WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta-tubulin regions defined

  1. Paclitaxel-resistant cells have a mutation in the paclitaxel-binding region of beta-tubulin (Asp26Glu) and less stable microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Malathi; Loganzo, Frank; Annable, Tami; Tan, Xingzhi; Musto, Sylvia; Morilla, Daniel B; Nettles, James H; Snyder, James P; Greenberger, Lee M

    2006-02-01

    Resistance to paclitaxel-based therapy is frequently encountered in the clinic. The mechanisms of intrinsic or acquired paclitaxel resistance are not well understood. We sought to characterize the resistance mechanisms that develop upon chronic exposure of a cancer cell line to paclitaxel in the presence of the P-glycoprotein reversal agent, CL-347099. The epidermoid tumor line KB-3-1 was exposed to increasing concentrations of paclitaxel and 5 micromol/L CL-347099 for up to 1 year. Cells grown in 15 nmol/L paclitaxel plus CL-347099 (KB-15-PTX/099) developed 18-fold resistance to paclitaxel and were dependent upon paclitaxel for maximal growth. They grew well and retained resistance to paclitaxel when grown in athymic mice. Cross-resistance (3- to 5-fold) was observed in tissue culture to docetaxel, the novel taxane MAC-321, and epothilone B. Collateral sensitivity (approximately 3-fold) was observed to the depolymerizing agents vinblastine, dolastatin-10, and HTI-286. KB-15-PTX/099-resistant cells did not overexpress P-glycoprotein nor did they have an alteration of [14C]paclitaxel accumulation compared with parental cells. However, a novel point mutation (T to A) resulting in Asp26 to glutamate substitution in class I (M40) beta-tubulin was found. Based on an electron crystallography structure of Zn-stabilized tubulin sheets, the phenyl ring of C-3' NHCO-C6H5 of paclitaxel makes contact with Asp26 of beta-tubulin, suggesting a ligand-induced mutation. Optimized model complexes of paclitaxel, docetaxel, and MAC-321 in beta-tubulin show a novel hydrogen bonding pattern for the glutamate mutant and rationalize the observed resistance profiles. However, a mutation in the paclitaxel binding pocket does not explain the phenotype completely. KB-15-PTX/099 cells have impaired microtubule stability as determined by a reduced percentage of tubulin in microtubules and reflected by less acetylated tubulin. These results suggest that a mutation in tubulin might affect

  2. Efficient gusA Transient Expression in Porphyra yezoensis Protoplasts Mediated by Endogenous Beta-tubulin Flanking Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qianhong; YU Wengong; DAI Jixun; LIU Hongquan; XU Rifu; GUAN Huashi; PAN Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are tmknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'- and 3'-flanking regions (Tub5'and Tub3') up- and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA), respectively,into pA, a derivative of pCAT(R)3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3 '. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35 S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  3. Efficient gusA transient expression in Porphyra yezoensis protoplasts mediated by endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong; Dai, Jixun; Liu, Hongquan; Xu, Rifu; Guan, Huashi; Pan, Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are unknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'-and 3'-flanking regions ( Tub5' and Tub3') up-and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( gusA), respectively, into pA, a derivative of pCAT®3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3'. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  4. Phosphorylation of a neuronal-specific beta-tubulin isotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult rats were intracraneally injected with [32P] phosphate and brain microtubules isolated. The electrophoretically purified, in vivo phospholabeled, beta-tubulin was digested with the V8-protease and the labeled peptide purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Its amino acid sequence corresponds to the COOH-terminal sequence of a minor neuronal beta 3-tubulin isoform from chicken and human. The phosphorylation site was at serine 444. A synthetic peptide with sequence EMYEDDEEESESQGPK, corresponding to that of the COOH terminus of beta 3-tubulin, was efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase II at the same serine 444. The functional meaning of tubulin phosphorylation is still unclear. However, the modification of the protein takes place after microtubule assembly, and phosphorylated tubulin is mainly present in the assembled microtubule protein fraction

  5. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in dermatomycete genus Trichophyton Malmsten 1848 based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, partial 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pchelin, Ivan M; Zlatogursky, Vasily V; Rudneva, Mariya V; Chilina, Galina A; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Lavnikevich, Dmitry M; Vasilyeva, Natalya V; Taraskina, Anastasia E

    2016-09-01

    Trichophyton spp. are important causative agents of superficial mycoses. The phylogeny of the genus and accurate strain identification, based on the ribosomal ITS region sequencing, are still under development. The present work is aimed at (i) inferring the genus phylogeny from partial ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences (ii) description of ribosomal ITS region polymorphism in 15 strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. We performed DNA sequence-based species identification and phylogenetic analysis on 48 strains belonging to the genus Trichophyton. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods on concatenated ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences. Ribosomal ITS region polymorphisms were assessed directly on the alignment. By phylogenetic reconstruction, we reveal major anthropophilic and zoophilic species clusters in the genus Trichophyton. We describe several sequences of the ITS region of T. interdigitale, which do not fit in the traditional polymorphism scheme and propose emendations in this scheme for discrimination between ITS sequence types in T. interdigitale. The new polymorphism scheme will allow inclusion of a wider spectrum of isolates while retaining its explanatory power. This scheme was also found to be partially congruent with NTS typing technique. PMID:27071492

  6. Isolation, characterization, and expression of a second beta-tubulin-encoding gene from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.

    OpenAIRE

    Buhr, T L; Dickman, M B

    1994-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene is a fungal plant pathogen of Aeschynomene virginica. A beta-tubulin-encoding gene (TUB2) from this pathogen was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of TUB2 had a high degree of homology to other fungal beta-tubulins. A portion of TUB2 from a benomyl-resistant C. gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene mutant was also cloned and sequenced. A point mutation resulting in a glutamic acid-to-lysine substitution at amino acid 198 lik...

  7. Identification of three coated vesicle components as alpha- and beta- tubulin linked to a phosphorylated 50,000-dalton polypeptide

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Coated vesicles are involved in the intracellular transport of membrane proteins between a variety of membrane compartments. The coats of bovine brain coated vesicles contain at least six polypeptides in addition to an 180,000-dalton polypeptide called clathrin. In this report we show that the 54,000- and 56,000-dalton coated vesicle polypeptides are alpha- and beta-tubulin, determined by immunoblotting and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An affinity-purified tubulin antiserum can precip...

  8. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. PMID:27156446

  9. Beta tubulin isoforms are not interchangeable for rescuing impaired radial migration due to Tubb3 knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillour, Yoann; Broix, Loïc; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Lebrun, Nicolas; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rucci, Julien; Poirier, Karine; Belvindrah, Richard; Francis, Fiona; Chelly, Jamel

    2014-03-15

    Over the last years, the critical role of cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development including neuronal migration as well as in neuronal morphology has been well established. Inputs from genetic studies were provided through the identification of several mutated genes encoding either proteins associated with microtubules (DCX, LIS1, KIF2A, KIF5C, DYNC1H1) or tubulin subunits (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB5 and TUBG1), in malformations of cortical development (MCD). We also reported the identification of missense mutations in TUBB3, the postmitotic neuronal specific tubulin, in six different families presenting either polymicrogyria or gyral disorganization in combination with cerebellar and basal ganglial abnormalities. Here, we investigate further the association between TUBB3 mutations and MCDs by analyzing the consequences of Tubb3 knockdown on cortical development in mice. Using the in utero-electroporation approach, we demonstrate that Tubb3 knockdown leads to delayed bipolar morphology and radial migration with evidence, suggesting that the neuronal arrest is a transient phenomenon overcome after birth. Silenced blocked cells display a round-shape and decreased number of processes and a delay in the acquisition of the bipolar morphology. Also, more Tbr2 positive cells are observed, although less cells express the proliferation marker Ki67, suggesting that Tubb3 inactivation might have an indirect effect on intermediate progenitor proliferation. Furthermore, we show by rescue experiments the non-interchangeability of other beta-tubulins which are unable to rescue the phenotype. Our study highlights the critical and specific role of Tubb3 on the stereotyped morphological changes and polarization processes that are required for initiating radial migration to the cortical plate. PMID:24179174

  10. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  11. Development a diagnostic pan-dermatophyte TaqMan probe real-time PCR assay based on beta tubulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Motamedi, Marjan; Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    Early differentiation of dermatophytosis from other cutaneous mycoses is essential to avoid inaccurate therapy. DNA-based techniques including real-time PCR have increasingly been considered for detection of fungal elements in clinical specimens. In this study, after partial sequence analysis of beta tubulin (BT2) gene in 13 common and rare pathogenic dermatophyte species, a pan-dermatophyte primer and probe set was designed in a TaqMan probe-based PCR format. The sensitivity and specificity of the system was tested with 22 reference strains of dermatophytes, 234 positive clinical specimens, 32 DNA samples extracted from normal nails, several fungi other than dermatophytes and human DNAs. Analytical detection limit of the designed PCR on serially diluted DNAs of prepared recombinant plasmid indicated that only five molecules per sample are the minimum number for reliable detection by the assay. A total of 226 out of 234 (96.5%) DNAs extracted from clinical samples, but none of the 32 nail samples, from healthy volunteers were positive in PCR. The real-time PCR targeted beta tubulin gene established in this study could be a sensitive diagnostic tool which is significantly faster than the conventional culture method and should be useful in the clinical settings, in large-scale epidemiological studies and in clinical trials of antifungal therapy. PMID:27071371

  12. Preventing an identity crisis: unexpected co-expression of class III beta-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in human fetal astrocytes in culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Dráberová, Eduarda; Del Valle, L.; Bertrand, L.; Agamanolis, D.P.; de Chadarévian, J.-P.; Legido, A.; Dráber, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 11 (2007), s. 107-107. ISSN 0364-5134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GA204/05/2375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : class III beta-tubulin * fetal glia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Genetic polymorphism of the beta-tubulin gene of Onchocerca volvulus in ivermectin naive patients from Cameroon, and its relationship with fertility of the worms

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguinat, C.; Pion, Sébastien; Kamgno, J.; Gardon, Jacques; Gardon Wendel, N.; Duke, B.O.L.; Prichard, R. K.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Observations of low response of patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus to ivermectin suggest that the parasite may be tinder a selection process toward potential resistance. To limit the extension of this phenomenon, it is crucial to characterize the genes of O. volvulus that are involved. For this, O. volvulus adult worms collected before the introduction of ivermectin in an onchocerciasis endemic area of central Cameroon were genotyped for beta-tubulin. To derive a baseline to investiga...

  14. Class III beta-tubulin is constitutively coexpressed with glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin in midgestational human fetal astrocytes: implications for phenotypic identity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráberová, Eduarda; Del Valle, L.; Gordon, J.; Marková, Vladimíra; Šmejkalová, Barbora; Bertrand, L.; de Chadarévian, J.-P.; Agamanolis, D.P.; Legido, A.; Khalili, K.; Dráber, Pavel; Katsetos, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2008), s. 341-354. ISSN 0022-3069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GA204/05/2375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : astrocytes * class III beta-tubulin * fetal glia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.140, year: 2008

  15. In trangenic rice, alpha- and beta-tubulin regulatory sequences control GUS amount and distribution through intron mediated enhancement and intron dependent spatial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianì, Silvia; Altana, Andrea; Campanoni, Prisca; Morello, Laura; Breviario, Diego

    2009-04-01

    The genomic upstream sequence of the rice tubulin gene OsTub6 has been cloned, sequenced and characterized. The 5'UTR sequence is interrupted by a 446 bp long leader intron. This feature is shared with two other rice beta-tubulin genes (OsTub4 and OsTub1) that, together with OsTub6, group in the same clade in the evolutionary phylogenetic tree of plant beta-tubulins. Similarly to OsTub4, the leader intron of OsTub6 is capable of sustaining intron mediated enhancement (IME) of gene expression, in transient expression assays. A general picture is drawn for three rice alpha-tubulin and two rice beta-tubulin genes in which the first intron of the coding sequence for the formers and the intron present in the 5'UTR for the latters, are important elements for controlling gene expression. We used OsTua2:GUS, OsTua3:GUS, OsTub4:GUS and OsTub6:GUS chimeric constructs to investigate the in vivo pattern of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in transgenic rice plants. The influence of the regulatory introns on expression patterns was evaluated for two of them, OsTua2 and OsTub4. We have thus characterized distinct patterns of expression attributable to each tubulin isotype and we have shown that the presence of the regulatory intron can greatly influence both the amount and the actual site of expression. We propose the term Intron Dependent Spatial Expression (IDSE) to highlight this latter effect. PMID:18668337

  16. A codon change in beta-tubulin which drastically affects microtubule structure in Drosophila melanogaster fails to produce a significant phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Praitis, V; Katz, W S; Solomon, F

    1991-01-01

    The relative uniformity of microtubule ultrastructure in almost all eukaryotic cells is thought to be a consequence of the conserved elements of tubulin sequence. In support of this idea, a mutation in a beta-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster, occurring at a highly conserved position, produces U-shaped microtubules, suggesting a defect in either nucleation or packing during assembly (M. T. Fuller, J. H. Caulton, J. A. Hutchens, T. C. Kaufman, and E. C. Raff, J. Cell Biol. 104:385-394, 1...

  17. Defining Effective Salt Leaching Regions Between Drains

    OpenAIRE

    ANAPALI, Ömer; ŞAHİN, Üstün; Öztaş, Taşkın; Hanay, Abdurrahman

    2001-01-01

    The application of sufficient amounts of leaching water by means of an effective method is very important in the management and reclamation of saline and sodic soils. Reclamation cannot be achieved with insufficient leaching water application, while excess water application may cause severe problems in soil. Knowledge of the leaching regions and intensities may help to control the amounts of leaching water through effective leaching methods in areas of limited leaching. This study was und...

  18. Defining a region of optimization based on engine usage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-08-04

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. One or more operating conditions of a vehicle engine are detected. A value for each of a plurality of engine control parameters is determined based on the detected one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine. A range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine is identified and a region of optimization is defined based on the range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine. The engine control optimization routine is initiated when the one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine are within the defined region of optimization.

  19. SNS Devices With Pinhole-Defined Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian D.; Barner, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductor/normal conductor/superconductor (SNS) microbridge devices with pinhole-defined active regions undergoing development. Device includes thin, electrically insulating layer deposited epitaxially, with controlled formation of pinholes, on one of two superconducting layers. Normally conducting metal deposited epitaxially in pinholes and on insulating layer, forming electrical contact between two superconducting layers. Junction resistances and maximum junction voltages expected to be increased.

  20. Defining and measuring polycentric regions: the case of Tuscany

    OpenAIRE

    David BURGALASSI

    2010-01-01

    Polycentric development in regions has many dimensions, which involve several definitions and measures. This paper tackles the problem of defining and measuring polycentricity under an integrated and multi- dimensional perspective. Firstly, the policy relevance of polycentricity is analysed. Then, the paper identifies the definitions and measures of polycentricity by surveying the literature. It also provides a taxonomy among two main aspects involved in the definition of polycentricity: the ...

  1. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  2. Defining Urban and Rural Regions by Multifractal Spectrums of Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns correlated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on a generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanism. The census data of America and China are used to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is a normative study rather than a positive study, and it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  3. Defining Scenarios: Linking Integrated Models, Regional Concerns, and Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Mahmoud, M.

    2007-05-01

    Scenarios are important tools for long-term planning, and there is great interest in using integrated models in scenario studies. However, scenario definition and assessment are creative, as well as scientific, efforts. Using facilitated creative processes, we have worked with stakeholders to define regionally significant scenarios that encompass a broad range of hydroclimatic, socioeconomic, and institutional dimensions. The regional scenarios subsequently inform the definition of local scenarios that work with context-specific integrated models that, individually, can address only a subset of overall regional complexity. Based on concerns of stakeholders in the semi-arid US Southwest, we prioritized three dimensions that are especially important, yet highly uncertain, for long-term planning: hydroclimatic conditions (increased variability, persistent drought), development patterns (urban consolidation, distributed rural development), and the nature of public institutions (stressed, proactive). Linking across real-world decision contexts and integrated modeling efforts poses challenges of creatively connecting the conceptual models held by both the research and stakeholder communities.

  4. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gaffney

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  5. Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

  6. Anthelmintic resistance in Swedish sheep flocks based on a comparison of the results from the faecal egg count reduction test and resistant allele frequencies of the beta-tubulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johan; Gustafsson, Katarina; Ljungström, Britt-Louise; Engström, Annie; Donnan, Alison; Skuce, Philip

    2009-04-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) survey was conducted during the grazing season 2006 and 2007 to provide an updated indication of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in Sweden. A total of 1330 faecal samples from 90 flocks on 45 farms, with a minimum of 20 ewes each, was collected by local sheep veterinarians. Per treatment group, approximately 15 lambs were dewormed either with oral suspensions of ivermectin (Ivomec vet.) or albendazole (Valbazen vet.). The efficacy on each farm was investigated either in 2006 or 2007 by faecal egg counts collected on the day of treatment and in a new sample from the same animals 7-10 days later. Third-stage larvae (L3) were initially identified morphologically from pooled cultures. These were then used as the source of genomic DNA template for two molecular tests. The first was a PCR-based test for specific identification of Haemonchus contortus, and the second was a Pyrosequencing assay for the analysis of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance targeting the P200 mutation in the parasite's beta-tubulin gene. Larval cultures indicated that Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus were the predominant genera, but Haemonchus was diagnosed in 37% of the flocks. The PCR results revealed an almost 100% agreement with those farms that had previously been shown to have Haemonchus present, even when the % prevalence was low (approximately 3%). Only two (4%) of the surveyed farms showed evidence of BZ-resistant worm populations, with H. contortus being the species implicated according to post-treatment larval culture results. The Pyrosequencing assay detected BZ resistant allele frequencies of >40% in the Haemonchus-positive farms and 100% resistant alleles in the clinically most resistant farms. These preliminary results suggest that the FECRT is less sensitive than the molecular test at detecting BZ resistance. However, both tests need to be interpreted carefully, bearing in mind the relative proportions of species

  7. 10 CFR 72.100 - Defining potential effects of the ISFSI or MRS on the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defining potential effects of the ISFSI or MRS on the... MRS on the region. (a) The proposed site must be evaluated with respect to the effects on populations... conditions during operation and decommissioning of the ISFSI or MRS; in this evaluation both usual...

  8. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, Philippe; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, Guy

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cell...

  9. Defining Socially-Based Spatial Boundaries in the Region of Peel, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbold K Bruce

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the project was to delineate a series of contiguous neighbourhood-based "Data Zones" within the Region of Peel (Ontario for the purpose of health data analysis and dissemination. Zones were to be built on Census Tracts (N = 205 and obey a series of requirements defined by the Region of Peel. This paper explores a method that combines statistical analysis with ground-truthing, consultation, and the use of a decision tree. Data Census Tract data for Peel were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census Master file. Methods Following correlation analysis to reduce the data set, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the data set to reduce the complexity and derive an index. The Getis-Ord Gi*statistic was then applied to look for statistically significant clusters of like Census Tracts. A detailed decision tree for the amalgamation of remaining zones and ground-truthing with Peel staff verified the resulting zones. Results A total of 15 Data Zones that are similar with respect to socioeconomic and sociodemographic attributes and that met criteria defined by Peel were derived for the region. Conclusion The approach used in this analysis, which was bolstered by a series of checks and balances throughout the process, gives statistical validity to the defined zones and resulted in a robust series of Data Zones for use by Peel Public Health. We conclude by offering insight into alternative uses of the methodology, and limitations.

  10. Cytopathological evaluations combined RNA and protein analyses on defined cell regions using single frozen tissue block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The co-existence of multiple cell components in tissue samples is the main obstacle for precise molecular evaluation on defined cell types. Based on morphological examination, we developed an efficient approach for paralleled RNA and protein isolations from an identical histological region in frozen tissue section.The RNA and protein samples prepared were sufficient for RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, and the results obtained were well coincident each other as well as with the corresponding parameters revealed from immunohistochemical examinations. By this way, the sampling problem caused by cell-cross contamination can be largely avoided, committing the experimental data more specific to a defined cell type. These novel methods thus allow us to use single tissue block for a comprehensive study by integration of conventional cytological evaluations with nucleic acid and protein analyses.

  11. A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bassi, M.T. [Univ. of Siena (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to regional specific neural precursors in chemically defined medium conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Erceg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC provide a unique model to study early events in human development. The hESC-derived cells can potentially be used to replace or restore different tissues including neuronal that have been damaged by disease or injury. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cells of two different hESC lines were converted to neural rosettes using adherent and chemically defined conditions. The progenitor cells were exposed to retinoic acid (RA or to human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the late phase of the rosette formation. Exposing the progenitor cells to RA suppressed differentiation to rostral forebrain dopamine neural lineage and promoted that of spinal neural tissue including motor neurons. The functional characteristics of these differentiated neuronal precursors under both, rostral (bFGF and caudalizing (RA signals were confirmed by patch clamp analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that our differentiation protocol has the capacity to generate region-specific and electrophysiologically active neurons under in vitro conditions without embryoid body formation, co-culture with stromal cells and without presence of cells of mesodermal or endodermal lineages.

  13. Poverty Rate (defined by U.S. Census) by California Regions, 2000-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The poverty rate (US Census-defined) table contains data on the percentage of the total population living below the poverty level, percentage of children living...

  14. The Corn Belt: An Exercise to Define the Limits of a Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This exercise is designed to illustrate the concept of a region and, more specifically, the subconcept of regionalization by involving students in working with facts and statistics available in the "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce 1971, 2001). The exercise supports the national…

  15. Overall quality of diabetes care in a defined geographic region: different sides of the same story

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, R; Gorter, K.; Stolk, R.; Zuithoff, P.; Verhoeven, R.; Rutten, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background In diabetes care, knowledge about what is achievable in primary and secondary care is important. There is a need for an objective method to assess the quality of care in different settings. A quality-of-care summary score has been developed based on process and outcome measures. An adapted version of this score was used to evaluate diabetes management in different settings. Aim To evaluate the quality of diabetes management in primary and secondary care in a defined geographic regi...

