accurately reproduced in phase contrast enhanced x-ray images

  15. Quantitative Characterization of the Microstructure and Transport Properties of Biopolymer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymer networks are of fundamental importance to many biological processes in normal and tumorous tissues. In this paper, we employ the panoply of theoretical and simulation techniques developed for characterizing heterogeneous materials to quantify the microstructure and effective diffusive transport properties (diffusion coefficient $D_e$ and mean survival time $\\tau$) of collagen type I networks at various collagen concentrations. In particular, we compute the pore-size probability density function $P(\\delta)$ for the networks and present a variety of analytical estimates of the effective diffusion coefficient $D_e$ for finite-sized diffusing particles. The Hashin-Strikman upper bound on the effective diffusion coefficient $D_e$ and the pore-size lower bound on the mean survival time $\\tau$ are used as benchmarks to test our analytical approximations and numerical results. Moreover, we generalize the efficient first-passage-time techniques for Brownian-motion simulations in suspensions of spheres to th...

  16. Quantitative analysis of the precipitation conditions in fine grained structural steel for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the preparation of the atlas of structures of structural materials, mechanical-technological, metallographic, phase-analytical and electron microscopic investigations were carried out on 17 melts (11 production and 6 test melts with graduated Al and N contents) of the material 15 NiCuMoNb 5 for the characterization of the welding properties. The investigations were focussed on the quantification of the microstructure parameters. The reason for the investigations was the occurrence of uncertainties concerning relaxation-induced cracking in welding. The results confirm the possibility of a decrease of the relaxation capacity by precipitation processes, which are favoured by coarse grain formation or expansion, as well as by grain boundary embrittlement. Which mechanism, however, takes effect depends essentially on the chemical composition of the melt. (orig./MM)

  17. Quantitative immunocytochemical characterization of four murine macrophage-like cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbering, P H; van Furth, R

    1988-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain quantitative data on the expression of seven cell-surface antigens by the murine macrophage-like cell lines WEHI-3, P388-D1, J774.1, and PU5-1.8, and to compare these data with those obtained for various mononuclear phagocytes. Binding of monoclonal antibodies F4/80, M1/70, 2.4.G.2., 30.G.12, M3/38, M3/84, and 59AD2.2 to cells from these four cell lines was detected by the biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase staining method and quantified by cytophotometry. The results are expressed as the percentage cells expressing a given antigen and the mean specific integrated absorbance per 0.25 micron2 cell-surface area. The results revealed that the phenotypes of the four macrophage-like cell lines differ markedly. Expression of the cell antigens by the cells of the various cell lines did not follow a normal distribution. Although the cell lines divide continuously and have certain characteristics in common with mature mononuclear phagocytes, none of the macrophage-like cell lines accurately resembles any of the mononuclear phagocyte populations. The strongest correlations for membrane were found between on the one hand WEHI-3 and P388-D1 cells and monoblasts and promonocytes (P greater than 0.011) on the other. P388-D1, J774.1 and PU5-1.8 cells expressed four of the six antigens to the same extent as skin macrophages (P greater than 0.012). With respect to expression of antigens recognized by antibodies 2.4.G.2., 30.G.12, M3/38, and M3/84 PU5-1.8 cells resembled activated peritoneal macrophages (P greater than 0.031). It is concluded that WEHI-3 is the most immature cell line, followed by the P388-D1 cell line, while J774.1, and PU5-1.8 are the most mature cell lines. PMID:3292404

  18. Characterization of Precipitates in a Microalloyed Steel Using Quantitative X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barry Wiskel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD (also known as the Rietveld method was used to analyze the precipitates present in Grade 100 microalloyed steel. The precipitates were extracted from the steel using electrolytic dissolution and the residue from the dissolution was analyzed using XRD. The XRD pattern exhibited three (3 distinct diffraction peaks, and significant broadening of a fourth peak corresponding to the <10 nm size precipitates. QXRD analysis was applied to the XRD pattern to obtain precipitate size, composition, and weight fraction data for each of the four diffraction peaks observed. The predicted mean precipitate diameter and average atomic composition of the nano-size (<10 nm precipitates was 4.7 nm and (Nb0.50Ti0.32Mo0.18(C0.59N0.41, respectively. The predicted precipitate size correlates well with the average size of precipitates measured in previous work by the authors using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM and small angle neutron scattering (SANS. The average atomic composition correlates well with the composition measured in this work using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis of individual nano-sized precipitates. The calculated weight fraction of the nano-size precipitates in the extracted residue was 42.2 wt. %. The calculated atomic compositions of the other three diffraction peaks were TiN, (Ti0.87Nb0.13N, and (Nb0.82Ti0.18(C0.87N0.13 with weight fraction values of 12.9 wt. %, 31.7 wt. %, and 13.1 wt. %, respectively. The sizes of both the (Ti0.87Nb0.13N and the (Nb0.82Ti0.18(C0.87N0.13 groups of precipitates were directly measured and were observed to range from 150 nm to 570 nm and from 90 nm to 475 nm, respectively. QXRD was unable to determine a reasonable mean precipitate size for either of these two groups of precipitates. The wide compositional range (i.e., varying levels of Nb and Ti of these precipitates (as measured by EDX resulted in XRD peak broadening that was erroneously interpreted as a size

  19. Quantitation, in vitro propagation, and characterization of preleukemic cells induced by radiation leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrathymic (i.t.) inoculation of radiation leukemia virus into C57BL/6 mice induces a population of preleukemic (PL) cells that can progress into mature thymic lymphomas upon transfer into syngeneic recipients. A minimum of 10(3) PL thymic cells are required to induce lymphomas in the recipient. Most of the individual lymphomas developed in mice which were inoculated with cells of a single PL thymus, derived from different T-cell precursors. PL thymic cells could be grown in vitro on a feeder layer consisting of splenic stromal cells. Growth medium was supplemented with supernatant harvested from an established radiation leukemia virus-induced lymphoma cell line (SR4). The in vitro-grown PL cells were characterized as Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8- T-cells, most of which expressed radiation leukemia virus antigens. Cultured PL cells were found to be nontumorigenic, based on their inability to form s.c. tumors. However, these cells could develop into thymic lymphomas if inoculated i.t. into syngeneic recipients. A culture of PL cells, maintained for 2 mo, showed clonal T-cell receptor arrangement. Lymphomas which developed in several recipient mice upon injection with these PL cells were found to possess the same T-cell receptor arrangement. These results indicate that PL cells can be adapted for in vitro growth while maintaining their preleukemic character

  20. A morphological and quantitative characterization of early floral development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Toshi; Johnston, Robyn; Seleznyova, Alla

    2003-08-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized. Vegetative meristems were flat, and either narrow (stage 0) or broad (stage 1). Pronounced doming of the apex marked stage 2. During stage 3, the domed meristem initiated four to six lateral floral meristems and subtending bracts before converting to a terminal floral meristem (stage 4). The terminal floral meristem proceeded directly with bractlet and sepal initiation, while lateral floral meristems initiated bractlets (stage 5). Sepal initiation began on the basal lateral flower (stage 6) and continued in an acropetal direction until all floral meristems had completed sepal initiation (stage 7). In this study, only stage 0 and stage 7 apices were observed in dormant buds, indicating that stages 1-6 are transient. The results suggest that broadening of the apex (stage 1) is the first morphological sign of commitment to flowering. PMID:12805080

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  2. Quantitative characterization of T-cell repertoire in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, P Y; Alachkar, H; Yamaguchi, R; Kiyotani, K; Fang, H; Yap, K L; Liu, H T; Wickrema, A; Artz, A; van Besien, K; Imoto, S; Miyano, S; Bishop, M R; Stock, W; Nakamura, Y

    2015-09-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is one of curative treatment options for patients with hematologic malignancies. Although GVHD mediated by the donor's T lymphocytes remains the most challenging toxicity of allo-HSCT, graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect targeting leukemic cells, has an important role in affecting the overall outcome of patients with AML. Here we comprehensively characterized the TCR repertoire in patients who underwent matched donor or haplo-cord HSCT using next-generation sequencing approach. Our study defines the functional kinetics of each TCRA and TCRB clone, and changes in T-cell diversity (with identification of CDR3 sequences) and the extent of clonal expansion of certain T-cells. Using this approach, our study demonstrates that higher percentage of cord-blood cells at 30 days after transplant was correlated with higher diversity of TCR repertoire, implicating the role of cord-chimerism in enhancing immune recovery. Importantly, we found that GVHD and relapse, exclusive of each other, were correlated with lower TCR repertoire diversity and expansion of certain T-cell clones. Our results highlight novel insights into the balance between GVHD and GVL effect, suggesting that higher diversity early after transplant possibly implies lower risks of both GVHD and relapse following the HSCT transplantation. PMID:26052909

  3. Quantitative evaluation of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT attenuation value, and chemical-shift MR imaging for characterizing adrenal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our study was to evaluate diagnostic ability and features of quantitative indices of three modalities: uptake rate on norcholesterol scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, and fat suppression on chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterizing adrenal adenomas. Image findings of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT, and MRI were reviewed for 78 patients with functioning (n=48) or nonfunctioning (n=30) adrenal masses. The norcholesterol uptake rate, attenuation value on unenhanced CT, and suppression on in-phase to opposed-phase MRI were measured for adrenal masses. The norcholesterol uptake rate, CT attenuation value, and MR suppression index showed the sensitivity of 60%, 82%, and 100%, respectively, for functioning adenomas of <2.0 cm, and 96%, 79%, and 67%, respectively, for those of ≥2.0 cm. A statistically significant correlation was observed between size and norcholesterol uptake, and between CT attenuation value and MR suppression index. Regarding norcholesterol uptake, the adenoma-to-contralateral gland ratio was significantly higher in cortisol releasing than in aldosterone-releasing adenomas. The norcholesterol uptake rate was reliable for characterization of adenomas among adrenal masses of ≥2.0 cm. CT attenuation value and MR suppression index were well correlated with each other, and were useful regardless of mass size. (author)

  4. Field Deployable Chemical Redox Probe for Quantitative Characterization of Carboxymethylcellulose Modified Nano Zerovalent Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dimin; Chen, Shengwen; Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    Nano zerovalent iron synthesized with carboxymethylcelluose (CMC-nZVI) is among the leading formulations of nZVI currently used for in situ groundwater remediation. The main advantage of CMC-nZVI is that it forms stable suspensions, which are relatively mobile in porous media. Rapid contaminant reduction by CMC-nZVI is well documented, but the fate of the CMC-nZVI (including "aging" and "reductant demand") is not well characterized. Improved understanding of CMC-nZVI fate requires methods with greater specificity for Fe(0), less vulnerability to sampling/recovery artifacts, and more practical application in the field. These criteria can be met with a simple and specific colorimetric approach using indigo-5,5'-disulfonate (I2S) as a chemical redox probe (CRP). The measured stoichiometric ratio for reaction between I2S and nZVI is 1.45 ± 0.03, suggesting complete oxidation of nZVI to Fe(III) species. However, near pH 7, reduction of I2S is diagnostic for Fe(0), because aqueous Fe(II) reduces I2S much more slowly than Fe(0). At that pH, adding Fe(II) increased I2S reduction rates by Fe(0), consistent with depassivation of nZVI, but did not affect the stoichiometry. Using the I2S assay to quantify changes in the Fe(0) content of CMC-nZVI, the rate of Fe(0) oxidation by water was found to be orders of magnitude faster than previously reported values for other types of nZVI. PMID:26218836

  5. Study of initiation and growth of stress corrosion cracks. Quantitative characterization and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological study of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) cracks initiation and growth was carried out on a Z 2 CN 18.10 stainless steel in a boiling aqueous magnesium chloride solution at 153 deg. C. The characterization method exploits the morphological information (cracks shape and size distribution) available on a specimen after SCC test. This method, independent of any mechanistic hypothesis, led to the analytical representation of the growth rate of a given crack as a function of its depth and of the density of deeper cracks. The presence of this last parameter could be the expression of a 'shielding effect' of mechanical origin, exerted by the cracks of large size. A 'true initiation' rate was calculated by an extrapolation based on the analytical expression of the growth rate. This analytical representation of cracks initiation and growth accounts for the saturation observed in the experimental determination of the 'apparent initiation'. As time goes, the number of cracks deeper than a given threshold depth tends towards a limit which depends very strongly on the chosen threshold. This saturation effect can be interpreted as exclusively due to the way the small cracks propagate, as the 'true initiation' rate can be expressed versus time by a simple power law. In the case of slow strain rate tests, it is shown that the kinetic parameters characteristic of initiation and growth depend on the applied elongation rate. In particular, the initial crack growth rate increases with elongation rate. The validity domains of the proposed expressions have been specified by means of SCC tests carried out under different types of mechanical loading. (author)

  6. Quantitative characterization of the microstructure and transport properties of biopolymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biopolymer networks are of fundamental importance to many biological processes in normal and tumorous tissues. In this paper, we employ the panoply of theoretical and simulation techniques developed for characterizing heterogeneous materials to quantify the microstructure and effective diffusive transport properties (diffusion coefficient De and mean survival time τ) of collagen type I networks at various collagen concentrations. In particular, we compute the pore-size probability density function P(δ) for the networks and present a variety of analytical estimates of the effective diffusion coefficient De for finite-sized diffusing particles, including the low-density approximation, the Ogston approximation and the Torquato approximation. The Hashin–Strikman upper bound on the effective diffusion coefficient De and the pore-size lower bound on the mean survival time τ are used as benchmarks to test our analytical approximations and numerical results. Moreover, we generalize the efficient first-passage-time techniques for Brownian-motion simulations in suspensions of spheres to the case of fiber networks and compute the associated effective diffusion coefficient De as well as the mean survival time τ, which is related to nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times. Our numerical results for De are in excellent agreement with analytical results for simple network microstructures, such as periodic arrays of parallel cylinders. Specifically, the Torquato approximation provides the most accurate estimates of De for all collagen concentrations among all of the analytical approximations we consider. We formulate a universal curve for τ for the networks at different collagen concentrations, extending the work of Torquato and Yeong (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 106 8814). We apply rigorous cross-property relations to estimate the effective bulk modulus of collagen networks from a knowledge of the effective diffusion coefficient computed here. The use of cross

  7. TU-F-12A-02: Quantitative Characterization of Normal Bone Marrow Proliferative Activity with FLT PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisse, N; Jeraj, R [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]FLT PET is a tool for assessing health of bone marrow by evaluating its proliferative activity. This study establishes a baseline quantitative characterization of healthy marrow proliferation to aid in diagnosis of hematological disease. Methods: 31 patients (20 male, 11 female, 41–76 years) being treated for solid cancers with no history of hematological disease, osseous metastatic disease, or radiation therapy received pre-treatment FLT PET/CT scans. Total bone marrow was isolated from whole body FLT PET images by manually removing organs and applying a standardize uptake value (SUV) threshold of 1.0. Because adult marrow is concentrated in the axial skeleton, quantitative total bone marrow analysis (QTBMA) was used to isolate marrow in the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, sacrum, and pelvis for analysis. SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were used to quantify bone marrow proliferation. Correlations were explored between SUV and patient characteristics including age, weight, height, and BMI using the Spearman coefficient (ρ). Results: The population-averaged whole-skeleton SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were 3.0±0.6, 18.4±5.7, and 0.6±0.1, respectively. Uptake values in the axial skeleton were similar to the whole-skeleton demonstrated by SUVmean in the thoracic spine (3.6±0.6), lumbar spine (3.3±0.5), sacrum (3.0±0.6), and pelvis regions (2.8±0.5). Whole-skeleton SUVmax correlated with patient weight (ρ=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (ρ=0.60, p<0.01), suggesting marrow activity is related to the body's burden. SUV measures in the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum, and pelvis were negatively correlated with age (ρ:−0.41 to −0.46, p≤0.02). These negative correlations reflect the fact that active marrow in the adult skeleton is localized in the axial skeleton and decreases with age. Conclusions: Normal bone marrow characterizations were determined using FLT

  8. TU-F-12A-02: Quantitative Characterization of Normal Bone Marrow Proliferative Activity with FLT PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: [F-18]FLT PET is a tool for assessing health of bone marrow by evaluating its proliferative activity. This study establishes a baseline quantitative characterization of healthy marrow proliferation to aid in diagnosis of hematological disease. Methods: 31 patients (20 male, 11 female, 41–76 years) being treated for solid cancers with no history of hematological disease, osseous metastatic disease, or radiation therapy received pre-treatment FLT PET/CT scans. Total bone marrow was isolated from whole body FLT PET images by manually removing organs and applying a standardize uptake value (SUV) threshold of 1.0. Because adult marrow is concentrated in the axial skeleton, quantitative total bone marrow analysis (QTBMA) was used to isolate marrow in the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, sacrum, and pelvis for analysis. SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were used to quantify bone marrow proliferation. Correlations were explored between SUV and patient characteristics including age, weight, height, and BMI using the Spearman coefficient (ρ). Results: The population-averaged whole-skeleton SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were 3.0±0.6, 18.4±5.7, and 0.6±0.1, respectively. Uptake values in the axial skeleton were similar to the whole-skeleton demonstrated by SUVmean in the thoracic spine (3.6±0.6), lumbar spine (3.3±0.5), sacrum (3.0±0.6), and pelvis regions (2.8±0.5). Whole-skeleton SUVmax correlated with patient weight (ρ=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (ρ=0.60, p<0.01), suggesting marrow activity is related to the body's burden. SUV measures in the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum, and pelvis were negatively correlated with age (ρ:−0.41 to −0.46, p≤0.02). These negative correlations reflect the fact that active marrow in the adult skeleton is localized in the axial skeleton and decreases with age. Conclusions: Normal bone marrow characterizations were determined using FLT

  9. On the design of a cold neutron irradiator (CNI) for quantitative materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a cold neutron irradiator (CNI) for materials characterization using prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is presented. Using 252Cf neutron sources in a block of moderator, a portion of which is maintained at a cryogenic temperature, the CNI employs cold neutrons instead of thermal neutrons to enhance the neutron capture reaction rate in a sample. Capture gamma rays are detected in an HPGe photon detector. Optimization of the CNI with respect to elemental sensitivity (counts per mg) is the primary goal of this design study. Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, by means of the MCNP code and the ENDF/B cross-section libraries, is used to model the CNI. A combination of solid methane at 22 K, room-temperature polyethylene, and room-temperature beryllium has been chosen for the neutron delivery subsystem of the CNI. Using four 250-microgram 252Cf neutron sources, with a total neutron emission rate of 2.3 x 109 neutrons/s, a thermal-equivalent neutron flux of 1.7 x 107 neutrons/cm2-s in an internally located cylindrical sample space of diameter 6.5 cm and height 6.0 cm is predicted by MCNP calculations. A cylindrical port with an integral annular collimator composed of bismuth, lead, polyethylene, and lithium carbonate, is located between the sample and the detector. Calculations have been performed of gamma-ray and neutron transport in the port and integral collimator with the objective of optimizing the statistical precision with which one can measure elemental masses in the sample while also limiting the fast neutron flux incident upon the HPGe detector to a reasonable level. The statistical precision with which one can measure elemental masses can be enhanced by a factor of between 2.3 and 5.3 (depending on the origin of the background gamma rays) compared with a neutron irradiator identical to the CNI except for the replacement of the cryogenic solid methane by room-temperature polyethylene. The projected performance of

  10. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah

  11. A case of dialysis-related amyloidosis of the hip and cervical spine: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Min, Seon Jung; Cho, Seong Whi; Kim, Seok Woo; Jang, Woo Young [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seon Joo [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Dankook University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a complication of long-term hemodialysis and it is characterized by the accumulation of {beta} 2-microglobulin in the osteoarticular structures. We describe here the imaging findings of a case of dialysis-related amyloidosis involving the hip and cervical spine in a 62-year-old woman who received long-term dialysis. We focus here on the CT and MR imaging findings of the cervical spine and we include a review of the relevant literatures.

  12. Quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of magnetite nanocrystals obtained by microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative preparation procedure, based on microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis, to obtain spherical magnetite nanoparticles was reported together with a detailed quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of the synthetic products. The nanoparticle growth was analyzed as a function of the synthesis time and was described in terms of crystallization degree employing the Rietveld method on the magnetic nanostructured system for the determination of the amorphous content using hematite as internal standard. Product crystallinity increases as the microwave thermal treatment is increased and reaches very high percentages for synthesis times longer than 1 h. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystals was followed by the integral breadth methods to obtain information on the crystallite size-strain distribution. The results of diffraction line profile analysis were compared with nanoparticle grain distribution estimated by dimensional analysis of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. A variation both in the average grain size and in the distribution of the coherently diffraction domains is evidenced, allowing to suppose a relationship between the two quantities. The traditional integral breadth methods have proven to be valid for a rapid assessment of the diffraction line broadening effects in the above-mentioned nanostructured systems and the basic assumption for the correct use of these methods are discussed as well. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanocrystals were obtained by MW-assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis. • Quantitative phase analysis revealed that crystallinity up to 95% was reached. • The strategy of Rietveld refinements was discussed in details. • Dimensional analysis showed nanoparticles ranging from 4 to 8 nm. • Results of integral breadth methods were compared with microscopic analysis

  13. Quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of magnetite nanocrystals obtained by microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciancalepore, Corrado, E-mail: corrado.sciancalepore@unimore.it [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10, 41100 Modena (Italy); Bondioli, Federica [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); INSTM Consortium, Via G. Giusti 9, 51121 Firenze (Italy); Manfredini, Tiziano [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10, 41100 Modena (Italy); INSTM Consortium, Via G. Giusti 9, 51121 Firenze (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro [Department of Chemical and Geological Science, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, 41121 Modena Italy (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    An innovative preparation procedure, based on microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis, to obtain spherical magnetite nanoparticles was reported together with a detailed quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of the synthetic products. The nanoparticle growth was analyzed as a function of the synthesis time and was described in terms of crystallization degree employing the Rietveld method on the magnetic nanostructured system for the determination of the amorphous content using hematite as internal standard. Product crystallinity increases as the microwave thermal treatment is increased and reaches very high percentages for synthesis times longer than 1 h. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystals was followed by the integral breadth methods to obtain information on the crystallite size-strain distribution. The results of diffraction line profile analysis were compared with nanoparticle grain distribution estimated by dimensional analysis of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. A variation both in the average grain size and in the distribution of the coherently diffraction domains is evidenced, allowing to suppose a relationship between the two quantities. The traditional integral breadth methods have proven to be valid for a rapid assessment of the diffraction line broadening effects in the above-mentioned nanostructured systems and the basic assumption for the correct use of these methods are discussed as well. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were obtained by MW-assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis. • Quantitative phase analysis revealed that crystallinity up to 95% was reached. • The strategy of Rietveld refinements was discussed in details. • Dimensional analysis showed nanoparticles ranging from 4 to 8 nm. • Results of integral breadth methods were compared with microscopic analysis.

  14. Characterization of antibodies for quantitative determination of spiggin protein levels in male and female three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johnny

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spiggin is an adhesive glycoprotein produced in the kidney of sticklebacks during the breeding season and is subsequently secreted into the urinary bladder from where it is employed for nest building. Since the production of the protein has been shown to be under androgenic control, spiggin has been suggested to be a useful biomarker for androgenic substances in the environment. In this study, two polyclonal spiggin antibodies based on synthetic peptides and one polyclonal antibody directed against native spiggin have been characterized. The antibodies ability to identify spiggin was investigated by quantitative immunoassay. For both peptide antibodies the quantification range was determined to be between 1 and 80 ng spiggin and determination of renal spiggin levels from immature and mature males displayed a 15-fold increase in total spiggin content of the kidney resulting in a 6-fold increase in male kidney weight due to hypertrophy. The kidney somatic index (KSI was found to correlate well with the total renal spiggin content and therefore it appears that KSI in sticklebacks could be used as an initial method to identify substances displaying androgenic effects. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that the polyclonal antibodies recognize different spiggin isoforms and that spiggin can be detected in the urinary bladder and kidney of both males and female sticklebacks. In order to develop a quantitative detection method for native spiggin it is necessary to produce a standard that can be used in a bioassay. Due to the adhesive and polymerization characteristics of spiggin the protein is difficult to use as a standard in bioassays. So far spiggin has been shown to exist in at least 14 isoforms, all of which contain polymerization domains. To overcome the solubility problem we have produced recombinant spiggin gamma, with only one polymerization domain, that can be expressed in E. coli. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the

  15. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  16. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) [1]. The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  17. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauerhofer, E. [FZJ, Institute for Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Havenith, A.; Kettler, J. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Elisabethstrasse 16, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-04-19

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  18. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  19. Characterization of Diffuse Fibrosis in the Failing Human Heart via Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Quantitative Histological Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Osama M.; Drakos, Stavros G.; Diakos, Nikolaos A.; Wever-Pinzon, Omar; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Stehlik, Josef; Selzman, Craig H.; Reid, Bruce B.; Brunisholz, Kim; Verma, Divya Ratan; Myrick, Craig; Sachse, Frank B.; Li, Dean Y.; Hsu, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques are highly desirable as an alternative to conventional biopsy for characterizing remodeling of tissues associated with disease progression, including end-stage heart failure. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an established method for characterizing myocardial microstructure. However, the relationships between diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is a key biomarker for staging and treatment planning of the failing heart, and measured DTI parameters have yet to be systematically investigated. In this study, DTI was performed on left ventricular specimens collected from patients with chronic end-stage heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n=14) and from normal donors (n=5). Scalar DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), primary (D1), secondary (D2), and tertiary (D3) diffusivities, were correlated to collagen content measured by digital microscopy. Compared to hearts from normal subjects, the FA in failing hearts decreased by 22%, whereas the MD, D2 and D3 increased by 12%, 14%, and 24% respectively (P < 0.01). No significant change was detected for D1 between the two groups. Furthermore, significant correlation was observed between the DTI scalar indices and quantitative histological measurements of collagen (i.e., fibrosis). Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between collagen content and either FA, MD, D2, and D3 was -0.51, 0.59, 0.56 and 0.62 (P < 0.05), respectively. The correlation between D1 and collagen content was not significant (r = 0.46, P = 0.05). Computational modeling analysis indicated that the behaviors of the DTI parameters as a function of the degree of fibrosis were well explained by compartmental exchange between myocardial and collagenous tissues. Combined, these findings suggest that scalar DTI parameters can be used as metrics for noninvasive assessment of diffuse fibrosis in failing hearts. PMID:25200106

  20. High-resolution gas chromatography/mas spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high resolution GC/MS with Selected Ion Monitor (SIM) method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) meth...