  16. Composite picture to help to study and to define a Regional Economic Intelligence Device.

    OpenAIRE

    Goria, Stéphane; Knauf, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    Economic Intelligence is a French conception of organisational sustenance by an improvement of information management. At the end of 1990, this consideration emerged from the concepts of Competitive Intelligence, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management, notably, being supported by French government. One of these applications is the Regional Economic Intelligence initiatives. The most prominent of these projects is the cluster of competitiveness call. But, it is not the only proposition...

  17. A Microstructured Fiber with Defined Borosilicate Regions to Produce a Radial Micronozzle Array for Nanoelectrospray Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Morency, S.; Bachus, K.; Simon, D.; Hutama, T.; Gibson, G. T. T.; Messaddeq, Y.; Oleschuk, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    This work highlights the possibility of using microstructured fibres with predefined doped regions to produce functional microstructures at a fibre facet with differential chemical etching. A specially designed silica microstructured fibre (MSF) that possesses specific boron-doped silica regions was fabricated for the purpose of generating a radial micronozzle array. The MSF was drawn from a preform comprising pure silica capillaries surrounded by boron-doped silica rods. Different etching rates of the boron-doped and silica regions at the fiber facet produces raised nozzles where the silica capillaries were placed. Fabrication parameters were explored in relation to the fidelity and protrusion length of the nozzle. Using etching alone, the nozzle protrusion length was limited, and the inner diameter of the channels in the array is expanded. However with the addition of a protective water counter flow, nozzle protrusion is increased to 60 μm with a limited increase in hole diameter. The radial micronozzle array generated nine individual electrosprays which were characterized using spray current measurements and related to theoretical prediction. Signal enhancement for the higher charge state ions for two peptides showed a substantial signal enhancement compared to conventional emitter technology.

  18. Defining NELF-E RNA binding in HIV-1 and promoter-proximal pause regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Pagano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The four-subunit Negative Elongation Factor (NELF is a major regulator of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II pausing. The subunit NELF-E contains a conserved RNA Recognition Motif (RRM and is proposed to facilitate Poll II pausing through its association with nascent transcribed RNA. However, conflicting ideas have emerged for the function of its RNA binding activity. Here, we use in vitro selection strategies and quantitative biochemistry to identify and characterize the consensus NELF-E binding element (NBE that is required for sequence specific RNA recognition (NBE: CUGAGGA(U for Drosophila. An NBE-like element is present within the loop region of the transactivation-response element (TAR of HIV-1 RNA, a known regulatory target of human NELF-E. The NBE is required for high affinity binding, as opposed to the lower stem of TAR, as previously claimed. We also identify a non-conserved region within the RRM that contributes to the RNA recognition of Drosophila NELF-E. To understand the broader functional relevance of NBEs, we analyzed promoter-proximal regions genome-wide in Drosophila and show that the NBE is enriched +20 to +30 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site. Consistent with the role of NELF in pausing, we observe a significant increase in NBEs among paused genes compared to non-paused genes. In addition to these observations, SELEX with nuclear run-on RNA enrich for NBE-like sequences. Together, these results describe the RNA binding behavior of NELF-E and supports a biological role for NELF-E in promoter-proximal pausing of both HIV-1 and cellular genes.

  19. CAGE-defined promoter regions of the genes implicated in Rett Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitezic, Morana; Bertin, Nicolas; Andersson, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in three functionally diverse genes cause Rett Syndrome. Although the functions of Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1), Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been studied individually, not much is known about their relation to each other with...... each gene and the common transcription factors likely to regulate the three genes. Our data imply Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) mediated silencing of Foxg1 in cerebellum CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses provide a comprehensive picture of the regulatory regions of the three genes involved in Rett...... Syndrome....

  20. Defining a Canadian approach to municipal consolidation in major city-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lightbody

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Where there is a central government with an exclusive mandate over municipalities, along with a state executive structure using the Westminster model, then the consolidation of squabbling municipalities within metropolitan boundaries becomes a distinct possibility A general model of municipal restructuring for the Canadian metropolis is more widespread than the superficially unique circumstances of each case might suggest. The thinking here is informed by Clarence Stone’s urban regime model, which helps to clarify what influences constituted the political tipping point for central government action. The paper focuses primarily on the Toronto and Montreal city-regional municipal consolidations at the end of the last century. It is argued that the decisive element in setting the stage for significant change lay in the pervasive influence of corporate Canada in generally shaping provincial political discourse. What has not previously been of much interest for investigators is the matter of direct consequences for the low politics of city-regional governance. As will be seen, they were both tangible and considerable.

  1. Targeted parallel sequencing of large genetically-defined genomic regions for identifying mutations in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kun-hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large-scale genetic screens in Arabidopsis are a powerful approach for molecular dissection of complex signaling networks. However, map-based cloning can be time-consuming or even hampered due to low chromosomal recombination. Current strategies using next generation sequencing for molecular identification of mutations require whole genome sequencing and advanced computational devises and skills, which are not readily accessible or affordable to every laboratory. We have developed a streamlined method using parallel massive sequencing for mutant identification in which only targeted regions are sequenced. This targeted parallel sequencing (TPSeq method is more cost-effective, straightforward enough to be easily done without specialized bioinformatics expertise, and reliable for identifying multiple mutations simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate its use by identifying three novel nitrate-signaling mutants in Arabidopsis.

  2. Spatial analyses of benthic habitats to define coral reef ecosystem regions and potential biogeographic boundaries along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Walker

    Full Text Available Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0-30 m benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework

  3. Neurofilament protein defines regional patterns of cortical organization in the macaque monkey visual system: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Visual function in monkeys is subserved at the cortical level by a large number of areas defined by their specific physiological properties and connectivity patterns. For most of these cortical fields, a precise index of their degree of anatomical specialization has not yet been defined, although many regional patterns have been described using Nissl or myelin stains. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the regional characteristics, and to varying degrees boundaries, of several visual cortical areas in the macaque monkey using an antibody to neurofilament protein (SMI32). This antibody labels a subset of pyramidal neurons with highly specific regional and laminar distribution patterns in the cerebral cortex. Based on the staining patterns and regional quantitative analysis, as many as 28 cortical fields were reliably identified. Each field had a homogeneous distribution of labeled neurons, except area V1, where increases in layer IVB cell and in Meynert cell counts paralleled the increase in the degree of eccentricity in the visual field representation. Within the occipitotemporal pathway, areas V3 and V4 and fields in the inferior temporal cortex were characterized by a distinct population of neurofilament-rich neurons in layers II-IIIa, whereas areas located in the parietal cortex and part of the occipitoparietal pathway had a consistent population of large labeled neurons in layer Va. The mediotemporal areas MT and MST displayed a distinct population of densely labeled neurons in layer VI. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of the labeled neurons demonstrated that the visual cortical areas could be grouped in four hierarchical levels based on the ratio of neuron counts between infragranular and supragranular layers, with the first (areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A) and third (temporal and parietal regions) levels characterized by low ratios and the second (areas MT, MST, and V4) and fourth (frontal regions) levels characterized by

  4. Mapping the Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Phenotype Outside the Currently Accepted WHS Critical Region and Defining a New Critical Region, WHSCR-2

    OpenAIRE

    Zollino, Marcella; Lecce, Rosetta; Fischetto, Rita; Murdolo, Marina; Faravelli, Francesca; Selicorni, Angelo; Buttè, Cinzia; Memo, Luigi; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Neri, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to define the distinctive Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype, and to map its specific clinical manifestations, a total of eight patients carrying a 4p16.3 microdeletion were analyzed for their clinical phenotype and their respective genotypes. The extent of each individual deletion was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization, with a cosmid contig spanning the genomic region from MSX1 (distal half of 4p16.1) to the subtelomeric locus D4S3359. The deletions were 1....

  5. The SRCR/SID region of DMBT1 defines a complex multi-allele system representing the major basis for its variability in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, Jan; Müller, Hanna; Kollender, Gaby; Lyer, Stefan; Diedrichs, Laura; Helmke, Burkhard; Holmskov, Uffe; Ligtenberg, Toon; Herbertz, Stephan; Krebs, Inge; Madsen, Jens; Bikker, Floris; Schmitt, Liane; Wiemann, Stefan; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Otto, Herwart F; von Deimling, Andreas; Poustka, Annemarie

    2002-01-01

    . We define seven distinct DMBT1 alleles based on variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs). At least 11 tumors exclusively harbored these VNTRs. The data suggest that the SRCR/SID region defines a complex multi-allele system that has escaped previous analyses and that represents the major basis for...

  6. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  7. Gene expression profiling of neurochemically defined regions of the human brain by in situ hybridization-guided laser capture microdissection

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, R.; Kerman, I A; F. Meng; Evans, S J; Amrein, I.; Jones, E. G.; Bunney, W. E.; Akil, H; Watson, S. J.; Thompson, R C

    2009-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) permits isolation of specific cell types and cell groups based upon morphology, anatomical landmarks and histochemical properties. This powerful technique can be used for region-specific dissection if the target structure is clearly delineated. However, it is difficult to visualize anatomical boundaries in an unstained specimen, while histological staining can complicate the microdissection process and compromise downstream processing and analysis. We now i...

  8. oriT-Directed Cloning of Defined Large Regions from Bacterial Genomes: Identification of the Sinorhizobium meliloti pExo Megaplasmid Replicator Region

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick S G Chain; Hernandez-Lucas, Ismael; Golding, Brian; Finan, Turlough M.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a procedure to directly clone large fragments from the genome of the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Specific regions to be cloned are first flanked by parallel copies of an origin of transfer (oriT) together with a plasmid replication origin capable of replicating large clones in Escherichia coli but not in the target organism. Supplying transfer genes in trans specifically transfers the oriT-flanked region, and in this process, site-specific recombination at the ori...

  9. Regionally-defined niche-breadth of tropical African freshwater plant species predicts their global latitudinal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael; Lang, Pauline; Tapia-Grimaldo, Julissa; Varandas-Martins, Sara; Bruce, Allanah; Moore, Isabel; Sichingabula, Henry; Bottino, Flávia; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the measured niche-breadth of river plant species (macrophytes) occurring within a closely-defined geographical area in southern tropical Africa (Zambia), may predict the larger-scale biogeographical range of these species. Two measures of niche-breadth were calculated for 44 riverine macrophyte species commonly occurring in Zambia, using an approach based on PCA ordination with bio-physico-chemical ordination input variables: altitude, stream order, stream flow, pH, conductivity, soluble reactive phosphate concentration (SRP), benthic macroinvertebrate Average Score per Taxon (ASPT), and individual abundance of nine benthic macroinvertebrate families showing differing water quality tolerance, as indicated by their Sensitivity Weightings within the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS). Macrophyte large-scale latitudinal range was derived from world geopositional records held by online databases, supplemented by records held by the authors. The two niche-breadth metrics divided the species into narrow-niche and intermediate/broad-niche categories, showing significant variation in altitude, stream flow, conductivity, SRP and ASPT, but not stream order or pH. There was no evidence to suggest that macrophyte alpha-diversity (as a measure of number of individual niches that may co-exist in a given habitat) showed any significant relationship with individual species niche-breadth. However, macrophyte alpha-diversity was significantly positively correlated with altitude, and significantly negatively related to conductivity, pH, ASPT, SRP, stream flow, and stream order. Narrow-niche macrophyte species included a higher proportion of Afrotropical endemics than did species with broader niche size. There were significant predictive relationships between macrophyte niche breadth and latitudinal range of the target species at global and Afrotropical scales, but not for the Neotropical range of species which occurred in both the

  10. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

    2006-09-21

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  11. Molecular Dynamics Study on Stress-Strain in Very Thin Film : Size and Location of Region for Defining Stress and Strain

    OpenAIRE

    岩城, 敏博

    1996-01-01

    The stress and strain in a very thin film under uniaxial tension are analyzed based on the motion of particles in the film by means of two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The Lennard-Jones(L-J) potential is assumed as a two-body potential. The tensile load is applied by elongating the fundamental cell longitudinally. The numerical results show that the stress decreases considerably as the size of the region for defining the stress decreases. It is found that more than 130 part...

  12. A regulatory hydrophobic area in the flexible joint region of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, defined with fluorescent activity-neutralizing ligands. Ligand-induced serpin polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, R; Einholm, A P; Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, R W; Christensen, A; Deinum, J; Andreasen, Peter A

    2001-01-01

    all tested nonfluorescent neutralizers, indicating that all neutralizers bind to a common hydrophobic area preferentially accessible in active PAI-1. Activity neutralization proceeded through two consecutive steps as follows: first step is conversion to forms displaying substrate behavior toward u...... having overlapping, but not identical, binding sites in the region around alpha-helices D and E and beta-strand 1A, known to act as a flexible joint when beta-sheet A opens and the reactive center loop inserts as beta-strand 4A during reaction with target proteinases. The defined binding area may be a...

  13. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  14. TU-F-12A-04: Differential Radiation Avoidance of Functional Liver Regions Defined by 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid SPECT/CT with Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, S; Miyaoka, R; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G; Vesselle, H; Nyflot, M; Apisarnthanarax, S [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Saini, J; Wong, T [SCCA Proton Therapy: A Procure Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients is conventionally planned without consideration of spatial heterogeneity in hepatic function, which may increase risk of radiation-induced liver disease. Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiotherapy (pRT) plans were generated to differentially decrease dose to functional liver volumes (FLV) defined on [{sup 99m}Tc]sulfur colloid (SC) SPECT/CT images (functional avoidance plans) and compared against conventional pRT plans. Methods: Three HCC patients underwent SC SPECT/CT scans for pRT planning acquired 15 min post injection over 24 min. Images were reconstructed with OSEM following scatter, collimator, and exhale CT attenuation correction. Functional liver volumes (FLV) were defined by liver:spleen uptake ratio thresholds (43% to 90% maximum). Planning objectives to FLV were based on mean SC SPECT uptake ratio relative to GTV-subtracted liver and inversely scaled to mean liver dose of 20 Gy. PTV target coverage (V{sub 95}) was matched between conventional and functional avoidance plans. PBS pRT plans were optimized in RayStation for single field uniform dose (SFUD) and systematically perturbed to verify robustness to uncertainty in range, setup, and motion. Relative differences in FLV DVH and target dose heterogeneity (D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D50 were assessed. Results: For similar liver dose between functional avoidance and conventional PBS pRT plans (D{sub mean}≤5% difference, V{sub 18Gy}≤1% difference), dose to functional liver volumes were lower in avoidance plans but varied in magnitude across patients (FLV{sub 70%max} D{sub mean}≤26% difference, V{sub 18Gy}≤8% difference). Higher PTV dose heterogeneity in avoidance plans was associated with lower functional liver dose, particularly for the largest lesion [(D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D{sub 50}=13%, FLV{sub 90%max}=50% difference]. Conclusion: Differential avoidance of functional liver regions defined on sulfur colloid SPECT/CT is feasible with proton

  15. Tubulin targets in the pathobiology and therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. I. class III beta-tubulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Dráberová, Eduarda; Legido, A.; Dumontet, C.; Dráber, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 3 (2009), s. 505-513. ISSN 0021-9541 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Beta-II-tubulin * glioblastoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.586, year: 2009

  16. PSA NCAM and class III beta-tubulin expression in the developing inner ear in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buckiová, Daniela; Syka, Josef

    Geneva : Federation of European Neurosciences Societies, 2008. s. 179.1. [FENS. Forum of European Neuroscience /6./. 12.07.2008-16.07.2008, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/04/1074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Development * Sensory * Other sensory systems Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Differential expression of gamma-tubulin and class III beta-tubulin in meduloblastoma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caracciolo, V.; D´Agostino, L.; Dráberová, Eduarda; Sládková, Vladimíra; Agamanolis, D.; De Chaderevian, J.P.; Legido, A.; Giordano, A.; Dráber, Pavel; Katsetos, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 5 (2010), s. 558-558. ISSN 0022-3069. [Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Neuropathologists /86./. 10.06.10-13.06.10, Phidadelphia] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514

  18. Evolutionary relationships in Aspergillus section Fumigati inferred from partial beta-tubulin and hydrophobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiser, D.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taylor, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Members of Aspergillus section Fumigati are important animal pathogens and food contaminants. There is considerable variation among the 16 currently recognized species in this section, particularly in their mating systems: five are known to be strictly mitosporic, nine are homothallic, and two ar....... fischeri was identified as the closest known meiotic relative to the cosmopolitan species most often implicated in human aspergillosis, A. fumigatus....

  19. Antibody formation against beta-tubulin class III in response to brain trauma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škoda, D.; Kranda, K.; Bojar, M.; Glosová, L.; Bäurle, J.; Kenney, Jana; Romportl, D.; Pelichovská, M.; Cvachovec, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2006), s. 213-216. ISSN 0361-9230 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : autoantibodies * beta–tubulin * brain injury Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.684, year: 2006

  20. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion α-toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the 125I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only α-helix region (residues 23-32) and a β-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor

  1. Domain mapping of Escherichia coli RecQ defines the roles of conserved N- and C-terminal regions in the RecQ family

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Douglas A.; Keck, James L.

    2003-01-01

    RecQ DNA helicases function in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Although the precise cellular roles played by this family of enzymes remain elusive, the importance of RecQ proteins is clear; mutations in any of three human RecQ genes lead to genomic instability and cancer. In this report, proteolysis is used to define a two-domain structure for Escherichia coli RecQ, revealing a large (∼59 kDa) N-terminal and a small (∼9 kDa) C-terminal domain. A short N-terminal segment (7 or 21 re...

  2. Human defined antigenic region on the nucleoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus identified using truncated proteins and a bioinformatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, F J; Samudzi, R R; Randall, C; Pieters, D; Vermeulen, J; Knox, C M

    2013-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne viral zoonosis widely distributed in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe. In this study, amino acid sequence data for the CCHFV nucleoprotein (NP) was used to identify potential linear epitopic regions which were subsequently included in the design of large and small truncated recombinant NP antigens and peptide libraries. Two truncated recombinant CCHFV NP antigens were prepared based on results of prediction studies to include epitopic regions and exclude hydrophobic regions that could influence protein expression and solubility. Serum samples were collected from acute and convalescent patients. An IgG antibody response was detected in 16/16 samples tested using the large recombinant NP-based ELISA and in 2/16 using the small recombinant NP-based ELISA. A total of 60 peptides covering predicted epitopic regions of the NP were synthesized and peptide NRGGDENPRGPVSR at amino acid position 182-195, reacted with 13/16 human serum samples. In summary, functional assays are required to determine the biological activity of predicted epitopes for development of peptide based assays for antibody detection. Bacterially expressed complete NP antigens have previously been shown to be useful tools for antibody detection. Truncation of the antigen to remove the hydrophobic C terminus had no impact on the ability of the antigen to detect IgG antibody in human sera. The results indicate that the region from amino acids 123 to 396 includes a highly antigenic region of the NP with application in development of antibody detection assays. PMID:23933073

  3. A multi-perspective approach for defining neighbourhood units in the context of a study on health inequalities in the Quebec City region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampalon Robert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of socioeconomic and health inequalities at the local scale is facilitated by using relevant small geographical sectors. Although these places are routinely defined according to administrative boundaries on the basis of statistical criteria, it is important to carefully consider the way they are circumscribed as they can create spatial analysis problems and produce misleading information. This article introduces a new approach to defining neighbourhood units which is based on the integration of elements stemming from the socioeconomic situation of the area, its history, and how it is perceived by local key actors. Results Using this set of geographical units shows important socioeconomic and health disparities at the local scale. These disparities can be seen, for example, in a 16-year difference in disability-free life expectancy at birth, and a $10,000-difference in average personal income between close neighbourhoods. The geographical units also facilitate information transfer to local stakeholders. Conclusion The context of this study has made it possible to explore several relevant methodological issues related to the definition of neighbourhood units. This multi-perspective approach allows the combination of many different elements such as physical structures, historical and administrative boundaries, material and social deprivation of the population, and sense of belonging. Results made sense to local stakeholders and helped them to raise important issues to improve future developments.

  4. Homogeneous glass processing region defined for a lanthanide borosilicate glass composition for the mobilization of plutonium using thorium as a surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ternary diagram showing the homogeneous glass processing region of a base frit, rare earth oxide and thorium oxide has been developed for a residence temperature of 1475 C. Thorium oxide was used as a plutonium surrogate. All ThO2 glasses that were processed included a 1:1 mole ratio of Th to Gd. Gadolinium is added to the glass as a neutron absorber. Forty individual glass compositions were melted at 1475 C for 4 to 6 hours with periodic stirring. Two glasses (B-20-25 and B-25-25) were processed with a ThO2 loading of 25 weight percent (oxide) without amorphous phase separation or crystalline species detected by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) or Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). These were processed with 55 weight percent frit, 20 weight percent rare earth oxides and 50 percent frit, 25 percent rare earth oxides. Crystalline species that formed outside of the homogeneous glass processing region due to solubility limits or insufficient processing temperature were identified. Amorphous phase separation was detected and examined by TEM at high ThO2 loadings (20 to 30 weight percent oxide). The base frit was able to dissolve up to 65 weight percent rare earth oxides when thorium oxide was not present. Durability testing will be performed on three glasses from three different regions of the homogeneous glass processing region. Product Consistency Test (PCT) results are pending and will be added to this document under a future revision

  5. Defining an Ecologically Ideal Shallow Groundwater Depth for Regional Sustainable Management: Conceptual Development and Case Study on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The depth and fluctuation of shallow groundwater influence water supply to land surface vegetation. Knowledge of an ecologically ideal depth range of shallow groundwater for a vegetation ecosystem can be crucial for sustainability of regional water resource management and ecological conservation. In this study, we developed a conceptual model that identifies an upper and a lower boundary of shallow groundwater for sustaining present vegetation ecosystems, termed ecologically ideal shallow groundwater depth (EISGD. We then applied the conceptual model to the Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 104 km2 in northeast China in order to gain insights into sustainable shallow groundwater usage in this intensively irrigated agricultural region. Using soil capillary rise, plant rooting depth, extinction depth, and the actual groundwater depth, we identified an upper boundary range of EISGD between 0.5 and 2.8 m and a lower boundary range of EISGD between 2.0 and 14.3 m for different vegetation covers in the Sanjiang Plain. Based on the ranges, we estimated allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal (i.e., without degrading the present vegetation ecosystem for the region and identified an area of 2.54 × 1010 m2 with a total of 9.14 × 108 m3 water deficit. Currently, the entire Sanjiang Plain has a total volume of 45.30 × 108 m3 EISGD allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal, thus the plain’s northeast region can be considered as having a high allowable pumping capacity. This study demonstrates that application of an EISGD concept can be useful for developing regional management strategies and plans for ecological protection and sustainable groundwater utilization.

  6. Synthetic peptides corresponding to third hypervariable region of human monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor heavy chains define an immunodominant idiotype

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic peptides corresponding to eight individual heavy chain complementarity-determining regions (CDR) of three human monoclonal IgM anti-IgG (rheumatoid factor [RF]) paraproteins elicited rabbit antibodies with markedly different properties. All antisera recognized the immunizing peptide, and several reacted with the isolated IgM heavy chain on immunoblots. However, only the antisera against peptides representing the third CDR bound consistently and specifically to the intact IgM-RF mole...

  7. A polymorphism at the 3'-UTR region of the aromatase gene defines a subgroup of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with poor response to neoadjuvant letrozole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaladejo Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatase (CYP19A1 regulates estrogen biosynthesis. Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 have been related to the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC. Inhibition of aromatase with letrozole constitutes the best option for treating estrogen-dependent BC in postmenopausal women. We evaluate a series of polymorphisms of CYP19A1 and their effect on response to neoadjuvant letrozole in early BC. Methods We analyzed 95 consecutive postmenopausal women with stage II-III ER/PgR [+] BC treated with neoadjuvant letrozole. Response to treatment was measured by radiology at 4th month by World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Three polymorphisms of CYP19A1, one in exon 7 (rs700519 and two in the 3'-UTR region (rs10046 and rs4646 were evaluated on DNA obtained from peripheral blood. Results Thirty-five women (36.8% achieved a radiological response to letrozole. The histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters, including hormonal receptor status, were not associated with the response to letrozole. Only the genetic variants (AC/AA of the rs4646 polymorphism were associated with poor response to letrozole (p = 0.03. Eighteen patients (18.9% reported a progression of the disease. Those patients carrying the genetic variants (AC/AA of rs4646 presented a lower progression-free survival than the patients homozygous for the reference variant (p = 0.0686. This effect was especially significant in the group of elderly patients not operated after letrozole induction (p = 0.009. Conclusions Our study reveals that the rs4646 polymorphism identifies a subgroup of stage II-III ER/PgR [+] BC patients with poor response to neoadjuvant letrozole and poor prognosis. Testing for the rs4646 polymorphism could be a useful tool in order to orientate the treatment in elderly BC patients.

  8. Defining Clusters of Related Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are geographic concentrations of industries related by knowledge, skills, inputs, demand, and/or other linkages. A growing body of empirical literature has shown the positive impact of clusters on regional and industry performance, including job creation, patenting, and new business formation. There is an increasing need for cluster-based data to support research, facilitate comparisons of clusters across regions, and support policymakers and practitioners in defining regional strate...

  9. A New Method to Define the VI-Ts Diagram Using Subpixel Vegetation and Soil Information: A Case Study over a Semiarid Agricultural Region in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The VI-Ts diagram determined by the scatter points of the vegetation index (VI and surface temperature (Ts has been widely applied in land surface studies. In the VI-Ts diagram, dry point is defined as a pixel with maximum Ts and minimum VI, while wet point is defined as a pixel with minimum Ts and maximum VI. If both dry and wet points can be obtained simultaneously, a triangular VI-Ts diagram can be readily defined. However, traditional methods cannot define an ideal VI-Ts diagram if there are no full ranges of land surface moisture and VI, such as during rainy season or in a period with a narrow VI range. In this study, a new method was proposed to define the VI-Ts diagram based on the subpixel vegetation and soil information, which was independent of the full ranges of land surface moisture and VI. In this method, a simple approach was firstly proposed to decompose Ts of a given pixel into two components, the surface temperatures of soil (Tsoil and vegetation (Tveg, by means of Ts and VI information of neighboring pixels. The minimum Tveg and maximum Tsoil were then used to determine the wet and dry points respectively within a given sampling window. This method was tested over a 30 km × 30 km semiarid agricultural area in the North China Plain through 2003 using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. The wet and dry points obtained from our proposed method and from a traditional method were compared with those obtained from ground data within the sampling window with the 30 km × 30 km size. Results show that Tsoil and Tveg can be obtained with acceptable accuracies, and that our proposed method can define reasonable VI-Ts diagrams over a semiarid agricultural region throughout the whole year, even for both cases of rainy season and narrow range of VI.

  10. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  11. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  12. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...

  13. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  14. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  15. Interpolation and Definability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Maksimova, Larisa L.

    This chapter is on interpolation and definability. This notion is not only central in pure logic, but has significant meaning and applicability in all areas where logic itself is applied, especially in computer science, artificial intelligence, logic programming, philosophy of science and natural language. The notion may sometimes appear to the reader as too technical/mathematical but it does also have a general meaning in terms of expressibility and definability.

  16. Isolation, characterization, and expression of a second {beta}-tubulin-encoding gene from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, T.L.; Dickman, M.B. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomene incites anthracnose on Aeschynomene virgininica (northern jointvetch). Northern jointvetch is a leguminous weed in rice and soybean fields. Contaminating northern jointvetch seeds greatly reduce the market value of rice. C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomene has been commercially marketed as a mycoherbicide to decrease populations of northern jointvetch. Development of a transformation system would be extremely useful for investigating the molecular biology of C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomen. This paper reports the nucleotide sequence of a second gene for {beta} Tub (TUB2) in C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomene and identifies a molecular lesion which likely confers BEN (systemic fungicide) resistance.

  17. No significant role for beta tubulin mutations and mismatch repair defects in ovarian cancer resistance to paclitaxel/cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer patients remain largely to be elucidated. Paclitaxel/cisplatin combination is the standard chemotherapeutic treatment for this disease, although some patients do not respond to therapy. Our goals were to investigate whether TUBB mutations and mismatch repair defects underlie paclitaxel and cisplatin resistance. Thirty-four patients with primary ovarian carcinomas (26 serous and eight clear cell carcinomas) treated with paclitaxel/cisplatin were analysed. TUBB exon 4 was analysed by nested PCR after a first round PCR using intronic primers. Microsatellite analysis was performed with the quasimonomorphic markers BAT 26 and BAT 34. Twenty-two of the 34 ovarian cancers (64.7%) presented residual tumour after surgery, seven of which (7/22; 31.8%) were shown to be chemoresistant (five serous and two clear cell tumours). Sequence analysis did not find any mutation in TUBB exon 4. Microsatellite instability was not detected in any of the ovarian carcinomas. We conclude that TUBB exon 4 mutations and mismatch repair defects do not play a significant role in paclitaxel/cisplatin resistance

  18. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops the...... critical argument against this academic technique by going back to the history of cultural anthropology of play. This history did not develop in a linear way, but by shifts between different periods of colonial and anticolonial positions, as well as between more positivistic and more relativist approaches...... construction. Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  19. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  20. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  1. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  2. Integrative STEM Education Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    "In operationally defining integrative STEM education, we hope to avoid the gross confusion/ambiguity associated with STEM education. Those who wish to use integrative STEM education to describe instruction must be certain that instruction is grounded in the context of technological/engineering design activity.

  3. DEFINING SUCCESS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues de Farias Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Project Management Discipline has been widely used in the last years for companies around the world and these companies have been investing large amounts on surveys, training and consulting in order to get benefits for the organizations that need to create competitive advantage in the high competitive Market and to achieve their business strategy goals. Studies from the major world authors show many ways to define success at the organizations. In Brazil, the Benchmarking Study in GP from the PMI Chapters in 2009, show most studied companies don’t have a process do assess whether they are achieving the expected business goals with their investments in Project Management. This article goal is to demonstrate many ways to define success in project, which will facilitate the process to assess whether the companies are achieving these expected goals. The methodology used was a literature review, collecting publications, textbooks and documents from subject-matter-experts.

  4. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from...... legally protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  5. Defining talent management components

    OpenAIRE

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-01-01

    In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings...

  6. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  7. Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Roncero Hervás, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a paradigm in which routing decisions are taken by a control layer. In contrast to conventional network structures, the control plane and forwarding plane are separated and communicate through standard protocols like OpenFlow. Historically, network management was based on a layered approach, each one isolated from the others. SDN proposes a radically different approach by bringing together the management of all these layers into a single controller. It is th...

  8. SDN : Software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Petter

    2014-01-01

    This report is a specialization in Software defined networking. SDN really comes to revolutionize the industry and it’s under constant development. But is the technology ready to be launched into operation yet? The report would initially involve a number of problems that today's network technology is facing. It then follows a deeper description of what this software-based networking technology really is and how it works. Further, the technique is being tested in a lab assignment, using a prog...

  9. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the business economics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular, through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories of business networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. The proposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of the network phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”. Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networks arise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  10. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the businesseconomics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular,through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories ofbusiness networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. Theproposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of thenetwork phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”.Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networksarise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  11. Defining talent management components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings and also to look for ways to improve employee performance is discussed. This study is based on data collected from all employees of the University of Chaloos in August 2013; through two questionnaires have been developed. The statistical population has been considered 407 persons in these universities and according the Morgan Table, 198 persons were selected as sample of among research society. More over, 28 questions are used for determining components of talent management. Finally, we concluded that the component of talent management have been properly defined in the Universities of Chaloos.

  12. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  13. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  14. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  15. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  16. Hanford Defined Wastes model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology behind the Hanford Defined Wastes (HDW) model for estimating the contents of Hanford high level waste (HLW) tanks. The HDW model is based on historical process and transaction histories for each tank and has four major components: Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary (WSTRS), Tank Layer Model (TLM), Supernatant Mixing Model (SMM), and HDW Compositions. Three examples of the application of HDW model estimates are described, including comparisons with global site inventories, comparisons with per tank assays, and comparisons of HDW TOC (Total Organic Carbon) estimates with existing hydrogen watch list tanks. The HDW model provides a cross check on existing assumptions for the global site inventory of wastes. Note that existing inventories for Hanford are based on much the same source information as the HDW model, chemicals used and process flowsheet data. Despite that, the HDW model predicts that the sodium inventory for Hanford tanks is 40,300 MT (metric tonnes), which is only 58% of the previous baseline estimate of 69,000 MT. There are other significant differences for inventories of chromium, iron, and nitrate as well. There are two causes for these differences; (1) previous neglect of chemical inventory placed into the ground at Hanford; (2) double counting attributed to tank inventory that was retrieved, reprocessed, and returned to the tanks. This double-counted inventory was counted once when it first went into the tanks and then again after it was reprocessed. The HDW model estimates also can provide a basis for targeting tanks for organic safety issues. In particular, the HDW model has shown that 88% of flammable gas watch list tanks have HDW estimated organic concentrations in excess of 0.64 wt% TOC. Derivation of variabilities for the HDW model estimates and other potential uses will also be outlined

  17. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  18. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: defining dairy flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, MaryAnne

    2004-04-01

    Production and consumption of dairy foods continue to increase annually. Further, new ingredient applications for dairy foods continue to expand. With continued production and consumption, there is also increased competition. Increased competition exists regionally, nationally, and globally. Processors as well as product developers must find ways to maximize existing markets and expand into new markets. A consistent high quality product is necessary to maintain competitiveness. Although microbial safety and stability are key ways to define quality, flavor is one method of defining quality that is often assumed or overlooked. The aggressive and competitive nature of today's market demands more precise and powerful tools for defining flavor and flavor quality. Traditional as well as more recent methods for evaluating dairy flavor are reviewed. The application of defining sensory flavors to fundamental research on flavor chemistry, product understanding, and effective marketing is addressed. PMID:15259211

  19. The neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus can be attenuated by introducing defined mutations into the envelope and NS5 protein genes and the 3' non-coding region of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe disease affecting thousands of people throughout Eurasia. Despite the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines in endemic areas, an increasing incidence of TBE emphasizes the need for an alternative vaccine that will induce a more durable immunity against TBE virus (TBEV). The chimeric attenuated virus vaccine candidate containing the structural protein genes of TBEV on a dengue virus genetic background (TBEV/DEN4) retains a high level of neurovirulence in both mice and monkeys. Therefore, attenuating mutations were introduced into the envelope (E315) and NS5 (NS5654,655) proteins, and into the 3' non-coding region (Δ30) of TBEV/DEN4. The variant that contained all three mutations (vΔ30/E315/NS5654,655) was significantly attenuated for neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence and displayed a reduced level of replication and virus-induced histopathology in the brains of mice. The high level of safety in the central nervous system indicates that vΔ30/E315/NS5654,655 should be further evaluated as a TBEV vaccine.

  20. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  1. Defined Contribution vs Defined Pension: Reforming the Legal Retirement Age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of changing Social Security parameters on the optimal legal retirement age. Two Social Security Systems are studied, with opposite results. When the pension scheme has a defined contribution, a more redistributive system will delay the preferred legal retirement age. On the other hand, when the pension benefit is the defined parameter, the increase in the redistribution level will lower this preferred age.

  2. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  3. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  4. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged in...... large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... cluster actors according to a number of key background characteristics and second assess how the categories of the different interest group typologies relate to these clusters. We demonstrate that background characteristics do align to a certain extent with certain interest group types but also find...

  5. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  6. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam; Marquez, Luz Maria Muñoz; Rasmussen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged in l...

  7. Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity

  8. Defining and managing sustainable yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Ground water resource management programs are paying increasing attention to the integration of ground water and surface water in the planning process. Many plans, however, show a sophistication in approach and presentation that masks a fundamental weakness in the overall analysis. The plans usually discuss issues of demand and yield, yet never directly address a fundamental issue behind the plan--how to define sustainable yield of an aquifer system. This paper points out a number of considerations that must be addressed in defining sustainable yield in order to make the definition more useful in practical water resource planning studies. These include consideration for the spatial and temporal aspects of the problem, the development of a conceptual water balance, the influence of boundaries and changes in technology on the definition, the need to examine water demand as well as available supply, the need for stakeholder involvement, and the issue of uncertainty in our understanding of the components of the hydrologic system. PMID:15584295

  9. Defining the TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ALLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlbom, Gabriella; Åman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to define the Technology Transfer Alliance (TTA), a nonprofit organization for Higher Education Institutions supporting capacity building in ICT and renewable energy through a project-driven learning. TTA is today still only an idea, waiting to be launched, which is why the goals for this bachelor thesis are to establish partnerships with institutions that will support the reaching of the goals of TTA, as well as providing a more solid definition of the functions o...

  10. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe......). Our results on single–hop, multi–hop, and multi–path scenarios show that gains of 3x to 11x are attainable over standard TCP and multi–path TCP....

  11. The definability of physical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai S. Sant'Anna

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Our main purpose here is to make some specific considerations about the definability of physical concepts like mass, force, time, space, spacetime, and closed systems in the context of physical theories. Our starting motivation is a simple example of a collection of definitions of closed system in the literature of physics and philosophy of physics. Next we discuss the problem of definitions in theoretical physics from the point of view of modern theories of definition.

  12. The definability of physical concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Adonai S. Sant'Anna

    2005-01-01

    Our main purpose here is to make some specific considerations about the definability of physical concepts like mass, force, time, space, spacetime, and closed systems in the context of physical theories. Our starting motivation is a simple example of a collection of definitions of closed system in the literature of physics and philosophy of physics. Next we discuss the problem of definitions in theoretical physics from the point of view of modern theories of definition.

  13. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  14. Software Defined Radio Transceiver Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Gerry; Sanchez Mora , Magdalena; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the design and implementation of a low cost reconfigurable radio transceiver platform. The platform will be used as a research tool in the investigation of software defined radio techniques. The hardware presented is an evolution of work presented at the 2006 RIA colloquium. The platform consists of four hardware elements, namely a radio transmitter, a radio receiver, a baseband interface and a PC to perform signal processing and configuration. Data and control c...

  15. Defining and teaching veterinary professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mossop, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research and discussion around the notion of medical professionalism, veterinary professionalism is an understudied area. The aim of this study was to define the concept of veterinary professionalism and analyse the hidden curriculum of a new veterinary school, in order to produce a new curriculum of professionalism. This study used a constructivist grounded theory method to develop the definition. An iterative approach, using interviews and focus groups, collected inform...

  16. Defining and measuring ecological specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Devictor, Vincent; Clavel, Joanne; Julliard, Romain; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried; Venail, Patrick; Villéger, Sébastien; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is one of the main concepts in ecology and conservation. However, this concept has become highly context-dependent and is now obscured by the great variability of existing definitions and methods used to characterize ecological specialization. 2.  In this study, we clarify this concept by reviewing the strengths and limitations of different approaches commonly used to define and measure ecological specialization. We first show that ecological specialization can e...

  17. Defining Explanation in Probabilistic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chajewska, Urszula; Joseph Y. Halpern

    2013-01-01

    As probabilistic systems gain popularity and are coming into wider use, the need for a mechanism that explains the system's findings and recommendations becomes more critical. The system will also need a mechanism for ordering competing explanations. We examine two representative approaches to explanation in the literature - one due to G\\"ardenfors and one due to Pearl - and show that both suffer from significant problems. We propose an approach to defining a notion of "better explanation" th...

  18. Defining and resolving current systems in geospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.; Dubyagin, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Dandouras, I.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Ebihara, Y.; Ilie, R.; Katus, R.; Kubyshkina, M.; Milan, S. E.; Ohtani, S.; Ostgaard, N.; Reistad, J. P.; Tenfjord, P.; Toffoletto, F.; Zaharia, S.; Amariutei, O.

    2015-11-01

    Electric currents flowing through near-Earth space (R ≤ 12 RE) can support a highly distorted magnetic field topology, changing particle drift paths and therefore having a nonlinear feedback on the currents themselves. A number of current systems exist in the magnetosphere, most commonly defined as (1) the dayside magnetopause Chapman-Ferraro currents, (2) the Birkeland field-aligned currents with high-latitude "region 1" and lower-latitude "region 2" currents connected to the partial ring current, (3) the magnetotail currents, and (4) the symmetric ring current. In the near-Earth nightside region, however, several of these current systems flow in close proximity to each other. Moreover, the existence of other temporal current systems, such as the substorm current wedge or "banana" current, has been reported. It is very difficult to identify a local measurement as belonging to a specific system. Such identification is important, however, because how the current closes and how these loops change in space and time governs the magnetic topology of the magnetosphere and therefore controls the physical processes of geospace. Furthermore, many methods exist for identifying the regions of near-Earth space carrying each type of current. This study presents a robust collection of these definitions of current systems in geospace, particularly in the near-Earth nightside magnetosphere, as viewed from a variety of observational and computational analysis techniques. The influence of definitional choice on the resulting interpretation of physical processes governing geospace dynamics is presented and discussed.

  19. Analysis of Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from India using AFLPs, EF-1alfa gene intron 4, and Beta-tubulin gene intron 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tooley, P. W.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Carras, M. M.; Pažoutová, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 4 (2006), s. 441-451. ISSN 0953-7562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : clavicipitaceae * coevolution * ergot Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2006

  20. Beta-tubulin paralogue tubC is frequently misidentified as the benA gene in Aspergillus section Nigri taxonomy: primer specificity testing ad taxonomic consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, DEC 2012 (2012), s. 1-10. ISSN 0031-5850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biseriate black aspergilli * codon usage * gene duplication Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.486, year: 2012

  1. An integrated taxonomic study of Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae and Fusarium sporotrichioides based on the use of composite datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H.; Adler, A.; Holst-Jensen, A.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Logrieco, A.; Mach, R.L.; Nirenberg, H.I.; Thrane, Ulf; Torp, M.; Vogel, R.F.; Yli-Mattila, T.; Niessen, L.

    2004-01-01

    sporotrichioides using a composite dataset. This set consisted of DNA sequences derived from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, partial sequences of the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) region, the beta-tubulin and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) genes, AFLP fingerprints...

  2. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zaplata; M. Kasal

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sum...

  3. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaplata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sumes only a small part of its computational power.

  4. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  5. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre;

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on...... the present status of the pilot services. The evaluation will be conducted on two pilot services, that are being implemented - the Lifestyle companion and the Icebreaker. The plan of the evaluation is to carry out combinations of different types of user evaluation methods. These are user panel...

  6. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  7. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...