  1. Characterization of human metabolism and disposition of levo-tetrahydropalmatine: Qualitative and quantitative determination of oxidative and conjugated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weibin; Shen, Guolin; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Ran, Xiaorong; Zhu, Mingshe; Li, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is a tetrahydroprotoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid and has been used as an analgesic agent in China for over 50 years. Recent studies revealed that l-THP was effective in the treatment of drug addiction. However, the plasma metabolic profile, mass balance and clearance pathways of l-THP in human remain unknown. In the present study, an analytical strategy was developed for qualitative and quantitative investigation of metabolism and disposition of l-THP in human. Detection and structural characterization of l-THP metabolites were performed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Selected major metabolites in plasma, urine and feces determined by liquid chromatography with UV detection were further quantified using a triple quadruple mass spectrometry and reference standards. A total of 20 metabolites were identified, most of which were formed via demethylation, mono-hydroxylation, and glucuronidation and sulfonation of desmethyl metabolites. Five major metabolites accounted for over 10% of the parent drug concentration in plasma. Major urinary and fecal metabolites and the parent drug that were monitored for 72h accounted for 46.3% of the dose, while only 0.16% of the dose was the unchanged drug. Multiple demethylations followed by glucuronide and sulfate conjugations and renal excretion were the major drug clearance pathways of l-THP in human. PMID:27343900

  2. Quantitative characterization of crude oils and fuels in mineral substrates using reflectance spectroscopy: Implications for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafutto, Rebecca Del'Papa Moreira; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2016-08-01

    The near and shortwave infrared spectral reflectance properties of several mineral substrates impregnated with crude oils (°APIs 19.2, 27.5 and 43.2), diesel, gasoline and ethanol were measured and assembled in a spectral library. These data were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. Unique and characteristic absorption features were identified in the mixtures, besides variations of the spectral signatures related to the compositional difference of the crude oils and fuels. These features were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the contaminant impregnated in the substrates. Specific wavelengths, where key absorption bands occur, were used for the individual characterization of oils and fuels. The intensity of these features can be correlated to the abundance of the contaminant in the mixtures. Grain size and composition of the impregnated substrate directly influence the variation of the spectral signatures. PCA models applied to the spectral library proved able to differentiate the type and density of the hydrocarbons. The calibration models generated by PLS are robust, of high quality and can also be used to predict the concentration of oils and fuels in mixtures with mineral substrates. Such data and models are employable as a reference for classifying unknown samples of contaminated substrates. The results of this study have important implications for onshore exploration and environmental monitoring of oil and fuels leaks using proximal and far range multispectral, hyperspectral and ultraespectral remote sensing.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation approach for a quantitative characterization of the band edge in InGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazlauskas, K.; Tamulatis, G.; Jursenas, S.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, Build. III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Springis, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, 1063 Riga (Latvia); Cheng, Yung-Chen; Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Huang, Chi-Feng; Yang, C.C. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation approach based on exciton hopping through randomly distributed localized states is proposed for quantitative characterization of the band edge of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN multiple quantum wells with different indium content (x{approx}0.22-0.27). The band edge dynamics is investigated in the 10-300 K range by analyzing the measured S- and W-shaped temperature behavior of the photoluminescence peak position and linewidth, respectively. The simulation of the W-shaped temperature dependence using double-scaled potential profile model enabled us to estimate the scale of the potential fluctuations due to variation of indium content inside and among In-rich regions formed in InGaN alloy. Increased indium content in InGaN alloy resulted in an increase of the both scales of the potential fluctuations. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the exciton energy was reconstructed and compared with that obtained from the photoreflectance measurements. The density of localized states used in the simulations was in agreement with the photoluminescence excitation data. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapata, A.; Chabior, M.; Zanette, I.; Pfeiffer, F. [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cozzini, C.; Sperl, J. I.; Bequé, D. [GE Global Research, 85748 Garching (Germany); Langner, O.; Coman, J. [QRM GmbH, Möhrendorf (Germany); Ruiz-Yaniz, M. [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2014-10-15

    Many scientific research areas rely on accurate electron density characterization of various materials. For instance in X-ray optics and radiation therapy, there is a need for a fast and reliable technique to quantitatively characterize samples for electron density. We present how a precise measurement of electron density can be performed using an X-ray phase-contrast grating interferometer in a radiographic mode of a homogenous sample in a controlled geometry. A batch of various plastic materials was characterized quantitatively and compared with calculated results. We found that the measured electron densities closely match theoretical values. The technique yields comparable results between a monochromatic and a polychromatic X-ray source. Measured electron densities can be further used to design dedicated X-ray phase contrast phantoms and the additional information on small angle scattering should be taken into account in order to exclude unsuitable materials.

  5. Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapata, A.; Chabior, M.; Cozzini, C.; Sperl, J. I.; Bequé, D.; Langner, O.; Coman, J.; Zanette, I.; Ruiz-Yaniz, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-10-01

    Many scientific research areas rely on accurate electron density characterization of various materials. For instance in X-ray optics and radiation therapy, there is a need for a fast and reliable technique to quantitatively characterize samples for electron density. We present how a precise measurement of electron density can be performed using an X-ray phase-contrast grating interferometer in a radiographic mode of a homogenous sample in a controlled geometry. A batch of various plastic materials was characterized quantitatively and compared with calculated results. We found that the measured electron densities closely match theoretical values. The technique yields comparable results between a monochromatic and a polychromatic X-ray source. Measured electron densities can be further used to design dedicated X-ray phase contrast phantoms and the additional information on small angle scattering should be taken into account in order to exclude unsuitable materials.

  6. Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many scientific research areas rely on accurate electron density characterization of various materials. For instance in X-ray optics and radiation therapy, there is a need for a fast and reliable technique to quantitatively characterize samples for electron density. We present how a precise measurement of electron density can be performed using an X-ray phase-contrast grating interferometer in a radiographic mode of a homogenous sample in a controlled geometry. A batch of various plastic materials was characterized quantitatively and compared with calculated results. We found that the measured electron densities closely match theoretical values. The technique yields comparable results between a monochromatic and a polychromatic X-ray source. Measured electron densities can be further used to design dedicated X-ray phase contrast phantoms and the additional information on small angle scattering should be taken into account in order to exclude unsuitable materials

  7. Sulfonium Ion Derivatization, Isobaric Stable Isotope Labeling and Data Dependent CID- and ETD-MS/MS for Enhanced Phosphopeptide Quantitation, Identification and Phosphorylation Site Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yali; Zhou, Xiao; Stemmer, Paul M.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2011-01-01

    An amine specific peptide derivatization strategy involving the use of novel isobaric stable isotope encoded ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion reagents, coupled with an analysis strategy employing capillary HPLC, ESI-MS, and automated data dependent ion trap CID-MS/MS, -MS3, and/or ETD-MS/MS, has been developed for the improved quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation, and for identification and characterization of their site(s) of modification. Derivatization of 50 synthetic phosphopeptid...

  8. A quantitative method to characterize the Al_{4}C_{3}-formed interfacial reaction : the case study of MWCNT/Al composites

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Laipeng; Tan, Zhanqiu; Ji, Gang; Li, Zhiqiang; Fan, Genlian; Schryvers, D.; Shan, Aidang; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The Al4C3-formed interfacial reaction plays an important role in tuning the mechanical and thermal properties of carbon/aluminum (C/Al) composites reinforced with carbonaceous materials such as multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and graphene nanosheet. In terms of the hydrolysis nature of Al4C3, an electrochemical dissolution method was developed to quantitatively characterize the extent of C/Al interfacial reaction, which involves dissolving the composite samples in alkaline soluti...

  9. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, JaeHwang; Matemba, Lucas E.; Lee, KyeoReh; Kazyoba, Paul E.; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit (QPIU), an existing microscope in...

  10. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, KyeoReh; Kazyoba, Paul E; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit (QPIU), an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments.

  11. Multimodal label-free growth and morphology characterization of different cell types in a single culture with quantitative digital holographic phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Wibbeling, Jana; Kastl, Lena; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2015-03-01

    For the analysis of the impact of pharmaceuticals or pathogens on different cellular phenotypes under identical measurement conditions and to analyze interactions between different cellular specimens a minimally-invasive quantitative observation of different cell types in a single culture is of particular interest. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), a var-iant of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), provides high resolution detection of optical path length changes that is suitable for stain-free minimally-invasive live cell analysis. Due to low light intensities for object illumination, QPM minimizes the interaction with the sample and has been demonstrated in particular to be suitable for long-term time-lapse investigations, e.g., for the detection of cell morphology alterations due to drugs and toxins. Furthermore, QPM has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool for the quantification of cellular growth and motility. Thus, we studied the feasibility of QPM for the analysis of mixed cell cultures and explored if quantitative phase images provide sufficient information to distinguish between different cell types and to extract cell specific parameters. For the experiments quantitative phase imaging with DHM was utilized. Mixed cell cultures with different cell types were observed with quantitative DHM phase contrast up to 35 h. The obtained series of quantitative phase images were evaluated by adapted algorithms for image segmentation. From the segmented images the area covered by the cells, the cellular dry mass and the mean cell thickness were calculated and used in the further analysis as parameters to quantify the reliability of the measurement principle. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to characterize the growth of cell types with different mor-phology features separately in a single culture.

  12. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis for single-particle analysis and its application for characterizing atmospheric aerosol particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shila Maskey; Chul-Un Ro

    2011-02-01

    An energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA) technique using an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultra-thin window, designated as low-Z particle EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such as C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements that can be analysed by conventional ED-EPMA. The quantitative determination of low-Z elements (using full Monte Carlo simulations, from the electron impact to the X-ray detection) in individual particles has improved the applicability of single-particle analysis, especially in atmospheric environmental aerosol research; many environmentally important atmospheric particles, e.g. sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and carbonaceous particles, contain low-Z elements. To demonstrate its practical applicability, the application of the low-Z particle EPMA for the characterization of Asian Dust, urban and subway aerosol particles is shown herein. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Monte Carlo calculation can also be applied in a quantitative single-particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), showing that the technique is useful and reliable for the characterization of submicron aerosol particles

  13. Quantitative characterization of phase separation in the photoactive layer of polymer solar cells by the phase image of atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have quantitatively characterized the phase separation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films and studied the effect of phase separation of photoactive layer on the performance of polymer solar cells. A mixed solvent of dichlorobenzene and chlorobenzene was adopted to prepare the P3HT:PCBM blend films, and a series of blend films with different morphologies were obtained by adjusting both the volume ratio of dichlorobenzene to chlorobenzene and the solvent annealing time. The surface morphology and phase distribution were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interface length between the domains of donor and acceptor, which is extracted from the AFM phase image of blend film, was used to quantitatively characterize the phase separation of photoactive layer. It was found that the short-circuit current density (JSC) of bulk heterojunction solar cells is proportional to the interfacial area of two phases, while it has a negligible effect on the open-circuit voltage. These results indicate that the larger interfacial area of donor and acceptor phases is beneficial to the exciton dissociation and carrier transport resulting in a significant increase of JSC and power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Phase separation of photoactive layers in polymer solar cells was evaluated quantitatively. • Interface contours between the donor and acceptor were extracted from AFM phase images. • Effects of phase separation on polymer solar cell performance were investigated. • The interface area mainly influences short-circuit current of the polymer solar cells

  14. Quantitative multielemental analysis of titaniferous magnetites by PIXE, EDXRF, and their iron mineral characterization by 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two representative titaniferous magnetite samples procured from Moulabhanj, Orissa, India have been studied by PIXE, EDXRF, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and XRD techniques. Major iron-bearing phases identified in the samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD are magnetite, hematite, ferrous ilmenite and ferric ilmenite. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio and the relative percentages of different minerals were determined from the resonance areas of Moessbauer spectra. Quantitative multielemental analysis was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Nineteen minor and trace elements have been quantified by EDXRF whereas by PIXE eighteen elements have been analyzed quantitatively. Concentrations of trace elements determined by EDXRF and PIXE were used in interpreting the physicochemical condition of the depositional basin. (author)

  15. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    OpenAIRE

    A. Richard; N. Bukowiecki; Lienemann, P.; Furger, M.; Weideli, B.; Fierz, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Figi, R.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Prévôt, A. S H; U. Baltensperger

    2010-01-01

    Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in a...

  16. Quantitative characterization of initiation and propagation in stress corrosion cracking. An approach of a phenomenological model; Caracterisation quantitative de l`amorcage et de la propagation en corrosion sous contrainte. Approche d`une modelisation phenomenologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raquet, O.

    1994-11-25

    A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a `riddle` for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author).

  17. Vortex flow during early and late left ventricular filling in normal subjects: quantitative characterization using retrospectively-gated 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance and three-dimensional vortex core analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbaz, M.S.M.; Calkoen, E.E.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Roest, A.A.W.; Van der Geest, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background LV diastolic vortex formation has been suggested to critically contribute to efficient blood pumping function, while altered vortex formation has been associated with LV pathologies. Therefore, quantitative characterization of vortex flow might provide a novel objective tool for evaluatin

  18. Characterization of breast lesion using double phase Tc-99m Tetrofosmin scintimammography: Comparison of visual and quantitative analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Sub [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Jang [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: growthkim@daum.net; Kim, In-Ju [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young-Tae [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Ki [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Seok [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Soo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    To compare the diagnostic performances of visual and quantitative indices of double phase Tc-99m Tetrofosmin scintimammography (TF-SMM) for the detection of breast cancer. Methods: Double phase TF-SMM (early, 10 min; delayed, 3 h) were performed after injection of 925 MBq of Tc-99m Tetrofosmin in 75 highly suspected breast cancer patients (malignant: 49, benign: 26). For visual analysis, five scoring method was used. For quantitative analysis, early, delayed lesions to non-lesion ratios (L/Ns) and washout rate (%, WR) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimal visual grade, to calculate cut-off values of quantitative indices, and to compare visual and quantitative diagnostic performances. Results: When over grade 3 of visual grade was used as cut-off value in the defection of primary breast cancer, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.5 and 80.8%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 88.1 and 63.6%, respectively. The area under curve was 0.824 (95% CI, 0.719-0.902) and standard error (S.E.) was 0.047. The optimal L/N ratios were 3.13 for early and 2.56 for delayed image. When early L/N 3.13 was used as cut-off point, the sensitivity and specificity of TF-SMM were 61.2 and 96.2%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.8 and 56.8%, respectively. The AUC was 0.809 (95% CI, 0.702-0.890) and S.E. was 0.049. When delayed L/N 2.56 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity were 46.9 and 96.2%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 95.8 and 49%, respectively. The AUC was 0.741 (95% CI, 0.627-0.835) and S.E. was 0.057. No statistical differences between visual assessment and quantitative analysis of early image (difference between area, 0.015; S.E., 0.044; 95% CI, -0.072 to 0.102; p = 0.736) and delayed image (difference between area, 0.083; S.E., 0.054; 95% CI, -0.023 to 0.060; p = 0.189) was noted. However

  19. Genetic and Physiological Characterization of Two Clusters of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Seed Dormancy and Plant Height in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Heng; Beighley, Donn H.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-01-01

    Seed dormancy and plant height have been well-studied in plant genetics, but their relatedness and shared regulatory mechanisms in natural variants remain unclear. The introgression of chromosomal segments from weedy into cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) prompted the detection of two clusters (qSD1-2/qPH1 and qSD7-2/qPH7) of quantitative trait loci both associated with seed dormancy and plant height. Together, these two clusters accounted for >96% of the variances for plant height and ~71% of t...

  20. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particles sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  1. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particle sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  2. Morphological Characterization of ALD and Doping Effects on Mesoporous SnO2 Aerogels by XPS and Quantitative SEM Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Santoro, Carlo; Atanassov, Plamen; Agrios, Alexander G

    2016-04-20

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is unsurpassed in its ability to create thin conformal coatings over very rough and/or porous materials. Yet although the coating thickness on flat surfaces can be measured by ellipsometry, characterization of these coatings on rough surfaces is difficult. Here, two techniques are demonstrated to provide such characterization of ALD-coated TiO2 over mesoporous SnO2 aerogel films on glass substrates, and insights are gained as to the ALD process. First, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the coating thickness over the aerogel, and the results (0.04 nm/cycle) agree well with ellipsometry on flat surfaces up to a coating thickness limit of about 6 nm. Second, quantitative analysis of SEM images of the aerogel cross section is used to determine porosity and roughness, from which coating thickness can be inferred. The analysis reveals increasing porosity from the aerogel/air interface to the aerogel/substrate interface, indicating a thicker ALD coating near the air side, which is consistent with tortuous diffusion through the pores limiting access of ALD precursors to deeper parts of the film. SEM-derived porosity is generally useful in a thin film because bulk methods like nitrogen physisorption or mercury porosimetry are impractical for use with thin-film samples. Therefore, in this study SEM was also used to characterize quantitatively the morphologogical changes in SnO2 aerogel thin films due to doping with Sb. This study can be used as a methodology to understand morphological changes in different types of porous and/or rough materials. PMID:27022759

  3. Quantitative Characterization of Phosphor Detector for Fusion Plasmas; Caracterizacion Cuantitativa de Detectores Luminiscentes para Plasmas de Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciero, A.; Zurro, B.; McCarthy, K. J.

    2004-07-01

    Experiments made to characterize phosphor screens with application as broadband radiation detectors, are described. Several radiation sources, covering the spectral range between the ultraviolet and X ray, were used. In addition, details are given of three original phosphor-screen-based detectors that were designed for use as broadband detectors in magnetically confined fusion devices. The first measurements obtained with these detectors in plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator device are presented together with the analysis performed. (Author)

  4. Roles of biologic breast tissue composition and quantitative image analysis of mammographic images in breast tumor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.; Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Christopher I.; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    Purpose. Investigate whether knowledge of the biologic image composition of mammographic lesions provides imagebased biomarkers above and beyond those obtainable from quantitative image analysis (QIA) of X-ray mammography. Methods. The dataset consisted of 45 in vivo breast lesions imaged with the novel 3-component breast (3CB) imaging technique based on dual-energy mammography (15 malignant, 30 benign diagnoses). The 3CB composition measures of water, lipid, and protein thicknesses were assessed and mathematical descriptors, `3CB features', were obtained for the lesions and their periphery. The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method obtaining `QIA features' describing morphology and texture. We investigated the correlation within the `3CB features', within the `QIA features', and between the two. In addition, the merit of individual features in the distinction between malignant and benign lesions was assessed. Results. Whereas many descriptors within the `3CB features' and `QIA features' were, often by design, highly correlated, correlation between descriptors of the two feature groups was much weaker (maximum absolute correlation coefficient 0.58, pappeared equally well-suited for the distinction between malignant and benign lesions, with maximum area under the ROC curve 0.71 for a protein feature (3CB) and 0.71 for a texture feature (QIA). Conclusions. In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of breast tissue composition appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions.

  5. X-ray diffraction and SEM study of kidney stones in Israel: quantitative analysis, crystallite size determination, and statistical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Vladimir; Popov, Inna; Shapur, Nandakishore; Abdin, Tamer; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2011-12-01

    Urinary calculi have been recognized as one of the most painful medical disorders. Tenable knowledge of the phase composition of the stones is very important to elucidate an underlying etiology of the stone disease. We report here the results of quantitative X-ray diffraction phase analysis performed on 278 kidney stones from the 275 patients treated at the Department of Urology of Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital (Jerusalem, Israel). Quantification of biominerals in multicomponent samples was performed using the normalized reference intensity ratio method. According to the observed phase compositions, all the tested stones were classified into five chemical groups: oxalates (43.2%), phosphates (7.7%), urates (10.3%), cystines (2.9%), and stones composed of a mixture of different minerals (35.9%). A detailed analysis of each allocated chemical group is presented along with the crystallite size calculations for all the observed crystalline phases. The obtained results have been compared with the published data originated from different geographical regions. Morphology and spatial distribution of the phases identified in the kidney stones were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This type of detailed study of phase composition and structural characteristics of the kidney stones was performed in Israel for the first time. PMID:21308400

  6. Characterization of individual submicrometer aerosol particles collected in Incheon, Korea, by quantitative transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hong; Kang, Sujin; Jung, Hae-Jin; ChoëL, Marie; Kim, Hyekyeong; Ro, Chul-Un

    2010-08-01

    For the last decade the Monte Carlo calculation method has been proven to be an excellent tool for accurately simulating electron-solid interactions in atmospheric individual particles of micrometer size. Although it was designed for application to scanning electron microscopy, in the present study it is demonstrated that the Monte Carlo calculation can also be applied in a quantitative single particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an ultrathin window energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer with a high accelerating voltage (200 kV). By utilizing an iterative reverse Monte Carlo simulation combined with successive approximation, atomic elemental concentrations (including low-Z elements) of submicrometer standard particles were determined with high accuracy for electron beam refractory particles such as NaCl, KCl, SiO2, Fe2O3, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCO3, and CaSO4. On the basis of quantitative X-ray analysis together with morphological information from TEM images, overall 1638 submicrometer individual particles from 10 sets of aerosol samples collected in Incheon, Korea, were identified. The most frequently encountered particle types are carbonaceous and (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing particles, followed by mineral (e.g., aluminosilicate, SiO2, CaCO3), sea salt, K-rich (e.g., K2SO4 and KCl), Fe-rich, fly ash, and transition or heavy-metal-containing (e.g., ZnSO4, ZnCl2, PbSO4) particles. The relative abundances of the submicrometer particle types vary among samples collected in different seasons and also depend on different air mass transport routes. This study demonstrates that the quantitative TEM-EDX individual particle analysis is a useful and reliable technique in characterizing urban submicrometer aerosol particles.

  7. Characterization of individual aerosol particles collected during a haze episode in Incheon, Korea using the quantitative ED-EPMA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Geng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon that leads to low visibility, and is mostly due to elevated levels of fine particulate matter. It can have effects on cloud formation, public health, agriculture, and even the global climate. Although urban haze has been increasing in occurrence over the past several years over the Seoul-Incheon metropolis, Korea, studies of the morphology and chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles by single-particle analysis during haze episodes have rarely been conducted. Herein, a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (ED-EPMA, called low-Z particle EPMA, was used to analyze individual aerosol particles collected in Incheon, Korea on 13–18 October 2008 (a typical haze episode occurred from 15 to 18 October. Overall, 3600 particles in 12 aerosol samples collected on haze and non-haze days were measured by low-Z particle EPMA. Based on quantitative X-ray analysis, together with secondary electron images of individual particles, we successfully identified the aerosol particle types as follows: elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, (NH42SO4/NH4HSO4-containing, genuine (fresh and reacted (aged sea-salt, mineral dust (such as aluminosilicate, SiO2, CaCO3/CaMg(CO32, etc., and K-containing, Fe-rich, and fly ash particles. By analyzing the relative abundances of different particle types, it was concluded that (a on non-haze days, reacted sea-salts and reacted mineral dust particles were abundant in both the PM2.5–10 and PM1.0–2.5 fractions (with relative abundances of 65.0% and 57.7%, respectively; whereas on haze days, the relative abundances of OC and (NH42SO4/NH4HSO4-containing particles were significantly elevated, indicating that organic matter and secondary aerosols were abundant in the atmosphere

  8. Characterization and quantitative analysis of surfactants in textile wastewater by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Susana; Petrović, Mira; Radetic, Maja; Jovancic, Petar; Ilic, Vesna; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    A method based on the application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqTOF-MS) with an electrospray (ESI) interface has been developed for the screening and confirmation of several anionic and non-ionic surfactants: linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS), alkylsulfate (AS), alkylethersulfate (AES), dihexyl sulfosuccinate (DHSS), alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), coconut diethanolamide (CDEA), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and their degradation products (nonylphenol carboxylate (NPEC), octylphenol carboxylate (OPEC), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-octylphenol (OP) and NPEO sulfate (NPEO-SO4). The developed methodology permits reliable quantification combined with a high accuracy confirmation based on the accurate mass of the (de)protonated molecules in the TOFMS mode. For further confirmation of the identity of the detected compounds the QqTOF mode was used. Accurate masses of product ions obtained by performing collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the (de)protonated molecules of parent compounds were matched with the ions obtained for a standard solution. The method was applied for the quantitative analysis and high accuracy confirmation of surfactants in complex mixtures in effluents from the textile industry. Positive identification of the target compounds was based on accurate mass measurement of the base peak, at least one product ion and the LC retention time of the analyte compared with that of a standard. The most frequently surfactants found in these textile effluents were NPEO and NPEO-SO4 in concentrations ranging from 0.93 to 5.68 mg/L for NPEO and 0.06 to 4.30 mg/L for NPEO-SO4. AEOs were also identified. PMID:18398847

  9. Identification and Quantitative Characterization of PSORI-CM01, a Chinese Medicine Formula for Psoriasis Therapy, by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with an LTQ Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Dan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PSORI-CM01 is a Chinese medicine formula prepared from medicinal herbs and used in China for the treatment of psoriasis. However, the chemical constituents in PSORI-CM01 have not been clarified yet. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of PSORI-CM01 preparations, ultra-high liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-LTQ/Orbitrap-MS was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple constituents. A total of 108 compounds, including organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, were identified or tentatively deduced on the base of their retention behaviors, MS and MSn data, or by comparing with reference substances and literature data. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI-MS method was established for the quantitative determination of 14 marker compounds in different dosage forms of PSORI-CM01 preparations. The validation of the method, including spike recoveries, linearity, sensitivity (LOQ, precision, and repeatability, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. This is the first report on the comprehensive determination of chemical constituents in PSORI-CM01 preparations by UHPLC-ESI-LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The results suggested that the established methods would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituents in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM preparations.

  10. Characterization and diagnostic evaluation of chronic polyneuropathies induced by oxaliplatin and docetaxel comparing skin biopsy to quantitative sensory testing and nerve conduction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, T; Schrøder, H D; Qvortrup, C;

    2014-01-01

    was to characterize the neuropathies with regard to symptoms, neurological signs and objective evidence of damage to the structure and function of the peripheral nerves. Furthermore, the diagnostic values of skin biopsy, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were...... fibre density in skin biopsies from the proximal and distal parts of the leg, QST and NCS. RESULTS: Clinically only sensory functions were affected. In general, neuropathy scores were higher in the oxaliplatin-treated group. Both sensory and motor fibres were affected in the NCS, showing predominantly...... after oxaliplatin or docetaxel treatment is a clinically sensory, axonal neuropathy affecting only small nerve fibres in some patients. NCS are often normal, whereas QST and skin biopsy have a higher diagnostic sensitivity....

  11. Sulfonium Ion Derivatization, Isobaric Stable Isotope Labeling and Data Dependent CID- and ETD-MS/MS for Enhanced Phosphopeptide Quantitation, Identification and Phosphorylation Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yali; Zhou, Xiao; Stemmer, Paul M.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2012-04-01

    An amine specific peptide derivatization strategy involving the use of novel isobaric stable isotope encoded `fixed charge' sulfonium ion reagents, coupled with an analysis strategy employing capillary HPLC, ESI-MS, and automated data dependent ion trap CID-MS/MS, -MS3, and/or ETD-MS/MS, has been developed for the improved quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation, and for identification and characterization of their site(s) of modification. Derivatization of 50 synthetic phosphopeptides with S, S'-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester iodide (DMBNHS), followed by analysis using capillary HPLC-ESI-MS, yielded an average 2.5-fold increase in ionization efficiencies and a significant increase in the presence and/or abundance of higher charge state precursor ions compared to the non-derivatized phosphopeptides. Notably, 44% of the phosphopeptides (22 of 50) in their underivatized states yielded precursor ions whose maximum charge states corresponded to +2, while only 8% (4 of 50) remained at this maximum charge state following DMBNHS derivatization. Quantitative analysis was achieved by measuring the abundances of the diagnostic product ions corresponding to the neutral losses of `light' (S(CH3)2) and `heavy' (S(CD3)2) dimethylsulfide exclusively formed upon CID-MS/MS of isobaric stable isotope labeled forms of the DMBNHS derivatized phosphopeptides. Under these conditions, the phosphate group stayed intact. Access for a greater number of peptides to provide enhanced phosphopeptide sequence identification and phosphorylation site characterization was achieved via automated data-dependent CID-MS3 or ETD-MS/MS analysis due to the formation of the higher charge state precursor ions. Importantly, improved sequence coverage was observed using ETD-MS/MS following introduction of the sulfonium ion fixed charge, but with no detrimental effects on ETD fragmentation efficiency.