  8. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    severe hereditary effects are 10 x 10-2/Sv and 1.3 x10-2/Sv, respectively. The basic safety goals can be expressed by the complementary accumulative distribution function (CCDF) of dose versus frequencies of events: Pc(C > Cp) 5 (Cp/Co)-α. The aversion factor a is here expressed by the following arbitrary equation, which gives a polynomial curve of the order of m on a logarithmic plane: α = a+b(log(Cp/Co))m, where: Pc = CCDF frequency for Cp (/yr), Cp = dose (mSv), Co = Cp for Pc =1, a, b, m = constants. Figure 1 shows a typical tolerable risk profile (risk limit curve), which is drawn so that all the points obtained in the previous discussions are above the curve (Co=1, a=1, b=0.0772, and m = 2). Safety criteria by ANS (Ref. 2) and SHE (Ref. 3) are shown in Fig. 1 for comparison. An aversion of a factor of 2 is resulted between 1 mSv and 1 Sv. No ALARA is included, which must be considered in defining specific safety goals. The frequency of a single class of events must be lower than the CCDF profile, and a curve lower by a factor of 10 is drawn in Fig. 1. The doses referenced in the current Japanese safety guidelines and site criteria are shown in Fig. 1. The referenced doses seem reasonable, considering the conservatism in the analysis of design-basis accidents. Specific safety goals for each sort of facility can be defined based on the basic safety goals, reflecting the characteristics of the facilities and considering ALARA. The indexes of engineering terms, such as CMF and LERF, are preferable for nuclear power plants, although interpretation from dose to the engineering terms is needed. Other indexes may be used (such as frequency of criticality accidents, etc.) for facilities except for power plants. The applicability of safety goals will thus be improved. Figure 2 shows the relative risk factors (1, 1%, and 0.1%) versus the severity of radiation effects. This might indicate the adequacy of the risk factors. The absolute risk limits, which are derived here from

  9. Defining Eritrea's scarce water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eritrea - located in Northeast Africa - covers a surface area of 117 600 km2. The country has a long stretch of coastline along the Red Sea to the northeast, across from which are Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Sudan is to the west, Ethiopia to the south and Djibouti to the southeast (above figure). The Red Sea region, with its multiple ports, especially the major ports of Assab and Massawa, is economically vital to the country. Part of the East African Rift System, the area also has high potential for geothermal energy development and mineral water exploitation. Sustainable water management is regarded as a priority in this region, as it is a major basis for socio- economic development. The main aquifers in the area are primarily located in Quaternary alluvial deposits and vesicular basalt flows originating from volcano massifs. Two national technical cooperation projects in isotope hydrology were started respectively in 2007 and 2009 by the Department of Water Resources, the Eritrean Ministry of Land, Water and Environment and the Ministry of Health. These projects aim to contribute to improving the potable water supply in the region by determining whether aquifers are affected by salt intrusion into the Eritrean part of the Red Sea Basin, which extends from the northern Gulf of Suez southeast along the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden in the Indian Ocean. 'Isotope Hydrology in the Red Sea Basin' (ERI8002) is the first isotope hydrology TC project in Eritrea, and 'Applying Nuclear Techniques for the Monitoring and Protection of Surface and Groundwater Resources' (ERI8003), is the continuation of the first project. In southeast Eritrea, available water has been highly scarce (facing page, bottom). Total surface water and groundwater (excluding overlap), for example, only amounted to 701 m3 per capita in 2001 (compared to 5705 m3 per capita in sub-Saharan Africa), and irregular and unreliable rainfall in recent years has been exacerbating water resources scarcity. Under

  10. Defining the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Paasche

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Little Ice Age" (LIA is possibly the best-documented climatic anomaly of the past. A wide range of datasets portrays a harsh climate that worsened living conditions, primarily in terms of cooler temperatures, for people across Europe sometime during the last millennium. Regardless of the vast amount of data covering the LIA, there is presently no consensus concerning its spatial manifestation (was it regional or global?, its temporal constraints (when did it start and end?, or the broad-scale dynamics associated with it (what mechanisms did it involve?, although there is no shortage of suggestions. Based on a new compilation of data reflecting atmospheric circulation at both high and low latitudes, we show that the LIA lasted for roughly 400 years (∼1400–1800 AD. During this period at least four major atmospheric circulation systems on Earth co-varied on decadal to centennial timescales: Northern Annular Mode (NAM, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO and West African Monsoon (WAM. This pattern of convergence suggests that a strong coupling between these circulation systems was an important pre-condition for the realisation of the LIA.

  11. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  12. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  13. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity. PMID:26057159

  14. Software Defined Networking (Dagstuhl Seminar 12363)

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Pan; Koponen, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the talks and discussions of Dagstuhl Seminar 12363 "Software Defined Networking". The presented talks represent a spectrum of industrial and academic work as well as both technical and organizational developments surrounding Software Defined Networking (SDN). The topic of SDN has garnered significant attention over the past few years in the networking community and beyond, and indeed the term "Software Defined Networking" itself carries different meani...

  15. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  16. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation...

  17. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  18. Framework for defining the functional role of annunciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a framework for examining annunciation and its use in a project to define the functional role for CANDU annunciation. This work was performed as part of a larger project to develop, evaluate and recommend an architecture of CANDU annunciation that would better meet the information needs of plant staff under all plant operating regions. The first phase of the project, performed in 1991, has established an initial definition of the functional role for CANDU annunciation. Subsequent project phases will define options for solution for specific alarm functions at CANDU stations in areas where the present annunciation systems do not fully meet the needs of operations staff. This paper discusses background to the project, describes the place of annunciation in relation to other plant operator support and plant information functions, describes how the functional role was defined, and outlines the direction of further work. 7 refs. 2 figs. 1 tab

  19. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  20. A software defined radio module for vehicular communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab, M.; BERBINEAU,M; GRANSART,C; M. Wahl

    2010-01-01

    The Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a technology that enables to run several radio waveforms on the same hardware terminal. In our research work, we are interested in the development of a SDR platform dedicated to vehicular communications. Our goal is to develop driver-assistance applications by the combination of local environment data (car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure communications) and regional traffic data (digital broadcast). For this purpose, we propose to integrate to cars a SDR h...

  1. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  2. 29 CFR 779.107 - Goods defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.107 Goods defined. The term goods is...; advertising, motion pictures, newspaper and radio copy; art work and manuscripts for publication; sample...

  3. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  4. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  5. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  6. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  7. User Defined Spreadsheet Functions in Excel

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszkiewicz, Jerzy; Balson, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    Creating user defined functions (UDFs) is a powerful method to improve the quality of computer applications, in particular spreadsheets. However, the only direct way to use UDFs in spreadsheets is to switch from the functional and declarative style of spreadsheet formulas to the imperative VBA, which creates a high entry barrier even for proficient spreadsheet users. It has been proposed to extend Excel by UDFs declared by a spreadsheet: user defined spreadsheet functions (UDSFs). In this pap...

  8. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  9. Defining service innovation: a review and synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Witell, Lars; Snyder, Hannah; Gustafsson, Anders; Fombelle, Paul; Kristensson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation...

  10. Software-Defined Cellular Mobile Network Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiandong Li; Peng Liu; Hongyan Li

    2014-01-01

    The emergency relating to software-defined networking (SDN), especially in terms of the prototype associated with OpenFlow, pro-vides new possibilities for innovating on network design. Researchers have started to extend SDN to cellular networks. Such new programmable architecture is beneficial to the evolution of mobile networks and allows operators to provide better services. The typical cellular network comprises radio access network (RAN) and core network (CN); hence, the technique roadmap diverges in two ways. In this paper, we investigate SoftRAN, the latest SDN solution for RAN, and SoftCell and MobileFlow, the latest solu-tions for CN. We also define a series of control functions for CROWD. Unlike in the other literature, we emphasize only software-defined cellular network solutions and specifications in order to provide possible research directions.

  11. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  12. Technical communication: Notes toward defining discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    In the field of technical communication, definitions posited in virtually any major text violate every major rule of definitions. The most popular method for defining the field is to state that technical writing is any writing that supports technology or technological activities. There is a need for a nice yardstick for measuring what "technology" is. Some ways in which the field can be defined in a tightly structured empirical way and some implications of technical communication for a humanistic education in a technological age are suggested.

  13. Defining actionable mutations for oncology therapeutic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T Hedley; McEwen, Robert; Dougherty, Brian; Johnson, Justin H; Dry, Jonathan R; Lai, Zhongwu; Ghazoui, Zara; Laing, Naomi M; Hodgson, Darren R; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Hollingsworth, Simon J; Barrett, J Carl

    2016-04-26

    Genomic profiling of tumours in patients in clinical trials enables rapid testing of multiple hypotheses to confirm which genomic events determine likely responder groups for targeted agents. A key challenge of this new capability is defining which specific genomic events should be classified as 'actionable' (that is, potentially responsive to a targeted therapy), especially when looking for early indications of patient subgroups likely to be responsive to new drugs. This Opinion article discusses some of the different approaches being taken in early clinical development to define actionable mutations, and describes our strategy to address this challenge in early-stage exploratory clinical trials. PMID:27112209

  14. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates recent reforms of the Greenland coastal fisheries in order to contribute to the general lessons on reform and policy networks in the context of a changing Arctic stakeholdership. It analyses participation in fisheries governance decision-making by examining the emergence...... of discourses and policy networks that come to define the very need for reform. A policy network is identified across state ministries, powerful officials, banks and large scale industry that defined the need for fisheries reform within a ‘grand reform’ discourse. But inertia characterised the actual decision...

  15. GNU Based Security in Software Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Bhadka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various new technologies are explored for radio communication toward the 21st century. Among them the technology of "software defined radio" attracts large attention. Software Defined Radio (SDR technology implements some of the functional modules of a radio system in software enabling highly flexible handsets. SDR devices may be reconfigured dynamically via the download of new software modules. Malicious or malfunctioning downloaded software present serious security risks to SDR devices and networks in which they operate. Together with the use of software downloading, future terminals will become a platform to support the deployment of yet unspecified services and applications.

  16. Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem for Definable Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Seraji, Payam; Chao, Conden

    2016-01-01

    It is proved that if $T$ is a $\\Sigma_{n+1}$ Definable theory which is $\\Sigma_n$-sound and extends $PA$, then $T$ can not prove the sentence $\\Sigma_n-sound(T)$ that expresses the $\\Sigma_n$-soundness of $T$. Optimality of this result is showed by constructing a $\\Sigma_{n+1}$-definable and $\\Sigma_{n-1}$-sound theory extending $PA$ such that $\\Sigma_n-sound(T)$ is $T$-provable. It is also proved that no R.E. arithmetical theory, evevn very weak theories which are not $\\Sigma_1$-complete, ca...

  17. Defining and Assessing Public Health Functions: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan; Jakubowski, Elke; Kluge, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Given the broad scope and intersectoral nature of public health structures and practices, there are inherent difficulties in defining which services fall under the public health remit and in assessing their capacity and performance. The aim of this study is to analyze how public health functions and practice have been defined and operationalized in different countries and regions around the world, with a specific focus on assessment tools that have been developed to evaluate the performance of essential public health functions, services, and operations. Our review has identified nearly 100 countries that have carried out assessments, using diverse analytical and methodological approaches. The assessment processes have evolved quite differently according to administrative arrangements and resource availability, but some key contextual factors emerge that seem to favor policy-oriented follow-up. These include local ownership of the assessment process, policymakers' commitment to reform, and expert technical advice for implementation. PMID:26789385

  18. Paleontological evidence for defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Paleontological criteria formed the basis for defining most of the geological eras, periods, epochs, and ages that are commonly recognized. By the same token, the Anthropocene can be defined by paleontological distinctiveness in accordance with commonly accepted biostratigraphic and biochronologic practice. Here I focus on the utility of defining the Anthropocene by the distinctive fossils (or potential fossils of the future) that have accumulated and are accumulating in the sedimentary record. I discuss what kinds of biostratrigraphic criteria would be of most use in recognizing the Anthropocene's base and temporal extent, including pros and cons of definitions based on range zones, interval zones, lineage zones, assemblage zones, and abundance zones, as well as implications for potential reference sections. Key paleontological criteria useful in formally defining the Anthropocene as a geological epoch include (1) anthropogenic trace fossils such as buildings, roads, plastics, etc; (2) abundance zones based on remains of domesticated species and humans; and (3) assemblage zones based on species transported around the globe by people. The magnitude of paleontologically-recognizable changes that have occurred since humans became the dominant species on Earth is at least as great as the paleontological differences that distinguish other Cenozoic epochs, and supports recognition of the Anthropocene as a formal stratigraphic unit.

  19. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  20. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate their ...

  1. Defining, constructing and assessing learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M

    2009-08-01

    Learning outcomes define the veterinary curriculum and inform students about what they must be able to demonstrate to succeed. Stakeholder consultation during their development ensures that programme learning outcomes equip graduates to contribute to the veterinary profession. Effective learning outcomes form a hierarchy linking the programme, its courses and tasks. Clear outcomes direct students towards higher quality learning by indicating the achievements intended, but leave scope for emergent learning outcomes. Defined technical competencies fit within this overarching framework, complementing higher order learning. Mapping is used to align learning outcomes horizontally and vertically so students are systematically guided towards entry-level competence and professional independence. Constructively aligned learning and assessment tasks ensure learners spend the focused time required to sequentially develop programme outcomes. Assessment by staff, peers and other stakeholders certifies achievement of intended outcomes. Effective assessment also empowers students to define and achieve their own learning outcomes, so they develop the habits of autonomous life-long learning. Evaluation of the quality and consistency of achieved outcomes informs ongoing programme improvement. If we are going to achieve the objectives of this set of papers, i.e. to improve public health education globally (Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz. 28 [2] 2009), then it is essential that they be well defined in the learning outcomes statement of all veterinary schools. PMID:20128490

  2. Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gary N.; Wang, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    From the beginning of the use of the term, there have been struggles over the meaning of human resource development (HRD). In recent years, there has been increased attention to the field's definition. This paper moves this exploration one more step to an exploration of the dilemma of defining international and cross-national HRD. A beginning…

  3. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  4. 7 CFR 1210.500 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1210.500 Section 1210.500 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.601 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1280.601 Section 1280.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.301 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1260.301 Section 1260.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  7. 7 CFR 1215.100 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1215.100 Section 1215.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.400 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1210.400 Section 1210.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND...

  9. 7 CFR 29.9201 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.9201 Section 29.9201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  10. 7 CFR 1280.401 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1280.401 Section 1280.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.200 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1219.200 Section 1219.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION,...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.301 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1220.301 Section 1220.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  13. 7 CFR 29.12 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.12 Section 29.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.200 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1206.200 Section 1206.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.100 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1230.100 Section 1230.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1209.200 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1209.200 Section 1209.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. 7 CFR 160.3 - Rosin defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rosin defined. 160.3 Section 160.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS...

  18. A novel monoclonal antibody to a defined peptide epitope in MUC16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Ricardo, Sara; Chen, Kowa;

    2015-01-01

    the tandem-repeat region, their epitopes appear to be conformational dependent and not definable by a short peptide. Aberrant glycoforms of MUC16 may constitute promising targets for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic intervention, and it is important to develop well-defined immunogens for induction of...

  19. Deciding the weak definability of Büchi definable tree languages

    OpenAIRE

    Colcombet, Thomas; Kuperberg, Denis; Löding, Christof; Vanden Boom, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Weakly definable languages of infinite trees are an expressive subclass of regular tree languages definable in terms of weak monadic second-order logic, or equivalently weak alternating automata. Our main result is that given a Büchi automaton, it is decidable whether the language is weakly definable. We also show that given a parity automaton, it is decidable whether the language is recognizable by a nondeterministic co-Büchi automaton. The decidability proofs build on recent results abou...

  20. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype.

  1. Phylogenetic analyses of phytopathogenic isolates of Verticillium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Q M; Vallad, G E; Wu, B M; Subbarao, K. V.

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the genetic relationships between Verticillium dahliae isolates from lettuce and other phytopathogenic Verticillium spp. isolates from various hosts and geographic locations, the complete intergenic spacer (IGS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and the beta-tubulin gene were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the complete IGS region and the P-tubulin gene were used alone and in combination to infer genetic relationships among different isolates of Ve...

  2. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  3. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  4. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  5. Defining Product Customization as Form Postponement

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuyoshi Takashima

    2010-01-01

    Form postponement is one of the theoretical frameworks used in recent years to explain the development of supply chain management through product customization in various industries, along with the creation of competitive advantage based on it. This study seeks to apply a modified version of Bucklin' s postponement-speculation model to the phenomenon of customization, defining customization as a form of postponement. This model demonstrates that production costs and uncertainty costs determin...

  6. Defining the space in a general spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mayeul

    2016-01-01

    A global vector field v on a “spacetime” differentiable manifold V, of dimension N + 1, defines a congruence of world lines: the maximal integral curves of v, or orbits. The associated global space Nv is the set of these orbits. A “v-adapted” chart on V is one for which the ℝN vector x ≡ (xj) (j = 1,…,N) of the “spatial” coordinates remains constant on any orbit l. We consider non-vanishing vector fields v that have non-periodic orbits, each of which is a closed set. We prove transversality theorems relevant to such vector fields. Due to these results, it can be considered plausible that, for such a vector field, there exists in the neighborhood of any point X ∈V a chart χ that is v-adapted and “nice”, i.e. such that the mapping χ¯ : l↦x is injective — unless v has some “pathological” character. This leads us to define a notion of “normal” vector field. For any such vector field, the mappings χ¯ build an atlas of charts, thus providing Nv with a canonical structure of differentiable manifold (when the topology defined on Nv is Hausdorff, for which we give a sufficient condition met in important physical situations). Previously, a local space manifold MF had been associated with any “reference frame” F, defined as an equivalence class of charts. We show that, if F is made of nice v-adapted charts, MF is naturally identified with an open subset of the global space manifold Nv.

  7. Defining invasiveness and invasibility in ecological networks

    OpenAIRE

    C. Hui; Richardson, D. M.; Landi, P; H.O. Minoarivelo; Garnas, J.; Roy, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    The success of a biological invasion is context dependent, and yet two key concepts—the invasiveness of species and the invasibility of recipient ecosystems—are often defined and considered separately. We propose a framework that can elucidate the complex relationship between invasibility and invasiveness. It is based on trait-mediated interactions between species and depicts the response of an ecological network to the intrusion of an alien species, drawing on the concept of community satura...

  8. Software-defined universal microwave photonics processor

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Capmany Francoy, José

    2015-01-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic an...

  9. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motiv...

  10. A software defined radio implementation using MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ziyi

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a hot topic of wireless communication research in recent years. The idea of SDR is to use ultra-high speed sampling and ADC/DAC modules directly measure the received radio signal and decode whatever it contains. The aim of this project is to study and understand SDR using MATLAB in audio frequency band. In this project, both analog and digital modulation and demodulation methods are studied. Two Matlab sessions are set for sender and...

  11. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans and independently of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the me...

  12. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Humble, Travis S.; Sadlier, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals int...

  13. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  14. Software Defined Networking for Heterogeneous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonca, Marc; Astuto, Bruno Nunes; Obraczka, Katia; Turletti, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by the vision that future internets will comprise infrastructure--based and infrastructure--less networks, we explore the use of the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm in these so-called ''heterogeneous'' networked environments. To make the case for SDN in heterogeneous networks, we examine an application scenario in which SDN is a key enabling technology. We also identify the additional requirements imposed by the SDN paradigm and discuss the research challen...

  15. Software defined networking: meeting carrier grade requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Staessens, Dimitri; Sharma, Sachin; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Networking is a networking paradigm which allows network operators to manage networking elements using software running on an external server. This is accomplished by a split in the architecture between the forwarding element and the control element. Two technologies which allow this split for packet networks are ForCES and Openflow. We present energy efficiency and resilience aspects of carrier grade networks which can be met by Openflow. We implement flow restoration and ru...

  16. Software-Defined Networking and its Security

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a new principle in the networking paradigm, which makes a communication network programmable. With this utility, security properties can be redesigned. SDN provides new axioms for security applications to implement security services. In this thesis, security threats troubling Ethernet technology are interpreted and whether the SDN can provide a solution to overcome these is discussed. Furthermore, existing SDN security applications are presented and compar...

  17. Anomaly Traceback using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    François, Jérôme; Festor, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While the threats in Internet are still increasing and evolving (like intra multi-tenant data center attacks), protection and detection mechanisms are not fully accurate. Therefore, forensics is vital for recovering from an attack but also to identify the responsible entities. Therefore, this paper focuses on tracing back to the sources of an anomaly in the network. In this paper, we propose a method leveraging the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to passively identify switches comp...

  18. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    CERN Document Server

    McCartor, D

    2004-01-01

    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  19. A software defined GPS signal simulator design

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Zhenhe

    2014-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) signal simulator plays a critical role in developing and testing GPS receivers. Unfortunately, very few commercial GPS signal simulators are user-friendly for security researchers because they fail to generate abnormal GPS signals, which are fundamentally important. In this thesis, we develop a cost efficient software defined GPS signal simulator. To reduce the design complexity, we make some reasonable assumptions about the GPS system. This simulator ...

  20. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  1. Sarcopenia: describing rather than defining a condition

    OpenAIRE

    Alchin, David Rhys

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional definitions of sarcopenia have described an aging-associated disorder roughly defined as muscle mass two standard deviations below the young adult demographic. In an effort to clear the ambiguity pertaining to such descriptions, two international bodies have put forth working definitions of sarcopenia, namely The Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders in 2011, and The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People in 2009. Review This paper will loo...

  2. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multicore, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to approx.50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  3. Defining geographic coal markets using price data and shipments data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the importance of coal in world energy supply an analysis of the relevant geographic market is essential for consumers, producers, as well as for competition policy. The purpose of this paper is to define the relevant economic market for steam and coking coal, and to test the hypothesis of single world markets for these coal products. Methodologically the paper relies on two different tests for defining markets, using both shipments data and price data. The results from both methods point in the same direction. In the case of coking coal the results indicate that the market is essentially global in scope, and also that the market has become more integrated over time. The results for steam coal show that the market is more regional in scope, and there exist no clear tendencies of increased integration over time. One policy implication of the finding that the steam coal market is more regional in scope, and thus that the market boundary is smaller than if the market would have been international, is that a merger and acquisition in this market likely would have been of a more concern for antitrust authorities than the same activity on the coking coal market

  4. A simple method for defining malaria seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lucy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently no standard way of defining malaria seasonality, resulting in a wide range of definitions reported in the literature. Malaria cases show seasonal peaks in most endemic settings, and the choice and timing for optimal malaria control may vary by seasonality. A simple approach is presented to describe the seasonality of malaria, to aid localized policymaking and targeting of interventions. Methods A series of systematic literature reviews were undertaken to identify studies reporting on monthly data for full calendar years on clinical malaria, hospital admission with malaria and entomological inoculation rates (EIR. Sites were defined as having 'marked seasonality' if 75% or more of all episodes occurred in six or less months of the year. A 'concentrated period of malaria' was defined as the six consecutive months with the highest cumulative proportion of cases. A sensitivity analysis was performed based on a variety of cut-offs. Results Monthly data for full calendar years on clinical malaria, all hospital admissions with malaria, and entomological inoculation rates were available for 13, 18, and 11 sites respectively. Most sites showed year-round transmission with seasonal peaks for both clinical malaria and hospital admissions with malaria, with a few sites fitting the definition of 'marked seasonality'. For these sites, consistent results were observed when more than one outcome or more than one calendar year was available from the same site. The use of monthly EIR data was found to be of limited value when looking at seasonal variations of malaria transmission, particularly at low and medium intensity levels. Conclusion The proposed definition discriminated well between studies with 'marked seasonality' and those with less seasonality. However, a poor fit was observed in sites with two seasonal peaks. Further work is needed to explore the applicability of this definition on a wide-scale, using routine

  5. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch is...... comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  6. Rates of Convergence of Recursively Defined Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a generalization of a result by Matiyasevich which gives explicit rates of convergence for monotone recursively defined sequences. The generalization is motivated by recent developments in fixed point theory and the search for applications of proof mining to the field. It relaxes...... the requirement for monotonicity to the form xn+1 ≤ (1+an)xn+bn where the parameter sequences have to be bounded in sum, and also provides means to treat computational errors. The paper also gives an example result, an application of proof mining to fixed point theory, that can be achieved by the...