  12. Usability of ECT for quantitative and qualitative characterization of trickle-bed flow dynamics experiencing filtration conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibirna, C.; Fortin, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). GIREF; Edouard, D.; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) as an imaging method for trickle-bed reaction processes was examined in this study. In particular, the advantages and disadvantages of using ECT to characterize the flow dynamics in a four-phase trickle bed reactor were investigated. This work was part of a larger study to extend the service life of catalyst beds used during the hydrotreatment of some oil fractions, such as Athabasca bitumen. A better understanding of the flow dynamics and clogging physics in trickle-bed reactors is needed in order to prevent clogging in the catalyst bed. This study focused on several aspects of the ECT as a non-intrusive imaging method for such processes. This paper described the experimental setup in detail. The ECT equipment allowed for up to 100 tomograms per second to be recorded. The clogging experiments lasted about 30 hours from a completely clean catalyst bed to a stable, non-filtering clogging state. A series of algorithms for ECT image reconstruction were presented. Truncated and filtered single value decomposition (SVD) and Landweber methods were found to be the most appropriate. ECT was shown to be faster and less expensive than nuclear ionizing, non-ionizing and other tomography methods. However, the main advantage of ECT was its non-intrusive attributes. It was also suggested that the complex technologies involved in ECT still require further refinement and better calibration methods. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Quantitative characterization of the microstructure of an electron-beam welded medium strength Al-Zn-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of an electron beam weld of a medium strength Al-4.5%Zn-1%Mg (wt.%) alloy has been characterized in terms of solute element distribution, grain structure and fine-scale precipitates after a T6 post-welding heat treatment. It is found that the weld nugget consists of small grains, whose size (1-50 μm) is heterogeneously distributed. The nugget composition is unaffected in Mg but depleted of 20% in Zn in the first run zone. This is shown to affect the fine-scale precipitate microstructure, which has been mapped in the weld cross-section using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. It is shown that the nugget exhibits a precipitate size only slightly different from that of the base material after the post-welding heat treatment, and that the difference in volume fraction, much more significant, can be understood from the magnitude of the solute depletion. The relative precipitate sizes and volume fractions in the weld nugget and base material enable to understand effectively the corresponding microhardness levels.

  14. Reconstruction and Quantitative Characterization of Multiphase, Multiscale Three-Dimensional Microstructure of a Cast Al-Si Base Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H.; Gokhale, A. M.; Mao, Y.; Tewari, A.; Sachdev, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The serial sectioning technique is well known for the reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures of opaque materials. In recent years, techniques also have been developed for the reconstruction of high-fidelity, large-volume segments of 3D microstructures that use montage serial sections and robot-assisted automated acquisitions of montage serial sections. This article reports the reconstruction of the multiphase, multiscale 3D microstructure of a permanent mold cast unmodified Al-12 wt pct Si-1 wt pct Ni base alloy that contains eutectic Si platelets, coarse primary polyhedral Si particles, Fe-rich script intermetallic particles, and pores. These constituents are segmented, reconstructed, rendered, and characterized in three dimensions. The estimated 3D microstrucutral attributes include the distribution of eutectic platelet thickness; the mean volume, mean surface area, and mean thickness of the eutectic Si platelets; the mean volume and the mean surface area of the polyhedral primary Si particles; and the mean number of faces, edges, and corners on the polyhedral primary Si particles.

  15. Characterization of key odorants in Chinese chixiang aroma-type liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Chixiang aroma-type liquor is extensively welcomed by consumers owing to its typical fatty aroma, particularly in southern China. To our knowledge, no comprehensive characterization of aroma and flavor from chixiang aroma-type liquor has been published. It is still a confused question which components are the most important in characterizing its unique aroma. A total of 56 odorants were identified in chixiang aroma-type liquor by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and in different quantitative measurements, 34 aroma compounds were further demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs). Furthermore, this research suggested that the aroma of chixiang aroma-type finished liquor could be successfully reconstituted by mixing 34 aroma compounds in the concentrations measured. Omission experiments further confirmed (E)-2-nonenal as the key odorant and revealed the significance of (E)-2-octenal and 2-phenylethanol for the overall aroma of chixiang aroma-type liquor. 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), diethyl 1,7-heptanedioate (diethyl pimelate), diethyl 1,8-octanedioate (diethyl suberate), and diethyl 1,9-nonanedioate (diethyl azelate), identified as the characteristic aromas of chixiang aroma-type liquor in 1995, had no effects on aroma based on omission/addition experiments. PMID:25797496

  16. Morphologic characterization and quantitative analysis on in vitro bacteria by nuclear techniques of measurement; Caracterizacao morfologica e analise quantitativa de bacterias in vitro por tecnicas nucleares de medidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joana D' Arc Ramos

    2001-10-01

    The great difficulty to identify microorganisms (bacteria) from infectious processes is related to the necessary time to obtain a reliable result, about 72 hours. The purpose of this work is to establish a faster method to characterize bacterial morphologies through the use of neutron radiography, which can take about 5 hours. The samples containing the microorganisms, bacteria with different morphologies, after the appropriate microbiologic procedures were incubated with B{sup 10} for 30 minutes and soon after deposited in a plate of a solid detector of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), denominated CR-39. To obtain the images relative to bacteria, the detector was submitted to the flow of thermal neutrons of the order of 2.2 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.s from the J-9 channel of the Reactor Argonauta (IEN/CNEN). To observe the images from bacteria in each sample under an optical microscope, the sheets were chemically developed. The analysis of the images revealed morphologic differences among the genera (Gram positive from Gram-negative and coccus from bacillus), in samples containing either isolated or mixed bacteria. We thus verified the viability of the technique to achieve morphological characterization of different microorganisms. A quantitative approach seemed also to be feasible with the technique. The whole process took about 2 hours. (author)

  17. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  18. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, April Z [Northeastern University; Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univeristy

    2014-09-02

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  19. Preparation and characterization of enzymatically hydrolyzed prolamins from wheat, rye, and barley as references for the immunochemical quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessendorfer, Benedict; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the intolerance to a group of proteins called gluten present in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats. The only therapy is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. The standard method for gluten determination in foods produced for CD patients is the R5-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as proposed by the recent Codex Alimentarius Draft Revised Standard. This test is based on the determination of prolamins, the alcohol-soluble proteins of gluten, and is available as a sandwich ELISA for intact proteins and as a competitive ELISA for gluten-derived peptides. While the suitability of the sandwich ELISA including a wheat prolamin (gliadin) reference for calibration has been shown by various studies and a ring test, the competitive ELISA still lacks a convenient reference for the quantitation of gluten peptides in fermented cereal foods (e.g., sourdough products, starch syrup, malt extracts, beer). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prepare a suitable reference for the quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten in fermented wheat, rye, and barley products. The prolamin fractions from barley (hordein) and rye (secalin) were isolated from corresponding flours by means of a modified preparative Osborne fractionation. The prolamin fraction from wheat was obtained as reference gliadin from the Prolamin Working Group. The prolamin fractions were successively digested by pepsin and trypsin or pepsin and chymotrypsin procedures, which have been used for CD-specific toxicity tests on cereal storage proteins for many years. The protein/peptide content (N x 5.7) of the prolamin fractions and digests, which was the basis for the calculation of the gluten content by means of ELISA, varied between 67.1% and 96.0%. The prolamin fractions and enzymatic digests were then tested for their response in both sandwich and competitive assays. Intact prolamins responded similarly in both ELISA showing

  20. Advances in the Quantitative Characterization of the Shape of Ash-Sized Pyroclast Populations: Fractal Analyses Coupled to Micro- and Nano-Computed Tomography Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J.; Vonlanthen, P.; Grobety, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    The quantification of shape parameters in pyroclasts is fundamental to infer the dominant type of magma fragmentation (magmatic vs. phreatomagmatic), as well as the behavior of volcanic plumes and clouds in the atmosphere. In a case study aiming at reconstructing the fragmentation mechanisms triggering maar eruptions in two geologically and compositionally distinctive volcanic fields (West and East Eifel, Germany), the shapes of a large number of ash particle contours obtained from SEM images were analyzed by a dilation-based fractal method. Volcanic particle contours are pseudo-fractals showing mostly two distinct slopes in Richardson plots related to the fractal dimensions D1 (small-scale "textural" dimension) and D2 (large-scale "morphological" dimension). The validity of the data obtained from 2D sections was tested by analysing SEM micro-CT slices of one particle cut in different orientations and positions. Results for West Eifel maar particles yield large D1 values (> 1.023), resembling typical values of magmatic particles, which are characterized by a complex shape, especially at small scales. In contrast, the D1 values of ash particles from one East Eifel maar deposit are much smaller, coinciding with the fractal dimensions obtained from phreatomagmatic end-member particles. These quantitative morphological analyses suggest that the studied maar eruptions were triggered by two different fragmentation processes: phreatomagmatic in the East Eifel and magmatic in the West Eifel. The application of fractal analysis to quantitatively characterize the shape of pyroclasts and the linking of fractal dimensions to specific fragmentation processes has turned out to be a very promising tool for studying the fragmentation history of any volcanic eruption. The next step is to extend morphological analysis of volcanic particles to 3 dimensions. SEM micro-CT, already applied in this study, offers the required resolution, but is not suitable for the analysis of a large

  1. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A ampersand P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A ampersand P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL

  2. Inverse PCR and Quantitative PCR as Alternative Methods to Southern Blotting Analysis to Assess Transgene Copy Number and Characterize the Integration Site in Transgenic Woody Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Biricolti; Patrizia, Bogani; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Massimo, Gori

    2016-06-01

    One of the major unanswered questions with respect to the commercial use of genetic transformation in woody plants is the stability of the transgene expression over several decades within the same individual. Gene expression is strongly affected by the copy number which has been integrated into the plant genome and by the local DNA features close to the integration sites. Because woody plants cannot be subjected to selfing or backcrossing to modify the transgenic allelic structure without affecting the valuable traits of the cultivar, molecular characterization of the transformation event is therefore crucial. After assessing the transgene copy number of a set of apple transgenic clones with Southern blotting, we describe two alternative methods: the first is based on inverse PCR (i-PCR) and the second on the quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The methods produced comparable results with the exception of the data regarding a high copy number clone, but while the q-PCR-based system is rapid and easily adaptable to high throughput systems, the i-PCR-based method can provide information regarding the transformation event and the characteristics of the sequences flanking the transgenic construct. PMID:26895172

  3. Qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging of the breast at 3T - A useful adjunct to contrast-enhanced MRI in characterization of breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To distinguish between benign and malignant breast lesions on the basis of their signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging and their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values at 3 T MRI, along with histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 500 patients who underwent 3 T MRI between August 2011 and May 2013 was done. Of these, 226 patients with 232 lesions that were proved by histopathology were included in the study. ADC values were calculated at b values of 0, 1000, and 1500 s/mm2 after identification on contrast-enhanced images and appropriate ROI(Region of interest placement. ADC value and histopathology correlation was analyzed. Results: Out of 232 lesions, 168 lesions were histologically malignant and 64 were histologically benign. With an ADC cut-off value of 1.1 ×10−3 mm2/s for malignant lesions, a sensitivity of 92.80% and specificity of 80.23% was obtained. Out of 12/232 false-negative lesions, 6 were mucinous carcinoma in which a high ADC value of 1.8-1.9 ×10−3 mm2/s was obtained. Purely DCIS (Ductal carcinoma in situ lesions presenting as non-mass-like enhancement had a high ADC value of 1.2-1.5 ×10−3 mm2/s, thereby reducing specificity. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted Imaging and quantitative assessment by ADC values may act as an effective parameter in increasing the diagnostic accuracy and specificity of contrast-enhanced breast MRI in characterization of breast lesions.

  4. Quantitative characterization of gold nanoparticles by field-flow fractionation coupled online with light scattering detection and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Loeschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Mortensen, Alicja; Sloth, Jens J; Koch, Christian Bender; Larsen, Erik H

    2011-04-01

    An analytical platform coupling asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)) with multiangle light scattering (MALS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was established and used for separation and quantitative determination of size and mass concentration of nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous suspension. Mixtures of three polystyrene (PS) NPs between 20 and 100 nm in diameter and mixtures of three gold (Au) NPs between 10 and 60 nm in diameter were separated by AF(4). The geometric diameters of the separated PS NPs and the hydrodynamic diameters of the Au and PS NPs were determined online by MALS and DLS, respectively. The three separated Au NPs were quantified by ICPMS and recovered at 50-95% of the injected masses, which ranged between approximately 8-80 ng of each nanoparticle size. Au NPs adhering to the membrane in the separation channel was found to be a major cause for incomplete recoveries. The lower limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.02 ng Au and 0.4 ng Au, with increasing LOD by increasing nanoparticle diameter. The analytical platform was applied to characterization of Au NPs in livers of rats, which were dosed with 10 nm, 60 nm, or a mixture of 10 and 60 nm nanoparticles by intravenous injection. The homogenized livers were solubilized in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), and the recovery of Au NPs from the livers amounted to 86-123% of their total Au content. In spite of successful stabilization with bovine serum albumin even in alkaline medium, separation of the Au NPs by AF(4) was not possible due to association with undissolved remains of the alkali-treated liver tissues as demonstrated by electron microscopy images. PMID:21355549

  5. TU-C-12A-07: Characterization of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Quantitative Diffusion Imaging Data Acquired with Four Different Protocols Using a Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize and compare the longitudinal reproducibility of diffusion imaging data acquired with four different protocols using a phantom. Methods: The Diffusive Quantitative Imaging Phantom (DQIP) was constructed using fifteen cylindrical compartments within a larger compartment, filled with deionized water doped with CuSO4 and NaCl. The smaller compartments contained arrays of hexagonal or cylindrical glass capillaries of varying inner diameters, for differing restraint of water diffusion. The sensitivity of diffusion imaging metrics to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was probed by doping compartments with differing ratios of deuterium oxide to H2O. A cork phantom enclosure was constructed to increase thermal stability during scanning and a cork holder was made to reproduce scanner positioning. Four different protocols of DWI (diffusion weighted imaging) and DTI (Diffusion tensor imaging) imaging were assembled on a GE Excite HDx 3.0T MRI scanner to collect imaging data over 9-10 days. Data was processed with in-house software created in Matlab to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Results: All DTI and DWI sequences showed good longitudinal stability of mean FA and ADC values per compartment, exhibiting low standard deviation ∼9%. A t-test was performed to compare mean FA values from the DTI clinical protocol to those of the DTI special protocol, indicating significantly different values in the majority of compartments. ANOVA performed on ADC values for all DTI and DWI sequences also showed significantly different values in a majority of compartments. Conclusion: This work has the potential for quantifying systemic variations between diffusion imaging sequences from different platforms. Characterization of DWI and DTI performance were done over four sequences with predictable results. This data suggests that the DQIP phantom may be a reliable method of monitoring day-to-day and scan-to-scan variation in

  6. Assessment of vulnerability in karst aquifers using a quantitative integrated numerical model: catchment characterization and high resolution monitoring - Application to semi-arid regions- Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Aoun, Michel; Andari, Fouad

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous and characterized by a duality of recharge (concentrated; fast versus diffuse; slow) and a duality of flow which directly influences groundwater flow and spring responses. Given this heterogeneity in flow and infiltration, karst aquifers do not always obey standard hydraulic laws. Therefore the assessment of their vulnerability reveals to be challenging. Studies have shown that vulnerability of aquifers is highly governed by recharge to groundwater. On the other hand specific parameters appear to play a major role in the spatial and temporal distribution of infiltration on a karst system, thus greatly influencing the discharge rates observed at a karst spring, and consequently the vulnerability of a spring. This heterogeneity can only be depicted using an integrated numerical model to quantify recharge spatially and assess the spatial and temporal vulnerability of a catchment for contamination. In the framework of a three-year PEER NSF/USAID funded project, the vulnerability of a karst catchment in Lebanon is assessed quantitatively using a numerical approach. The aim of the project is also to refine actual evapotranspiration rates and spatial recharge distribution in a semi arid environment. For this purpose, a monitoring network was installed since July 2014 on two different pilot karst catchment (drained by Qachqouch Spring and Assal Spring) to collect high resolution data to be used in an integrated catchment numerical model with MIKE SHE, DHI including climate, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone. Catchment characterization essential for the model included geological mapping and karst features (e.g., dolines) survey as they contribute to fast flow. Tracer experiments were performed under different flow conditions (snow melt and low flow) to delineate the catchment area, reveal groundwater velocities and response to snowmelt events. An assessment of spring response after precipitation events allowed the estimation of the

  7. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER BY 13C-NMR METHOD Ⅲ. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEQUENCE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen; JIAO Shuke

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative description of the sequence structure of emulsion-processed SBR and solution-processed SBR (by lithium catalyst)was carried out based on their spectral data of 13C-NMR.The calculating formulae which could be used to obtain diad concentration from the peak intensities of carbon spectra, average block length, average number of block, and the microstructure composition of the molecular chain were derived. The quantitative result showed that on the molecular chain styrene unit had the tendency to attach to trans-1,4 butadiene unit. The calculated result of the microstructure was in good agreement with that obtained through IR measurement.

  8. Characterization, quantitation and evolution of monoepoxy compounds formed in model systems of fatty acid methyl esters and monoacid triglycerides heated at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux, O.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoepoxy compounds formed after heating methyl oleate and linoleate, triolein and trilinolein at 180°C for 5, 10 and 15 hours, were characterized and quantitated after derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters by using two base-catalyzed procedures. Structures were identified by GC-MS before and after hydrogénation. A complete recovery of the epoxy compounds was obtained by comparing results from methyl oleate and linoleate before and after transesterification, and good repeatability was also attained. Similar amounts of epoxides were found for methyl esters and triglycerides of the same degree of unsaturation, although formation was considerably greater for the less unsaturated substrates, methyl oleate and triolein, possibly due to the absence of remaining double bonds in the molecule which would involve a lower tendency to participate in further reactions. On other hand, independently of the degree of unsaturation of the model systems and of the period of heating, significantly higher amounts of trans isomers were formed. Finally from comparison between the amounts of epoxides and the level of polar fatty acids in samples, it was deduced that monoepoxy compounds were one of the major groups formed under the conditions used.

    En este estudio se identifican y cuantifican los compuestos epoxidados formados a partir de sistemas modelo de oleato y linoleato de metilo, trioleína y trilinoleína, calentados a 180°C durante 5,10 y 15 horas. La identificación se lleva a cabo mediante CG-EM en las muestras de esteres metílicos antes y después de someter a hidrogenación y para su cuantificación se utilizan dos procedimientos de transesterificación en medio alcalino. La comparación de las cantidades obtenidas, antes y después de la derivatización de los sistemas modelo de esteres metílicos, permitió deducir que la recuperación fue completa, obteniéndose también una excelente repetibilidad. Las cantidades de ep

  9. Suitability of thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection with regard to quantitative characterization of different fossil fuel products. II. Calibration methods concerning quantitative hydrocarbon-group type analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, J.; Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L.; Ferrando, A.C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica, Dept. de Procesos Quimicos

    1998-10-01

    Time-consuming external standard-based calibration methods are usually performed for hydrocarbon group type analysis (HGTA) of fossil fuels, regardless of the instrumental chromatographic technique. HGTA of a broad variety of coal and petroleum products was performed using a modern thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) system and a rapid method based on internal normalization. Repeatability, linear intervals, and sample load ranges for quantitative application of this method are given, namely a heavy oil and its derived hydrocracked products, raw and chemically-modified petroleum asphaltenes, a coal-tar pitch, several coal extracts, and coal hydroliquefaction products. Results from external standard calibration and a normalization method (both obtained by TLC-FID) are in agreement, and they are validated using TLC-ultraviolet scanning. The use of the latter demonstrates that TLC-FID can also be applied to products such as coal extracts and hydroliquefaction products, despite these products being more volatile than petroleum asphaltenes or heavy oils. 14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Quantitative Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles by Field-Flow Fractionation Coupled Online with Light Scattering Detection and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Mortensen, Alicja; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Bender Koch, Christian; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2011-01-01

    An analytical platform coupling asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with multiangle light scattering (MALS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was established and used for separation and quantitative determination of size and mass concentration of nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous suspension. Mixtures of three polystyrene (PS) NPs between 20 and 100 nm in diameter and mixtures of three gold (Au) NPs between 10 and 60 nm in diamete...

  11. Label-free characterization of living human induced pluripotent stem cells by subcellular topographic imaging technique using full-field quantitative phase microscopy coupled with interference reflection microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Norikazu; Asai, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kataoka, Takuji; Ikeda, Takahiro; Iwai, Hidenao; Sakurai, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for a noninvasive technique to monitor living pluripotent stem cell condition without any labeling. We present an optical imaging technique that is able to capture information about optical path difference through the cell and cell adhesion properties simultaneously using a combination of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) and interference reflection microscopy (IRM) techniques. As a novel application of QPM and IRM, this multimodal imaging technique demonstrated its ability ...

  12. Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat

  13. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of phenolic and diterpenoid constituents in Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Liang; Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; He, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Danshen is one of the most frequently used traditional Chinese herbs owing to its remarkable and reliable therapeutic effects. Phenolic acids and diterpenoids have proved to be the bioactive substance groups. In order to fully profile its chemical compositions and explore new potential bioactive compounds, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to DAD detector and hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC × LC-DAD-ESI/HRMS/MS(n)) was set up in this study based on the column combination of Hypersil gold CN (150 mm × 1 mm, 3 μm) and Accucore C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm). Using the optimal segment gradient program, phenolic acids and diterpenoids were separated into two independent groups and a total of 328 peaks were successfully detected on the contour plot of Danshen. By means of the accurate mass and reliable MS(n) data, 102 compounds were identified or tentatively identified and 7 of them were discovered from Danshen for the first time. Moreover, the LC × LC-DAD system was validated for the quantitative analysis of 14 bioactive analytes using the contour plot, exhibiting satisfactory linearity (r ≥ 0.9976) and high precision for both peak locating (≤ 1.07%) and peak volume calculating (0.34%-4.11%). The established method could afford powerful separation capability, reliable identification data and accurate quantitative results, which is very suitable for analysis of complex herbal samples. PMID:26687169

  14. Non destructive testing of industrial pieces by radiography: quantitative characterization and 3 D reconstruction by the way of a limited number of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non destructive testing of industrial pieces is evaluated on the basis of numerical radiographies.The context of the study is the online control of the fuel rods production. A direct model of a numerical radiography formation is proposed and detailed for an acquisition system consisting of a CCD video connected to a converter screen by an optical system. As this approach does not allow the determination of the measured matter thickness from the X-ray photograph, an approximate model based on realistic approximations of the industrial non destructive testing, has been developed. For the specific cases it is possible to inverse the model and to reach the quantitative information present in the x-ray photograph, in other words, the map of the X-rays measured matter thickness. It becomes then possible to access to the quantitative parameters of the possible defects present in the measured specimen, such as the surface and the bulk. To reach the 3 D information on the defects a 3 D reconstruction method, from 3 X-rays photographs, is proposed.The inverse problem is solved by the non convex energy minimization. (A.L.B.)

  15. Quantitative characterization of hazardous waste incinerator performance - Part I: Model components viewed in the context of exchange among equilibrium reactions zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first paper of a series treats the algorithmic details of an efficient approach to equilibrium definition through free energy minimization and examines the region near the flame of a selected incinerator configuration, explicitly treating candidate heat and mass transfer processes occurring among the zones in local chemical equilibrium. The prospect for achieving maximum permitted flexibility of operations out of RCRA Part B Test Burn studies (in addition to achieving design improvements) will be enhanced by having a tractable yet versatile incinerator simulation capability. This approach seeks to integrate as much independent evidence on constituents processes as may be available in a quantitative aggregate from which a comparison can be drawn with what is measured in actual operations

  16. Quantitative Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles by Field-Flow Fractionation Coupled Online with Light Scattering Detection and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    An analytical platform coupling asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with multiangle light scattering (MALS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was established and used for separation and quantitative determination of size and mass...... Au and PS NPs were determined online by MALS and DLS, respectively. The three separated Au NPs were quantified by ICPMS and recovered at 50−95% of the injected masses, which ranged between approximately 8−80 ng of each nanoparticle size. Au NPs adhering to the membrane in the separation channel was...... albumin even in alkaline medium, separation of the Au NPs by AF4 was not possible due to association with undissolved remains of the alkali-treated liver tissues as demonstrated by electron microscopy images....

  17. Characterization of the infant gut microbiota in a cohort of 330 Danish children at 9, 18 and 36 months by quantitative PCR array (GULDA) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim; Licht, Tine Rask

    We have developed a qPCR-based array (GUt Low Density Array, GULDA), which simultaneously determine the relative abundance of >30 different bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets in a given DNA-sample covering selected phylogenetic levels. GULDA was applied to fecal DNA from 330 healthy Danish infants (...... microbial community characterization, which here provides new insights into the interactions between the gut microbiota, diet and physiology in infants....

  18. Quantitative Characterization of the Interaction Space of the Mammalian Carbonic Anhydrase Isoforms I, II, VII, IX, XII, and XIV and their Inhibitors, Using the Proteochemometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Behnam; Karimi-Jafari, Mohammad H; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-09-01

    The critical role of carbonic anhydrases in different physiological processes has put this protein family at the center of attention, challenging major diseases like glaucoma, neurological disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, obesity, and cancers. Many QSAR/QSPR (quantitative structure-activity/property relationship) researches have been carried out to design potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs); however, using inhibitors with no selectivity for different isoforms can lead to major side-effects. Given that QSAR/QSPR methods are not capable of covering multiple targets in a unified model, we have applied the proteochemometric approach to model the interaction space that governs selective inhibition of different CA isoforms by some mono-/dihydroxybenzoic acid esters. Internal and external validation methods showed that all models were reliable in terms of both validity and predictivity, whereas Y-scrambling assessed the robustness of the models. To prove the applicability of our models, we showed how structural changes of a ligand can affect the selectivity. Our models provided interesting information that can be useful for designing inhibitors with selective behavior toward isoforms of carbonic anhydrases, aiding in their selective inhibition. PMID:26990115

  19. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery. PMID:26695532

  20. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass–coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow. (paper)

  1. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo Jr., Billy W.

    2000-06-09

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  2. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Chinese Zhima Aroma-Type Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Zhao, Mouming; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan; Sun, Jinyuan; Sun, Xiaotao; Li, Hehe

    2016-07-01

    Zhima aroma-type Baijiu with typical sesame aroma is particularly popular in northern China. To our knowledge, it is still uncertain which components are important to make contributions to its unique aroma, although a few pieces of research have reported many volatile compounds in this Baijiu. The aroma-active compounds from the Baijiu were researched in this paper. A total of 56 odorants were identified in Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Their odor activity values (OAVs) were determined by different quantitative measurements, and then 26 aroma compounds were further confirmed as important odorants due to their OAVs ≥ 1, and these had higher values, such as ethyl hexanoate (OAV 2691), 3-methylbutanal (2403), ethyl pentanoate (1019), and so on. The overall aroma of Zhima aroma-type Baijiu could be simulated by mixing of the 26 key odorants in their measured concentrations. The similarity of the overall aroma profiles between the recombination model and the commercial sample was judged to be 2.7 out of 3.0 points. Omission experiments further corroborated the importance of methional and ethyl hexanoate for the overall aroma of Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu. PMID:27263543

  3. Characterization of the collagen component of cartilage repair tissue of the talus with quantitative MRI: comparison of T2 relaxation time measurements with a diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state sequence (dwDESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Hainc, N.; Studler, U. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bieri, O. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Miska, M. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wiewiorski, M.; Valderrabano, V. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI. Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 μm{sup 2}/ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 μm{sup 2}/ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027). Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicate an increased matrix organization of RT. (orig.)

  4. PET-based compartmental modeling of 124I-A33 antibody: quantitative characterization of patient-specific tumor targeting in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against tumor antigens has proven effective for targeted therapy of human cancers, as shown by a growing list of successful antibody-based drug products. We describe a novel, nonlinear compartmental model using PET-derived data to determine the ''best-fit'' parameters and model-derived quantities for optimizing biodistribution of intravenously injected 124I-labeled antitumor antibodies. As an example of this paradigm, quantitative image and kinetic analyses of anti-A33 humanized mAb (also known as ''A33'') were performed in 11 colorectal cancer patients. Serial whole-body PET scans of 124I-labeled A33 and blood samples were acquired and the resulting tissue time-activity data for each patient were fit to a nonlinear compartmental model using the SAAM II computer code. Excellent agreement was observed between fitted and measured parameters of tumor uptake, ''off-target'' uptake in bowel mucosa, blood clearance, tumor antigen levels, and percent antigen occupancy. This approach should be generally applicable to antibody-antigen systems in human tumors for which the masses of antigen-expressing tumor and of normal tissues can be estimated and for which antibody kinetics can be measured with PET. Ultimately, based on each patient's resulting ''best-fit'' nonlinear model, a patient-specific optimum mAb dose (in micromoles, for example) may be derived. (orig.)

  5. PET-based compartmental modeling of {sup 124}I-A33 antibody: quantitative characterization of patient-specific tumor targeting in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, Pat; O' Donoghue, Joseph A.; Humm, John L. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Ruan, Shutian; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Stony Brook School of Medicine, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Divgi, Chaitanya [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Scott, Andrew M. [La Trobe University, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); Kemeny, Nancy E.; Wong, Douglas; Scheinberg, David [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Fong, Yuman [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); City of Hope, Department of Surgery, Duarte, CA (United States); Ritter, Gerd; Jungbluth, Achem; Old, Lloyd J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The molecular specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against tumor antigens has proven effective for targeted therapy of human cancers, as shown by a growing list of successful antibody-based drug products. We describe a novel, nonlinear compartmental model using PET-derived data to determine the ''best-fit'' parameters and model-derived quantities for optimizing biodistribution of intravenously injected {sup 124}I-labeled antitumor antibodies. As an example of this paradigm, quantitative image and kinetic analyses of anti-A33 humanized mAb (also known as ''A33'') were performed in 11 colorectal cancer patients. Serial whole-body PET scans of {sup 124}I-labeled A33 and blood samples were acquired and the resulting tissue time-activity data for each patient were fit to a nonlinear compartmental model using the SAAM II computer code. Excellent agreement was observed between fitted and measured parameters of tumor uptake, ''off-target'' uptake in bowel mucosa, blood clearance, tumor antigen levels, and percent antigen occupancy. This approach should be generally applicable to antibody-antigen systems in human tumors for which the masses of antigen-expressing tumor and of normal tissues can be estimated and for which antibody kinetics can be measured with PET. Ultimately, based on each patient's resulting ''best-fit'' nonlinear model, a patient-specific optimum mAb dose (in micromoles, for example) may be derived. (orig.)

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Porosity in a Low Porous and Low Permeable Organic Rich Shale by Combining Broad Ion Beam and Scanning Electron Microscopy (BIB-SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution focuses on the characterization of porosity in low porous shale using a broad ion beam (BIB) polishing technique combined with a conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Porosity was traced in certain representative elementary areas (REA) and pores detected are segmented from mosaics of secondary electron (SE) images. Traced pores could be classified into two major pore-size classes. Relative large pores (> 0.5 μm2) were found in the organic matter and matrix. They contribute strongly to the overall porosity con-tent of the shale. Nevertheless the far majority of the pores traced have equivalent radius less than 400 nm. Including the latter pore class, the imaged porosity from both samples gives similar results in the order of < 1 %. (authors)

  7. Metabolic alterations produced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rat striata and cultured astrocytes: quantitative in vitro 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative high resolution in vitro 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to study the metabolic effects of 3-nitropropionic acid associated with aging from perchloric acid extracts of rat striata. Systemic injection of 3-nitropropionic acid in rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days significantly impaired energy metabolism in rats one, four and eight months of age, as evidenced by a marked elevation of succinate and lactate levels. However, a significant decrease in N-acetyl-l-aspartate level, a neuronal marker, was observed in four- and eight-month-old rats but not in one-month-old rats. This would indicate that rats at four to eight months are more susceptible to 3-nitropropionic acid than those at one month. A significant decrease in GABA level was observed in four-month-old 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats, which is consistent with the literature that GABAergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to 3-nitropropionic acid treatment. In addition, glutamine and glutamate levels were markedly decreased at four and eight months in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats. Since glutamine is synthesized predominantly in glia, the observation above suggests that 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication may involve perturbation of energy metabolism, glial injury and consequent neuronal damage. Astrocytes which are essential in the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine were used to further assess 3-nitropropionic acid-induced toxicity. Glial proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism and glutamine synthetase activity were all reduced by 3-nitropropionic acid treatment with a concomitant increase, in a dose-dependent manner, of lactate levels, suggesting that 3-nitropropionic acid is also detrimental to astrocytes in vivo and thus may affect metabolic interaction between neurons and glia.These results not only imply that 3-nitropropionic acid blocks energy metabolism prior to exerting neurotoxic damage but also demonstrate that the degree of

  8. Variants of beta-microglobulin cleaved at lysine-58 retain the main conformational features of the native protein but are more conformationally heterogeneous and unstable at physiological temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimmi, Maria C; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Pettirossi, Fabio; Corazza, Alessandra; Viglino, Paolo; Esposito, Gennaro; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Giorgetti, Sofia; Pries, Mette; Corlin, Dorthe B; Nissen, Mogens H; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2006-01-01

    cleavage site at lysine-58, and the experiments suggest conformational heterogeneity of the two variants. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy indicates that this heterogeneity involves an equilibrium between the native-like fold and at least one conformational intermediate resembling intermediates found in......Cleavage of the small amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin after lysine-58 renders it more prone to unfolding and aggregation. This is important for dialysis-related beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis, since elevated levels of cleaved beta2-microglobulin may be found in the circulation of...... dialysis patients. However, the solution structures of these cleaved beta2-microglobulin variants have not yet been assessed using single-residue techniques. We here use such methods to examine beta2-microglobulin cleaved after lysine-58 and the further processed variant (found in vivo) from which lysine...

  9. Quantitative characterization of metabolism and metabolic shifts during growth of the new human cell line AGE1.HN using time resolved metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Schräder, Eva; Sandig, Volker; Noll, Thomas; Heinzle, Elmar

    2011-06-01

    For the improved production of vaccines and therapeutic proteins, a detailed understanding of the metabolic dynamics during batch or fed-batch production is requested. To study the new human cell line AGE1.HN, a flexible metabolic flux analysis method was developed that is considering dynamic changes in growth and metabolism during cultivation. This method comprises analysis of formation of cellular components as well as conversion of major substrates and products, spline fitting of dynamic data and flux estimation using metabolite balancing. During batch cultivation of AGE1.HN three distinct phases were observed, an initial one with consumption of pyruvate and high glycolytic activity, a second characterized by a highly efficient metabolism with very little energy spilling waste production and a third with glutamine limitation and decreasing viability. Main events triggering changes in cellular metabolism were depletion of pyruvate and glutamine. Potential targets for the improvement identified from the analysis are (i) reduction of overflow metabolism in the beginning of cultivation, e.g. accomplished by reduction of pyruvate content in the medium and (ii) prolongation of phase 2 with its highly efficient energy metabolism applying e.g. specific feeding strategies. The method presented allows fast and reliable metabolic flux analysis during the development of producer cells and production processes from microtiter plate to large scale reactors with moderate analytical and computational effort. It seems well suited to guide media optimization and genetic engineering of producing cell lines. PMID:21188421

  10. Characterization of variation and quantitative trait loci related to terpenoid indole alkaloid yield in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of Catharanthus roseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Suchi Srivastava; Richa Pandey; Sushil Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Improved Catharanthus roseus cultivars are required for high yields of vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine and/or serpentine and ajmalicine, the pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloids. An approach to derive them is to map QTL for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields, identify DNA markers tightly linked to the QTL and apply marker assisted selection. Towards the end, 197 recombinant inbred lines from a cross were grown over two seasons to characterize variability for seven biomass and 23 terpenoid indole alkaloids content-traits and yield-traits. The recombinant inbred lines were genotyped for 178 DNA markers which formed a framework genetic map of eight linkage groups (LG), spanning 1786.5 cM, with 10.0 cM average intermarker distance. Estimates of correlations between traits allowed selection of seven relatively more important traits for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields. QTL analysis was performed on them using single marker (regression) analysis, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping procedures. A total of 20 QTL were detected on five of eight LG, 10 for five traits on LG1, five for four traits on LG2, three for one trait on LG3 and one each for different traits on LG three and four. QTL for the same or different traits were found clustered on three LG. Co-location of two QTL for biomass traits was in accord of correlation between them. The QTL were validated for use in marker assisted selection by the recombinant inbred line which transgressively expressed 16 traits contributory to the yield vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine from leaves and roots that possessed favourable alleles of 13 relevant QTL.

  11. Whole Body MRI at 3T with Quantitative Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Sequences for the Characterization of Peripheral Lesions in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Schwannomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. WB-MRI is mainly used for tumor detection and surveillance. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of WB-MRI at 3T for lesion characterization, with DWI/ADC-mapping and contrast-enhanced sequences, in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) and schwannomatosis. Materials and Methods. At 3T, WB-MRI was performed in 11 subjects (10 NF-2 and 1 schwannomatosis) with STIR, T1, contrast-enhanced T1, and DWI/ADC mapping (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm2). Two readers reviewed imaging for the presence and character of peripheral lesions. Lesion size and features (signal intensity, heterogeneity, enhancement characteristics, and ADC values) were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported. Results. Twenty-three lesions were identified, with average size of 4.6 ± 2.8 cm. Lesions were characterized as tumors (21/23) or cysts (2/23) by contrast-enhancement properties (enhancement in tumors, no enhancement in cysts). On T1, tumors were homogeneously isointense (5/21) or hypointense (16/21); on STIR, tumors were hyperintense and homogeneous (10/21) or heterogeneous (11/21); on postcontrast T1, tumors enhanced homogeneously (14/21) or heterogeneously (7/21); on DWI, tumor ADC values were variable (range 0.8–2.7), suggesting variability in intrinsic tumor properties. Conclusion. WB-MRI with quantitative DWI and contrast-enhanced sequences at 3T is feasible and advances the utility of WB-MRI not only to include detection, but also to provide additional metrics for lesion characterization

  12. Validation and Characterization of Ghd7.1, a Major Quantitative Trait Locus with Pleiotropic Effects on Spikelets per Panicle, Plant Height, and Heading Date in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Touming Liu; Haiyang Liu; Huang Zhan; Yongzhong Xing

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) that affects heading date (HD) and the number of spikelets per panicle (SPP) was previously identified in a small region on chromosome 7 in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In order to further characterize the QTL region, near isogenic lines (NILs) were quickly obtained by self-crossing recombinant inbred line 189, which is heterozygous in the vicinity of the target region. The pleiotropic effects of QTL Ghd7.1 on plant height (PH), SPP, and HD, were validated using an NIL-F2 population. Ghd7.1 explained 50.2%, 45.3%, and 76.9%of phenotypic variation in PH, SPP, and HD, respectively. Ghd7.1 was precisely mapped to a 357-kb region on the basis of analysis of the progeny of the NIL-F2 population. Day-length treatment confirmed that Ghd7.1 is sensitive to photoperiod, with long days delaying heading up to 12.5 d. Identification of panicle initiation and development for the pair of NILs showed that Ghd7.1 elongated the photoperiod-sensitive phase more than 10 d, but did not change the basic vegetative phase and the reproductive growth phase. These findings indicated that Ghd7.1 regulates SPP by controlling the rate of panicle differentiation rather than the duration of panicle development.

  13. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  14. Some Quantitative Characterizations of Certain Symplectic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    M. Akbari; A. R. Moghaddamfar

    2013-01-01

    Given a finite group $G$, denote by ${\\rm D}(G)$ the degree pattern of $G$ and by ${\\rm OC}(G)$ the set of all order components of $G$. Denote by $h_{{\\rm OD}}(G)$ (resp. $h_{{\\rm OC}}(G)$) the number of isomorphism classes of finite groups $H$ satisfying conditions $|H|=|G|$ and ${\\rm D}(H)={\\rm D}(G)$ (resp. ${\\rm OC}(H)={\\rm OC}(G)$). A finite group $G$ is called OD-characterizable (resp. OC-characterizable) if $h_{\\rm OD}(G)=1$ (resp. $h_{\\rm OC}(G)=1$). Let $C=C_p(2)$ be a symplectic gro...

  15. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  16. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  17. Quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-Zhao; Feng; Xiu-Juan; Zheng; Zhi-Dong; Bao; Zhen-Kui; Jin; Sheng-He; Wu; You-Bin; He; Yong-Min; Peng; Yu-Qing; Yang; Jia-Qiang; Zhang; Yong-Sheng; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography is an important discipline of palaeogeography.It is developed on the foundation of traditional lithofacies palaeogeography and palaeogeography,the core of which is the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeographic map.Quantity means that in the palaeogeographic map,the division and identification of each palaeogeographic unit are supported by quantitative data and quantitative fundamental maps.Our lithofacies palaeogeographic maps are quantitative or mainly quantitative.A great number of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeographic maps have been published,and articles and monographs of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography have been published successively,thus the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography was formed and established.It is an important development in lithofacies palaeogeography.In composing quantitative lithofacies palaeogeographic maps,the key measure is the single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method—methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography.In this paper,the authors utilize two case studies,one from the Early Ordovician of South China and the other from the Early Ordovician of Ordos,North China,to explain how to use this methodology to compose the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeographic maps,and to discuss the palaeogeographic units in these maps.Finally,three characteristics,i.e.,quantification,multiple orders and multiple types,of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeographic maps are conclusively discussed.

  18. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  19. Towards quantitative assessment of calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Sárándi, István.; Jose, Abin; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan; Specht, Paula; Brandenburg, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare disease that has devastating conditions associated with high morbidity and mortality. Calciphylaxis is characterized by systemic medial calcification of the arteries yielding necrotic skin ulcerations. In this paper, we aim at supporting the installation of multi-center registries for calciphylaxis, which includes a photographic documentation of skin necrosis. However, photographs acquired in different centers under different conditions using different equipment and photographers cannot be compared quantitatively. For normalization, we use a simple color pad that is placed into the field of view, segmented from the image, and its color fields are analyzed. In total, 24 colors are printed on that scale. A least-squares approach is used to determine the affine color transform. Furthermore, the card allows scale normalization. We provide a case study for qualitative assessment. In addition, the method is evaluated quantitatively using 10 images of two sets of different captures of the same necrosis. The variability of quantitative measurements based on free hand photography is assessed regarding geometric and color distortions before and after our simple calibration procedure. Using automated image processing, the standard deviation of measurements is significantly reduced. The coefficients of variations yield 5-20% and 2-10% for geometry and color, respectively. Hence, quantitative assessment of calciphylaxis becomes practicable and will impact a better understanding of this rare but fatal disease.

  20. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  1. Directional and quantitative phosphorylation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Linding, Rune

    2008-01-01

    for unravelling phosphorylation-mediated cellular interaction networks. In particular, we will discuss how the combination of new quantitative mass-spectrometric technologies and computational algorithms together are enhancing mapping of these largely uncharted dynamic networks. By combining quantitative......Directionality in protein signalling networks is due to modulated protein-protein interactions and is fundamental for proper signal progression and response to external and internal cues. This property is in part enabled by linear motifs embedding post-translational modification sites. These serve...... as recognition sites, guiding phosphorylation by kinases and subsequent binding of modular domains (e.g. SH2 and BRCT). Characterization of such modification-modulated interactions on a proteome-wide scale requires extensive computational and experimental analysis. Here, we review the latest advances in methods...

  2. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  3. Quantitative dispersion microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Yaqoob, Zahid; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Refractive index dispersion is an intrinsic optical property and a useful source of contrast in biological imaging studies. In this report, we present the first dispersion phase imaging of living eukaryotic cells. We have developed quantitative dispersion microscopy based on the principle of quantitative phase microscopy. The dual-wavelength quantitative phase microscope makes phase measurements at 310 nm and 400 nm wavelengths to quantify dispersion (refractive index increment ratio) of live...

  4. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M Jamal

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. Ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assays were developed for specific detection and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnostic assays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of O-PanAsia, A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08. In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 sublineage were also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV and detected the RNA from the target viruses with cycle threshold (CT values comparable with those obtained with the serotype-independent pan-FMDV diagnostic assays. No cross-reactivity was observed in these assays between the heterotypic viruses circulating in the region. The assays reported here have higher diagnostic sensitivity (100% each for serotypes O and Asia-1, and 92% [95% CI = 81.4-100%] for serotype A positive samples and specificity (100% each for serotypes O, A and Asia-1 positive samples for the viruses currently circulating in West Eurasia compared to the serotyping assays reported earlier. Comparisons of the sequences of the primers and probes used in these assays and the corresponding regions of the circulating viruses provided explanations for

  5. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  6. Quantitative phase spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rinehart, Matthew; Zhu, Yizheng; Wax, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative phase spectroscopy is presented as a novel method of measuring the wavelength-dependent refractive index of microscopic volumes. Light from a broadband source is filtered to an ~5 nm bandwidth and rapidly tuned across the visible spectrum in 1 nm increments by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Quantitative phase images of semitransparent samples are recovered at each wavelength using off-axis interferometry and are processed to recover relative and absolute dispersion measu...

  7. Rapid and sustained CD4(+) T-cell-independent immunity from adenovirus-encoded vaccine antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter J; Bartholdy, Christina; Buus, Anette Stryhn;

    2007-01-01

    absence of CD4(+) T-cell help were sustained in the long term and able to expand and control a secondary challenge with LCMV. Our results demonstrate that modifications to the antigen used in adenovirus vaccines may be used to improve the induced T-cell response. Such a strategy for CD4(+) T-cell...... elicited with an adenovirus-encoded minimal epitope covalently linked to beta(2)-microglobulin. We demonstrate that the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked epitope induced an accelerated and augmented CD8(+) T-cell response. Furthermore, the immunity conferred by vaccination with beta(2)-microglobulin......-linked lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-derived epitopes was long-lived and protective. Notably, in contrast to full-length protein, the response elicited with the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked LCMV-derived epitope was CD4(+) T-cell independent. Furthermore, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells primed in the...

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Face Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Abraham

    2015-06-01

    The major objective of this article was to report quantitatively the degree of human face symmetry for reported images taken from the Internet. From the original image of a certain person that appears in the center of each triplet, 2 symmetric combinations were constructed that are based on the left part of the image and its mirror image (left-left) and on the right part of the image and its mirror image (right-right). By applying a computer software that enables to determine length, surface area, and perimeter of any geometric shape, the following measurements were obtained for each triplet: face perimeter and area; distance between the pupils; mouth length; its perimeter and area; nose length and face length, usually below the ears; as well as the area and perimeter of the pupils. Then, for each of the above measurements, the value C, which characterizes the degree of symmetry of the real image with respect to the combinations right-right and left-left, was calculated. C appears on the right-hand side below each image. A high value of C indicates a low symmetry, and as the value is decreasing, the symmetry is increasing. The magnitude on the left relates to the pupils and compares the difference between the area and perimeter of the 2 pupils. The major conclusion arrived at here is that the human face is asymmetric to some degree; the degree of asymmetry is reported quantitatively under each portrait. PMID:26080172

  9. Quantitative Compositional Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjee, K.; Alfaro, de L.; Faella, M.; Henzinger, T.A.; Majumdar, R.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a compositional theory of system verifica tion, where specifications assign real-numbered costs to systems. These costs can express a wide variety of quantitative system properties, such as resource consumption, price or a measure of how well a system satisfies its specification. The theo

  10. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  11. Non destructive testing of industrial pieces by radiography: quantitative characterization and 3 D reconstruction by the way of a limited number of images; Controle non destructif de pieces industrielles par radiographie: caracterisation quantitative et reconstruction 3D a partir d`un nombre limite de vues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retraint, F

    1998-12-31

    The non destructive testing of industrial pieces is evaluated on the basis of numerical radiographies.The context of the study is the online control of the fuel rods production. A direct model of a numerical radiography formation is proposed and detailed for an acquisition system consisting of a CCD video connected to a converter screen by an optical system. As this approach does not allow the determination of the measured matter thickness from the X-ray photograph, an approximate model based on realistic approximations of the industrial non destructive testing, has been developed. For the specific cases it is possible to inverse the model and to reach the quantitative information present in the x-ray photograph, in other words, the map of the X-rays measured matter thickness. It becomes then possible to access to the quantitative parameters of the possible defects present in the measured specimen, such as the surface and the bulk. To reach the 3 D information on the defects a 3 D reconstruction method, from 3 X-rays photographs, is proposed.The inverse problem is solved by the non convex energy minimization. (A.L.B.) 109 refs.

  12. Functional characterization of highly purified human hematopoietic repopulating cells isolated according to aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David A; Meyerrose, Todd E; Wirthlin, Louisa; Craft, Timothy P; Herrbrich, Phillip E; Creer, Michael H; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-09-15

    Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are commonly purified by the expression of cell surface markers such as CD34. Because cell phenotype can be altered by cell cycle progression or ex vivo culture, purification on the basis of conserved stem cell function may represent a more reliable way to isolate various stem cell populations. We have purified primitive HSCs from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) by lineage depletion (Lin(-)) followed by selection of cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. ALDH(hi)Lin(-) cells contained 22.6% +/- 3.0% of the Lin(-) population and highly coexpressed primitive HSC phenotypes (CD34(+) CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD133(+)). In vitro hematopoietic progenitor function was enriched in the ALDH(hi)Lin(-) population, compared with ALDH(lo)Lin(-) cells. Multilineage human hematopoietic repopulation was observed exclusively after transplantation of ALDH(hi)Lin(-) cells. Direct comparison of repopulation with use of the nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) and NOD/SCID beta2 microglobulin (beta2M) null models demonstrated that 10-fold greater numbers of ALDH(hi)-Lin(-) cells were needed to engraft the NOD/SCID mouse as compared with the more permissive NOD/SCID beta2M null mouse, suggesting that the ALDH(hi)Lin(-) population contained committed progenitors as well as primitive repopulating cells. Cell fractionation according to lineage depletion and ALDH activity provides a viable and prospective purification of HSCs on the basis of cell function rather than cell surface phenotype. PMID:15178579

  13. Quantitative shadowgraphy made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is dedicated to the learning of the shadowgraphy technique at graduate and undergraduate levels. It presents an experiment that allows measurement of the refractive index of butane with the help of an affordable quantitative shadowgraphy bench. The paper is constituted of two distinctive parts. The first presents the theory and data processing involved in shadowgraphy, introducing the concept of Abel inversion and modern data computer processing for graduate students. The second focuses on the experimental set-up and results; here, a qualitative interpretation of shadowgrams suitable for undergraduate students is given, as well as a quantitative explanation using a butane gas jet. The refractive index of butane measured with our simple experimental set-up is in close agreement with values available in the literature. (paper)

  14. Energy & Climate: Getting Quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard

    2011-11-01

    A noted environmentalist claims that buying an SUV instead of a regular car is energetically equivalent to leaving your refrigerator door open for seven years. A fossil-fuel apologist argues that solar energy is a pie-in-the-sky dream promulgated by na"ive environmentalists, because there's nowhere near enough solar energy to meet humankind's energy demand. A group advocating shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant claims that 70% of its electrical energy is lost in transmission lines. Around the world, thousands agitate for climate action, under the numerical banner ``350.'' Neither the environmentalist, the fossil-fuel apologist, the antinuclear activists, nor most of those marching under the ``350'' banner can back up their assertions with quantitative arguments. Yet questions about energy and its environmental impacts almost always require quantitative answers. Physics can help! This poster gives some cogent examples, based on the newly published 2^nd edition of the author's textbook Energy, Environment, and Climate.

  15. Quantitative lacrimal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative radioisotope dacryoscintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera fitted with a computer system. ROI selection with corresponding time/activity curves allowed the calculation of some parameters such as appearance time and mean transit time in every segment of the lacrimal ducts. The numerical values give some exact clues concerning the knowledge of lacrimal physiology as well as the follow-up of dacryo- and rhino-pathology. (author)

  16. Quantitative FDG in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual''s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals

  17. Characterization of copy numbers of 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and the implication in detection in planta using quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection. Results We investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of the HLB pathogen and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using Quantitative PCR. We compared the detection of HLB with different Quantitative PCR based methods with primers/probe targeting either 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, or beta-operon RNA. The 16S rDNA copy number of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus was estimated to be three times of that of the beta-operon region, thus allowing detection of lower titer of Ca. L. asiaticus. Quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR indicated that the 16S rRNA averaged 7.83 times more than that of 16S rDNA for the same samples. Dilution analysis also indicates that QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA is 10 time more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Thus QRT-PCR was able to increase the sensitivity of detection by targeting 16S rRNA. Conclusion Our result indicates that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Ca. L. asiaticus in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA for the same set of samples tested in this study. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA.

  18. Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Both industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants can interfere with bone modeling and remodeling. Recently, detailed toxicological bone studies have been performed following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts most of its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Objectives: The aims of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties following long-term exposure to TCDD, and to further investigate the role of AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations. To this end, tissue material used in the study was derived from TCDD-exposed Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W) rats, which differ markedly in sensitivity to TCDD-induced toxicity due to a strain difference in AhR structure. Methods: Ten weeks old female L-E and H/W rats were administered TCDD s.c. once per week for 20 weeks, at doses corresponding to calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng TCDD/kg bw (H/W only). Femur, tibia and vertebra from the L-E and H/W rats were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and biomechanical testing at multiple sites. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish benchmark doses for the analyzed bone parameters, and to quantify strain sensitivity differences for those parameters, which were affected by TCDD exposure in both rat strains. Results: Bone geometry and bone biomechanical parameters were affected by TCDD exposure, while bone mineral density parameters were less affected. The trabecular area at proximal tibia and the endocortical circumference at tibial diaphysis were the parameters that showed the highest maximal responses. Significant strain differences in response to TCDD treatment were observed, with the L-E rat being the most sensitive strain. For the parameters that were affected in both strains, the differences in sensitivity were quantified, showing the most pronounced (about 49-fold) strain

  19. Suitability of thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection with regard to quantitative characterization of different fossil fuel products. 1. FID performances and response of pure compounds related to fossil fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L.; Vela, J.; Membrado, L.; Ferrando, A.C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica, Dept. de Procesos Quimicos

    1998-10-01

    The performance of a modern TLC-FID system (which includes the newest detector configuration) was tested on polycyclic aromatic compound standards and related compounds as a preliminary step to evaluate its suitability for quantitative hydrocarbon group type analysis of different coal and petroleum products. FID linearity was evaluated as a function of sample load and scan speed for high-molecular-weight and semi-volatile standards. TLC-FID response factors for compounds of several homologous series were studied in order to differentiate effects of volatility from those exclusively due to the chemical nature concerning FID response. Criteria are developed for the accurate application of TLC-FID to fossil fuel samples. Measurements of chromarod temperatures were carried out in order to evaluate whether an evaporation of compounds outside the H{sub 2} flame might take place. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed M.; Belsham, Graham

    2015-01-01

    . Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysableprobe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) assays were developed for specific detection...... and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnosticassays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of OPan......Asia,A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08)). In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 subline-agewere also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV...

  1. Quantitative Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Balda, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a wide-spread medical imaging modality. Traditional CT yields information on a patient's anatomy in form of slice images or volume data. Hounsfield Units (HU) are used to quantify the imaged tissue properties. Due to the polychromatic nature of X-rays in CT, the HU values for a specific tissue depend on its density and composition but also on CT system parameters and settings and the surrounding materials. The main objective of Quantitative CT (QCT) is measuring ch...

  2. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  3. Highly efficient, selective, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC-UV method for the quantitative determination of potential impurities and characterization of four novel impurities in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI-IT/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Bharti, Amber; Maddhesia, Pawan Kumar; Shandilya, Sanjeev; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Dharamvir; Biswas, Sujay; Bhansal, Vikas; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Tewari, Praveen Kumar; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-03-01

    A novel, sensitive, selective and stability indicating LC-UV method was developed for the determination of potential impurities of eslicarbazepine acetate. High performance liquid chromatographic investigation of eslicarbazepine acetate laboratory sample revealed the presence of several impurities. Three impurities were characterized rapidly and four impurities were found to be unknown. The unknown impurities were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization, ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-IT/MS/MS). Structural confirmation of these impurities was unambiguously carried out by synthesis followed by characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the spectroscopic, spectrometric and elemental analysis data unknown impurities were characterized as 5-acetyl-5,11-dihydro-10H-dibenzo [b,f]azepin-10-one, N-acetyl-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide, 5-acetyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl acetate and 5-acetyl-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl acetate. The newly developed LC-UV method was validated according to ICH guidelines considering eleven potential impurities and four new impurities to demonstrate specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and stability indicating nature of the method. The newly developed method was found to be highly efficient, selective, sensitive and stability indicating. A plausible pathway for the formation of four new impurities is proposed. PMID:22178334

  4. Whole Body MRI at 3T with Quantitative Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Sequences for the Characterization of Peripheral Lesions in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Schwannomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, Laura M.; Blakeley, Jaishri; Plotkin, Scott; Widemann, Brigitte; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. WB-MRI is mainly used for tumor detection and surveillance. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of WB-MRI at 3T for lesion characterization, with DWI/ADC-mapping and contrast-enhanced sequences, in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) and schwannomatosis. Materials and Methods. At 3T, WB-MRI was performed in 11 subjects (10 NF-2 and 1 schwannomatosis) with STIR, T1, contrast-enhanced T1, and DWI/ADC mapping (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm2). Two readers reviewed...