  7. Defining the Observed World in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Inamori, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines what constitutes the Observed World in the Quantum Mechanical framework, based strictly on what is actually observed beyond doubt, instead of building observables on what is inferred from actual observations. Such principle narrows down considerably what can be considered as being part of the Observed World. On the other hand, we argue that some information - that is in general assumed as granted - should actually be considered as being part of the Observed World. We discuss the implications of such assertion, in the way we perceive time evolution, information growth and causality.

  8. Animal bioavailability of defined xenobiotic lignin metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignin has been recognized as a major component of bound pesticide residues in plants and is thought to be undigestible in animals. Two defined ring-U-14C-labeled chloroaniline/lignin metabolites have now been fed to rats, where a release of ∼66% of the bound xenobiotic occurred in the form of simple chloroaniline derivatives. The observed high degree of bioavailability indicates that bound pesticidal residues may possess ecotoxicological significance. In parallel studies, the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was more efficient, and a soil system was much less efficient, in the degradation of the [ring-U-14C]chloroaniline/lignin metabolites

  9. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples. PMID:26072824

  10. Heisenberg's Uncertainty : an Ill-Defined Notion ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2012-01-01

    The often cited book [11] of Asher Peres presents Quantum Mechanics without the use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, a principle which it calls an "ill-defined notion". There is, however, no argument in this regard in the mentioned book, or comment related to the fact that its use in the realms of quanta is not necessary, let alone, unavoidable. A possible comment in this respect is presented here. And it is related to certain simple, purely logical facts in axiomatic theories, facts ...

  11. Software defined networks a comprehensive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Goransson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks discusses the historical networking environment that gave rise to SDN, as well as the latest advances in SDN technology. The book gives you the state of the art knowledge needed for successful deployment of an SDN, including: How to explain to the non-technical business decision makers in your organization the potential benefits, as well as the risks, in shifting parts of a network to the SDN modelHow to make intelligent decisions about when to integrate SDN technologies in a networkHow to decide if your organization should be developing its own SDN applications or

  12. Software defined networking applications in distributed datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Heng

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides essential insights on the SDN application designing and deployment in distributed datacenters. In this book, three key problems are discussed: SDN application designing, SDN deployment and SDN management. This book demonstrates how to design the SDN-based request allocation application in distributed datacenters. It also presents solutions for SDN controller placement to deploy SDN in distributed datacenters. Finally, an SDN management system is proposed to guarantee the performance of datacenter networks which are covered and controlled by many heterogeneous controllers. Researchers and practitioners alike will find this book a valuable resource for further study on Software Defined Networking. .

  13. Defining Requirements for Improved Photovoltaic System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A.B.

    1998-12-21

    Reliable systems are an essential ingredient of any technology progressing toward commercial maturity and large-scale deployment. This paper defines reliability as meeting system fictional requirements, and then develops a framework to understand and quantify photovoltaic system reliability based on initial and ongoing costs and system value. The core elements necessary to achieve reliable PV systems are reviewed. These include appropriate system design, satisfactory component reliability, and proper installation and servicing. Reliability status, key issues, and present needs in system reliability are summarized for four application sectors.

  14. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  15. Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pritchard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as well as cultural theorists, to references to a biological basis of identity.

  16. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    language designed for general system description. It is partly build upon Simula, but is more than a programming language, since it contains several features, which cannot be implemented on a computer system. E.g. a continuous time concept, concurrency between an unbounded number of components and the...... possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from this...

  17. Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Pritchard

    2013-01-01

    This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as well as cultura...

  18. COMMENSURABLE ENCRYPTION USING USER- DEFINE KEY TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ripal dilipbhai ranpara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is the gold standard for security. It is used to protect the transmission and storage of data between two parties by encrypting it into an unreadable format. Cryptography has enabled the first wave of secure transmissions, which has helped fuel the growth of transactions like shopping, banking, and finance over the world’s biggest public network, the Internet. Many Internet applications such as e-mail, databases, and browsers store a tremendous amount of personal and financial information, but frequently the data is left unprotected. Traditional network security is frequently less effective at preventing hackers from accessing this data. For instance, once-private databases are now completely exposed on the Internet. It turns out that getting to the database that holds millions of credit card numbers—the transmission—is secure through the use of cryptography, but the database itself isn’t, fueling the rise of credit card information theft. A paradigm shift is now under way for cryptography. The only way to make data secure in any application that runs over the Internet is to use secret (also known as private key cryptography. The current security methods focus on securing Internet applications using public keys techniques that are no longer effective.so according to my knowledge no one has addressed on COMMENSURABLE USER-DEFINE KEY TECHNIQUE that is used to encrypt the data as per the user-define key

  19. Defining the genetic blueprint of kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W; Patterson, Larry T

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of genes show differential expression patterns during kidney development, suggesting that the genetic program driving this process is complex. While great progress has been made in defining the outline of the genetic basis of nephrogenesis, it is clear that much remains to be learned. A global atlas of the gene expression profiles of the multiple elements of the developing kidney would allow the identification of novel growth factor-receptor interactions, identify additional molecular markers of distinct components, facilitate the generation of compartment specific GFP-CRE transgenic mouse tools, lend insights into the genetic regulatory circuits governing nephron formation, and fully characterize the waves of gene expression that impel nephrogenesis. Both microarrays and next generation deep sequencing of cDNA libraries can be used to define comprehensive, sensitive, and quantitative gene expression profiles. In addition, laser capture microdissection and transgenic GFP mice can be used to isolate specific compartments and pure cell types from the developing kidney. Advancing technologies are even allowing robust gene expression profiling of single cells. The final goal is the production of an exquisitely detailed atlas of the gene expression program that drives kidney development. PMID:21336810

  20. Defining and measuring vulnerability in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Khanna Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and youth, together addressed as "young people", form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems - some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented.

  1. Defining and Measuring Vulnerability in Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Shah, Dheeraj; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and youth, together addressed as "young people", form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems - some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented. PMID:26170545

  2. A review of the risks, costs and benefits of defined contribution and defined benefit pension schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Watson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relative risks and benefits associated with defined contribution (DC) and defined benefit (DB) pension schemes. New regulatory and governance requirements and demographic changes have all significantly raised the costs and reduced the expected benefits to employers of operating DB schemes. In response, many employers have either closed down their DB schemes, closed the scheme to new members and/or to capped any further accruing of benefit...

  3. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  4. Discovery of Two New Talaromyces Species from Crop Field Soil in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Mahesh; Yadav, Dil Raj; Kim, Sangwoo; Um, Yong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Seung; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2015-01-01

    Two new fungal species of the genus Talaromyces, Talaromyces purpurogenus and Talaromyces trachyspermus from the Trichocomaceae family, were recovered during an investigation of fungal communities in soil collected from the Gangwon-do and Jeollanam-do provinces of Korea. These two species have not been previously officially reported from Korea. In this study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and beta-tubulin gene regions of these two fungi are presented. Morphological...

  5. Defining and measuring pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is sought that is general enough to help the researcher deal with a wide range of situations involving pilot mental stress. A limited capacity theory of attention forms the basis for the theory. Mental workload is then defined as an intervening variable, similar to attention, that modulates or indexes the tuning between the demands of the environment and the capacity of the organism. Two methods for measuring pilot mental workload are endorsed: (1) objective measures based on secondary tasks; and (2) psychophysiological measures, which have not yet been perfected but which will become more useful as theoretical models are refined. Secondary-task research is illustrated by simulator studies in which flying performance has been shown not to be adversely affected by adding a complex choice-reaction secondary task.

  6. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness. PMID:25714948

  7. Can we define climate using information theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard definition of climate is, by convention, based on a thirty-year sample. But why? One way to define the sampling period for constructing climatologies is to ask: What is a sufficient sample to construct probability density functions (PDF) for key meteorological variables? I propose an information-theoretic framework for evaluating climatic sampling periods based on level of detail and associated uncertainties in the estimated PDF, the Shannon entropy growth curve and its discrete derivative, and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. I compute these quantities for 235 years of daily data from the Central UK Temperature record and use these statistics to compare popular sampling periods and discuss the feasibility of determining an optimal sampling period.

  8. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  9. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The...... difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age and that the...

  10. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  11. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances. This......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges for...... new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper...

  12. "Defining Computer 'Speed': An Unsolved Challenge"

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The reason we use computers is their speed, and the reason we use parallel computers is that they're faster than single-processor computers. Yet, after 70 years of electronic digital computing, we still do not have a solid definition of what computer 'speed' means, or even what it means to be 'faster'. Unlike measures in physics, where the definition of speed is rigorous and unequivocal, in computing there is no definition of speed that is universally accepted. As a result, computer customers have made purchases misguided by dubious information, computer designers have optimized their designs for the wrong goals, and computer programmers have chosen methods that optimize the wrong things. This talk describes why some of the obvious and historical ways of defining 'speed' haven't served us well, and the things we've learned in the struggle to find a definition that works. Biography: Dr. John Gustafson is a Director ...

  13. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  14. Oscillator metrology with software defined radio

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Jeff A

    2016-01-01

    Analog electrical elements such as mixers, filters, transfer oscillators, isolating buffers, dividers, and even transmission lines contribute technical noise and unwanted environmental coupling in time and frequency measurements. Software defined radio (SDR) techniques replace many of these analog components with digital signal processing (DSP) on rapidly sampled signals. We demonstrate that, generically, commercially available multi-channel SDRs are capable of time and frequency metrology, outperforming purpose-built devices by as much as an order-of-magnitude. For example, for signals at 10 MHz and 6 GHz, we observe SDR time deviation noise floors of about 20 fs and 1 fs, respectively, in under 10 ms of averaging. Examining the other complex signal component, we find a relative amplitude measurement instability of 3e-7 at 5 MHz. We discuss the scalability of a SDR-based system for simultaneous measurement of many clocks. SDR's frequency agility allows for comparison of oscillators at widely different freque...

  15. Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

  16. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DEFINING THE NEEDED CAPABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-10

    This is the second of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper begins with a discussion of the current nuclear force and the plans and procurement programs for the modernization of that force. Current weapon systems and warheads were conceived and built decades ago, and procurement programs have begun for the modernization or replacement of major elements of the nuclear force: the heavy bomber, the air-launched cruise missile, the ICBMs, and the ballistic-missile submarines. In addition, the Nuclear Weapons Council has approved a new framework for nuclear-warhead life extension � not fully fleshed out yet � that aims to reduce the current number of nuclear explosives from seven to five, the so-called �3+2� vision. This vision includes three interoperable warheads for both ICBMs and SLBMs (thus eliminating one backup weapon) and two warheads for aircraft delivery (one gravity bomb and one cruise-missile, eliminating a second backup gravity bomb). This paper also includes a discussion of the current and near-term nuclear-deterrence mission, both global and regional, and offers some observations on future of the strategic deterrence mission and the challenges of regional and extended nuclear deterrence.

  17. Lipid and protein maps defining arterial layers in atherosclerotic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martin-Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI accounts with the unique advantage of analyzing proteins and metabolites (lipids while preserving their original localization; thus two dimensional maps can be obtained. Main molecular alterations were investigated in a rabbit model in response to early development of atherosclerosis. Aortic arterial layers (intima and media and calcified regions were investigated in detail by MALDI-MSI and proteins and lipids specifically defining those areas of interest were identified. These data further complement main findings previously published in J Proteomics (M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics. (In press; M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics 108 (2014 465–468. [1,2].

  18. Lipid and protein maps defining arterial layers in atherosclerotic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Balluff, Benjamin; Maroto, Aroa S; Carreira, Ricardo J; van Zeijl, Rene J M; Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F; Padial, Luis R; McDonnell, Liam A; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) accounts with the unique advantage of analyzing proteins and metabolites (lipids) while preserving their original localization; thus two dimensional maps can be obtained. Main molecular alterations were investigated in a rabbit model in response to early development of atherosclerosis. Aortic arterial layers (intima and media) and calcified regions were investigated in detail by MALDI-MSI and proteins and lipids specifically defining those areas of interest were identified. These data further complement main findings previously published in J Proteomics (M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics. (In press); M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics 108 (2014) 465-468.) [1,2]. PMID:26217810

  19. Role of histone modifications in defining chromatin structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, Kathy A; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nuclei are not uniformly organized, but rather contain distinct chromatin elements, with each state having a defined biochemical structure and biological function. These are recognizable by their distinct architectures and molecular components, which can change in response to cellular stimuli or metabolic requirements. Chromatin elements are characterized by the fundamental histone and DNA components, as well as other associated non-histone proteins and factors. Post-translational modifications of histone proteins in particular often correlate with a specific chromatin structure and function. Patterns of histone modifications are implicated as having a role in directing the level of chromatin compaction, as well as playing roles in multiple functional pathways directing the readout of distinct regions of the genome. We review the properties of various chromatin elements and the apparent links of histone modifications with chromatin organization and functional output. PMID:18225984

  20. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  1. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  2. Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL; Leech, Marcus [Shirleys Bay Radio Astronomy Consortium; Oxley, Paul [Retired; Flagg, Richard [Retired; Fields, David [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

  3. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Collado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota.

  4. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Cornelius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the concept ‘plain language’ has been hugely problematic since the origins of the so-called Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of ‘plain language’ abound, yet James (2008: 6 warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can’t yet call ourselves a coherent field, let alone a profession, while we offer such varying definitions of what we do”. Contemporary international definitions of ‘plain language’ are of three types: numerical (or formula-based, elements-focused, or outcomes-focused (Cheek 2010. In South Africa, protective legislation gave rise to a local definition of ‘plain language’ which was widely acclaimed for its comprehensiveness and practicality. From a textlinguistic angle, this article ruminates on the nature of the definition of ‘plain language’ in the National Credit Act (2005 and the Consumer Protection Act (2008, and critically appraises the value of the definition as a sharp and reliable conceptual tool for use by plain language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa.

  5. Methodologies for defining quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-10

    Quality of life as a concept has been used in many ways in the public policy arena. It can be used in summative evaluations to assess the impacts of policies or programs. Alternatively, it can be applied to formative evaluations to provide input to the formation of new policies. In short, it provides the context for the understanding needed to evaluate the results of choices that have been made in the public policy arena, or the potential of choices yet to be made. In either case, the public policy question revolves around the positive or negative impact the choice will have on quality of life, and the magnitude of that impact. This discussion will develop a conceptual framework that proposes that an assessment of quality of life is based on a comparison of expectations with experience. The framework defines four basic components from which these expectations arise: natural conditions, social conditions, the body, and the mind. Each one of these components is generally described, and associated with a general policy or rhetorical category which gives it its policy vocabulary--environmental quality, economic well-being, human health, and self-fulfillment.

  6. Defining functional dyspepsia Definiendo la dispepsia funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mearin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia represent a highly significant public health issue. A good definition of dyspepsia is key for helping us to better approach symptoms, decision making, and therapy indications. During the last few years many attempts were made at establishing a definition of dyspepsia. Results were little successful on most occasions, and clear discrepancies arose on whether symptoms should be associated with digestion, which types of symptoms were to be included, which anatomic location should symptoms have, etc. The Rome III Committee defined dyspepsia as "a symptom or set of symptoms that most physicians consider to originate from the gastroduodenal area", including the following: postprandial heaviness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning. Two new entities were defined: a food-induced dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial distress syndrome; and b epigastric pain (epigastric pain syndrome. These and other definitions have shown both strengths and weaknesses. At times they have been much too complex, at times much too simple; furthermore, they have commonly erred on the side of being inaccurate and impractical. On the other hand, some (the most recent ones are difficult to translate into the Spanish language. In a meeting of gastroenterologists with a special interest in digestive functional disorders, the various aspects of dyspepsia definition were discussed and put to the vote, and the following conclusions were arrived at: dyspepsia is defined as a set of symptoms, either related or unrelated to food ingestion, localized on the upper half of the abdomen. They include: a epigastric discomfort (as a category of severity or pain; b postprandial heaviness; and c early satiety. Associated complaints include: nausea, belching, bloating, and epigastric burn (heartburn. All these must be scored according to severity and frequency. Furthermore, psychological factors may be involved in the origin of functional dyspepsia. On the

  7. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION AS DEFINED BY WORKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Guedes Gondim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Creativity and innovation are now required given the new configurations in work processes, in organizational formats, in physical and intangible technologies, as well as in products and markets. In parallel with the growing centrality and interest in the phenomena of creativity and innovation, a broadening of its concepts is observed. The inflation and trivialization of uses tend to make them self-explanatory and not very enlightening regarding situations to which they apply and the associated effects. The lack of conceptual clarity thus contributes both to undermining policies to promote creativity and innovation in organizations, as well as to hinder the employees' adherence to such policies. The study aimed to characterize the key elements of workers' informal definitions of creativity and innovation, and identify their alignment with definitions and theoretical perspectives. The study included 231 workers from Portuguese-, Spanish-, and Basque-speaking countries, aged 22-75 years. The qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti 7 was used for coding and categorization. One point of convergence with the specialized literature was that creativity and innovation strongly associated with novelty in the development of an idea / product / process / service. Creativity, however, is defined more in terms of dispositional factors rather than contextual and situational factors, diverging from current theoretical perspectives. Planning as a key aspect for organizational innovation development is practically absent from the workers' definitions. It discusses some impacts of these settings for organizational management practices.

  8. Lithographically defined 3-dimensional graphene scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Polsky, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    Interferometrically defined 3D photoresist scaffolds are formed through a series of three successive two-beam interference exposures, a post exposure bake and development. Heating the resist scaffold in a reducing atmosphere to > 1000 °C, results in the conversion of the resist structure into a carbon scaffold through pyrolysis, resulting in a 3D sp3- bonded glassy carbon scaffold which maintains the same in-plane morphology as the resist despite significant shrinkage. The carbon scaffolds are readily modified using a variety of deposition methods such as electrochemical, sputtering and CVD/ALD. Remarkably, sputtering metal into scaffolds with ~ 5 unit cells tall results in conformal coating of the scaffold with the metal. When the metal is a transition metal such as nickel, the scaffold can be re-annealed, during which time the carbon diffuses through the nickel, emerging on the exterior of the nickel as sp2-bonded carbon, termed 3D graphene. This paper details the fabrication, characterization and some potential applications for these structures.

  9. Defining extreme wildland fires using geospatial and ancillary metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannom, K. O.; Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Newingham, B. A.; Hall, T. E.; Morgan, P.; Strand, E. K.; Paveglio, T. B.; Anderson, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Mega-fires, conflagrations, extreme, and catastrophic are descriptors interchangeably used to increasingly describe fires in recent decades in the US and globally. It is necessary to have consistent, meaningful, and quantitative metrics to define these perceived 'extreme' fires, given studies predict an increased frequency of large and intense wildfires in many ecosystems as a response to climate change. This study explored four metrics to describe both widespread fire years and potentially extreme individual fires derived from a case study of wildland fires from 1984-2009 in the northwestern United States. A combination of percentile-based thresholds was used for each of the metrics to define individual fires as extreme events. We identified both widespread fire years and individual fires as potentially extreme during 1984-2009 across a 91.2 million-ha area in the northwestern United States. The metrics included distributions of fire size, fire duration, burn severity, and distance to the wildland urban interface. Widespread fire years for the study region included 1988, 2000, 2006, and 2007. When considering the intersection of all four metrics using distributions at the 90th percentile, less than 1.5% of all fires were identified as potentially extreme fires. At the more stringent 95th and 99th percentiles, this percentage reduced to less than 0.5% and 0.05% respectively.

  10. A case study of weather forecast methodology defined by students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, L.; Macario, M.; Bini, F.; Ugolini, F.; Marandola, D.; Lanini, M.; Raschi, A.

    2009-09-01

    One of the main priority for our future society is to increase the interest of young people in science and technology. The cooperation between researchers, who produce scientific knowledge, and teachers, who disseminate it among students, is an effective method to reach this goal. In fact Science dissemination at school, overseen by researchers, can be of mutual benefit because scientists can improve their communication skills and convey their enthusiasm for scientific research. The Institute of Biometeorology has been working on science dissemination for many years in many different topics like meteorology, carbon dioxide fluxes and greenhouse effect and phenology, relying mainly on practical experiences made by the students under the supervision of researchers. This presentation reports of some experimental activities on Meteorology done in Liceo Scientifico of Prato Italy. The aim of the activity was to define a methodology of weather forecasting based on clouds observation. At first the researchers present and discuss with the students the meaning and graphic representation of some meteorological parameters and the methodology to identify clouds type and characteristic. An automatic weather station was set up on the roof of the school and students practiced how to download data from the weather station. At the same time they carried on daily observation of presence and types of clouds in the sky. Then they analyzed meteorological data and particularly atmospheric pressure and air humidity and defined their own methodology to do forecast. Finally they validated their results by comparing them with the meteorological maps of the regional weather service.