  5. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes. Cur

  6. Three-dimensional characterization of microstructurally small fatigue-crack evolution using quantitative fractography combined with post-mortem X-ray tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental methodology based on post-mortem measurements is proposed to quantify rates of propagation and crack-surface crystallography of a 3-D, naturally nucleated, microstructurally small fatigue crack (MSFC) in a polycrystalline aluminum alloy (Al–Mg–Si). The post-mortem characterization involves: scanning electron microscopy-based fractography to measure crack-front projections (marker bands) at known cycle counts during the load history, X-ray computed tomography to provide high-resolution reconstructions of the 3-D crack-surface morphology, and near-field high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy to provide 3-D grain geometries and orientations adjacent to fatigue-crack surfaces. Local MSFC-propagation rates are measured by accounting for the 3-D crack-surface morphology and varied by two orders of magnitude in the Al–Mg–Si specimen. Both intergranular and transgranular MSFC evolution were observed, with the latter occurring along a wide range of crystallographic planes. The findings demonstrate: (i) the complexity and variability of 3-D MSFC evolution in the Al–Mg–Si alloy; and (ii) the viability of the post-mortem characterization approach for quantifying 3-D MSFC evolution in polycrystalline alloys

  7. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  8. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  9. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted A.G. Steemers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  10. Use of a quantitative index of beam modulation to characterize dose conformality: illustration by a comparison of full beamlet IMRT, few-segment IMRT (fsIMRT) and conformal unmodulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is presented for characterizing the degree of modulation in an intensity-modulated beam. It is shown that the modulation increases as dose conformality increases. Full intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is compared with a two-weight-per-field technique and with simple geometrically conformal beams. It is suggested that each individual planning problem requires some comparative planning of this type because there is no simple answer to the question of the degree to which IMRT improves dose conformality. This depends on the problem geometry, the dose prescription, the cost function, the number of beams and other planning conditions. A methodology is presented for such comparative planning studies and this is illustrated with the solution of two planning problems

  11. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Rani Mutta, Geeta; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height-height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO x N y , InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size.

  12. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V;

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are produced as part of normal physiology. Their numbers, origin, and composition change in pathology. Despite this, the normal MP proteome has not yet been characterized with standardized high-resolution methods. We here quantitatively profile the normal MP...... proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... quantitated. Of these, 334 (63%) were present in all samples and represent an MP core proteome. Technical triplicates showed...

  13. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: a view from quantitative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-01-01

    signal transduction. Numerous new post-translational modification sites have been identified by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In addition, plentiful new players in signal transduction have been identified underlining the complexity and the modular architecture of most signaling...... networks. In this review, we outline the principles of signal transduction via RTKs and highlight some of the new insights obtained from proteomic approaches such as protein microarrays and quantitative mass spectrometry....... RTKs. In recent years proteomic approaches have yielded detailed descriptions of cellular signaling events. Quantitative proteomics is able to characterize the exact position and strength of post-translational modifications (PTMs) providing essential information for understanding the molecular basis of...

  14. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  15. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  16. Quantitative Electron Nanodiffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, John [Arizona State University

    2015-01-30

    This Final report summarizes progress under this award for the final reporting period 2002 - 2013 in our development of quantitive electron nanodiffraction to materials problems, especially devoted to atomistic processes in semiconductors and electronic oxides such as the new artificial oxide multilayers, where our microdiffraction is complemented with energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) and aberration-corrected STEM imaging (9). The method has also been used to map out the chemical bonds in the important GaN semiconductor (1) used for solid state lighting, and to understand the effects of stacking sequence variations and interfaces in digital oxide superlattices (8). Other projects include the development of a laser-beam Zernike phase plate for cryo-electron microscopy (5) (based on the Kapitza-Dirac effect), work on reconstruction of molecular images using the scattering from many identical molecules lying in random orientations (4), a review article on space-group determination for the International Tables on Crystallography (10), the observation of energy-loss spectra with millivolt energy resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution from individual point defects in an alkali halide, a review article for the Centenary of X-ray Diffration (17) and the development of a new method of electron-beam lithography (12). We briefly summarize here the work on GaN, on oxide superlattice ELNES, and on lithography by STEM.

  17. Quantitative Characterization of E-selectin Interaction with Native CD44 and P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) Using a Real Time Immunoprecipitation-based Binding Assay

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Samra, Dina Bashir Kamil

    2015-06-29

    Selectins (E-, P-, and L-selectins) interact with glycoprotein ligands to mediate the essential tethering/rolling step in cell transport and delivery that captures migrating cells from the circulating flow. In this work, we developed a real time immunoprecipitation assay on a surface plasmon resonance chip that captures native glycoforms of two well known E-selectin ligands (CD44/hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) from hematopoietic cell extracts. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of their binding to E-selectin. We show that both ligands bind recombinant monomeric E-selectin transiently with fast on- and fast off-rates, whereas they bind dimeric E-selectin with remarkably slow onand off-rates. This binding requires the sialyl Lewis x sugar moiety to be placed on both O- and N-glycans, and its association, but not dissociation, is sensitive to the salt concentration. Our results suggest a mechanism through which monomeric selectins mediate initial fast on and fast off kinetics to help capture cells out of the circulating shear flow; subsequently, tight binding by dimeric/oligomeric selectins is enabled to significantly slow rolling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. PMID:25541091

  19. Quantitative Literacy: Geosciences and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; McCallum, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative literacy seems like such a natural for the geosciences, right? The field has gone from its origin as a largely descriptive discipline to one where it is hard to imagine failing to bring a full range of mathematical tools to the solution of geological problems. Although there are many definitions of quantitative literacy, we have proposed one that is analogous to the UNESCO definition of conventional literacy: "A quantitatively literate person is one who, with understanding, can both read and represent quantitative information arising in his or her everyday life." Central to this definition is the concept that a curriculum for quantitative literacy must go beyond the basic ability to "read and write" mathematics and develop conceptual understanding. It is also critical that a curriculum for quantitative literacy be engaged with a context, be it everyday life, humanities, geoscience or other sciences, business, engineering, or technology. Thus, our definition works both within and outside the sciences. What role do geoscience faculty have in helping students become quantitatively literate? Is it our role, or that of the mathematicians? How does quantitative literacy vary between different scientific and engineering fields? Or between science and nonscience fields? We will argue that successful quantitative literacy curricula must be an across-the-curriculum responsibility. We will share examples of how quantitative literacy can be developed within a geoscience curriculum, beginning with introductory classes for nonmajors (using the Mauna Loa CO2 data set) through graduate courses in inverse theory (using singular value decomposition). We will highlight six approaches to across-the curriculum efforts from national models: collaboration between mathematics and other faculty; gateway testing; intensive instructional support; workshops for nonmathematics faculty; quantitative reasoning requirement; and individual initiative by nonmathematics faculty.

  20. Quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Judith E. [Royal Infirmary and University, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: judith.adams@manchester.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was introduced in the mid 1970s. The technique is most commonly applied to 2D slices in the lumbar spine to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cm{sup 3}). Although not as widely utilized as dual-energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) QCT has some advantages when studying the skeleton (separate measures of cortical and trabecular BMD; measurement of volumetric, as opposed to 'areal' DXA-BMDa, so not size dependent; geometric and structural parameters obtained which contribute to bone strength). A limitation is that the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition of osteoporosis in terms of bone densitometry (T score -2.5 or below using DXA) is not applicable. QCT can be performed on conventional body CT scanners, or at peripheral sites (radius, tibia) using smaller, less expensive dedicated peripheral CT scanners (pQCT). Although the ionising radiation dose of spinal QCT is higher than for DXA, the dose compares favorably with those of other radiographic procedures (spinal radiographs) performed in patients suspected of having osteoporosis. The radiation dose from peripheral QCT scanners is negligible. Technical developments in CT (spiral multi-detector CT; improved spatial resolution) allow rapid acquisition of 3D volume images which enable QCT to be applied to the clinically important site of the proximal femur, more sophisticated analysis of cortical and trabecular bone, the imaging of trabecular structure and the application of finite element analysis (FEA). Such research studies contribute importantly to the understanding of bone growth and development, the effect of disease and treatment on the skeleton and the biomechanics of bone strength and fracture.

  1. Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the MEASUREMENT OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R ampersand D Magazine 1991 R ampersand D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support

  2. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images

  3. Quantitative linguistics within Czech contexts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, Jan

    Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter, 2007 - (Grzybek, P.; Köhler, R.), s. 343-351 ISBN 978-3-11-019354-1. - (Quantitative Linguistics 62) R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET101120413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610521 Keywords : quantitative linguistics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  4. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  5. Automated quantitative image analysis of nanoparticle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Gao, Bo; Tao, Andrea R.; Arya, Gaurav

    2015-05-01

    The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly.The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated

  6. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Human Nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaddek, Dalila; Nicolas, Armel; Lamond, Angus I

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed spectacular progress in the field of mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics, including advances in instrumentation, chromatography, sample preparation methods, and experimental design for multidimensional analyses. It is now possible not only to identify most of the protein components of a cell proteome in a single experiment, but also to describe additional proteome dimensions, such as protein turnover rates, posttranslational modifications, and subcellular localization. Furthermore, by comparing the proteome at different time points, it is possible to create a "time-lapse" view of proteome dynamics. By combining high-throughput quantitative proteomics with detailed subcellular fractionation protocols and data analysis techniques it is also now possible to characterize in detail the proteomes of specific subcellular organelles, providing important insights into cell regulatory mechanisms and physiological responses. In this chapter we present a reliable workflow and protocol for MS-based analysis and quantitation of the proteome of nucleoli isolated from human cells. The protocol presented is based on a SILAC analysis of human MCF10A-Src-ER cells with analysis performed on a Q-Exactive Plus Orbitrap MS instrument (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The subsequent chapter describes how to process the resulting raw MS files from this experiment using MaxQuant software and data analysis procedures to evaluate the nucleolar proteome using customized R scripts. PMID:27576725

  7. Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x0, for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station

  8. Some exercises in quantitative NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The articles represented in this thesis result from a series of investigations that evaluate the potential of NMR imaging as a quantitative research tool. In the first article the possible use of proton spin-lattice relaxation time T1 in tissue characterization, tumor recognition and monitoring tissue response to radiotherapy is explored. The next article addresses the question whether water proton spin-lattice relaxation curves of biological tissues are adequately described by a single time constant T1, and analyzes the implications of multi-exponentiality for quantitative NMR imaging. In the third article the use of NMR imaging as a quantitative research tool is discussed on the basis of phantom experiments. The fourth article describes a method which enables unambiguous retrieval of sign information in a set of magnetic resonance images of the inversion recovery type. The next article shows how this method can be adapted to allow accurate calculation of T1 pictures on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The sixth article, finally, describes a simulation procedure which enables a straightforward determination of NMR imaging pulse sequence parameters for optimal tissue contrast. (orig.)

  9. Quali/quantitative characterization of biogas produced in batch digesters supplied with six distinct substrates Caracterização quali/quantitativa do biogás produzido em biodigestores de batelada alimentados com seis substratos distintos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Galbiatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out at the DER/FCAV, São Paulo State University - Brazil, with the purpose of analyzing the quantity and quality of biogas produced by six types of substrates. The substrates used in the anaerobic digestion were characterized as: 1- Litter of broiler (LB; 2- Grinded broiler litter (GBL; 3- Broiler litter with wood shavings (BLWS; 4- Grinded broiler litter with wood shavings (GBLWS; 5- Broiler litter with peanut hulls (BLPH; 6- Grinded broiler litter with peanut hull (GBLPH. It was concluded from the collected data that: the (GBL substrate showed a superior biogas accumulated production in relation to the other substrates, while the BLWS presented an inferior accumulated production; the grinded substrates showed higher quantities of accumulated biogas in relation to the non-grinded substrates, except for GBLPH, with 20.9 m³ inferior than BLPH; the period of maximum biogas production started from 45 to 60 days, declining after 120 days; at 57 days after filling up the digesters the biogas produced had levels of CH4 superior than 53%, and from 99 days all of them produced biogas with levels of CH4 superior than 70%; LB and GBL presented higher concentrations of CH4 in the biogas.Com a finalidade de se analisar quali/quantitativamente o biogás produzido por 6 tipos de substratos, efetuou-se a presente pesquisa no DER/FCAV/UNESP- SP, Brasil. Os substratos utilizados na digestão anaeróbia foram caracterizados como: 1- Esterco de aves de postura (EAP; 2- Esterco de aves de postura triturado (EAPT; 3- Esterco de aves de corte com cama de maravalha (EACM; 4- Esterco de aves de corte com cama de maravalha triturado (EACMT; 5- Esterco de aves de corte com cama de casca de amendoim (EACA, e 6- Esterco de aves de corte com cama de casca de amendoim triturado (EACAT. Dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, em relação à produção acumulada de biogás, o substrato EAPT foi superior aos demais, enquanto EACM apresentou

  10. Quantitative normal thoracic anatomy at CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M S; Udupa, Jayaram K; Tong, Yubing; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-07-01

    Automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodologies for a body region require detailed understanding of the morphology, architecture, and geographical layout of the organs within the body region. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively characterize the normal anatomy of the thoracic region for AAR. Contrast-enhanced chest CT images from 41 normal male subjects, each with 11 segmented objects, were considered in this study. The individual objects were quantitatively characterized in terms of their linear size, surface area, volume, shape, CT attenuation properties, inter-object distances, size and shape correlations, size-to-distance correlations, and distance-to-distance correlations. A heat map visualization approach was used for intuitively portraying the associations between parameters. Numerous new observations about object geography and relationships were made. Some objects, such as the pericardial region, vary far less than others in size across subjects. Distance relationships are more consistent when involving an object such as trachea and bronchi than other objects. Considering the inter-object distance, some objects have a more prominent correlation, such as trachea and bronchi, right and left lungs, arterial system, and esophagus. The proposed method provides new, objective, and usable knowledge about anatomy whose utility in building body-wide models toward AAR has been demonstrated in other studies. PMID:27065241

  11. Spectroscopic Tools for Quantitative Studies of DNA Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preus, Søren

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop quantitative fluorescence-based, spectroscopic tools for probing the 3D structure and dynamics of DNA and RNA. The thesis is founded on six peer-reviewed papers covering mainly the development, characterization and use of fluorescent nucleobase...

  12. Understanding quantitative research: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Juanita; Hoare, Zoë

    This article, which is the first in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Critical appraisal of research articles is essential to ensure that nurses remain up to date with evidence-based practice to provide consistent and high-quality nursing care. This article focuses on developing critical appraisal skills and understanding the use and implications of different quantitative approaches to research. Part two of this article will focus on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research. PMID:23346707

  13. Quantitative EPR A Practitioners Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Gareth R; Barr, David P; Weber, Ralph T

    2010-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive yet practical guide for people who perform quantitative EPR measurements. No existing book provides this level of practical guidance to ensure the successful use of EPR. There is a growing need in both industrial and academic research to provide meaningful and accurate quantitative EPR results. This text discusses the various sample, instrument and software related aspects required for EPR quantitation. Specific topics include: choosing a reference standard, resonator considerations (Q, B1, Bm), power saturation characteristics, sample positioning, and finally, putting all the factors together to obtain an accurate spin concentration of a sample.

  14. Quantitatively Characterizing the Tight-bond Cluster in Zr55 Cu35 Al10 Metallic Glass%Zr55 Cu35 Al 10金属玻璃中紧键结合团簇的定量表征∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 杨现; 范沧; 唐政

    2015-01-01

    定量表征金属玻璃的原子结构是深入理解和解释金属玻璃独特的物理性能和力学性能的关键。本文通过铜模吸铸法制备了 Zr55 Cu35 Al10大块金属玻璃圆棒状试样,并利用中子衍射获得试样的对分布函数,从而定量地定义了金属玻璃紧键合团簇模型中的紧键合团簇。还通过第一性原理分子动力学模拟对 Zr55 Cu35 Al10大块金属玻璃局域原子结构进行模拟计算,从模拟得到的结构中提取了许多紧键合团簇,并通过团簇尺寸对其定量地表征。%The quantitative characterization of the atomic structure of bulk metallic glass plays an im-portant role in deeply understanding its individual physical properties and mechanical properties.Some cy-lindrical Zr5 5 Cu3 5 Al1 0 bulk metallic glass specimens were prepared with a suction casting in a copper mold, the pair distribution function (PDF)was obtained by neutron diffraction,and then,the tight bond cluster was defined in the present work.In addition,the local atomic structure of Zr5 5 Cu3 5 Al1 0 bulk metallic glass was simulated by ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD).A large number of tight-bond clusters were extrac-ted from the results and simulated in association with the quantitative characterization of sizes,which were abundant in the ideal tight-bond cluster model at present.

  15. Quantitative methods in accounting research

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Gruszczynski

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative methods are in frequent use in modern accounting research. The evidence may be found e.g. in the journals like “Journal of Accounting Research”, “European Accounting Review”, “Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting” or in the Accounting Research Network in SSRN base. Paper presents a brief survey of research areas and statistical-econometric approaches in accounting research. Particular reference goes to research on corporate disclosure. Methodological component of the pap...

  16. 09432 Report -- Quantitative Software Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kreissig, Astrid; Poernomo, Iman; Reussner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Between 20.10.09 and 23.10.09, the Dagstuhl Seminar 09432, Quantitative Software Design, was held at the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. Quantitative software design is a field of research that is not yet firmly established. A number of challenging open research issues are only recently being addressed by the academic research community (see below). The topic is also gaining increasing emphasis in industrial research, as any progress...

  17. Plant biology through quantitative proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Bygdell, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade the field of mass spectrometry based proteomics has advanced from qualitative, analyses leading to publications revolving around lists of identified proteins and peptides, to addressing more biologically relevant issues requiring measurement of the abundance of identified proteins and hence quantitive mass spectrometry. The work described in this thesis addresses problems with quantitive proteomics in plant sciences, particularly complications caused by the complexity...

  18. Research in Quantitative Bioassay Methodology and Risk Analysis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Gaver, Donald Paul; Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1996-01-01

    The use of canonical correlation to combine information from biological testing systems is discussed. A graphical procedure to combine results from biological test systems is proposed. Results are presented of analyses of data from health screens to monitor the health status of medaka used in toxicological studies. A statistical model that incorporates a non-ignorable missing data mechanism is proposed to study the effect of leukocrit values which are not measurable. Results are presented of ...

  19. Characterization of early autophagy signaling by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer Tg; Zarei, Mostafa; Sprenger, Adrian;

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of nutrient shortage autophagy is the primary cellular mechanism ensuring availability of substrates for continuous biosynthesis. Subjecting cells to starvation or rapamycin efficiently induces autophagy by inhibiting the MTOR signaling pathway triggering increased autophagic flu...

  20. Using Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Composition of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing exposure to substances in consumer products requires data on the composition of the products. This is a challenge since product composition data are rarely available. Many products, however, provide a list of ingredients. In many cases the list is presented in descendin...

  1. Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic...

  2. Quantitative Application Data Flow Characterization for Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostadzadeh, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase in the utilization of heterogeneous multicore architectures in order to address the ever-growing need for computing performance. These emerging architectures pose specific challenges with regard to their programmability. In addition, they require efficient applic

  3. Quantitative characterization of the viscosity of a microemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Huang, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The viscosity of the three-component microemulsion water/decane/AOT has been measured as a function of temperature and droplet volume fraction. At temperatures well below the phase-separation temperature the viscosity is described by treating the droplets as hard spheres suspended in decane. Upon approaching the two-phase region from low temperature, there is a large (as much as a factor of four) smooth increase of the viscosity which may be related to the percolation-like transition observed in the electrical conductivity. This increase in viscosity is not completely consistent with either a naive electroviscous model or a simple clustering model. The divergence of the viscosity near the critical point (39 C) is superimposed upon the smooth increase. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the critical divergence are similar to that seen near the critical points of binary liquid mixtures.

  4. Quantitative determination of the structure-property relationships in nuclear fuel element materials. Final report, June 1969--July 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New developments in quantitative microscopy are first described. The use of the described techniques to quantitatively characterize the microstructural states of nickel and uranium dioxide samples is then discussed. The determination of gas permeability, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and creep behavior in the characterized samples are also described. (U.S.)

  5. Quantitative NDE of Composite Structures at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Howell, Patricia A.; Johnston, Patrick H.; Burke, Eric R.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.; Seebo, Jeffery P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community due to the potential benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and manufacturability. Ongoing work at NASA involves the use of the large-scale composite structures for spacecraft (payload shrouds, cryotanks, crew modules, etc). NASA is also working to enable the use and certification of composites in aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). The rapid, in situ characterization of a wide range of the composite materials and structures has become a critical concern for the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over a long time. The quantitative characterization of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking are of particular interest. The research approaches of NASA's Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch include investigation of conventional, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods, infrared thermography and x-ray computed tomography techniques. The use of simulation tools for optimizing and developing these methods is also an active area of research. This paper will focus on current research activities related to large area NDE for rapidly characterizing aerospace composites.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy on rough surfaces-quantitative image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, G.; Brückl, H.; Vancea, J.; Lecheler, R.; Hastreiter, E.

    1991-07-01

    In this communication, the application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) for a quantitative evaluation of roughnesses and mean island sizes of polycrystalline thin films is discussed. Provided strong conditions concerning the resolution are satisfied, the results are in good agreement with standard techniques as, for example, transmission electron microscopy. Owing to its high resolution, STM can supply a better characterization of surfaces than established methods, especially concerning the roughness. Microscopic interpretations of surface dependent physical properties thus can be considerably improved by a quantitative analysis of STM images.

  7. A quantitative method for the characterisation of karst aquifers based on spring hydrograph analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Attila; Perrochet, Pierre; Király, László; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing flow systems in karst aquifers by acquiring quantitative information about the geometric and hydraulic aquifer parameters from spring hydrograph analysis. Numerical sensitivity analyses identified two fundamentally different flow domains, depending on the overall configuration of aquifer parameters. These two domains have been quantitatively characterized by deducing analytical solutions for the global hydraulic response of simple two-dimensiona...

  8. Practical dosimetry: Quantitative imaging in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General gamma camera-based methods for radionuclide quantitation in situ based on planar imaging and on SPECT imaging have been developed. Both methods have been validated and characterized by technetium-99m, indium-111, and iodine-131 imaging studies in a tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom. These quantitative imaging methods have now been incorporated into the standard formalism of Benua et al. for radioiodine treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer, enabling calculation of tumor as well as blood absorbed doses. Mean absorbed doses (in rad/mCi) to whole blood (a practical index of the absorbed dose to red marrow) and to tumor are equated with the sum of the self-irradiation absorbed dose from non-penetrating radiations (assuming complete local absorption) and the mean whole body absorbed dose from penetrating radiations. The therapeutic activity actually administered is the maximum administered activity which will not result in a projected blood dose greater than 200 rad. While the calculated absorbed dose to whole blood remains the decisive (ie dose-limiting) factor in planning radioiodine treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer, practical tumor radiation dosimetry will greatly enhance rational selection of patients and, with careful follow-up, advance our currently limited understanding of the radiobiology (eg dose-response relationships) of radionuclide therapy in general and radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer in particular

  9. Quantitative methods for indirect CT lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, we applied quantitative CT methods to characterize contrast enhanced lymph nodes opacified using iodinated contrast media for indirect CT lymphography. Iodinated nanoparticles were injected into the buccal submucosa and SQ into the metatarsus and metacarpus of four normal swine (1.0-4.0 ml/site, 76 mg I/ml). Attenuation (HU), volume (cm(3)), iodine concentration (mg I/cm(3)), total iodine uptake (mg I), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and percent injected dose (%ID) were estimated in opacified inguinal, cervical and parotid/mandibular lymph nodes using manual image segmentation techniques on 24 hour post-contrast CT images. Lymph node volumes estimated by multiple slice ROI analysis were compared with estimates obtained by post-excisional weight measurements. HU and iodine concentration increased 5-20 foldin opacified nodes (p < 0.01) and CNR increased more than four-fold (p < 0.001), %ID ranged between 3.5 and 11.9% and did not appear dose related. ROI estimated lymph node volumes approximated volumes calculated from weight measurements. (R-2 = 0.94, p < 0.0001). We conclude that interstitially injected iodinated nanoparticles increase attenuationand conspicuity of targeted nodes on CT images. Quantitative methods could play an important clinical role in more accurate metastasis detection

  10. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Jia; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investments per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investments.

  11. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-03-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investment per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investment.

  12. Quantitative two-qutrit entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the new concept of axisymmetric bipartite states. For d x d-dimensional systems these states form a two-parameter family of nontrivial mixed states that include the isotropic states. We present exact quantitative results for class-specific entanglement as well as for the negativity and I-concurrence of two-qutrit axisymmetric states. These results have interesting applications such as for quantitative witnesses of class-specific entanglement in arbitrary two-qutrit states and as device-independent witness for the number of entangled dimensions.

  13. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc;

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  14. La quantite en islandais modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Pétursson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La réalisation phonétique de la quantité en syllabe accentuée dans la lecture de deux textes continus. Le problème de la quantité est un des problèmes les plus étudiés dans la phonologie de l'islandais moderne. Du point de vue phonologique il semble qu'on ne peut pas espérer apporter du nouveau, les possibilités théoriques ayant été pratiquement épuisées comme nous 1'avons rappelé dans notre étude récente (Pétursson 1978, pp. 76-78. Le résultat le plus inattendu des recherches des dernières années est sans doute la découverte d'une différenciation quantitative entre le Nord et le Sud de l'Islande (Pétursson 1976a. Il est pourtant encore prématuré de parler de véritables zones quantitatives puisqu'on n' en connaît ni les limites ni l' étendue sur le plan géographique.

  15. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  16. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based on...

  17. Quantitative genomics of female reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits in domestic livestock have been described in the literature. In this chapter, the components needed for detection of reproductive trait QTL are described, including collection of phenotypes, genotypes, and the appropriate statistical ana...

  18. Quantitation of erythropoiesis in myelomatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgens, H S; Hansen, O P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Wantzin, P

    1979-01-01

    Quantitation of the erythropoiesis with radio-iron (59Fe) was applied to 9 patients with untreated myelomatosis. The method included blocking of the 59Fe reutilization by injection of non-radioactive iron. There was no uniform pattern in the Fe-kinetics values. The Plasma Iron Turnover (PIT) and...

  19. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.; Lucca, D.A.; Goch, G.; Brown, C. A.; Raja, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  20. Mapping Protein-Protein Interactions by Quantitative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2010-01-01

    Proteins exert their function inside a cell generally in multiprotein complexes. These complexes are highly dynamic structures changing their composition over time and cell state. The same protein may thereby fulfill different functions depending on its binding partners. Quantitative mass...... spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics in combination with affinity purification protocols has become the method of choice to map and track the dynamic changes in protein-protein interactions, including the ones occurring during cellular signaling events. Different quantitative MS strategies have been used to...... characterize protein interaction networks. In this chapter we describe in detail the use of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the quantitative analysis of stimulus-dependent dynamic protein interactions....