  11. Defining environmental river flow requirements – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Acreman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, there is an increasing desire, supported by national and regional policies and legislation, to conserve or restore the ecological health and functioning of rivers and their associated wetlands for human use and biodiversity. To achieve this, many organisations have developed methods for defining “environmental flows‿, i.e. the flow regime required in a river to achieve desired ecological objectives. This paper reviews the various methods available and suggests a simple categorisation of the methods into four types: look-up tables, desk-top analysis; functional analysis and hydraulic habitat modelling. No method is necessarily better than another; each may be suitable for different applications. Whilst look-up methods are easy and cheap to apply, they can be expensive to develop, are less accurate and more suitable for scoping studies; in contrast, although hydraulic habitat modelling is more expensive to apply, it is suitable for impact assessment at specific sites. Each method would need to be used within a wider decision-support framework. These are generally either objective-based to define a target flow regime for a specific desired river status, or scenario-based to indicate the relative merits of various flow regime options for the river environment. Keywords: environmental flow, instream flow, river habitat modelling, building block method, flow scenario analysis, objective setting.

  12. Convention defining the cooperation modalities between the Nuclear Safety Authority and the Work Directorate General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the conditions under which the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) contributes to the implementation of the work health and safety policy. It defines the modalities of actions in the field of workers' radiation protection for each national or regional signatory authority. It specifies the reciprocal commitments of each signatory authority with respect to site inspection organization and animation in nuclear power plants

  13. 20 CFR 404.430 - Monthly and annual exempt amounts defined; excess earnings defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... year prior to the year of full retirement age, as defined in § 404.409(a). A larger “annual” exempt... you attain full retirement age. The full annual exempt amount applies to the earnings of these pre-full retirement age months, even though they are earned in less than a year. For beneficiaries using...

  14. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  15. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  16. Optimisation in radiotherapy I. Defining the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimisation in radiotherapy should incorporate a very wide set of variables, including the combinations of dose due to external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, internally administered radionuclides and the effects of chemotherapy, surgery, hyperthermia, other biological and chemical defenses, alternative treatment techniques, lifestyle and mental state of the patient, the economics of cancer treatment and consideration of tolerable levels of adverse effects and palliation. A full treatment optimisation would consider the influence and covariance of all these variables and any future techniques, as well as the complex constraints imposed by the biological systems being irradiated. This series of reviews concentrates on optimisation of radiotherapy through the treatment planning component of the treatment process - an area of radiotherapy research that has received a great deal of attention as the attached lists of references will testify. It hopes to provide the medical physics and engineering community (and hopefully the clinical community) with a background into the mathematical bases for the manipulation of radiation for clinical benefit. It also examines the potential benefits of research into these techniques in the light of recent approaches to optimisation in radiotherapy, and provides pointers to more concise accounts in the literature. In this first article, the incentive for radiotherapy optimisation research is established, and the actual radiotherapy optimisation problem (in terms of the manipulation of degrees of freedom in radiation delivery) is defined. The degrees of freedom associated with radiotherapy treatment are identified, and it is shown how these degrees of freedom translate into the mathematical parameters of the problem, including the dose distributions they produce. The constraints and objectives of the problem are also discussed from both physical and radiobiological perspectives. (author)

  17. Pressure ulcer classification: defining early skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Linda

    2002-09-01

    This article is the second of a two-part series. The first part (Russell, 2002) looked at various systems and pitfalls of pressure ulcer classification systems. This article focuses on the difficulties of defining early skin damage. Patients' quality of life suffers significantly with a pressure ulcer. The smell of the exudate may be an embarrassment to the patient. The pain and the distress the patient will experience will not easily be forgotten, i.e. the number of dressings required for a deep pressure ulcer, even after the pressure ulcer has healed, will be a memorable intrusion to the patient's daily routine. Early detection of pressure ulcers and timely intervention are essential in the management of patients with pressure ulcers. Controversy exists over the definition of the first three stages of pressure ulcers, but there is consensus on the definition of deep tissue damage. If the pressure ulcer is covered with black necrotic tissue it is difficult to establish depth of the tissue damage. Intact skin can cause problems, as a sacrum may be purple but intact. There is still considerable debate with regard to reactive hyperaemia, as the exact time parameters for persistent erythema to occur are unknown. Little is understood with regard to the exact pathophysiology of reactive hyperaemia and this area requires further investigation. Blistered skin and skin tone also cause confusion in grading of pressure ulcers. The problems associated with classification of pressure ulcers, using colour classification systems, are discussed and the implications for practice are considered. The confusion surrounding early classification of pressure ulcers is discussed and it is hoped that such confusion can be addressed by standardizing training using one national classification system. PMID:12362151

  18. A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, Alistair J.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Perkins, Sarah E.; Smale, Dan A.; Straub, Sandra C.; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Burrows, Michael T.; Donat, Markus G.; Feng, Ming; Holbrook, Neil J.; Moore, Pippa J.; Scannell, Hillary A.; Sen Gupta, Alex; Wernberg, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Marine heatwaves (MHWs) have been observed around the world and are expected to increase in intensity and frequency under anthropogenic climate change. A variety of impacts have been associated with these anomalous events, including shifts in species ranges, local extinctions and economic impacts on seafood industries through declines in important fishery species and impacts on aquaculture. Extreme temperatures are increasingly seen as important influences on biological systems, yet a consistent definition of MHWs does not exist. A clear definition will facilitate retrospective comparisons between MHWs, enabling the synthesis and a mechanistic understanding of the role of MHWs in marine ecosystems. Building on research into atmospheric heatwaves, we propose both a general and specific definition for MHWs, based on a hierarchy of metrics that allow for different data sets to be used in identifying MHWs. We generally define a MHW as a prolonged discrete anomalously warm water event that can be described by its duration, intensity, rate of evolution, and spatial extent. Specifically, we consider an anomalously warm event to be a MHW if it lasts for five or more days, with temperatures warmer than the 90th percentile based on a 30-year historical baseline period. This structure provides flexibility with regard to the description of MHWs and transparency in communicating MHWs to a general audience. The use of these metrics is illustrated for three 21st century MHWs; the northern Mediterranean event in 2003, the Western Australia 'Ningaloo Niño' in 2011, and the northwest Atlantic event in 2012. We recommend a specific quantitative definition for MHWs to facilitate global comparisons and to advance our understanding of these phenomena.

  19. Defining urban agglomerations to detect agglomeration economies

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Hatna, Erez; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Agglomeration economies are a persistent subject of debate among economists and urban planners. Their definition turns on whether or not larger cities and regions are more efficient and more productive than smaller ones. We complement existing discussion on agglomeration economies and the urban wage premium here by providing a sensitivity analysis of estimated coefficients to different delineations of urban agglomeration as well as to different definitions of the economic measure that summarises the urban premium. This quantity can consist of total wages measured at the place of work, or of income registered at the place of residence. The chosen option influences the scaling behaviour of city size as well as the spatial distribution of the phenomenon at the city level. Spatial discrepancies between the distribution of jobs and the distribution of households at different economic levels makes city definitions crucial to the estimation of economic relations which vary with city size. We argue this point by regr...

  20. How to define valvular atrial fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchier, Laurent; Philippart, Raphael; Clementy, Nicolas; Bourguignon, Thierry; Angoulvant, Denis; Ivanes, Fabrice; Babuty, Dominique; Bernard, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers a substantial risk of stroke. Recent trials comparing vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in AF were performed among patients with so-called "non-valvular" AF. The distinction between "valvular" and "non-valvular" AF remains a matter of debate. Currently, "valvular AF" refers to patients with mitral stenosis or artificial heart valves (and valve repair in North American guidelines only), and should be treated with VKAs. Valvular heart diseases, such as mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic insufficiency, do not result in conditions of low flow in the left atrium, and do not apparently increase the risk of thromboembolism brought by AF. Post-hoc analyses suggest that these conditions probably do not make the thromboembolic risk less responsive to NOACs compared with most forms of "non-valvular" AF. The pathogenesis of thrombosis is probably different for blood coming into contact with a mechanical prosthetic valve compared with what occurs in most other forms of AF. This may explain the results of the only trial performed with a NOAC in patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve (only a few of whom had AF), where warfarin was more effective and safer than dabigatran. By contrast, AF in the presence of a bioprosthetic heart valve or after valve repair appears to have a risk of thromboembolism that is not markedly different from other forms of "non-valvular" AF. Obviously, we should no longer consider the classification of AF as "valvular" (or not) for the purpose of defining the aetiology of the arrhythmia, but for the determination of a different risk of thromboembolic events and the need for a specific antithrombotic strategy. As long as there is no better new term or widely accepted definition, "valvular AF" refers to patients with mitral stenosis or artificial heart valves. Patients with "non-valvular AF" may have other types of valvular heart disease. One should

  1. Defining Features of Steady-State Timbres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to define steady -state features of timbre for a group of well-trained musicians. Experiment 1 evaluated whether or not pairs of three critical dimensions of timbre--spectral slope (6 or 12 dB/octave), formant structure (/a/ or /i/ vowel), and inharmonicity of partials (harmonic or inharmonic)--were processed in a separable or integral fashion. Accuracy and speed for classification of values along one dimension were examined under different conditions of variability along a second dimension (fixed, correlated, or orthogonal). Spectral slope and formant structure were integral, with classification speed for the target dimension depending upon variability along the orthogonal dimension. In contrast, evidence of asymmetric separability was obtained for inharmonicity. Classification speed for slope and formant structure did not depend on inharmonicity, whereas RT for the target dimension of inharmonicity was strongly influenced by variability along either slope or formant structure. Since the results of Experiment 1 provided a basis for manipulating spectral slope and formant structure as a single feature, these dimensions were correlated in Experiment 2. Subjects searched for targets containing potential features of timbre within arrays of 1-4 inharmonic distractor pitches. Distractors were homogeneous with respect to the dimensions of timbre. When targets had /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes, search time increased nonlinearly with array size in a manner consistent with the parallel processing of items, and thus feature search. Feature search was not obtained for targets with /i/ formants and steep slopes. Thus, the feature was coded as the presence or absence of /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes. A search task using heterogeneous distractor values along slope/formant structure was used in Experiment 3 to evaluate whether or not the feature of timbre and pitch were automatically conjoined (integral). Search times for

  2. A model to compare a defined benefit pension fund with a defined contribution provident fund

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Nevin; J. Swart

    2003-01-01

    During 1994 universities and certain other institutions were given the option of setting up private retirement funds as an alternative to the AIPF. Because of the underfundedness of the AIPF only a substantially reduced Actuarial Reserve Value could be transferred to the new fund on behalf of each member. Employees at these institutions had to make the difficult decision of whether to remain a member of the AIPF or to join a new fund. Several institutions created defined contribution funds as...

  3. DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS, DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS, AND THE ACCUMULATION OF RETIREMENT WEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David

    2007-11-01

    The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597

  4. MITOCHONDRIAL HAPLOGROUPS DEFINE TWO PHENOTYPES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eFernandez-Moreno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA.Methods. Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1; MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO; a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO2; a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA; human cartilage glycoprotein-39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. Results. MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, the Coll2-1NO2/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95%CI=0.892-1.012. For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95%CI=0.801-0.989.Conclusion. Some OA-related biomarkers show a clearly different profile depending on the mtDNA haplogroup.

  5. A statistically defined anthropomorphic software breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms have emerged in the past decade because of recent advances in 3D breast x-ray imaging techniques. Computer phantoms in the literature have incorporated power-law noise to represent glandular tissue and branching structures to represent linear components such as ducts. When power-law noise is added to those phantoms in one piece, the simulated fibroglandular tissue is distributed randomly throughout the breast, resulting in dense tissue placement that may not be observed in a real breast. The authors describe a method for enhancing an existing digital anthropomorphic breast phantom by adding binarized power-law noise to a limited area of the breast. Methods: Phantoms with (0.5 mm)3 voxel size were generated using software developed by Bakic et al. Between 0% and 40% of adipose compartments in each phantom were replaced with binarized power-law noise (β = 3.0) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 volumetric glandular fraction. The phantoms were compressed to 7.5 cm thickness, then blurred using a 3 × 3 boxcar kernel and up-sampled to (0.1 mm)3 voxel size using trilinear interpolation. Following interpolation, the phantoms were adjusted for volumetric glandular fraction using global thresholding. Monoenergetic phantom projections were created, including quantum noise and simulated detector blur. Texture was quantified in the simulated projections using power-spectrum analysis to estimate the power-law exponent β from 25.6 × 25.6 mm2 regions of interest. Results: Phantoms were generated with total volumetric glandular fraction ranging from 3% to 24%. Values for β (averaged per projection view) were found to be between 2.67 and 3.73. Thus, the range of textures of the simulated breasts covers the textures observed in clinical images. Conclusions: Using these new techniques, digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms can be generated with a variety of glandular fractions and patterns. β values for this new phantom are comparable

  6. Astroglial heterogeneity closely reflects the neuronal-defined anatomy of the adult murine CNS

    OpenAIRE

    EMSLEY, JASON G.; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Astroglia comprise an extremely morphologically diverse cell type that have crucial roles in neural development and function. Nonetheless, distinct regions of the CNS have traditionally been defined by the phenotypic characteristics and connectivity of neuros. In a complementary fashion, we present evidence that discrete regions of the adult CNS can be delineated based solely on the morphology, density and proliferation rates of astroglia. We used transgenic hGFAP-GFP mice in which robust exp...

  7. Polynomial integration on regions defined by a triangle and a conic

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, David; Wachsmuth, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present an efficient solution to the following problem, of relevance in a numerical optimization scheme: calculation of integrals of the type \\[\\iint_{T \\cap \\{f\\ge0\\}} \\phi_1\\phi_2 \\, dx\\,dy\\] for quadratic polynomials $f,\\phi_1,\\phi_2$ on a plane triangle $T$. The naive approach would involve consideration of the many possible shapes of $T\\cap\\{f\\geq0\\}$ (possibly after a convenient transformation) and parameterizing its border, in order to integrate the variables separately. Our solutio...

  8. Algorithmic differentiation of pragma-defined parallel regions differentiating computer programs containing OpenMP

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerical programs often use parallel programming techniques such as OpenMP to compute the program's output values as efficient as possible. In addition, derivative values of these output values with respect to certain input values play a crucial role. To achieve code that computes not only the output values simultaneously but also the derivative values, this work introduces several source-to-source transformation rules. These rules are based on a technique called algorithmic differentiation. The main focus of this work lies on the important reverse mode of algorithmic differentiation. The inh

  9. Defining the Potassium Binding Region in an Apple Terpene Synthase*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Sol; Christopher J Squire; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Baker, Edward N.; Laing, William

    2009-01-01

    Terpene synthases are a family of enzymes largely responsible for synthesizing the vast array of terpenoid compounds known to exist in nature. Formation of terpenoids from their respective 10-, 15-, or 20-carbon atom prenyl diphosphate precursors is initiated by divalent (M2+) metal ion-assisted electrophilic attack. In addition to M2+, monovalent cations (M+) have also been shown to be essential for the activity of certain terpene synthases most likely by facilitating...

  10. Covers of groups definable in o-minimal structures

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo, Mário Jorge

    2005-01-01

    We develop in this paper the theory of covers for Hausdorff properly $\\bigvee $-definable manifolds with definable choice in an o-minimal structure $\\N$. In particular, we show that given an $\\N$-definably connected $\\N$-definable group $G$ we have $1\\to \\pi_1(G)\\to \\tilde{G}\\stackrel{p}\\to G\\to 1$ in the category of strictly properly $\\bigvee $-definable groups with strictly properly $\\bigvee $-definable homomorphisms, where $\\pi_1(G)$ is the o-minimal fundamental group of $G$.

  11. Regions & Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    KOFF, Harlan; Maganda, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The journal of the Consortium for Comparative Research on Regional Integration and Social Cohesion (RISC), a cross-regional, interdisciplinary, and multi-lingual network of socially conscious and prestigious research institutes in Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Asia. Due to the dramatic changes in global affairs related to regional integration, studies can no longer be limited to the analysis of economic competitiveness and political power in global geopolitics. Regions and...

  12. DEFINING RECOVERY GOALS AND STRATEGIES FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES USING SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT POPULATION MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a spatially explicit population model of wolves (Canis lupus) to propose a framework for defining rangewide recovery priorities and finer-scale strategies for regional reintroductions. The model predicts that Yellowstone and central Idaho, where wolves have recently been ...

  13. Defined ambition: op weg naar een houdbaar pensioencontract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tamerus

    2011-01-01

    In juni promoveerde Jan Tamerus op ‘defined ambition’. In deze bijdrage legt hij in het kort uit waarom en hoe defined ambition een noodzakelijke stap vormt op de weg naar een houdbaar pensioencontract.

  14. Flexible Edge Nodes enabled by Hybrid Software Defined Optics & Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mehmeri, Victor; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our vision on flexible edge nodes for future networks and our efforts to combine software defined optics and software defined networking to optimize the overall performance and user experience.

  15. Flexible Edge Nodes enabled by Hybrid Software Defined Optics & Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mehmeri, Victor; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    This paper presents our vision on flexible edge nodes for future networks and our efforts to combine software defined optics and software defined networking to optimize the overall performance and user experience.......This paper presents our vision on flexible edge nodes for future networks and our efforts to combine software defined optics and software defined networking to optimize the overall performance and user experience....

  16. Issues in Defining Software Architectures in a GIS Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jesus; Alvorado, Lori

    1997-01-01

    The primary mission of the Pan-American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) is to advance the research areas that are relevant to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. One of the activities at PACES is the establishment of a repository for geographical, geological and environmental information that covers various regions of Mexico and the southwest region of the U.S. and that is acquired from NASA and other sources through remote sensing, ground studies or paper-based maps. The center will be providing access of this information to other government entities in the U.S. and Mexico, and research groups from universities, national laboratories and industry. Geographical Information Systems(GIS) provide the means to manage, manipulate, analyze and display geographically referenced information that will be managed by PACES. Excellent off-the-shelf software exists for a complete GIS as well as software for storing and managing spatial databases, processing images, networking and viewing maps with layered information. This allows the user flexibility in combining systems to create a GIS or to mix these software packages with custom-built application programs. Software architectural languages provide the ability to specify the computational components and interactions among these components, an important topic in the domain of GIS because of the need to integrate numerous software packages. This paper discusses the characteristics that architectural languages address with respect to the issues relating to the data that must be communicated between software systems and components when systems interact. The paper presents a background on GIS in section 2. Section 3 gives an overview of software architecture and architectural languages. Section 4 suggests issues that may be of concern when defining the software architecture of a GIS. The last section discusses the future research effort and finishes with a summary.

  17. Phylogenetic Analyses of Armillaria Reveal at Least 15 Phylogenetic Lineages in China, Seven of Which Are Associated with Cultivated Gastrodia elata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Wang, Han Chen; Xue, Wan Qiu; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Zhu L.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species of Armillaria, which can act as plant pathogens and/or symbionts of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata (“Tianma”), are ecologically and economically important and have consequently attracted the attention of mycologists. However, their taxonomy has been highly dependent on morphological characterization and mating tests. In this study, we phylogenetically analyzed Chinese Armillaria samples using the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene and beta-tubulin gene. Our data revealed at least 15 phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria from China, of which seven were newly discovered and two were recorded from China for the first time. Fourteen Chinese biological species of Armillaria, which were previously defined based on mating tests, could be assigned to the 15 phylogenetic lineages identified herein. Seven of the 15 phylogenetic lineages were found to be disjunctively distributed in different continents of the Northern Hemisphere, while eight were revealed to be endemic to certain continents. In addition, we found that seven phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria were used for the cultivation of Tianma, only two of which had been recorded to be associated with Tianma previously. We also illustrated that G. elata f. glauca (“Brown Tianma”) and G. elata f. elata (“Red Tianma”), two cultivars of Tianma grown in different regions of China, form symbiotic relationships with different phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria. These findings should aid the development of Tianma cultivation in China. PMID:27138686

  18. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one ...

  19. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population....

  20. European metropolitan regions: a convergence process?

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Maza; Jose Villaverde

    2010-01-01

    Regional convergence has become a heated topic in recent decades. Most papers studying this question define regions according to normative criteria, even though this can lead to biased conclusions. In contrast, this article explores the per capita income (PCI) distribution of metropolitan regions defined by a functional criterion, the agglomerated population. Specifically, we examine the external shape and internal movements of the PCI distribution in a sample of 235 European metropolitan reg...

  1. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  2. A model to compare a defined benefit pension fund with a defined contribution provident fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nevin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1994 universities and certain other institutions were given the option of setting up private retirement funds as an alternative to the AIPF. Because of the underfundedness of the AIPF only a substantially reduced Actuarial Reserve Value could be transferred to the new fund on behalf of each member. Employees at these institutions had to make the difficult decision of whether to remain a member of the AIPF or to join a new fund. Several institutions created defined contribution funds as an alternative to the AIPF. In such funds the member carries the investment risk and most institutions felt the need to provide some form of top-up of the Transfer Value. A simple mathematical model is formulated to aid in the comparison of expected retirement benefits under the AIPF and a private fund and to investigate the management problem of distributing additional top-up funds in a fair manner amongst the various age groups within the fund.

  3. Mainstreaming regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Closa, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation of regionalism as a broad field of research attracting scholars across disciplines demands an inquiry on its scientific foundations. This inquiry should consider the object of research, the methods and the theories used. First, regionalism scholars lack a consensually agreed definition of their subject. Second, research focusses mainly in case studies, led by area specialists and comparative research is a rather occasional methodological occurrence. Finally, regionalism has ...