  1. Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giewekemeyer, Klaus; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Beerlink, Andre; Salditt, Tim [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Thibault, Pierre; Dierolf, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department Physik (E17), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Kewish, Cameron M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Mesoscopic structures with specific functions are abundant in many cellular systems and have been well characterized by electron microscopy in the past. However, the quantitative study of the three-dimensional structure and density of subcellular components remains a difficult problem. In this contribution we show how these limitations could be overcome in the future by the application of recently introduced and now rapidly evolving coherent X-ray imaging techniques for quantitative biological imaging on the nanoscale. More specifically, we report on a recent scanning (ptychographic) diffraction experiment on unstained and unsliced freeze-dried cells of the bacterium Deinococcus radiourans using only a pinhole as beam defining optical element. As a result quantitative density projections well below optical resolution have been achieved.

  2. Quantitative MRI and EMG study of the brachial plexus

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbub, Zaid Bin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and applications of quantitative MRI and combined EMG and MRI study of Brachial Plexus. The protocols developed in this thesis have been used on normal healthy subjects, aiming at characterizing the tissues based on their MR and EMG parameters. The Brachial Plexus is the upper portion of the peripheral nervous system and controls the movements of shoulder and arms. Neurological disorders in the brachial plexus can result from cervical spondylotic neuro...

  3. Quantitative immunoassay of Treponema denticola serovar C in adult periodontitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Simonson, L. G.; Goodman, C H; Morton, H E

    1990-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies specific for Treponema denticola serovar C were produced and characterized in this study. An immunoassay was then developed by using these monoclonal antibodies, and the T. denticola serovar C antigen content of subgingival plaque was quantitated for samples taken from patients with periodontitis and healthy volunteers. The human subgingival plaque samples were grouped by severity of disease and pocket depth measurements at the collection site. The T. denticola se...

  4. Quantitative vibrational dynamics of iron in nitrosyl porphyrins

    OpenAIRE

    Leu, B. M.; Zgierski, M. Z.; Wyllie, G. R. A.; Scheidt, W. R.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Durbin, S. M.; Sage, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    We use quantitative experimental and theoretical approaches to characterize the vibrational dynamics of the Fe atom in porphyrins designed to model heme protein active sites. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) yields frequencies, amplitudes, and directions for 57Fe vibrations in a series of ferrous nitrosyl porphyrins, which provide a benchmark for evaluation of quantum chemical vibrational calculations. Detailed normal mode predictions result from DFT calculations on ferrous n...

  5. Scanning tunneling microscopy on rough surfaces: quantitative image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Günter; Bruckl, Hubert; Vancea, Johann; Lecheler, R.; Hastreiter, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this communication, the application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) for a quantitative evaluation of roughnesses and mean island sizes of polycrystalline thin films is discussed. Provided strong conditions concerning the resolution are satisfied, the results are in good agreement with standard techniques as, for example, transmission electron microscopy. Owing to its high resolution, STM can supply a better characterization of surfaces than established methods, especially concerning...

  6. Thermal Imaging of Nanostructures by Quantitative Optical Phase Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baffou, Guillaume; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Polleux, Julien; Zhu, Min; Merlin, Marine; Rigneault, Herve; Monneret, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an optical microscopy technique aimed at characterizing the heat generation arising from nanostructures, in a comprehensive and quantitative manner. Namely, the technique permits (i) mapping the temperature distribution around the source of heat, (ii) mapping the heat power density delivered by the source, and (iii) retrieving the absolute absorption cross section of light-absorbing structures. The technique is based on the measure of the thermal-induced refractive index variatio...

  7. Quantitative methods in phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A new method for extracting quantitative information from phase-contrast x-ray images obtained with microfocus x-ray sources is presented. The proposed technique allows rapid non invasive characterization of the internal structure of thick optically opaque organic samples. The method does not generally involve any sample preparation and does not need any x-ray optical elements (such as monochromators, zone plates, or interferometers)

  8. Quantitative phase imaging with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of thermal neutrons in contact radiography and tomography provides a powerful non-destructive analysis technique for materials that are difficult to study with x-rays. In this presentation we explore quantitative phase imaging using neutrons. We demonstrate a new class of phase-sensitive neutron radiography, using a simple experimental geometry, that provides independent quantitative phase and amplitude images of the sample. Moreover, the coherence requirements on the neutrons for the observation of phase effects are very modest, allowing use of the relatively limited neutron flux. The technique is applicable in cases of extreme phase gradient where image resolution would preclude interferometric determination. Further, our method allows weakly absorbing samples to be visualised at greatly reduced radiation doses

  9. A quantitative ELISA for dystrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G E; Ellis, J M; Nguyen, T M

    1993-05-01

    A novel approach to the quantitation of the muscular dystrophy protein, dystrophin, in muscle extracts is described. The two-site ELISA uses two monoclonal antibodies against dystrophin epitopes which lie close together in the rod domain of the dystrophin molecule in order to minimize the effects of dystrophin degradation. Dystrophin is assayed in its native form by extracting with non-ionic detergents and avoiding the use of SDS. PMID:8486926

  10. Quantitative Methods for Teaching Review

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Milnikova; Tamara Shioshvili

    2011-01-01

    A new method of quantitative evaluation of teaching processes is elaborated. On the base of scores data, the method permits to evaluate efficiency of teaching within one group of students and comparative teaching efficiency in two or more groups. As basic characteristics of teaching efficiency heterogeneity, stability and total variability indices both for only one group and for comparing different groups are used. The method is easy to use and permits to rank results of teaching review which...

  11. Quantitative aspects of magnetospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book, certain quantitative aspects of magnetospheric physics are described as used at the earth which illustrate the complex and wondrous ways in which the basic laws of physics enable us to obtain an understanding of our surroundings. The author investigates the charged-particle motion in magnetic and electric fields; the trapping region and currents due to trapped particles; the existence of large-scale electric fields in the magnetosphere; the effect of plasma waves on the distribution of particles. (Auth.)

  12. Essays on Quantitative Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The costly lessons from global crisis in the past decade reinforce the importance as well as challenges of risk management. This thesis explores several core concepts of quantitative risk management and provides further insight. We start with rating migration risk and propose a Mixture of Markov Chains (MMC) model to account for stochastic business cycle effects in credit rating migration risk. The model shows superior in-sample estimation and out-of-sample predication than its rivals. Co...

  13. Quantitative characterisation of sedimentary grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunwal, Mohit; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of sedimentary texture helps in determining the formation, transportation and deposition processes of sedimentary rocks. Grain size analysis is traditionally quantitative, whereas grain shape analysis is largely qualitative. A semi-automated approach to quantitatively analyse shape and size of sand sized sedimentary grains is presented. Grain boundaries are manually traced from thin section microphotographs in the case of lithified samples and are automatically identified in the case of loose sediments. Shape and size paramters can then be estimated using a software package written on the Mathematica platform. While automated methodology already exists for loose sediment analysis, the available techniques for the case of lithified samples are limited to cases of high definition thin section microphotographs showing clear contrast between framework grains and matrix. Along with the size of grain, shape parameters such as roundness, angularity, circularity, irregularity and fractal dimension are measured. A new grain shape parameter developed using Fourier descriptors has also been developed. To test this new approach theoretical examples were analysed and produce high quality results supporting the accuracy of the algorithm. Furthermore sandstone samples from known aeolian and fluvial environments from the Dingle Basin, County Kerry, Ireland were collected and analysed. Modern loose sediments from glacial till from County Cork, Ireland and aeolian sediments from Rajasthan, India have also been collected and analysed. A graphical summary of the data is presented and allows for quantitative distinction between samples extracted from different sedimentary environments.

  14. A microfabrication-based approach to quantitative isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Yuan; Lin, Qiao

    2016-04-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) directly measures heat evolved in a chemical reaction to determine equilibrium binding properties of biomolecular systems. Conventional ITC instruments are expensive, use complicated design and construction, and require long analysis times. Microfabricated calorimetric devices are promising, although they have yet to allow accurate, quantitative ITC measurements of biochemical reactions. This paper presents a microfabrication-based approach to integrated, quantitative ITC characterization of biomolecular interactions. The approach integrates microfabricated differential calorimetric sensors with microfluidic titration. Biomolecules and reagents are introduced at each of a series of molar ratios, mixed, and allowed to react. The reaction thermal power is differentially measured, and used to determine the thermodynamic profile of the biomolecular interactions. Implemented in a microdevice featuring thermally isolated, well-defined reaction volumes with minimized fluid evaporation as well as highly sensitive thermoelectric sensing, the approach enables accurate and quantitative ITC measurements of protein-ligand interactions under different isothermal conditions. Using the approach, we demonstrate ITC characterization of the binding of 18-Crown-6 with barium chloride, and the binding of ribonuclease A with cytidine 2'-monophosphate within reaction volumes of approximately 0.7 µL and at concentrations down to 2mM. For each binding system, the ITC measurements were completed with considerably reduced analysis times and material consumption, and yielded a complete thermodynamic profile of the molecular interaction in agreement with published data. This demonstrates the potential usefulness of our approach for biomolecular characterization in biomedical applications. PMID:26655185

  15. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    , CD4%, and plasma viral load were associated independently with survival in multivariate analyses. Neopterin and suPAR did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource......We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruited...... in 1991 and visited at home every 3-6 months until 1998. Median beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, and suPAR were significantly higher and CD4% significantly lower among HIV-2-infected individuals than controls. Thirty-one HIV-2-infected individuals died and 7 were lost to follow-up. beta2-Microglobulin...

  16. Quantitative statistical methods for image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  17. Quantitative geologic description of natural fracture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R.C. (Cities Service Oil and Gas Corp., Tulsa, OK (USA))

    1987-02-01

    A quantitative method for characterizing natural fracture systems differs from previous work by emphasizing small volumes of rock that may contain fractures and that collectively comprise a rock-fracture system. This description method is more similar to descriptive methods used in sedimentology than to traditional fracture description methods used in structural geology. A fracture system, as discussed here, consists of domains. Domains are smaller volumes of the rock-fracture system that have been selected for measurement and quantitative summaries. Samples are parts of domains that are large enough to capture part of the fracture network yet small enough to be worked with routinely. The absolute size of samples is a fixed part of the description. Individual samples do not have to include fractures. However, for samples that do contain fractures, the usual measurements (such as width or orientation) are taken. Data on length, width, and number of fractures per sample (including samples with no fracture) are summarized by histograms and distribution functions. Data on fracture orientations are summarized by contoured stereonets. These figures describe the fracture system within a domain, assuming that the sample data sets are adequately large to describe the local fracture population. Monte Carlo combination of length, width, and number of fractures per sample for a domain leads to suites of estimated fracture porosities and permeabilities for samples within a domain. Spatial variation of the entire fracture system can be described by maps showing key aspects of each domain. These may include distribution functions and stereonets (as appropriate) of the basic parameters, as well as estimated porosities and permeabilities and/or selected representative values for these functions (e.g., the mean).

  18. Selection of reference genes for studies of porcine endometrial gene expression on gestational day 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouqi; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Ailing; Liu, Manqing; Zhang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Comparing gene expression patterns in the endometrium on gestational day 12 (GD12) between Erhualian (ER) and Landrace×Large White (LL) pigs is helpful to understand the biological mechanisms of fecundity. Selecting genes that have stable expression levels as the internal standards in a comparative study is essential for identifying real gene-specific variation by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Five genes expressed in sow endometria on GD12 were evaluated for their suitability as internal control for relative quantification by qRT-PCR. These genes were beta-actin (ACTB), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), RNA polymerase II polypeptide G (RPG), and ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), which represent different functional classes. Our results indicated that ACTB, B2M, and PGK1 were not suitable as internal standards for normalization because of their huge variability between the two breeds. RPS20 and RPG were most stable, and the former is recommended to serve as the internal standard when the use of multiple housekeeping genes is unpractical. PMID:21501585

  19. Diabetic gastroparesis in association with autonomic neuropathy and microvasculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koçkar MC

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastroparesis is a frequent and sometimes life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Autonomic neuropathy seems to be one of the most important mechanisms underlying this entity, together with the other probable pathologies. The present study was performed in order to identify an alternative to gastric scintigraphy as a screening test. The gastric emptying times of 60 subjects (Group 1: 20 insulin-dependent patients, Group 2: 20 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, and Group 3: 20 healthy volunteers were monitored by gastric scintigraphy. Perception thresholds for cold, heat, and vibration were tested by a quantitative sensory test, and QTc dispersions were calculated from standard electrocardiography recordings. In addition, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c and urine beta2-microglobulin and microalbumin concentrations were determined for the patient groups. Funduscopic examination was performed by an independent ophthalmologist. Gastroparesis was determined in both patient groups, regardless of fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c concentrations. A strong correlation was observed between nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic denervation (QTc and gastroparesis. In conclusion, retinal and renal microvasculopathy parameters and cardiac autonomic function tests may be useful for screening diabetic patients for gastroparesis.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Sentiment Proxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zeyan; Ahmad, Khurshid

    2015-01-01

    Sentiment analysis is a content-analytic investigative framework for researchers, traders and the general public involved in financial markets. This analysis is based on carefully sourced and elaborately constructed proxies for market sentiment and has emerged as a basis for analysing movements in...... trading volumes. The case study we use is a small market index (Danish Stock Exchange Index, OMXC 20, together with prevailing sentiment in Denmark, to evaluate the impact of sentiment on OMXC 20. Furthermore, we introduce a rather novel and quantitative sentiment proxy, that is the use of the index of a...

  1. Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Heidi S.; Pakkenberg, Bente; Dam, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Possessing large brains and complex behavioral patterns, cetaceans are believed to be highly intelligent. Their brains, which are the largest in the Animal Kingdom and have enormous gyrification compared with terrestrial mammals, have long been of scientific interest. Few studies, however, report...... density in long-finned pilot whales is lower than that in humans, their higher cell number appears to be due to their larger brain. Accordingly, our findings make an important contribution to the ongoing debate over quantitative relationships in the mammalian brain....

  2. Recent Developments in Quantitative Finance: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Hu, Shing-Yang; Yu, Shih-Ti

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative finance combines mathematical finance, financial statistics, financial econometrics and empirical finance to provide a solid quantitative foundation for the analysis of financial issues. The purpose of this special issue on “Recent developments in quantitative finance” is to highlight some areas of research in which novel methods in quantitative finance have contributed significantly to the analysis of financial issues, specifically fast methods for large-scale non-elliptical por...

  3. Strategies for quantitation of phosphoproteomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Thingholm, Tine Engberg

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in phosphoproteomic sample-preparation techniques and sensitive mass spectrometry instrumentation have led to large-scale identifications of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites from highly complex samples. This has facilitated the implementation of different quantitation...... on different quantitation strategies. Methods for metabolic labeling, chemical modification and label-free quantitation and their applicability or inapplicability in phosphoproteomic studies are discussed....

  4. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonick, H C

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium and lead are divalent cations with a propensity to settle in the proximal tubule of the nephron, leading to nephrotoxicity. The pathophysiological results, however, tend to diverge. Cadmium in sufficient cumulative dosage leads to the production of the Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular reabsorptive defect thought to be related to inhibition of both ATP production and Na-K-ATPase activity. On the other hand, lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion, and diminished glomerular filteration rate (GFR). Fanconi syndrome is seen unusually only in children and experimental animals. Cadmium nephrotoxicity is heralded by increased excretion of beta2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and alpha1-microglobulin, indicative of decreased proximal tubule function. Beta2-microglobulinuria is not found in lead nephropathy. In lead nephropathy albuminuria is absent or minimal whereas in cadmium nephropathy albuminuria is variable. From the standpoint of pathology, both entities are characterized by tubulointerstitial disease and fibrosis, but only early lead nephropathy is characterized by the presence of proximal tubule nuclear inclusion bodies, due to the combination of lead with a lead binding-protein. PMID:19106433

  5. Quantitative evaluation of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, S.; Frisoni, G. B.

    2009-02-01

    We propose a single, quantitative metric called the disease evaluation factor (DEF) and assess its efficiency at estimating disease burden in normal, control subjects (CTRL) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study group consisted in 75 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and 75 age-matched normal CTRL without neurological or neuropsychological deficit. We calculated a reference eigenspace of MRI appearance from reference data, in which our CTRL and probable AD subjects were projected. We then calculated the multi-dimensional hyperplane separating the CTRL and probable AD groups. The DEF was estimated via a multidimensional weighted distance of eigencoordinates for a given subject and the CTRL group mean, along salient principal components forming the separating hyperplane. We used quantile plots, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 tests to compare the DEF values and test that their distribution was normal. We used a linear discriminant test to separate CTRL from probable AD based on the DEF factor, and reached an accuracy of 87%. A quantitative biomarker in AD would act as an important surrogate marker of disease status and progression.

  6. Quantitative measurements in capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuchel, M; Kurniawan, N; Baltes, P; Bandorski, D; Koulaouzidis, A

    2015-10-01

    This review summarizes several approaches for quantitative measurement in capsule endoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) typically provides wireless imaging of small bowel. Currently, a variety of quantitative measurements are implemented in commercially available hardware/software. The majority is proprietary and hence undisclosed algorithms. Measurement of amount of luminal contamination allows calculating scores from whole VCE studies. Other scores express the severity of small bowel lesions in Crohn׳s disease or the degree of villous atrophy in celiac disease. Image processing with numerous algorithms of textural and color feature extraction is further in the research focuses for automated image analysis. These tools aim to select single images with relevant lesions as blood, ulcers, polyps and tumors or to omit images showing only luminal contamination. Analysis of motility pattern, size measurement and determination of capsule localization are additional topics. Non-visual wireless capsules transmitting data acquired with specific sensors from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are available for clinical routine. This includes pH measurement in the esophagus for the diagnosis of acid gastro-esophageal reflux. A wireless motility capsule provides GI motility analysis on the basis of pH, pressure, and temperature measurement. Electromagnetically tracking of another motility capsule allows visualization of motility. However, measurement of substances by GI capsules is of great interest but still at an early stage of development. PMID:26299419

  7. Quantitative information in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing new imaging or image processing techniques, one constantly has in mind that the new technique should provide a better, or more optimal answer to medical tasks than existing techniques do 'Better' or 'more optimal' imply some kind of standard by which one can measure imaging or image processing performance. The choice of a particular imaging modality to answer a diagnostic task, such as the detection of coronary artery stenosis is also based on an implicit optimalisation of performance criteria. Performance is measured by the ability to provide information about an object (patient) to the person (referring doctor) who ordered a particular task. In medical imaging the task is generally to find quantitative information on bodily function (biochemistry, physiology) and structure (histology, anatomy). In medical imaging, a wide range of techniques is available. Each technique has it's own characteristics. The techniques discussed in this paper are: nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, applied potential tomography, computerized tomography, and compton tomography. This paper provides a framework for the comparison of imaging performance, based on the way the quantitative information flow is altered by the characteristics of the modality

  8. The effect of short-term glucagon infusion on kidney function in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Noer, J; Kehlet, H;

    1977-01-01

    Kidney function was studied in six normal males before and during a 2 h glucagon (10 ng/kg/min) infusion. The following variables were determined during each 20 min clearance period; glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma-flow (RPF) , filtration fraction (FF), urinary albumin and beta2......-microglobulin-excretion rates. Glucagon infusion resulted in a fourfold increase in plasma glucagon concentration. The infusion induced a significant increase in GFR (+9%), FF (+9%) and urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion rate (+32%), (p less than 0.01). RPF and urinary albumin excretion rates were...

  9. [Effect of anabolic steroid on immune response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, H; Kobayashi, M; Konosu, H; Kurioka, H; Naito, K; Sonoyama, T; Nishimoto, T; Hashimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Using lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts of the peripheral blood, PHA-blastoid transformation, immunoglobulin and beta 2-microglobulin, the influence of anabolic steroid on the immune reactivity of the host was dissected by administration of Deca-Durabolin ( nandrolone decanoate) to both tumor-bearing host and tumor-free host after operation for alimentary tract. The number of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes, the PHA-blastoid transformation of peripheral lymphocytes and the IgG level were increased, and the beta 2-microglobulin level showed the tendency of decrease after the administration of Deca-Durabolin. PMID:6367663

  10. Amyloidosis associated with dialysis. Dialyseassoziierte Amyloidosteopathie - radiologische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schadmand, S.; Klose, K.J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische Strahlenkunde); Wandel, E. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1991-06-01

    Amongst the complications of dialysis, amyloid osteopathy is getting increasingly significant. It is due to deposition of {beta}2-microglobulin. To determine the incidence and time of development of this complication, the skeletal radiographs of 185 patients undergoing dialysis, some for up to ten years, were analysed retrospectively. In about 10% of patients, the presence of {beta}2-microglobulin osteopathy may be expected. The radiological features, sites of predilection and differential diagnosis of amyloid osteopathy and of other skeletal changes due to dialysis are discussed. (orig.).

  11. Computer code for quantitative ALARA evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A FORTRAN computer code has been developed to simplify the determination of whether dose reduction actions meet the as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) criterion. The calculations are based on the methodology developed for the Atomic Industrial Forum. The code is used for analyses of eight types of dose reduction actions, characterized as follows: reduce dose rate, reduce job frequency, reduce productive working time, reduce crew size, increase administrative dose limit for the task, and increase the workers' time utilization and dose utilization through (a) improved working conditions, (b) basic skill training, or (c) refresher training for special skills. For each type of action, two analysis modes are available. The first is a generic analysis in which the program computes potential benefits (in dollars) for a range of possible improvements, e.g., for a range of lower dose rates. Generic analyses are most useful in the planning stage and for evaluating the general feasibility of alternative approaches. The second is a specific analysis in which the potential annual benefits of a specific level of improvement and the annual implementation cost are compared. The potential benefits reflect savings in operational and societal costs that can be realized if occupational radiation doses are reduced. Because the potential benefits depend upon many variables which characterize the job, the workplace, and the workers, there is no unique relationship between the potential dollar savings and the dose savings. The computer code permits rapid quantitative analyses of alternatives and is a tool that supplements the health physicist's professional judgment. The program output provides a rational basis for decision-making and a record of the assumptions employed

  12. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callard Gloria V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR, normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping" gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd, TATA-box binding protein (tbp, beta-2-microglobulin (b2m, elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa, and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf; in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using

  13. Quantitative framework for assessing indoor radon policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon gas in the indoor environment is recognized as a problem of considerable magnitude; likely responsible for 5,000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States (Cohen, 1978; Nero, 1986). Radon is an inert, radioactive element in the decay chain or uranium-238 which occurs ubiquitously in soil and rock. Radon emanating from the ground enters houses through cracks and porous building materials in the substructure. Depending on characteristics of the housing design, construction and ventilation practices, dangerously high concentrations can result. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken a lead role in addressing the indoor radon problem. Their strategy is to work with the States and the private sector to characterize the extent of exposure in problem areas and identify alternative actions to reduce health risks. Since radon poses a risk that occurs in private homes, the responsibility for testing and remediation lies largely with the homeowner. This paper presents a quantitative framework to analyze indoor radon policy on a regional scale. A model is developed which describes regional radon risk reduction in terms of the percentage of homeowners in the region who decide to monitor their homes, the likelihood of homeowners taking alternative remedial actions, and the effectiveness of remediation methods in lowering radon concentrations. Different government policies are analyzed in terms of their potential effect on model parameters and resulting risk reductions

  14. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa [Division 8.5, BAM Fed. Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-18

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  15. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Studying Phosphotyrosine Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-Jian; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-02-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism for controlling many aspects of cellular processes, as well as aspects of human health and diseases. Compared to phosphoserine (pSer) and phosphothreonine (pThr), phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling is more tightly regulated, but often more challenging to characterize due to significantly lower level of tyrosine phosphorylation (a relative abundance of 1800:200:1 was estimated for pSer/pThr/pTyr in vertebrate cells[1]). In this review, we outline the recent advances in analytical methodologies for enrichment, identification, and accurate quantitation of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and peptides using antibody-based technologies, capillary liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and various stable isotope labeling strategies, as well as non-MS-based methods such as protein or peptide array methods. These proteomic technological advances provide powerful tools for potentially understanding signal transduction at the system level and provide a basis for discovering novel drug targets for human diseases. [1] Hunter, T. (1998) The Croonian Lecture 1997. The phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine: its role in cell growth and disease. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 353, 583–605

  16. Advances in quantitative electroencephalogram analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Nitish V; Tong, Shanbao

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) plays a significant role in EEG-based clinical diagnosis and studies of brain function. In past decades, various qEEG methods have been extensively studied. This article provides a detailed review of the advances in this field. qEEG methods are generally classified into linear and nonlinear approaches. The traditional qEEG approach is based on spectrum analysis, which hypothesizes that the EEG is a stationary process. EEG signals are nonstationary and nonlinear, especially in some pathological conditions. Various time-frequency representations and time-dependent measures have been proposed to address those transient and irregular events in EEG. With regard to the nonlinearity of EEG, higher order statistics and chaotic measures have been put forward. In characterizing the interactions across the cerebral cortex, an information theory-based measure such as mutual information is applied. To improve the spatial resolution, qEEG analysis has also been combined with medical imaging technology (e.g., CT, MR, and PET). With these advances, qEEG plays a very important role in basic research and clinical studies of brain injury, neurological disorders, epilepsy, sleep studies and consciousness, and brain function. PMID:15255777

  17. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity

  18. A quantitative fitness analysis workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, A P; Lawless, C; Lydall, D A

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Fitness Analysis (QFA) is an experimental and computational workflow for comparing fitnesses of microbial cultures grown in parallel(1,2,3,4). QFA can be applied to focused observations of single cultures but is most useful for genome-wide genetic interaction or drug screens investigating up to thousands of independent cultures. The central experimental method is the inoculation of independent, dilute liquid microbial cultures onto solid agar plates which are incubated and regularly photographed. Photographs from each time-point are analyzed, producing quantitative cell density estimates, which are used to construct growth curves, allowing quantitative fitness measures to be derived. Culture fitnesses can be compared to quantify and rank genetic interaction strengths or drug sensitivities. The effect on culture fitness of any treatments added into substrate agar (e.g. small molecules, antibiotics or nutrients) or applied to plates externally (e.g. UV irradiation, temperature) can be quantified by QFA. The QFA workflow produces growth rate estimates analogous to those obtained by spectrophotometric measurement of parallel liquid cultures in 96-well or 200-well plate readers. Importantly, QFA has significantly higher throughput compared with such methods. QFA cultures grow on a solid agar surface and are therefore well aerated during growth without the need for stirring or shaking. QFA throughput is not as high as that of some Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) screening methods(5,6). However, since QFA cultures are heavily diluted before being inoculated onto agar, QFA can capture more complete growth curves, including exponential and saturation phases(3). For example, growth curve observations allow culture doubling times to be estimated directly with high precision, as discussed previously(1). Here we present a specific QFA protocol applied to thousands of S. cerevisiae cultures which are automatically handled by robots during inoculation, incubation and

  19. Reconfigurable microfluidic dilution for high-throughput quantitative assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinzhen; Li, Baoqing; Xing, Siyuan; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-06-21

    This paper reports a reconfigurable microfluidic dilution device for high-throughput quantitative assays, which can easily produce discrete logarithmic/binary concentration profiles ranging from 1 to 100-fold dilution in parallel from a fixed sample volume (e.g., 10 μL) without any assistance of continuous fluidic pump or robotic automation. The integrated dilution generation chip consists of switchable distribution and collection channels, metering reservoirs, reaction chambers, and pressure-activatable Laplace valves. Following the sequential loading of a sample, a diluent, and a detection reagent into their individual metering chambers, the top microfluidic layer can be reconfigured to collect the metered chemicals into the reaction chambers in parallel, where detection will be conducted. To facilitate mixing and reaction in the microchambers, two acoustic microstreaming actuation mechanisms have been investigated for easy integrability and accessibility. Furthermore, the microfluidic dilution generator has been characterized by both colorimetric and fluorescent means. A further demonstration of the generic usage of the quantitative dilution chip has utilized the commonly available bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay to analyse the protein concentrations of human tissue extracts. In brief, the microfluidic dilution generator offers a high-throughput high-efficiency quantitative analytical alternative to conventional quantitative assay platforms, by simple manipulation of a minute amount of chemicals in a compact microfluidic device with minimal equipment requirement, which can serve as a facile tool for biochemical and biological analyses in regular laboratories, point-of-care settings and low-resource environments. PMID:25994379

  20. Quantitative computed tomography imaging of airway remodeling in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Philippe A; Fetita, Catalin I; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and approximately 5-10% of asthmatic subjects have severe disease associated with structure changes of the airways (airway remodeling) that may develop over time or shortly after onset of disease. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging of the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma has improved during the last 10 years, and has enabled investigators to study the large airway architecture in detail and assess indirectly the small airway structure. In severe asthmatics, morphologic changes in large airways, quantitatively assessed using 2D-3D airway registration and recent algorithms, are characterized by airway wall thickening, luminal narrowing and bronchial stenoses. Extent of expiratory gas trapping, quantitatively assessed using lung densitometry, may be used to assess indirectly small airway remodeling. Investigators have used these quantitative imaging techniques in order to attempt severity grading of asthma, and to identify clusters of asthmatic patients that differ in morphologic and functional characteristics. Although standardization of image analysis procedures needs to be improved, the identification of remodeling pattern in various phenotypes of severe asthma and the ability to relate airway structures to important clinical outcomes should help target treatment more effectively. PMID:26981458

  1. GPC and quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is a light efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions using binary-only or analog phase levels. It has been used in applications such as optical trapping and manipulation, active microscopy, structured illumination, optical security, parallel laser marking and labelling and recently in contemporary biophotonics applications such as for adaptive and parallel two-photon optogenetics and neurophotonics. We will present our most recent GPC developments geared towards these applications. We first show a very compact static light shaper followed by the potential of GPC for biomedical and multispectral applications where we experimentally demonstrate the active light shaping of a supercontinuum laser over most of the visible wavelength range. Finally, we discuss how GPC can be advantageously applied for Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI).