  4. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, fresh pork and pork products...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15008-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Thraustotheca clavata beta-tubulin... 510 e-143 AY780096_1( AY780096 |pid:none) Camarops ustulinoides beta...-tubulin... 509 e-142 AY780095_1( AY780095 |pid:none) Camarops tubulina beta-tubulin gen... 509 e-142 AY7800

  6. Clinical significance of CT-defined minimal ascites in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Kyung Chang; Ji Won Kim; Byung Kwan Kim; Kook Lae Lee; Chi Sung Song; Joon Koo Han; In Sung Song

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical significance of minimal ascites,which was only defined by the CT and whose nature was not determined preoperatively, in the relationship with the peritoneal carcinomatosis.METHODS: The medical records and the dynamic CT films of 118 patients with gastric cancer were reviewed.Factors associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis were analyzed in 40 patients who had CT-defined ascites of which the nature was surgically confirmed.RESULTS: Only 12.5-25% of the CT-defined minimal ascites, whose volume was estimated to be less than 50 mL, were associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis.When the estimated CT-defined ascitic volume was 50 mL or more, peritoneal carcinomatosis was identified in 75-100%. When CT-defined lymph node enlargements were not found beyond the regional gastric area,perigastricinvasions were not suspected, and the size of tumor was less than 3 cm, peritoneal carcinomatosis seemed significantly less accompanied at the univariate analysis. However, except for the minimal volume of CTdefined ascites in comparison with the mild or more,other factors were not confirmed multivariately.CONCLUSION: In the patients with gastric cancer, CTdefined minimal ascites alone is rarely associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis, if it does not accompany other signs suggestive of malignant seeding. Therefore,consideration of active curative resection should not be hesitated, if CT-defined minimal ascites is the only delusive sign.

  7. Software Defined Radio Certification in Europe: Challenges and Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Symeonidis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Standardization and certification of Software Defined Radio technologies are closely related. This paper describes the current standardization efforts for Software Defined Radio technologies in Europe and the related certification processes with a specific focus to the public safety and military domain. This paper describes the regulatory and technical requirements for the certification of Software Defined Radio in the European context, which is characterized by various political ...

  8. A Software-Defined Approach to IoT Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Jacquenet; Mohamed Boucadair

    2016-01-01

    It is foreseen that the Internet of Things (IoT) will comprise billions of connected devices, and this will make the provi⁃sioning and operation of some IoT connectivity services more challenging. Indeed, IoT services are very different from lega⁃cy Internet services because of their dimensioning figures and also because IoT services differ dramatically in terms of na⁃ture and constraints. For example, IoT services often rely on energy and CPU⁃constrained sensor technologies, regardless of whether the service is for home automation, smart building, e⁃health, or power or water metering on a regional or national scale. Also, some IoT services, such as dynamic monitoring of biometric data, manipulation of sensitive information, and pri⁃vacy needs to be safeguarded whenever this information is for⁃warded over the underlying IoT network infrastructure. This paper discusses how software⁃defined networking (SDN) can facilitate the deployment and operation of some advanced IoT services regardless of their nature or scope. SDN introduces a high degree of automation in service delivery and operation—from dynamic IoT service parameter exposure and negotiation to resource allocation, service fulfillment, and assurance. This paper does not argue that all IoT services must adopt SDN. Rather, it is left to the discretion of operators to decide which IoT services can best leverage SDN capabilities. This paper only discusses managed IoT services, i.e., services that are op⁃erated by a service provider.

  9. Defining Requirements and Applying Information Modeling for Protecting Enterprise Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Stephen C.; Volk, Jennifer H.

    The advent of terrorist threats has heightened local, regional, and national governments' interest in emergency response and disaster preparedness. The threat of natural disasters also challenges emergency responders to act swiftly and in a coordinated fashion. When a disaster occurs, an ad hoc coalition of pre-planned groups usually forms to respond to the incident. History has shown that these “system of systems” do not interoperate very well. Communications between fire, police and rescue components either do not work or are inefficient. Government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and private industry use a wide array of software platforms for managing data about emergency conditions, resources and response activities. Most of these are stand-alone systems with very limited capability for data sharing with other agencies or other levels of government. Information technology advances have facilitated the movement towards an integrated and coordinated approach to emergency management. Other communication mechanisms, such as video teleconferencing, digital television and radio broadcasting, are being utilized to combat the challenges of emergency information exchange. Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina and the tsunami in Indonesia, have illuminated the weaknesses in emergency response. This paper will discuss the need for defining requirements for components of ad hoc coalitions which are formed to respond to disasters. A goal of our effort was to develop a proof of concept that applying information modeling to the business processes used to protect and mitigate potential loss of an enterprise was feasible. These activities would be modeled both pre- and post-incident.

  10. 49 CFR 1241.2 - Reporting companies defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting companies defined. 1241.2 Section 1241.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 1241.2 Reporting companies defined. (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 345.201 - Individual employer record defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual employer record defined. 345.201... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Individual Employer Records § 345.201 Individual employer record defined. Effective January 1, 1990, the Board will establish and maintain a...

  12. 26 CFR 54.4980G-2 - Employer contribution defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer contribution defined. 54.4980G-2...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980G-2 Employer contribution defined. Q-1: Do... employee's HSA or Archer MSA. Q-2: If an employee requests that his or her employer deduct...

  13. 12 CFR 702.104 - Risk portfolios defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 CFR 723.1 or as approved under 12 CFR 723.20); (b) Member business loans outstanding. All member business loans as defined in 12 CFR 723.1 or as approved under 12 CFR 723.20; (c) Investments. Investments.... Unused commitments for member business loans as defined in 12 CFR 723.1 or as approved under 12 CFR...

  14. 33 CFR 211.1 - Real estate defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate defined. 211.1... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.1 Real estate defined. The term real estate as used in this part includes...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional depreciation defined. 1.1250-2... Additional depreciation defined. (a) In general—(1) Definition for purposes of section 1250(b)(1). Except as... depreciation means: (i) In the case of property which at the time of disposition has a holding period...

  16. 48 CFR 311.7000 - Defining electronic information technology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defining electronic information technology requirements. 311.7000 Section 311.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH... Accessibility Standards 311.7000 Defining electronic information technology requirements. HHS staff that...

  17. Defining and Comparing Generic Competences in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Outi

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the importance of defining generic competences in alignment with the European definitions. As a case study the generic competences defined by Laurea University of Applied Sciences are compared with European definitions of generic competences. The purpose is to open up the various perspectives within this…

  18. Geant4 tool for simulation of arbitrary defined Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on creating a module for the Geant4 toolkit for a simulation of point-by-point defined Fresnel lenses and mirrors. This module provides a creation of cylindrical Geant4 shapes with one or two Fresnel surfaces, defined by the arrays of points (z(ρ))

  19. Defining nuclear medical file formal based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the wide application of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file formal based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the format of ANMIS system the authors defined the validity and integrality of this format

  20. Defining nuclear medical file format based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the wide using of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file format based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the file format of ANMIS system authors defined and the validity and integrality of this format

  1. Defining Leadership through Followership: Concepts for Approaching Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert M.

    The purpose of this paper is to define leadership through "followership." The paper begins by defining "leader,""follower," and "symbiosis." It explores: what followers do; what followers want; and what followers and leaders expect from each other. From these perspectives, the paper presents a rationale for how leadership and followership should…

  2. THE PITS PROPERTY OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY DIRICHLET SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lina; Gao Zongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The value distribution of entire functions defined by Dirichlet series are studied in this present article. It is proved that entire functions defined by Dirichlet series have the pits property, which improve the relative results on lacunary Taylor series obtained by Littlewood J.E. and Offord A.C.

  3. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section 238.0 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part...

  4. Normal Functions As A New Way Of Defining Computable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert’s system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.

  5. Normal Functions as a New Way of Defining Computable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert's system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.

  6. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of outstanding shares, such as a stock dividend or stock split), or change in the designation of the... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive...

  7. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Yamil Alul González

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters) in prioritized...

  8. Health-defining technology as an interaction of adolescents, family, school and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Schudro S.А.

    2014-01-01

    The main recommendations on health promotion and formation of healthy lifestyles, hygiene education of children and adolescents, formulated in the concept of the European Regional Bureau of World Health Organization are considersed. Low efficiency of clinical and preventive strategies in medicine, which is almost exhausted its resources requires the development of new health-preserving strategies. We have proposed health-defining technology at school, which includes an assessment of health st...

  9. An inverse relationship to germline transcription defines centromeric chromatin in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Gassmann, Reto; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Yuen, Karen W.; Muroyama, Andrew; Egelhofer, Thea; Gaydos, Laura; Barron, Francie; Maddox, Paul; Essex, Anthony; Monen, Joost; Ercan, Sevinc; Lieb, Jason D; Oegema, Karen; Strome, Susan; Desai, Arshad

    2012-01-01

    Centromeres are chromosomal loci that direct segregation of the genome during cell division. The histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as CenH3) defines centromeres in monocentric organisms, which confine centromere activity to a discrete chromosomal region, and holocentric organisms, which distribute centromere activity along the chromosome length1–3. Because the highly repetitive DNA found at most centromeres is neither necessary nor sufficient for centromere function, stable inheritance of...

  10. Chemically Defined Medium and Caenorhabditis elegans: A Powerful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Kozak, E.; Conley, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Growth in a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of me in large-scale growth and screening of animals. Here we present our initial results from developing culture systems with CeMM. We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats of using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change defined medium composition. As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  11. Definability of restricted theta functions and families of abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peterzil, Ya'acov

    2011-01-01

    We consider some classical maps from the theory of abelian varieties and their moduli spaces and prove their definability, on restricted domains, in the o-minimal structure $\\Rae$. In particular, we prove that the embedding of moduli space of principally polarized ableian varierty, $Sp(2g,\\Z)\\backslash \\CH_g$, is definable in $\\Rae$, when restricted to Siegel's fundamental set $\\fF_g$. We also prove the definability, on appropriate domains, of embeddings of families of abelian varieties into projective space.

  12. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi;

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... different occupant behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF...... Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279885641_Defining_The_Energy_Saving_Potential_of_Architectural_Design [accessed Jan 21, 2016]....

  13. Defining prior probabilities for hydrologic model structures in UK catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Michiel; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim; Booij, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    The selection of a model structure is an essential part of the hydrological modelling process. Recently flexible modeling frameworks have been proposed where hybrid model structures can be obtained by mixing together components from a suite of existing hydrological models. When sufficient and reliable data are available, this framework can be successfully utilised to identify the most appropriate structure, and associated optimal parameters, for a given catchment by maximizing the different models ability to reproduce the desired range of flow behaviour. In this study, we use a flexible modelling framework to address a rather different question: can the most appropriate model structure be inferred a priori (i.e without using flow observations) from catchment characteristics like topography, geology, land use, and climate? Furthermore and more generally, can we define priori probabilities of different model structures as a function of catchment characteristics? To address these questions we propose a two-step methodology and demonstrate it by application to a national database of meteo-hydrological data and catchment characteristics for 89 catchments across the UK. In the first step, each catchment is associated with its most appropriate model structure. We consider six possible structures obtained by combining two soil moisture accounting components widely used in the UK (Penman and PDM) and three different flow routing modules (linear, parallel, leaky). We measure the suitability of a model structure by the probability of finding behavioural parameterizations for that model structure when applied to the catchment under study. In the second step, we use regression analysis to establish a relation between selected model structures and the catchment characteristics. Specifically, we apply Classification And Regression Trees (CART) and show that three catchment characteristics, the Base Flow Index, the Runoff Coefficient and the mean Drainage Path Slope, can be used

  14. 20 CFR 410.412 - “Total disability” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.412 “Total disability” defined. (a) A miner shall be considered totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis if:...

  15. 26 CFR 1.812-6 - New company defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.812-6 New company defined. Section 812(e) provides that for purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, a life insurance company is a...

  16. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack;

    2016-01-01

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patientspecific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduced...

  17. Multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks is considered. This system is designed for distribution simulation and tasks implementation on computational resources including network dynamic characteristics and topology.

  18. 26 CFR 1.815-5 - Other accounts defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-5 Other accounts defined. The term other accounts, as... included in the shareholders surplus account under section 815(b) and paragraph (b) of § 1.815-3, or in...

  19. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Yamil Alul González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters in prioritized economic sectors by the own region. These PMC are leaded by private actors in each sector.

  20. Computing resource management in software-defined and cognitive radios

    OpenAIRE

    Marojevic, Vuk

    2010-01-01

    Our research aims at contributing to the evolution of modern wireless communications and to the development of software-defined radio (SDR) and cognitive radio, in particular. It promotes a general resource management framework that facilitates the integration of computing and radio resource management. This dissertation discusses the need for computing resource management in software-defined and cognitive radios and introduces an SDR computing resource management framework with cognitive cap...

  1. Defined Contribution Model: Definition, Theory and an Application for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Ercen; Deniz Gokce

    1998-01-01

    Based on a numerical application that employs social and economic parameters of the Turkish economy, this study attempts to demonstrate that the current collapse in the Turkish social security system is not unavoidable. The present social security system in Turkey is based on the defined benefit model of pension provision. On the other hand, recent proposals for reform in the social security system are based on a multipillar system, where one of the alternatives is a defined contribution pens...

  2. Defining and Analysing Resource-Aware Process Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Río Ortega, Adela del; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel; Cabanillas Macías, Cristina; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A key aspect to identify improvement points of the business processes (BP) of an organisation is to conduct performance management, which involves defining appropriate PPIs (Process Performance Indicators). Up to date, existing approaches to define and analyse PPIs usually focus on time and control flow aspects, leaving disregarded the organisational perspective. in this paper we extend PPINOT, a PPI metamodel, to support the definition of resource-aware PPIs in BPs enriched with resource inf...

  3. A switch criterion for defined contribution pension schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Bas Arts; Elena Vigna

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we try to find an investment strategy which gives a high probability of reaching a given target amount at retirement. This strategy depends on two moments: the first is the appropriate time to stop investing the contributions into equities and the second is the optimal moment to convert the fund of these contributions into bonds (noting that the latter may never occur). We define the strategy and compare it with other investment strategies for Defined Contribution Pension Scheme...

  4. Software defined networking based data-center services

    OpenAIRE

    Körner, Marc F.

    2015-01-01

    Diese Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit der Frage wie Rechenzentrum-Netzwerke von der Integration von Software Defined Networking profitieren können. Hierfür werden einige für Rechenzentren essentielle Netzwerkkomponenten mit einem neuen OpenFlow Ansatz konzipiert, mit der Absicht sie in Netzwerk-Grundfunktionen zu überführen, basierend auf dem entkoppelten Steuerungs- und Daten-Konzept von Software Defined Networking. Die untersuchten Netzwerk-Grundfunktionen sind typische Komponenten wie...

  5. Fundamental properties of differential equations with dynamically defined delayed feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Knipl, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    We consider an initial value problem for nonautonomous functional differential equations where the delay term is defined via the solution of another system of differential equations. We obtain the general existence and uniqueness result for the initial value problem by showing a Lipschitz property of the dynamically defined delayed feedback function and give conditions for the nonnegativity of solutions. We determine the steady-state solution of the autonomous system and obtain the linearized...

  6. Research Network of Tehran Defined Population: Methodology and Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.

  7. Chinese Township-Village Enterprises as Vaguely Defined Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, C.; Weitzman, ML

    1994-01-01

    This paper concerns the paradoxes and dilemmas raised by Chinese township-village enterprises. The main purpose of the paper is to argue that a TVE is best described as a vaguely defined cooperative, meaning an essentially communal organization quite far removed from having a well defined ownership structure. The extraordinary success of the TVEs presents a severe challenge for traditional property rights theory, which we investigate in the paper. J. Comp. Econom., April 1994, 18(2), pp. 121-...

  8. Regional labour market research on participation rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of 17 empirical studies in which the participation rate has been estimated with the help of regional data. After defining and pointing our the orientation of regional labour market research on participation rates, three methodological issues dominate the discussi

  9. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  10. Characterization and definability in modal first-order fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Carreiro, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    Model theoretic results such as Characterization and Definability give important information about different logics. It is well known that the proofs of those results for several modal logics have, somehow, the same 'taste'. A general proof for most modal logics below first order is still too ambitious. In this thesis we plan to isolate sufficient conditions for the characterization and definability theorems to hold in a wide range of logics. Along with these conditions we will prove that, whichever logic that meets them, satisfies both theorems. Therefore, one could give an unifying proof for logics with already known results. Moreover, one will be able to prove characterization and definability results for logics that have not yet been investigated. In both cases, it is only needed to check that a logic meets the requirements to automatically derive the desired results.

  11. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. PMID:24650922

  12. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy. PMID:24425718

  13. Self-dual Codes Defined on Factor Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-song; WANG Jun; DU Qun; ZENG Gui-hua

    2007-01-01

    A definition of a self-dual code on graph and a procedure based on factor graphs to judge a self-dual code were presented.Three contributions of this paper were described as follows.To begin with, transform TR→L were defined, which was the basis of self-dual codes defined on graphs and played a key role in the paper.The second were that a self-dual code could be defined on factor graph, which was much different from conventional algebraic method.The third was that a factor graph approach to judge a self-dual code was illustrated, which took advantage of duality properties of factor graphs and our proposed transform TR→L to offer a convenient and geometrically intuitive process to judge a self-dual code.

  14. Damage in spent nuclear fuel defined by properties and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Spent Fuel Program Office (SFPO) has provided guidance in defining damaged fuel in Interim Staff Guidance, ISG-1. This guidance is similar to that developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Neither of these documents gives the logic behind its definition of damaged fuel. The paper discusses the requirements placed on spent fuel for dry interim storage and transport and the ways in which service requirements drive the definition of damage for spent fuel. Examples are given to illustrate the methodology, which focuses on defining damaged fuel based on the properties that the fuel must exhibit to meet the requirements of storage and/or transport. (author)

  15. Programmable bandwidth management in software-defined EPON architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Guo, Wei; Wang, Wei; Hu, Weisheng; Xia, Ming

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a software-defined EPON architecture which replaces the hardware-implemented DBA module with reprogrammable DBA module. The DBA module allows pluggable bandwidth allocation algorithms among multiple ONUs adaptive to traffic profiles and network states. We also introduce a bandwidth management scheme executed at the controller to manage the customized DBA algorithms for all date queues of ONUs. Our performance investigation verifies the effectiveness of this new EPON architecture, and numerical results show that software-defined EPONs can achieve less traffic delay and provide better support to service differentiation in comparison with traditional EPONs.

  16. Software-Defined Radio Demonstrators: An Example and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Farrell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined radio requires the combination of software-based signal processing and the enabling hardware components. In this paper, we present an overview of the criteria for such platforms and the current state of development and future trends in this area. This paper will also provide details of a high-performance flexible radio platform called the maynooth adaptable radio system (MARS that was developed to explore the use of software-defined radio concepts in the provision of infrastructure elements in a telecommunications application, such as mobile phone basestations or multimedia broadcasters.

  17. From Research to Results: Greener Pathways for the SADC Region

    OpenAIRE

    Michael MacLennan

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of highly mono-cultural economies within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region (over half the countries in the region have fewer than eight sectors accounting for 75 per cent of exports), primarily agrarian or dependent on mineral resources, shaped the selection of five (5) priority policy intersections which define the region?s social, environmental and economic development. (?)

  18. Functional Network Architecture of Reading-Related Regions across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships…

  19. New Regional Definition and Spatial Analysis of Regional Inequalities in Turkey. Related to the Regional Policies of EU

    OpenAIRE

    Gezýcý, Ferhan

    2004-01-01

    Increasing interest on regional inequalities can be easily observed not only within countries but also among countries, related to globalization process and trade unions. European Union has also focused on issues on regional development, inequalities and convergence. Enlargement of EU makes this issue very significant, in terms of structural funds allocation and integration. In this context, Turkey has also several projects for adjustment. One of them is defining NUTS regions in order to adju...

  20. Defining and Assessing Affective Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Claire L.

    1990-01-01

    The affective aspect of the curriculum is defined as the development of appropriate and measurable values such as ethical behavior, honesty, tolerance, and becoming a life-long learner. In outcome assessment of the affective category, the goal is to evaluate the transition of the student to a professional. (MLW)

  1. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  2. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50...

  3. Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2007-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities for...... the associated simple graph partitioning polytope....

  4. Defining a Good Death: A deliberative democratic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisio, Harri; Vartiainen, Pirkko; Jekunen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts to define a good death have been recorded in the academic literature. In most of these attempts, the methods used have been surveys, interviews, and focus groups. These methods have yielded important information, but they have failed to provide an opportunity for public deliberation, whereby people engage collectively with an issue, consider it from all sides, and struggle to understand it. We believe that a well-orchestrated public deliberation could contribute to defining a good death. We gathered data from four deliberative forums implemented in Finland in November 2013. The results paint a picture that differs from those painted by the previous research, which focused mainly on individual and idealized views of a good death. Our findings have brought to light the messy reality of a good death. Deliberation elicited the concern that society could not provide a good death for all and in the process highlighted the lack of proper palliative care and the dominant role of healthcare professionals in defining a good death. Participants also came to terms with the inherent complexity of dying well and gained a better understanding of the challenges related to providing a good death via euthanasia. Their perspectives broadened, proving that defining a good death is a dynamic process rather than a static one. PMID:26514021

  5. 32 CFR 518.7 - FOIA terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true FOIA terms defined. 518.7 Section 518.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC.... Such investigations may include gathering evidence for criminal prosecutions and for civil...

  6. 38 CFR 17.31 - Duty periods defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Active Duty § 17.31 Duty periods defined. Full-time duty as a member of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, Women's Reserve of the Navy and Marine Corps and Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard... Patient Rights...

  7. Defining the Terms of Go-between Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    Defines terms and operations of Zuk's Go-between Process, in which the therapist manages roles of go-between, side-taker, or celebrant in family therapy interviews. This technique is contrasted with Structural-Strategic Family Therapy in which supervisors phone instructions to trainees while observing through a one-way mirror. (JAC)

  8. Strategic Intellectual Capital Development: A Defining Paradigm for HRD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    The performance paradigm of human resource development (HRD) practice has served the field well, particularly in enhancing the relevance and impact of HRD interventions. However, in this article, it is argued that the time has come for a new defining paradigm to advance the field of HRD to a higher level of organizational impact. This article…

  9. Defining the complement biomarker profile of c3 glomerulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Nester, Carla M; Martin, Bertha;

    2014-01-01

    , although a full description of the disease spectrum remains to be determined. This study sought to validate and define the association of complement dysregulation with C3G and to determine whether specific complement pathway abnormalities could inform disease definition. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS...