  2. Quantitative measurement of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We are observing and measuring the varying development reaction stages of blood cells to different saline solutions. The imaging process is based on a common path interferometer which is realized with a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the Fourier plane after the microscope objective. With the SLM we can shift the phase of the transmitted light with respect to the phase of signal wave. This principle is used for the phase contrast microscopy method where we take four pictures of the same image with different phase shifts in order to calculate the complex field of the measured cell. This microscope technique obtains quantitative data about the blood cell's surface in different development stages, amplitude and phase differences inside the cell itself. (author)

  3. Quantitative analysis of Boehm's GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xue-tao; ZHANG Yuan-rui; GOU Xiao-gang; CHENG Xu

    2003-01-01

    The term garbage collection describes the automated process of finding previously allocated memorythatis no longer in use in order to make the memory available to satisfy subsequent allocation requests. Wehave reviewed existing papers and implementations of GC, and especially analyzed Boehm' s C codes, which isa real-time mark-sweep GC running under Linux and ANSI C standard. In this paper, we will quantitatively an-alyze the performance of different configurations of Boehm' s collector subjected to different workloads. Reportedmeasurements demonstrate that a refined garbage collector is a viable alternative to traditional explicit memorymanagement techniques, even for low-level languages. It is more a trade-off for certain system than an all-or-nothing proposition.

  4. Quantitative patterns in drone wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-02-01

    Attacks by drones (i.e., unmanned combat air vehicles) continue to generate heated political and ethical debates. Here we examine the quantitative nature of drone attacks, focusing on how their intensity and frequency compare with that of other forms of human conflict. Instead of the power-law distribution found recently for insurgent and terrorist attacks, the severity of attacks is more akin to lognormal and exponential distributions, suggesting that the dynamics underlying drone attacks lie beyond these other forms of human conflict. We find that the pattern in the timing of attacks is consistent with one side having almost complete control, an important if expected result. We show that these novel features can be reproduced and understood using a generative mathematical model in which resource allocation to the dominant side is regulated through a feedback loop.

  5. Automated quantitative analysis for pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroshi; Zhao, Bin; Mino, Masako

    1998-09-01

    Automated quantitative analysis for pneumoconiosis is presented. In this paper Japanese standard radiographs of pneumoconiosis are categorized by measuring the area density and the number density of small rounded opacities. And furthermore the classification of the size and shape of the opacities is made from the measuring of the equivalent radiuses of each opacity. The proposed method includes a bi- level unsharp masking filter with a 1D uniform impulse response in order to eliminate the undesired parts such as the images of blood vessels and ribs in the chest x-ray photo. The fuzzy contrast enhancement is also introduced in this method for easy and exact detection of small rounded opacities. Many simulation examples show that the proposed method is more reliable than the former method.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of dermatological antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, C S; Leitch, A E; Tidman, M J

    2015-12-01

    Topical antiseptics are frequently used in dermatological management, yet evidence for the efficacy of traditional generic formulations is often largely anecdotal. We tested the in vitro bactericidal activity of four commonly used topical antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus, using a modified version of the European Standard EN 1276, a quantitative suspension test for evaluation of the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. To meet the standard for antiseptic effectiveness of EN 1276, at least a 5 log10 reduction in bacterial count within 5 minutes of exposure is required. While 1% benzalkonium chloride and 6% hydrogen peroxide both achieved a 5 log10 reduction in S. aureus count, neither 2% aqueous eosin nor 1 : 10 000 potassium permanganate showed significant bactericidal activity compared with control at exposure periods of up to 1 h. Aqueous eosin and potassium permanganate may have desirable astringent properties, but these results suggest they lack effective antiseptic activity, at least against S. aureus. PMID:26456933

  7. Quantitative neutron phase contrast tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional neutron radiography and tomography are based on the attenuation contrast induced by the sample. In the last few years, another source of image contrast, the so-called phase contrast, has been introduced. The imaging methods to detect phase changes due to the interaction with the sample improve continuously, and several techniques are established. One method to discover phase shifts is diffraction enhanced imaging using a double-crystal diffractometer. It is described how the refractive index distribution of a sample can be recovered quantitatively in tomographic reconstructions from data achieved by this technique. Using reference samples with a well-known refractive index distribution, high accuracy with deviations of only a few per cent could be found in the reconstructions for all used materials

  8. Innovations in Quantitative Risk Management

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Matthias; Zagst, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative models are omnipresent –but often controversially discussed– in todays risk management practice. New regulations, innovative financial products, and advances in valuation techniques provide a continuous flow of challenging problems for financial engineers and risk managers alike. Designing a sound stochastic model requires finding a careful balance between parsimonious model assumptions, mathematical viability, and interpretability of the output. Moreover, data requirements and the end-user training are to be considered as well. The KPMG Center of Excellence in Risk Management conference Risk Management Reloaded and this proceedings volume contribute to bridging the gap between academia –providing methodological advances– and practice –having a firm understanding of the economic conditions in which a given model is used. Discussed fields of application range from asset management, credit risk, and energy to risk management issues in insurance. Methodologically, dependence modeling...

  9. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  10. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.; Lucca, D.A.; Goch, G.; Brown, C. A.; Raja, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters and...... quantification methods in terms of functional correlations, and it addresses the need for reducing the large number of existing parameters. The review considers the present situation and gives suggestions for future activities....

  11. Quantitative analysis of endogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Rhishikesh; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Gautam, Nagsen; Alamoudi, Jawaher Abdullah; Alnouti, Yazen

    2016-09-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes is essential for several clinical and non-clinical applications. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for quantitative analyses. Absolute quantification by LC/MS requires preparing standard curves in the same matrix as the study samples so that the matrix effect and the extraction efficiency for analytes are the same in both the standard and study samples. However, by definition, analyte-free biological matrices do not exist for endogenous compounds. To address the lack of blank matrices for the quantification of endogenous compounds by LC-MS/MS, four approaches are used including the standard addition, the background subtraction, the surrogate matrix, and the surrogate analyte methods. This review article presents an overview these approaches, cite and summarize their applications, and compare their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we discuss in details, validation requirements and compatibility with FDA guidelines to ensure method reliability in quantifying endogenous compounds. The standard addition, background subtraction, and the surrogate analyte approaches allow the use of the same matrix for the calibration curve as the one to be analyzed in the test samples. However, in the surrogate matrix approach, various matrices such as artificial, stripped, and neat matrices are used as surrogate matrices for the actual matrix of study samples. For the surrogate analyte approach, it is required to demonstrate similarity in matrix effect and recovery between surrogate and authentic endogenous analytes. Similarly, for the surrogate matrix approach, it is required to demonstrate similar matrix effect and extraction recovery in both the surrogate and original matrices. All these methods represent indirect approaches to quantify endogenous compounds and regardless of what approach is followed, it has to be shown that none of the validation criteria have been compromised due to the indirect analyses. PMID

  12. Optimization of quantitative infrared analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerst, Richard W.; Breneman, W. E.; Dittmar, Rebecca M.; Drugge, Richard E.; Gagnon, Jim E.; Pranis, Robert A.; Spicer, Colleen K.; Stebbings, William L.; Westberg, J. W.; Duerst, Marilyn D.

    1994-01-01

    A number of industrial processes, especially quality assurance procedures, accept information on relative quantities of components in mixtures, whenever absolute values for the quantitative analysis are unavailable. These relative quantities may be determined from infrared intensity ratios even though known standards are unavailable. Repeatability [vs precisionhl in quantitative analysis is a critical parameter for meaningful results. In any given analysis, multiple runs provide "answers" with a certain standard deviation. Obviously, the lower the standard deviation, the better the precision. In attempting to minimize the standard deviation and thus improve precision, we need to delineate which contributing factors we have control over (such as sample preparation techniques, data analysis methodology) and which factors we have little control over (environmental and instrument noise, for example). For a given set of conditions, the best instrumental precision achievable on an IR instrument should be determinable. Traditionally, the term "signal-to-noise" (S/N) has been used for a single spectrum, realizing that S/N improves with an increase in number of scans coadded for generation of that single spectrum. However, the S/N ratio does not directly reflect the precision achievable for an absorbing band. We prefer to use the phrase "maximum achievable instrument precision" (MAIP), which is equivalent to the minimum relative standard deviation for a given peak (either height or area) in spectra. For a specific analysis, the analyst should have in mind the desired precision. Only if the desired precision is less than the MA1P will the analysis be feasible. Once the MAIP is established, other experimental procedures may be modified to improve the analytical precision, if it is below that which is expected (the MAIP).

  13. Adjustments to the preanalytical phase of quantitative cell-free DNA analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst; Janine Aucamp; Piet J. Pretorius

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the kinetics of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the blood of cancer patients could be a strong auxiliary component to the molecular characterization of cfDNA, but its potential clinical significance is obscured by the absence of an analytical consensus. To utilize quantitative cfDNA assessment with confidence, it is crucial that the preanalytical phase is standardized. In a previous publication, several preanalytical variables that may affect quantitative measurements of cfDNA were identi...

  14. Quantitative linkage genome scan for atopy in a large collection of Caucasian families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, BT; van den Oord, E; Akkari, A;

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative phenotypes correlated with a complex disorder offer increased power to detect linkage in comparison to affected-unaffected classifications. Asthma is a complex disorder characterized by periods of bronchial obstruction and increased bronchial hyper reactivity. In childhood and early...... report represents one of the biggest genome scans so far reported for asthma related phenotypes. This study also demonstrates the utility of increased sample sizes and quantitative phenotypes in linkage analysis of complex disorders....

  15. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, A.; Ball, H.; Hayes, D.; Zhen, X.; Jarratt, M. C.; Sastrawan, J.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through in-phase or in-quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6-GHz carrier appropriate for trapped Yb171+ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of both engineered dephasing noise during free evolution and engineered amplitude noise during driven operations. In both cases, the observed reduction of coherent lifetimes matches well with quantitative models described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

  16. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    CERN Document Server

    Soare, A; Hayes, D; Zhen, X; Jarratt, M C; Uys, H; Biercuk, M J

    2014-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through In-Phase/Quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6 GHz carrier appropriate for trapped $^{171}$Yb$^{+}$ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of an engineered bath, with the observed $T_{2}$ scaling as predicted by a quantitative model described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

  17. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V; Jacobsen, Søren; Tanassi, Julia T; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are produced as part of normal physiology. Their numbers, origin, and composition change in pathology. Despite this, the normal MP proteome has not yet been characterized with standardized high-resolution methods. We here quantitatively profile the normal MP...... proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... by the correlation of cytoskeletal protein intensities with MP numbers obtained by flow cytometry. Finally, the validity of using pooled samples was evaluated using overlap protein identification numbers and multivariate data analysis. Using conservative parameters, 536 different unique proteins were...

  18. Stability in the linearized problem of quantitative elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of quantitative elastography is to identify biomechanical parameters from interior displacement data, which are provided by other modalities, such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, we analyze the stability of several linearized problems in quantitative elastography. Our method is based on the theory of redundant systems of linear partial differential equations. We analyze the ellipticity properties of the corresponding PDE systems augmented with the interior displacement data; we explicitly characterize the kernel of the forward operators and show injectivity for particular linearizations. Stability criteria can then be deduced. While joint reconstruction of all parameters suffers from non-ellipticity even for more measurements, our results show stability of the separate reconstruction of shear modulus, pressure and density; they indicate that singular strain fields should be avoided, and show how additional measurements can help in ensuring stability of particular linearized problems. (paper)

  19. Quantitation of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan repeat units by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Tamara L; Turco, Salvatore J

    2006-04-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania is the dominant cell surface glycoconjugate of these pathogenic parasites. LPG is structurally characterized by a series of phosphoglycan repeat units. Determining the number of repeat units per LPG molecule has proven difficult using current technologies, such as mass spectrometry. As an alternative method to quantitate the number of repeat units in LPG, a procedure based on capillary electrophoretic analysis of the proportion of mannose to 2,5-anhydromannose (derived from the nonacetylated glucosamine of the GPI anchor of LPG) was developed. The CE-based technique is sensitive and relatively rapid compared to GC-MS-based protocols. Its application was demonstrated in quantitating the number of LPG repeat units from several species of Leishmania as well as from two life-cycle stages of these organisms. PMID:16310310

  20. Biomechanical cell analysis using quantitative phase imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Adam; Park, Han Sang; Eldridge, William J.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging provides nanometer scale sensitivity and has been previously used to study spectral and temporal characteristics of individual cells in vitro, especially red blood cells. Here we extend this work to study the mechanical responses of individual cells due to the influence of external stimuli. Cell stiffness may be characterized by analyzing the inherent thermal fluctuations of cells but by applying external stimuli, additional information can be obtained. The time dependent response of cells due to external shear stress is examined with high speed quantitative phase imaging and found to exhibit characteristics that relate to their stiffness. However, analysis beyond the cellular scale also reveals internal organization of the cell and its modulation due to pathologic processes such as carcinogenesis. Further studies with microfluidic platforms point the way for using this approach in high throughput assays.

  1. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  2. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cortical Multiple Sclerosis Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L. Tardif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although significant improvements have been made regarding the visualization and characterization of cortical multiple sclerosis (MS lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cortical lesions (CL continue to be under-detected in vivo, and we have a limited understanding of the causes of GM pathology. The objective of this study was to characterize the MRI signature of CLs to help interpret the changes seen in vivo and elucidate the factors limiting their visualization. A quantitative 3D high-resolution (350 μm isotropic MRI study at 3 Tesla of a fixed post mortem cerebral hemisphere from a patient with MS is presented in combination with matched immunohistochemistry. Type III subpial lesions are characterized by an increase in T1, T2 and M0, and a decrease in MTR in comparison to the normal appearing cortex (NAC. All quantitative MR parameters were associated with cortical GM myelin content, while T1 showed the strongest correlation. The histogram analysis showed extensive overlap between CL and NAC for all MR parameters and myelin content. This is due to the poor contrast in myelin content between CL and NAC in comparison to the variability in myelo-architecture throughout the healthy cortex. This latter comparison is highlighted by the representation of T1 times on cortical surfaces at several laminar depths.

  3. Quantitation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic techniques are the only quantitative methods for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux. By comparison, other techniques are not quantitative and are either indirect, inconvenient, or less sensitive. Methods, such as perfusion techniques, which measure flow, require the introduction of a tube assembly into the gastrointestinal tract with the possible introduction of artifacts into the measurements due to the indwelling tubes. Earlier authors using radionuclide markers, introduced a method for measuring gastric emptying which was both tubeless and quantitative in comparison to other techniques. More recently, a number of scintigraphic methods have been introduced for the quantitation of esophageal transit and clearance, the detection and quantitation of gastroesophageal reflux, the measurement of gastric emptying using a mixed solid-liquid meal, and the quantitation of enterogastric reflux. This chapter reviews current techniques for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

  4. Quantitative analysis of PET measurements in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron emission tomograhpy (PET) has been used for the evaluation of the characteristics of various tumors. The role of PET in oncology has been evolved from a pure research tool to a methodology of enormous clinical potential. The unique characteristics of PET imaging make sophisticated quantitation possible. Several quantitative methods, such as standardized uptake values (SUV), simplifield quantitation method, Patlak graphical analysis, and Sokoloff's glucose metabolism measurement, have been used in the field of oncology. However, each quantitative method has limitations of its own. For example, the SUV has been used as a quantitative index of glucose metabolism for tumor classification and monitoring response to treatment, even though it depends on blood glucose level, body configuration of patient, and scanning time. The quantitative methods of PET are reviewed and strategy for implementing these methods are presented

  5. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  6. A quantitative philology of introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eDiuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural evolution of introspective thought has been recognized to undergo a drastic change during the middle of the first millennium BC. This period, known as the ``Axial Age'', saw the birth of religions and philosophies still alive in modern culture, as well as the transition from orality to literacy - which led to the hypothesis of a link between introspection and literacy. Here we set out to examine the evolution of introspection in the Axial Age, studying the cultural record of the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian literary traditions. Using a statistical measure of semantic similarity, we identify a single ``arrow of time'' in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, and a more complex non-monotonic dynamics in the Greco-Roman tradition reflecting the rise and fall of the respective societies. A comparable analysis of the 20th century cultural record shows a steady increase in the incidence of introspective topics, punctuated by abrupt declines during and preceding the First and Second World Wars. Our results show that (a it is possible to devise a consistent metric to quantify the history of a high-level concept such as introspection, cementing the path for a new quantitative philology and (b to the extent that it is captured in the cultural record, the increased ability of human thought for self-reflection that the Axial Age brought about is still heavily determined by societal contingencies beyond the orality-literacy nexus.

  7. Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S Mortensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Possessing large brains and complex behavioural patterns, cetaceans are believed to be highly intelligent. Their brains, which are the largest in the Animal Kingdom and have enormous gyrification compared with terrestrial mammals, have long been of scientific interest. Few studies, however, report total number of brain cells in cetaceans, and even fewer have used unbiased counting methods. In this study, using stereological methods, we estimated the total number of cells in the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas brain. For the first time, we show that a species of dolphin has more neocortical neurons than in any mammal studied to date including humans. These cell numbers are compared across various mammals with different brain sizes, and the function of possessing many neurons is discussed. We found that the long-finned pilot whale neocortex has approximately 37.2 × 109 neurons, which is almost twice as many as humans, and 127 × 109 glial cells. Thus, the absolute number of neurons in the human neocortex is not correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans (at least compared to cetaceans as has previously been hypothesized. However, as neuron density in long-finned pilot whales is lower than that in humans, their higher cell number appears to be due to their larger brain. Accordingly, our findings make an important contribution to the ongoing debate over quantitative relationships in the mammalian brain.

  8. Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Heidi S; Pakkenberg, Bente; Dam, Maria; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Eriksen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Possessing large brains and complex behavioral patterns, cetaceans are believed to be highly intelligent. Their brains, which are the largest in the Animal Kingdom and have enormous gyrification compared with terrestrial mammals, have long been of scientific interest. Few studies, however, report total number of brain cells in cetaceans, and even fewer have used unbiased counting methods. In this study, using stereological methods, we estimated the total number of cells in the neocortex of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) brain. For the first time, we show that a species of dolphin has more neocortical neurons than any mammal studied to date including humans. These cell numbers are compared across various mammals with different brain sizes, and the function of possessing many neurons is discussed. We found that the long-finned pilot whale neocortex has approximately 37.2 × 10(9) neurons, which is almost twice as many as humans, and 127 × 10(9) glial cells. Thus, the absolute number of neurons in the human neocortex is not correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans (at least compared to cetaceans) as has previously been hypothesized. However, as neuron density in long-finned pilot whales is lower than that in humans, their higher cell number appears to be due to their larger brain. Accordingly, our findings make an important contribution to the ongoing debate over quantitative relationships in the mammalian brain. PMID:25505387

  9. Quantitative isotopes miction cystoureterography (QIMCU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for a quantitative evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux was developed. It allows the determination of a) the volume of reflux b) the volume of the bladder at each point of time during the examination. The QIMCU gives an insight into the dynamic of reflux, of reflux volume, and of actual bladder volume. The clinical application in 37 patients with 53 insufficient ureteral orifices (i.e. reflux) showed that the onset of reflux occured in 60% as early as in the first five minutes of the examination but later in the remaining 40%. The maximal reflux was found only in 26% during the first five minutes. The reflux volume exceeded in more than 50% the amount of 3.5 ml. The international grading corresponds with the reflux volume determined by this method. Radionuclide cystoureterography can be used as well in childhood as in adults. Because the radiaction exposure is low, the method can be recommended for the initial examination and for follow up studies. (Author)

  10. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  11. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    in a number work cases. These mainly falls in the three categories: (i) Description of coarse scale measures to quantify surface structure or texture (topography); (ii) Characterization of fracture surfaces in steels (fractography); (iii) Grain boundary segmentation in sintered ceramics. The...... theoretical foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the...

  12. Quantitative studies of multiphoton ionization using tunable VUV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage ring free electron laser makes studies of multiphoton ionization in the vacuum ultraviolet possible. At relatively low laser intensities one can study two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of atoms in a regime where perturbation theory works well. In this regime cross sections for the multiphoton processes can be measured accurately and then used for sensitive, quantitative detection of atoms. At higher intensities higher-order processes such as multiple ionization can take place. The tunability, variable pulse length, and well characterized spatial distribution of the FEL is important in unraveling the mechanisms of these processes

  13. Principles of Quantitative Estimation of the Chaperone-Like Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are able to interact with unfolded states of the protein molecule preventing their aggregation and facilitating folding of the polypeptide chain into the native structure. An understanding of the mechanism of protein aggregation is required to estimate the efficiency of action of chaperones in the test-systems based on the suppression of aggregation of protein substrates. The kinetic regimes of aggregation of proteins are discussed. The analysis of the aggregation kinetics of proteins shows that after passing the lag phase, aggregation follows, as a rule, first order kinetics. The quantitative characterization methods of the ability of chaperones to prevent aggregation of protein substrates have been elaborated.

  14. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Glaciated Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    The evolution of glaciated mountains is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics. Traditionally, the development of high summit elevations is attributed to tectonic processes. However, much of the high elevation of the Transantarctic Mountains can be attributed solely to uplift in response to glacial erosion (Stern et al., 2005). The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) provide an unparalleled opportunity to study glacial erosion. The mountain range has experienced glacial conditions since Oligocene time. In the higher and dryer regions of the TAM there is only a thin veneer of ice and snow draping the topography. In these regions landforms that were shaped during earlier climatic conditions are preserved. In fact, both glacial and fluvial landforms dating as far back as 18 Ma are preserved locally. In addition, the TAM are ideal for studying glacial erosion since the range has experienced minimal tectonic uplift since late Oligocene time, thus isolating the erosion signal from any tectonic signal. With the advent of digital data sets and GIS methodologies, quantitative analysis can identify key aspects of glaciated landscape morphology, and thus develop powerful analytical techniques for objective study of glaciation. Inspection of USGS topographic maps of the TAM reveals that mountain tops display an extreme range of glacial modification. For example, in the Mt. Rabot region (83°-84° S), mountain peaks are strongly affected by glaciation; cirque development is advanced with cirque diameters on the range of several kilometers, and cirque confluence has resulted in the formation of ``knife-edge'' arêtes up to 10 km long. In contrast, in the Mt. Murchison area (73°-74° S) cirque development is youthful, and there is minimal development of arêtes. Preliminary work indicates that analysis of DEM's and contour lines can be used to distinguish degree of glaciation. In particular, slope, curvature, and power spectrum analysis

  16. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice... comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative Messaging Research.'' All... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval) and is necessary to...

  17. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  18. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, 3052 (Australia)]|[Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

    1996-09-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  20. Development of Quantitative electron nano-diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is a step towards development of quantitative parallel beam electron nano-diffraction (PBED). It is focused on the superstructure determination of zig-zag and zig-zig NaxCoO2 and analysis of charge distribution in the two polymorphs Nb12O29 using PBED. It has been shown that quantitative

  1. Global quantitative predictions of complex laser dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczorek, S.; Simpson, T.; Krauskopf, B.; Lenstra, D.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative global agreement is reported between theory and experiment of an optically injected semiconductor laser over a large range of relevant injection parameter values. This constitutes a milestone in nonlinear dynamics and chaos modeling of semiconductor lasers as a quantitative science with local and global predictive power.

  2. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This book looks at quantitative research methods in education. The book is structured to start with chapters on conceptual issues and designing quantitative research studies before going on to data analysis. While each chapter can be studied separately, a better understanding will be reached by reading the book sequentially. This book is intended…

  4. A quantitative notion of redundancy for finite frames

    CERN Document Server

    Bodmann, Bernhard G; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the customary definition of redundancy by providing quantitative measures in its place, which we coin upper and lower redundancies, that match better with an intuitive understanding of redundancy for finite frames in a Hilbert space. This motivates a carefully chosen list of desired properties for upper and lower redundancies. The means to achieve these properties is to consider the maximum and minimum of a redundancy function, which is interesting in itself. The redundancy function is defined on the sphere of the Hilbert space and measures the concentration of frame vectors around each point. A complete characterization of functions on the sphere which coincide with a redundancy function for some frame is given. The upper and lower redundancies obtained from this function are shown to satisfy all of the intuitively desirable properties. In addition, the range of values they assume is characterized.

  5. Quantitative metagenomic analyses based on average genome size normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Jeremy Alexander; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Over the past quarter-century, microbiologists have used DNA sequence information to aid in the characterization of microbial communities. During the last decade, this has expanded from single genes to microbial community genomics, or metagenomics, in which the gene content of an environment can...... provide not just a census of the community members but direct information on metabolic capabilities and potential interactions among community members. Here we introduce a method for the quantitative characterization and comparison of microbial communities based on the normalization of metagenomic data...... by estimating average genome sizes. This normalization can relieve comparative biases introduced by differences in community structure, number of sequencing reads, and sequencing read lengths between different metagenomes. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by comparing metagenomes from two different...

  6. Identification and quantitation of signal molecule-dependent protein phosphorylation

    KAUST Repository

    Groen, Arnoud J.

    2013-09-03

    Phosphoproteomics is a fast-growing field that aims at characterizing phosphorylated proteins in a cell or a tissue at a given time. Phosphorylation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. Gel-free phosphoproteome technique involving enrichment of phosphopeptide coupled with mass spectrometry has proven to be invaluable to detect and characterize phosphorylated proteins. In this chapter, a gel-free quantitative approach involving 15N metabolic labelling in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide (TiO2) and their identification by MS is described. This workflow can be used to gain insights into the role of signalling molecules such as cyclic nucleotides on regulatory networks through the identification and quantification of responsive phospho(proteins). © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  7. A quantitative approach to evolution of music and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new statistical and computational methods is increasingly making it possible to bridge the gap between hard sciences and humanities. In this study, we propose an approach based on a quantitative evaluation of attributes of objects in fields of humanities, from which concepts such as dialectics and opposition are formally defined mathematically. As case studies, we analyzed the temporal evolution of classical music and philosophy by obtaining data for 8 features characterizing the corresponding fields for 7 well-known composers and philosophers, which were treated with multivariate statistics and pattern recognition methods. A bootstrap method was applied to avoid statistical bias caused by the small sample data set, with which hundreds of artificial composers and philosophers were generated, influenced by the 7 names originally chosen. Upon defining indices for opposition, skewness and counter-dialectics, we confirmed the intuitive analysis of historians in that classical music evolved according to a master–apprentice tradition, while in philosophy changes were driven by opposition. Though these case studies were meant only to show the possibility of treating phenomena in humanities quantitatively, including a quantitative measure of concepts such as dialectics and opposition, the results are encouraging for further application of the approach presented here to many other areas, since it is entirely generic. (paper)

  8. A quantitative approach to evolution of music and philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Travieso, Gonzalo; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The development of new statistical and computational methods is increasingly making it possible to bridge the gap between hard sciences and humanities. In this study, we propose an approach based on a quantitative evaluation of attributes of objects in fields of humanities, from which concepts such as dialectics and opposition are formally defined mathematically. As case studies, we analyzed the temporal evolution of classical music and philosophy by obtaining data for 8 features characterizing the corresponding fields for 7 well-known composers and philosophers, which were treated with multivariate statistics and pattern recognition methods. A bootstrap method was applied to avoid statistical bias caused by the small sample data set, with which hundreds of artificial composers and philosophers were generated, influenced by the 7 names originally chosen. Upon defining indices for opposition, skewness and counter-dialectics, we confirmed the intuitive analysis of historians in that classical music evolved according to a master-apprentice tradition, while in philosophy changes were driven by opposition. Though these case studies were meant only to show the possibility of treating phenomena in humanities quantitatively, including a quantitative measure of concepts such as dialectics and opposition, the results are encouraging for further application of the approach presented here to many other areas, since it is entirely generic.

  9. Facegram - Objective quantitative analysis in facial reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerós, Ana; Horta, Ricardo; Aguiar, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of effectiveness in reconstructive plastic surgery has become an increasingly important asset in comparing and choosing the most suitable medical procedure to handle facial disfigurement. Unfortunately, traditional methods to assess the results of surgical interventions are mostly qualitative and lack information about movement dynamics. Along with this, the few existing methodologies tailored to objectively quantify surgery results are not practical in the medical field due to constraints in terms of cost, complexity and poor suitability to clinical environment. These limitations enforce an urgent need for the creation of a new system to quantify facial movement and allow for an easy interpretation by medical experts. With this in mind, we present here a novel method capable of quantitatively and objectively assess complex facial movements, using a set of morphological, static and dynamic measurements. For this purpose, RGB-D cameras are used to acquire both color and depth images, and a modified block matching algorithm, combining depth and color information, was developed to track the position of anatomical landmarks of interest. The algorithms are integrated into a user-friendly graphical interface and the analysis outcomes are organized into an innovative medical tool, named facegram. This system was developed in close collaboration with plastic surgeons and the methods were validated using control subjects and patients with facial paralysis. The system was shown to provide useful and detailed quantitative information (static and dynamic) making it an appropriate solution for objective quantitative characterization of facial movement in a clinical environment. PMID:26994664

  10. Quantitative epistasis analysis and pathway inference from genetic interaction data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Phenix

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Inferring regulatory and metabolic network models from quantitative genetic interaction data remains a major challenge in systems biology. Here, we present a novel quantitative model for interpreting epistasis within pathways responding to an external signal. The model provides the basis of an experimental method to determine the architecture of such pathways, and establishes a new set of rules to infer the order of genes within them. The method also allows the extraction of quantitative parameters enabling a new level of information to be added to genetic network models. It is applicable to any system where the impact of combinatorial loss-of-function mutations can be quantified with sufficient accuracy. We test the method by conducting a systematic analysis of a thoroughly characterized eukaryotic gene network, the galactose utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For this purpose, we quantify the effects of single and double gene deletions on two phenotypic traits, fitness and reporter gene expression. We show that applying our method to fitness traits reveals the order of metabolic enzymes and the effects of accumulating metabolic intermediates. Conversely, the analysis of expression traits reveals the order of transcriptional regulatory genes, secondary regulatory signals and their relative strength. Strikingly, when the analyses of the two traits are combined, the method correctly infers ~80% of the known relationships without any false positives.

  11. Brain microstructure mapping using quantitative and diffusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is focused on the human brain microstructure mapping using quantitative and diffusion MRI. The T1/T2 quantitative imaging relies on sequences dedicated to the mapping of T1 and T2 relaxation times. Their variations within the tissue are linked to the presence of different water compartments defined by a specific organization of the tissue at the cell scale. Measuring these parameters can help, therefore, to better characterize the brain microstructure. The dMRI, on the other hand, explores the brownian motion of water molecules in the brain tissue, where the water molecules' movement is constrained by natural barriers, such as cell membranes. Thus, the information on their displacement carried by the dMRI signal gives access to the underlying cyto-architecture. Combination of these two modalities is, therefore, a promising way to probe the brain tissue microstructure. The main goal of the present thesis is to set up the methodology to study the microstructure of the white matter of the human brain in vivo. The first part includes the acquisition of a unique MRI database of 79 healthy subjects (the Archi/CONNECT), which includes anatomical high resolution data, relaxometry data, diffusion-weighted data at high spatio-angular resolution and functional data. This database has allowed us to build the first atlas of the anatomical connectivity of the healthy brain through the automatic segmentation of the major white matter bundles, providing an appropriate anatomical reference for the white matter to study individually the quantitative parameters along each fascicle, characterizing its microstructure organization. Emphasis was placed on the construction of the first atlas of the T1/T2 profiles along the major white matter pathways. The profiles of the T1 and T2 relaxation times were then correlated to the quantitative profiles computed from the diffusion MRI data (fractional anisotropy, radial and longitudinal diffusivities, apparent diffusion coefficient

  12. Novel approach in quantitative analysis of shearography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of laser interferometry in industrial non-destructive testing and material characterization is becoming more prevalent since this method provides non-contact full-field inspection of the test object. However their application only limited to the qualitative analysis, current trend has changed to the development of this method by the introduction of quantitative analysis, which attempts to detail the defect examined. This being the design feature for a ranges of object size to be examined. The growing commercial demand for quantitative analysis for NDT and material characterization is determining the quality of optical and analysis instrument. However very little attention is currently being paid to understanding, quantifying and compensating for the numerous error sources which are a function of interferometers. This paper presents a comparison of measurement analysis using the established theoretical approach and the new approach, taken into account the factor of divergence illumination and other geometrical factors. The difference in the measurement system could be associated in the error factor. (Author)

  13. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies

  14. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  15. Quantitative Analysis in Multimodality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET offers the possibility of truly quantitative (physiological) measurements of tracer concentration in vivo. However, there are several issues limiting both visual qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis capabilities of reconstructed PET images that must be considered in order to fully realize this potential. The major challenges to quantitative PET can be categorized in 5 classes: (i) factors related to imaging system performance and data acquisition protocols (instrumentation and measurement factors), (ii) those related to the physics of photon interaction with biologic tissues (physical factors), (iii) image reconstruction (reconstruction factors), (iv) factors related to patient motion and other physiological issues (physiological factors), and (v) Methodological factors: issues related to difficulties in developing accurate tracer kinetic models, especially at the voxel level. This paper reflects the tremendous increase in interest in quantitative molecular imaging using PET as both clinical and research imaging modality in the past decade. It offers an overview of the entire range of quantitative PET imaging from basic principles to various steps required for obtaining quantitatively accurate data from dedicated standalone PET and combined PET/CT and PET/MR systems including data collection methods and algorithms used to correct for physical degrading factors as well as image processing and analysis techniques and their clinical and research applications. Impact of physical degrading factors including attenuation of photons and contribution from photons scattered in the patient and partial volume effect on the diagnostic quality and quantitative accuracy of PET data will be discussed. Considerable advances have been made and much worthwhile research focused on the development of quantitative imaging protocols incorporating accurate data correction techniques and sophisticated image reconstruction algorithms. The fundamental concepts of

  16. Bone status in rheumatoid arthritis assessed at peripheral sites by three different quantitative ultrasound devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, O R; Suetta, C; Egsmose, C;

    2004-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by periarticular and generalized loss of bone mass. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been introduced as a method for the assessment of bone status and fracture risk. In this cross-sectional study bone status was assessed by QUS at different peripheral...

  17. Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Fontana; Adele Cutignano; Angela Sardo; Giuliana d'Ippolito; Carmela Gallo; Genoveffa Nuzzo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consist...

  18. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk

  19. Quantitative determination of uranium by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of quantitative measurements of uranium-238 by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with using alpha spectrometry as well as complementary technique. Samples with specific activity of uranium-238 were prepared by electrodeposition from aqueous solution of UO2(NO3)2·6H2O. We tried to apply SIMS to quantitative analysis and search for correlation between intensity obtained from SIMS and activity of uranium-238 in dependence on the surface's weight and possibility of using SIMS in quantitative analysis of environmental samples. The obtained results and correlations as well as results of two real samples measurements are presented in this paper. (authors)

  20. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  1. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Rachathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  2. Biological and serological characterization of the C-type RNA viruses isolated from the C57BL/Ka strain of mice; 1. Influence of some chemical and physical agents on the quantitation of murine C-type RNA viruses in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments reveal that several factors such as cell growth rate, initial cell number, adsorption time, thermal inactivation, UV and X-ray inactivation, and X-ray or IUdR treatment of host cells all exert significant effects on murine C-type RNA virus growth and quantitation in cell cultures in vitro. These data have firmly established the basis of the assay systems developed by the authors and now commonly used in biological studies on virus isolates from the C57BL/Ka strain of mice. The RadLV was used in this strain of mice to render the BL/Ka(6) isolates

  3. A novel proteomic biomarker panel as a diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that the proteomic markers apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-alpha trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin, connective-tissue activating protein 3 and beta-2 microglobulin may discriminate between a benign pelvic mass and ovarian cancer (OC). The aim...

  4. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper;

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumi...

  5. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P;

    1991-01-01

    two anti-beta 2-microglobulin mAb had variable, weak effects. The aggregation response was an active, temperature-sensitive process which was almost totally abrogated by azide and by cytochalasins B and E, but unaffected by colchicine, EDTA, aphidicolin, actinomycin D and protein tyrosine kinase...

  6. Understanding Pre-Quantitative Risk in Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2011-01-01

    Standard approaches to risk management in projects depend on the ability of teams to identify risks and quantify the probabilities and consequences of these risks (e.g., the 5 x 5 risk matrix). However, long before quantification does - or even can - occur, and long after, teams make decisions based on their pre-quantitative understanding of risk. These decisions can have long-lasting impacts on the project. While significant research has looked at the process of how to quantify risk, our understanding of how teams conceive of and manage pre-quantitative risk is lacking. This paper introduces the concept of pre-quantitative risk and discusses the implications of addressing pre-quantitative risk in projects.

  7. Electronic Noses Using Quantitative Artificial Neural Networ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present paper covers a new type of electronic nose(e-nose) with a four-sensor array,which has been applied to detecting gases quantitatively in the presence of interference. This e-nose has adapted fundamental aspects of relative error(RE) in changing quantitative analysis into the artificial neural network (ANN).. Thus, both the quantitative and the qualitative requirements for ANN in implementing e-nose can be satisfied. In addition, the e-nose uses only 4 sensors in the sensor array, and can be designed for different usages simply by changing one or two sensor(s). Various gases were tested by this kind of e-nose, including alcohol vapor, CO, liquefied-petrol-gas and CO2. Satisfactory quantitative results were obtained and no qualitative mistake in prediction was observed for the samples being mixed with interference gases.

  8. Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-05-06

    This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

  9. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, during the period January 15, 1989 through July 15, 1991. This program is very closely integrated with the radiopharmaceutical program entitled Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science. Together, they constitute the PROGRAM OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND QUANTITATIVE IMAGING RESEARCH within The Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute (FMI). The program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology that underlie the physical and conceptual tools of radiotracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 234 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of durable glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerweather, William E; Eastes, Walter; Cereghini, Francesco; Hadley, John G

    2002-06-01

    This article presents a quantitative risk assessment for the theoretical lifetime cancer risk from the manufacture and use of relatively durable synthetic glass fibers. More specifically, we estimate levels of exposure to respirable fibers or fiberlike structures of E-glass and C-glass that, assuming a working lifetime exposure, pose a theoretical lifetime cancer risk of not more than 1 per 100,000. For comparability with other risk assessments we define these levels as nonsignificant exposures. Nonsignificant exposure levels are estimated from (a) the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable E-glass microfibers, and (b) the Research Consulting Company (RCC) chronic inhalation bioassay of durable refractory ceramic fibers (RCF). Best estimates of nonsignificant E-glass exposure exceed 0.05-0.13 fibers (or shards) per cubic centimeter (cm3) when calculated from the multistage nonthreshold model. Best estimates of nonsignificant C-glass exposure exceed 0.27-0.6 fibers/cm3. Estimates of nonsignificant exposure increase markedly for E- and C-glass when non-linear models are applied and rapidly exceed 1 fiber/cm3. Controlling durable fiber exposures to an 8-h time-weighted average of 0.05 fibers/cm3 will assure that the additional theoretical lifetime risk from working lifetime exposures to these durable fibers or shards is kept below the 1 per 100,000 level. Measured airborne exposures to respirable, durable glass fibers (or shards) in glass fiber manufacturing and fabrication operations were compared with the nonsignificant exposure estimates described. Sampling results for B-sized respirable E-glass fibers at facilities that manufacture or fabricate small-diameter continuous-filament products, from those that manufacture respirable E-glass shards from PERG (process to efficiently recycle glass), from milled fiber operations, and from respirable C-glass shards from Flakeglass operations indicate very low median exposures of 0

  11. Quantitative analysis of learning object repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, Xavier; Duval, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This paper conducts the first detailed quantitative study of the process of publication of learning objects in repositories. This process has been often discussed theoretically, but never empirically evaluated. Several question related to basic characteristics of the publication process are raised at the beginning of the paper and answered through quantitative analysis. To provide a wide view of the publication process, this paper analyzes four types of repositories: Learning Object Repositor...

  12. The SAGE Dictionary of Quantitative Management Research

    CERN Document Server

    Moutinho, Professor Luiz A M

    2011-01-01

    A must-have reference resource for quantitative management researchers, the Dictionary contains over 100 entries covering the fundamentals of quantitative methodologies; covering both analysis and implementation and examples of use, as well as detailed graphics to aid understanding. Every entry features: -An introduction to the topic, -Key relevant features, -A worked example, -A concise summary and a selection of further reading suggestions -Cross-references to associated concepts within the dictionary

  13. Quantitative analysis of learning object repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa X.; Duval E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts the first detailed quantitative study of the process of publication of learning objects in repositories. This process has been often discussed theoretically, but never empirically evaluated. Several question related to basic characteristics of the publication process are raised at the beginning of the paper and answered through quantitative analysis. To provide a wide view of the publication process, this paper analyzes four types of repositories: Learning Object Repositor...

  14. A Quantitative Theory of Credit Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan Tam; Eric Young; Kartik Athreya

    2013-01-01

    Starting in the early 1990s credit scoring became widespread and central in credit granting decisions. Credit scores are scalar representations of default risk. They are used, in turn, to price credit, and as a result alter household borrowing and default decisions. We build on recent work on defaultable consumer credit under asymmetric information to develop a quantitative theory of credit scores. We construct and solve a rich and quantitatively-disciplined lifecycle model of consumption in ...

  15. Quantitative Methods in Psychology: Inevitable and Useless

    OpenAIRE

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantit...

  16. Quantitative phase microscopy with asynchronous digital holography

    OpenAIRE

    Chalut, Kevin J.; Brown, William J.; Wax, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method of measuring quantitative phase in imaging of biological materials. This method, asynchronous digital holography, employs knowledge of a moving fringe created by acousto-optic modulators to execute phase-shifting interferometry using two near-simultaneous interferograms. The method can be used to obtain quantitative phase images of dynamic biological samples on millisecond time scales. We present results on a standard sample, and on live cell samples.

  17. Quantitative phase-contrast confocal microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Changgeng; Marchesini, Stefano; Kim, Myung K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative phase-contrast confocal microscope (QPCCM) by combining a line-scanning confocal system with digital holography (DH). This combination can merge the merits of these two different imaging modalities. High-contrast intensity images with low coherent noise, and the optical sectioning capability are made available due to the confocality. Phase profiles of the samples become accessible thanks to DH. QPCCM is able to quantitatively measure the phase variations of optical s...

  18. White-light Quantitative Phase Imaging Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, YoonSeok; Lee, KyeoReh; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the white light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effec...

  19. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.

  20. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  1. Transducer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For inservice inspection transducer characterization can be an important item if one wants to compare ultrasonic examination data obtained at different times (fingerprint). It is possible that the transducers used during previous examinations are lost or will become defect. In such a case it is most useful if one can check the characteristics of the replacement transducers. Some time ago an elegant characterization method was developed by the EURATOM Joint Research Centre of Ispra based on liquid crystals. This method is now under development at Neratoom and the results so far indicate that a robust characterization rig can be built at a reasonable price

  2. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing quantitative lung parenchyma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Samantha K N; Uthoff, Johanna; Judisch, Alexandra; Hammond, Emily; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian J; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for determining pulmonary nodule malignancy characterize nodule shape, density, and border in computed tomography (CT) data. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved nodule classification is achievable by including features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. To explore this hypothesis, we have developed expanded quantitative CT feature extraction techniques, including volumetric Laws texture energy measures for the parenchyma and nodule, border descriptors using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening, histogram features characterizing densities, and global lung measurements. Using stepwise forward selection and leave-one-case-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. When applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant and 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans, 52 features (8 nodule, 39 parenchymal, and 5 global) were statistically significant. Nodule-only features yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.918 (including nodule size) and 0.872 (excluding nodule size). Performance was improved through inclusion of parenchymal (0.938) and global features (0.932). These results show a trend toward increased performance when the parenchyma is included, coupled with the large number of significant parenchymal features that support our hypothesis: the pulmonary parenchyma is influenced differentially by malignant versus benign nodules, assisting CAD-based nodule characterizations. PMID:26870744

  3. Quantitative shrinking target properties for rotations and interval exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Chaika, Jon; Constantine, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative shrinking target results for rotations and interval exchange transformations. To do this a quantitative version of a unique ergodicity criterion of Boshernitzan is established.

  4. Interferometric time-stretch microscopy for ultrafast quantitative cellular and tissue imaging at 1 μm

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, KSA; Ho, KYK; Tang, MTH; Wei, X; Wong, TTW; Chan, ACS; Lam, EYM; Shum, HC; Wong, KKY; Tsia, KKM

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has been proven to be a powerful tool for label-free characterization of biological specimens. However, the imaging speed, largely limited by the image sensor technology, impedes its utility in applications where high-throughput screening and efficient big-data analysis are mandated. We here demonstrate interferometric time-stretch (iTS) microscopy for delivering ultrafast quantitative phase cellular and tissue imaging at an imaging line-scan rate >20 MHz-orde...

  5. Analytical nondestructive evaluation for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science and technology of nondestructive testing and evaluation has contributed immensely to the safety and productivity of industrial plants. In recent years, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has emerged as a frontline research area of equal if not greater technological relevance, for materials characterization as well. A comprehensive range of techniques from qualitative nondestructive testing for quality control of engineering products and materials to quantitative NDE for materials characterization is being used by the engineering industry and materials researchers, for better understanding of the manufacturing practices and materials behaviour. Quantitative NDE is considered essential for ensuring fitness for purpose at the start of the life in case the component has been designed using fracture mechanics parameters. Quantitative NDE is also vital for assessing degradation of material during service. Moreover, quantitative NDE enables characterization of dynamics of certain phenomenon (not achievable by destructive test methodologies) leading to better understanding of the performance of materials in relation to unavoidable defects in the materials. As the next logical step, the need for an analytical approach to NDE is felt. The need and motivation for such an approach is addressed and the means to achieve this objective are identified. It is argued that analytical NDE is essential to meet the challenges of characterization, intelligent processing of materials and life prediction of components and plants. These requirements are of significant importance in the context of recent developments in materials engineering, and for enhancing the competitive advantage of Indian engineering industry in the international market. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. Neurophysiological characterization of persistent postthoracotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, Thomas Kamm; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Ravn, Jesper; Werner, Mads Utke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) has a prevalence of 30% to 40%. Although intraoperative nerve damage during thoracotomy has been demonstrated, it has not been clearly linked to PTPS and detailed quantitative sensory characterization data have so far not been presented, comparing PTPS and...

  7. Radiological characterization of nuclear plants under decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work a description of major problems encountered in qualitative and quantitative radiological characterization of nuclear plants for decommissioning and decontamination purpose is presented. Referring to several nuclear plant classes activation and contamination processes, direct and indirect radiological analysis and some italian significant experience are descripted

  8. Will Quantitative Proteomics Redefine Some of the Key Concepts in Skeletal Muscle Physiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gizak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and cellular biology methodology is traditionally based on the reasoning called “the mechanistic explanation”. In practice, this means identifying and selecting correlations between biological processes which result from our manipulation of a biological system. In theory, a successful application of this approach requires precise knowledge about all parameters of a studied system. However, in practice, due to the systems’ complexity, this requirement is rarely, if ever, accomplished. Typically, it is limited to a quantitative or semi-quantitative measurements of selected parameters (e.g., concentrations of some metabolites, and a qualitative or semi-quantitative description of expression/post-translational modifications changes within selected proteins. A quantitative proteomics approach gives a possibility of quantitative characterization of the entire proteome of a biological system, in the context of the titer of proteins as well as their post-translational modifications. This enables not only more accurate testing of novel hypotheses but also provides tools that can be used to verify some of the most fundamental dogmas of modern biology. In this short review, we discuss some of the consequences of using quantitative proteomics to verify several key concepts in skeletal muscle physiology.

  9. A study of the 42CrMo4 steel surface by quantitative XPS electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flori, M. [' Politehnica' University of Timisoara, Faculty of Engineering of Hunedoara, Str. Revolutiei, No. 5, 331128 Hunedoara (Romania)], E-mail: flori.mihaela@fih.upt.ro; Gruzza, B.; Bideux, L.; Monier, G.; Robert-Goumet, C. [LASMEA, UMR CNRS 6602, Blaise Pascal University, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2008-05-30

    Quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the native oxide film formed on 42CrMo4 steel surface by air exposure in normal conditions. In order to determine the thickness and composition of the oxide layer we have used a stacking layer model together with experimental XPS sputtering depth profiling. At a nanoscale study, to obtain quantitative results one must take into account fundamental parameters like the attenuation depth of photoelectrons. We have found that both lepidocrocit ({gamma}-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were present and the total thickness of the oxide layer was 16 monolayers.

  10. A study of the 42CrMo4 steel surface by quantitative XPS electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, M.; Gruzza, B.; Bideux, L.; Monier, G.; Robert-Goumet, C.

    2008-05-01

    Quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the native oxide film formed on 42CrMo4 steel surface by air exposure in normal conditions. In order to determine the thickness and composition of the oxide layer we have used a stacking layer model together with experimental XPS sputtering depth profiling. At a nanoscale study, to obtain quantitative results one must take into account fundamental parameters like the attenuation depth of photoelectrons. We have found that both lepidocrocit (γ-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe 3O 4) were present and the total thickness of the oxide layer was 16 monolayers.

  11. Quantitative analysis of the secretion of the MCP family of chemokines by muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    by other tissues are still very limited. In order to comprehensively characterize the low abundant low molecular weight secreted proteins during the course of muscle differentiation we used a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy. The application of the triple encoding Stable Isotope Labeling...... by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) method for quantitative analysis resulted in the identification and generation of quantitative profiles of 59 growth factors and cytokines, including 9 classical chemokines. The members of the CC chemokine family of proteins such as monocyte chemotactic proteins...

  12. Photon-tissue interaction model for quantitative assessment of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup; Lloyd, William R.; Wilson, Robert H.; Chandra, Malavika; McKenna, Barbara; Simeone, Diane; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we describe a direct fit photon-tissue interaction model to quantitatively analyze reflectance spectra of biological tissue samples. The model rapidly extracts biologically-relevant parameters associated with tissue optical scattering and absorption. This model was employed to analyze reflectance spectra acquired from freshly excised human pancreatic pre-cancerous tissues (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), a common precursor lesion to pancreatic cancer). Compared to previously reported models, the direct fit model improved fit accuracy and speed. Thus, these results suggest that such models could serve as real-time, quantitative tools to characterize biological tissues assessed with reflectance spectroscopy.

  13. Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Praveen Kumar; Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Jayaraman, Varshini; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Most living cells are optically transparent which makes it difficult to visualize them under bright field microscopy. Use of contrast agents or markers and staining procedures are often followed to observe these cells. However, most of these staining agents are toxic and not applicable for live cell imaging. In the last decade, quantitative phase imaging has become an indispensable tool for morphological characterization of the phase objects without any markers. In this paper, we report noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging of live sperm cells by solving transport of intensity equations with recorded intensity measurements along optical axis on a commercial bright field microscope.

  14. In-vivo quantitative T2 mapping of carotid arteries in atherosclerotic patients: segmentation and T2 measurement of plaque components

    OpenAIRE

    Biasiolli, Luca; Lindsay, Alistair C.; Chai, Joshua T.; Choudhury, Robin P.; Robson, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries can be characterized in-vivo by multicontrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), which has been thoroughly validated with histology. However, the non-quantitative nature of multicontrast CMR and the need for extensive post-acquisition interpretation limit the widespread clinical application of in-vivo CMR plaque characterization. Quantitative T2 mapping is a promising alternative since it can provide absolute physical measurements o...

  15. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis. PMID:26047997

  16. White-light Quantitative Phase Imaging Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, YoonSeok; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the white light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effective and user-friendly use of QPI. The validity and capacity of the presented method are demonstrated by measuring quantitative phase images of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, HeLa cells and mouse white blood cells. With speckle-free imaging capability due to the use of white-light illumination, the WQPIU is expected to expand the scope of QPI in biological sciences as a powerful but simple imaging tool.

  17. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  18. Proteome-Wide Quantitation by SILAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing improvements in instrumentation, fractionation techniques, and enrichment procedures have dramatically increased the coverage of the proteome achievable via LC-MS/MS-based methodologies, opening the call for approaches to quantitatively assess differences at a proteome-wide scale. Stable...... isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) has emerged as a powerful and versatile approach for proteome-wide quantitation by mass spectrometry. SILAC utilizes the cells' own metabolism to incorporate isotopically labeled amino acids into its proteome which can be mixed with the proteome of...... detailed procedure for performing SILAC-based experiment for proteome-wide quantitation, including a protocol for optimizing SILAC labeling. We also provide an update on the most recent developments of this technique....

  19. Quantitation of camptothecin and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, M; Sissi, C; Gatto, B; Moro, S; Zagotto, G

    2001-11-25

    Camptothecin and congeners represent a clinically very useful class of anticancer agents. Proper identification and quantitation of the original compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids is fundamental to assess drug metabolism and distribution in animals and in man. In this paper we will review the recent literature available on the methods used for separation and quantitative determination of the camptothecin family of drugs. Complications arise from the fact that they are chemically labile, and the pharmacologically active lactone structure can undergo ring opening at physiological conditions. In addition, a number of metabolic changes usually occur, producing a variety of active or inactive metabolites. Hence, the conditions of extraction, pre-treatment and quantitative analysis are to be carefully calibrated in order to provide meaningful results. PMID:11817024

  20. White-light quantitative phase imaging unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, YoonSeok; Lee, KyeoReh; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the white light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effective and user-friendly use of QPI. The validity and capacity of the presented method are demonstrated by measuring quantitative phase images of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, HeLa cells and mouse white blood cells. With speckle-free imaging capability due to the use of white-light illumination, the WQPIU is expected to expand the scope of QPI in biological sciences as a powerful but simple imaging tool.