  10. Is the Discrepancy Criterion for Defining Developmental Disorders Valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray J.; Hay, David; Anderson, Mike; Smith, Leigh M.; Piek, Jan; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: Most developmental disorders are defined by an achievement discrepancy in which achievement on one or more specific abilities is substantially less than a person's measured intelligence. We evaluated the validity of this discrepancy criterion by assessing parameters that determine variability across abilities and by assessing…

  11. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Order 1. On March 17, 2005, the Commission adopted the Cognitive Radio Report and Order, 70 FR 23032... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios AGENCY: Federal... Memorandum Opinion and Order (MO&O), 72 FR 31190, June 6, 2007, which responded to two petitions filed...

  12. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…

  13. Defining and Quantifying Potentially Discriminatory Questions in Employment Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffery K.; Keyton, Joann

    A study determined what constitutes an illegal pre-employment question, reviewed current laws and literature on the subject, and determined the prevalence of illegal questions asked by organizations. Except in the case of specific statutory law, there is no precise way to define what constitutes an illegal question; however, state and federal…

  14. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  15. Defining and Assessing Generic Competencies in Australian Universities: Ongoing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss ongoing challenges in defining and assessing generic competencies in Australian universities. The paper begins with a discussion of factors that led to, and later fuelled, the focus on generic competencies in Australian higher education. Broad constructs that have underpinned research and practice in the field are then…

  16. The clash between Keynes and Hayek defined modern economics

    OpenAIRE

    Wapshott, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Nicholas Wapshott discusses the groundbreaking ideas presented by Freidrich Hayek in response to John Maynard Keynes’s positions on government intervention and the free market. Wapshott argues the debate which started just two years after the stock market crash of 1929, both defined, and still resonates within, present-day economic policymaking.

  17. Stakeholder engagement: Defining strategic advantage for sustainable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez‐Melo A; Mansouri, SA

    2011-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Rodriguez-Melo, A. and Mansouri, S. A. (2011), Stakeholder Engagement: Defining Strategic Advantage for Sustainable Construction. Bus. Strat. Env., 20: 539–552, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bse.715/abstract.

  18. Defining the Shoah: An Opening Lesson for a Holocaust Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Students often bring considerable prior information about the Holocaust to their study of the event, with much of that knowledge being inaccurate or incomplete. In addition, the Shoah's complexity necessitates that teachers establish a well-defined framework as they introduce the topic to their students. This article outlines an opening lesson for…

  19. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...

  20. 47 CFR 2.801 - Radiofrequency device defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency device defined. 2.801 Section 2.801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency...

  1. 7 CFR 160.2 - Spirits of turpentine defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spirits of turpentine defined. 160.2 Section 160.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS...

  2. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  3. DQw3 variants defined by cloned alloreactive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, E M; Nepom, G T; Nisperos, B; Hansen, J A

    1988-01-01

    The polymorphism of HLA class II molecules expressing the serologically defined alloantigen DQw3 was studied using cloned proliferative T lymphocytes. Two clones, IG9 and IC3, were selectively primed against DQw3-associated determinants and tested against a panel of 92 HLA-D homozygous cells. Both clones were specific for DQw3, but each showed a distinct response pattern. Clone IG9 recognized a DQw3-associated determinant expressed on a subset of DR4 and DR5 haplotypes and on all DRw6, 7, w8, and w9 haplotypes tested. In contrast, clone IC3 recognized a distinct DQw3-associated determinant expressed only on a subset of DR4 haplotypes. In monoclonal antibody inhibition experiments, anti-DQ, but not anti-DR or anti-DP antibodies, blocked reactivity of both clones IG9 and IC3, further demonstrating that the determinants defined by these clones are associated with DQ molecules. In DNA hybridization studies using a DQ beta probe, a correlation was observed between restriction site polymorphisms in the DQ beta gene, designated DQw"3.1" and "3.2," and the expression of the T-cell-defined IG9 and IC3 determinants. It is, thus, possible to demonstrate by cloned T-cell reactivity functionally relevant recognition sites on DQw3+ molecules that are associated with structural polymorphisms defined by molecular and genomic analysis. PMID:2452816

  4. A definable number which cannot be approximated algorithmically

    CERN Document Server

    Brener, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The Turing machine (TM) and the Church thesis have formalized the concept of computable number, this allowed to display non-computable numbers. This paper defines the concept of number "approachable" by a TM and shows that some (if not all) known non-computable numbers are approachable by TMs. Then an example of a number not approachable by a TM is given.

  5. Load Sensitive Forwarding for Software Defined Networking – Openflow Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Masri Sahri

    Full Text Available Avoiding congestion is important role in recently proposed software defined network (SDN since various new kind of overhead and delay introduced compared to traditional network. In this paper, we propose a load sensitive forwarding metric for the Openflo ...

  6. Software Defined Networking and Virtualization for Broadband Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bertaux, Lionel; Medjiah, Samir; Berthou, Pascal; Abdellatif, Slim; Hakiri, Akram; Gelard, Patrick; Planchou, Fabrice; De Bruyère, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Satellite networks have traditionally been considered for specific purposes. Recently, new satellite technologies have been pushed to the market enabling high-performance satellite access networks. On the other hand, network architectures are taking advantages from emerging technologies such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN), network virtualization and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV). Therefore, benefiting communications services over satellite networks from these new technologies a...

  7. 10 CFR 709.12 - Defining polygraph examination questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defining polygraph examination questions. 709.12 Section 709.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM CI Evaluation Protocols and... the exact wording of the polygraph questions based on the examiner's pretest interview of the...

  8. Resource management for software-defined radio clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Miguelez, Ismael; Marojevic, Vuk; Gelonch Bosch, Antonio José

    2012-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) clouds combine SDR concepts with cloud computing technology for designing and managing future base stations. They provide a scalable solution for the evolution of wireless communications. The authors focus on the resource management implications and propose a hierarchical approach for dynamically managing the real-time computing constraints of wireless communications systems that run on the SDR cloud.

  9. Nonadditive Set Functions Defined by Aumann Fuzzy Integrals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦奎; 刘宝碇

    2003-01-01

    A novel concept, called nonadditive set-valued measure, is first defined as a monotone and continuous set function. Then the interconnections between nonadditive set-valued measure and the additive set-valued measure as well as the fuzzy measure are discussed. Finally, an approach to construct a nonadditive compact set-valued measure is presented via Aumann fuzzy integral.

  10. Convolution operators defined by singular measures on the motion group

    OpenAIRE

    Brandolini, Luca; Gigante, Giacomo; Thangavelu, Sundaram; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains an $L^{p}$ improving result for convolution operators defined by singular measures associated to hypersurfaces on the motion group. This needs only mild geometric properties of the surfaces, and it extends earlier results on Radon type transforms on $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$. The proof relies on the harmonic analysis on the motion group.

  11. Regional competitiveness: Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Aramayo, Lourdes Gabriela Daza; Vokoun, Marek; Damborsky, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Regional Competitiveness can be defined as the region's potential in the long run enforce economically in competition with other regions while maintaining social cohesion and environmental sustainability. This ability is determined by many factors, such as innovation, technological progress, investment attractiveness, skills of the labor force, transportation infrastructure and quality of transport services, public sector efficiency and public security. These factors influence the resulting e...

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy Defines New Lymphatic Pathways from Cutaneous Melanoma Site: Clinical Implications and Surgical Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly applied as staging procedure of regional lymph nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Dynamic lymphoscintigraphy defines the lymphatic pathways from a primary melanoma site and allows to identify the node receiving lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor, which is the sentinel lymph node. In rare cases, lymphoscintigraphy shows sites of lymphatic drainage in nonclassical basins never described in the past when lymphatic drainage was considered only according to the anatomical proximity of the tumor primary site. These peculiar sentinel nodes, so-called “uncommon/interval” nodes, must be surgically removed because they may contain micrometastatic disease and may be the only site of nodal involvement

  13. Defining periurban areas: la previsione di questi territori negli strumenti urbanistici di alcune regioni italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cattivelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the suburban is the predominant portion of each area. It combines the main features of urban and rural areas and it is therefore difficult to locate. Despite these difficulties, the policy makers should zone their territories and incorporate the results in the existing planning instruments. The distinction among territories is important to better orient local actions. This paper proposes aims to understand how some Italian regional legislators have defined the surrounding areas in their zoning laws and plans in force.

  14. Inter-species chimeras of leukaemia inhibitory factor define a major human receptor-binding determinant.

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarek, C M; Layton, M. J.; Metcalf, D; Lock, P; Willson, T A; Gough, N M; Nicola, N A

    1993-01-01

    Human leukaemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) binds to both human and mouse LIF receptors (LIF-R), while mouse LIF (mLIF) binds only to mouse LIF-R. Moreover, hLIF binds with higher affinity to the mLIF-R than does mLIF. In order to define the regions of the hLIF molecule responsible for species-specific interaction with the hLIF-R and for the unusual high-affinity binding to the mLIF-R, a series of 15 mouse/human LIF hybrids has been generated. Perhaps surprisingly, both of these properties mappe...

  15. Hermitian structures defined by linear electromagnetic constitutive laws

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, David

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated that when the bundle of 2-forms on a four-dimensional manifold M admits an almost-complex structure any choice of "real + imaginary" subspace decomposition of the bundle defines a conjugation map, as well as a Hermitian structure for the bundle. When the almost-complex structure comes from a linear electromagnetic constitutive law, the real and imaginary parts of the Hermitian structure are then shown to represent the Hamiltonian for an anisotropic three-dimensional electromagnetic oscillator at each point of M and a symplectic structure for each fiber. The complex form of the oscillator equations is also definable in terms of the geometric structures that were introduced.

  16. Using ATL to define advanced and flexible constraint model transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Transforming constraint models is an important task in re- cent constraint programming systems. User-understandable models are defined during the modeling phase but rewriting or tuning them is manda- tory to get solving-efficient models. We propose a new architecture al- lowing to define bridges between any (modeling or solver) languages and to implement model optimizations. This architecture follows a model- driven approach where the constraint modeling process is seen as a set of model transformations. Among others, an interesting feature is the def- inition of transformations as concept-oriented rules, i.e. based on types of model elements where the types are organized into a hierarchy called a metamodel.

  17. Defining statistical relative complexity measure: Application to diversity in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical relative complexity measure, based on the Kullback-Leibler distance measure defining the relative information and the Carbo quantum similarity index defining the relative disequilibrium is proposed. It is shown that with the specific choice of prior density corresponding to the atom at the beginning of the subshell, this measure reveals the diversity of atoms as the subshells are filled across the periodic table. Numerical tests are reported using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock as well as the relativistic Dirac-Fock density for all atoms in the periodic table. -- Highlights: → A statistical relative complexity measure is introduced. → Numerator as Kullback-Leibler relative information. → Denominator as Carbo quantum similarity as relative disequilibrium is proposed. → Prior density set as atom at the beginning of the subshell in the periodic table. → The diversity of atoms as the subshells are filled is revealed.

  18. Hardware Architecture Study for NASA's Space Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Andro, Monty; Smith, Carl; Liebetreu, John

    2008-01-01

    This study defines a hardware architecture approach for software defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radio frequency (RF) front-ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that comprise a typical communication radio. This paper describes the architecture details, module definitions, and the typical functions on each module as well as the module interfaces. Trade-offs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify the internal physical implementation within each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  19. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Somogy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1 will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2. In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3. I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.

  20. Defining Parents, Making Citizens: Nationality and Citizenship in Transnational Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deomampo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, India has attracted would-be parents from around the globe, many seeking to build their families through gestational surrogacy. Through extensive ethnographic fieldwork in India, I found that issues of nationality and citizenship for babies born via gestational surrogacy were among the most pressing concerns for commissioning parents. In this article, I consider the ways in which states and institutions define parents and make citizens, as well as how families created through surrogacy in India challenge these processes in new ways. By closely interrogating the ways that families, states, and global and local institutions define parenthood and citizenship within the context of transnational surrogacy, I show that while transnational surrogacy may challenge conventional understandings of kinship and family, it simultaneously renaturalizes state definitions of citizenship and motherhood. PMID:24611832

  1. Self-healing Mechanisms for Software Defined Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Vilchez, Jose Manuel; Grida Ben Yahia, Imen; Crespi, Noël

    2014-01-01

    Programmable networks brought by Software Defined Networks (SDN) are perceived by operators as cornerstone to reduce the time to deploy new services, to augment the flexibility and to adapt network resources to customer needs at runtime. However, despite the vulnerabilities identified due to the centralization of the intelligence on SDN, its research is more centered on forwarding traffic and reconfiguration issues, not considering to a great extent the fault management aspects of the control...

  2. Risk management and decision making in defined benefit pension schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwira, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    stochastic approach to decision-making in defined benefit pension schemes is presented. Existing decision-making tools in the form of actuarial valuations and asset and liability modelling are discussed. These tools are shown to be inadequate to fully address the objectives of the various stakeholders. Pension fund control using a quadratic criteria with linear factors is studied in the case where the fund is invested in a risk-free asset and a risky asset. Optimal asset allocation strategies...

  3. Optimal risk management in defined-benefit stochastic pension funds.

    OpenAIRE

    Josa-Fombellida, Ricardo; Rincón-Zapatero, Juan Pablo

    2004-01-01

    We consider a continuous time dynamic pension funding model in a defined benefit plan of an employment system. The benefits liabilities are random, given by a geometric Brownian process. Three different situations are studied regarding the investment decisions taken by the sponsoring employer: in the first, the fund is invested at a constant, risk-free rate of interest; in the second, the promoter invests in a portfolio with n risky assets and a risk-free security; finally, it is supposed tha...

  4. Defining and Measuring "Knowledge Capital" in Health Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sundram, Sumathi

    2011-01-01

    "Knowledge capital" comes in many forms based on the context of its creation, some in terms of pure knowledge, some of which is public good and some rival. Furthermore, some of its forms are less easy to describe since it includes custom, practice and understanding of how best to organise things. Practitioners and academics, across disciplines of organisational management, economics, and accounting define the concept of "knowledge capital" (KC) or "intellectual capital" (IC) as...

  5. Adhesion interaction between atomically defined tip and sample

    OpenAIRE

    CROSS, GRAHAM

    1998-01-01

    PUBLISHED We have measured forces between an atomically defined W(111) tip and an Au(111) sample in ultrahigh vacuum at 150 K. The W tips are manipulated and characterized on an atomic scale both before and after sample approach by field ion microscopy. Forces between the tip and the sample are measured by an in situ differential interferometer. We observe strong attractive adhesion forces, which turn repulsive upon the further approach of the tip towards the Au surface. Unexpected for a m...

  6. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    The OpenFlow (OF) protocol is widely used in Software Defined Networking (SDN) to realize the communication between the controller and forwarding devices. OF allows great flexibility in managing traffic flows. However, OF alone is not enough to build more complex SDN services that require complete control and management of the data plane (e.g. configurations of ports, queues, etc.). The current work contributes to the SDN ecosystem with the implementation of a plugin for the OVSDB protocol, f...

  7. Defining the Genetic Architecture of Human Developmental Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, which poses limitations on animal models for discovering biological substrates and pathways. Despite this challenge, rapidly developing biotechnology in the field of genomics has made human genetics studies a viable alternative route for defining the molecular neuroscience of human language. This is accomplished by studying families that transmit both normal and disordered language across generations. The language disorder reviewed here is specific language...

  8. Multicast Traffic Engineering for Software-Defined Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Liang-Hao; Hsu, Hsiang-Chun; Shen, Shan-Hsiang; Yang, De-Nian; Chen, Wen-Tsuen

    2015-01-01

    Although Software-Defined Networking (SDN) enables flexible network resource allocations for traffic engineering, current literature mostly focuses on unicast communications. Compared to traffic engineering for multiple unicast flows, multicast traffic engineering for multiple trees is very challenging not only because minimizing the bandwidth consumption of a single multicast tree by solving the Steiner tree problem is already NP-Hard, but the Steiner tree problem does not consider the link ...

  9. Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Knut Øien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

  10. Degradation of chlorophenols by a defined mixed microbial community.

    OpenAIRE

    E. Schmidt; Hellwig, M.; Knackmuss, H J

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic sewage containing phenol, acetone, and alkanols plus 4-chlorophenol or a mixture of isomeric chlorophenols is completely degraded by a defined mixed culture with Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 as a chlorocatechol-dissimilating member of the community. Total degradation of the organic carbon was indicated by release of stoichiometric amounts of chloride and low content of dissolved organic carbon in the cell-free effluents. During adaptation to high loads of chlorophenols the initial met...

  11. Defining Marketing Strategies For Vihreä Tekno Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Manzari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define marketing strategies for Vihreä Tekno, a company in Vantaa, Finland. The company runs several businesses such as providing IT services, website designing, business/loyalty cards, professional logo design, PC repairs and installations, mobile application development, translation services, cleaning services, advertising and distribution services, billing/invoicing systems and so forth. In this thesis, the author analyzed the company’s current s...

  12. Cocoa Fermentations Conducted with a Defined Microbial Cocktail Inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    1998-01-01

    Cocoa fermentations were performed in wooden boxes under the following four experimental regimens: beans naturally fermented with wild microflora; aseptically prepared beans with no inoculum; and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing microorganisms at a suitable concentration either at zero time or by using phased additions at appropriate times. The cocktail used consisted of a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri, two lactic acid bacterial species, Lactobacillus lact...

  13. Domain Representable Spaces Defined by Strictly Positive Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Køber, Petter Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Recursive domain equations have natural solutions. In particular there are domains defined by strictly positive induction. The class of countably based domains gives a computability theory for possibly non-countably based topological spaces. A $ qcb_{0} $ space is a topological space characterized by its strong representability over domains. In this paper, we study strictly positive inductive definitions for $ qcb_{0} $ spaces by means of domain representations, i.e. we show that there exists...

  14. Emerging Technologies for Making Glycan-Defined Glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lai-Xi; Lomino, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a common and complex posttranslational modification of proteins, which expands functional diversity while boosting structural heterogeneity. Glycoproteins, the end products of such a modification, are typically produced as mixtures of glycoforms possessing the same polypeptide backbone but differ in the site of glycosylation and/or in the structures of pendant glycans, from which single glycoforms are difficult to isolate. The urgent need for glycan-defined glycoprote...

  15. The Role of Company Stock in Defined Contribution Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Olivia S.; Stephen P. Utkus

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the risks and benefits of holding company stock in employer-sponsored defined contribution (DC) retirement plans. We address three questions: (1) What is the role and function of company stock in such plans? (2) Who might be affected by enhanced portfolio diversification in such plans? and (3) What mechanisms exist, or might be developed, to enhance portfolio diversification if more diversification were deemed useful? Firms offer company stock within DC plans in an effort ...

  16. Computers in Hospitals Nursing Practice Defined and Validated

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Janet B.

    1983-01-01

    Computers in hospitals offer Nursing a unique challenge to define and validate its own practice. This definition will begin first within those hospitals implementing computer systems with nursing applications. These first pioneers must take great care to develop application content that reflects valid nursing roles and to communicate to each practitioner the standards of practice which will guide the planning and delivery of quality nursing care.

  17. Organic wheat quality from a defined Italian field-trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kokornaczyk, Maria; Kahl, Dr. Johannes; Roose, Marco; Busscher, Dr. Nicolaas; Ploeger, Prof. Dr. Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Organic and conventional wheat grain (Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum) samples coming from a defined field trial in Italy were measured in 2005 and 2006 for their total protein content and the contents of lutein and zeaxanthin. Additionally the samples were analyzed by means of the biocrystallization method. The grain samples could be differentiated by the total protein content, which was higher in the conventional samples. The organic samples contained a higher lutein content in Triticu...

  18. Defining Hair Follicles in the Age of Stem Cell Bioengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Cotsarelis, George; Stenn, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    One challenge faced by stem cell biologists is the bioengineering of an organ. Ehama et al. (2007, this issue) used cells derived from human and rodent epidermis and dermal papilla to reconstitute hair-follicle mini-organs. Some result in hair follicles; others are hair follicle–like. The challenge calls for the development of a set of criteria to define a hair follicle so that bioengineered products in the future can be evaluated.

  19. Apparatus for defining a beam of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel apparatus for defining a beam of ionizing radiation in the course of radiotherapy treatment is described in detail. The particular case of electron irradiation of the patient is discussed. The apparatus consists of an adjustable primary collimator which produces a cone of ionizing radiation, an attachment holder adjacent to the primary collimator and a detachable radiation applicator. The attachment holder may be removed when irradiation with X-rays is desired. (U.K.)

  20. Defining medical concepts by linguistic variables with fuzzy Arden Syntax.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffe, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in the domain of medicine usually depend on observed or measured data, such as observations made during an examination, or laboratory data. Furthermore, such decisions are often based on abstract domain knowledge. For decision-making, it is necessary to establish relationships between concrete data and abstract knowledge. These relationships can be defined in a formal way by fuzzy set theory. We extended the Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems, which ca...

  1. Defining critical thresholds for ensemble flood forecasting and warning

    OpenAIRE

    Weeink, Werner H.A.; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Booij, Martijn J.; Andreassian, Vazken; Maarten S. Krol

    2010-01-01

    The use of weather ensemble predictions in ensemble flood forecasting is an acknowledged procedure to include the uncertainty of meteorological forecasts in a probabilistic streamflow prediction system. Operational flood forecasters can thus get an overview of the probability of exceeding a critical discharge or water level, and decide on whether a flood warning should be issued or not. This process offers several challenges to forecasters: 1) how to define critical thresholds along all the r...

  2. Generalized Bandpass Sampling Receivers for Software Defined Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yi-Ran

    2006-01-01

    Based on different sampling theorem, for example classic Shannon’s sampling theorem and Papoulis’ generalized sampling theorem, signals are processed by the sampling devices without loss of information. As an interface between radio receiver front-ends and digital signal processing blocks, sampling devices play a dominant role in digital radio communications. Under the concept of Software Defined Radio (SDR), radio systems are going through the second evolution that mixes analog, digital and ...

  3. Defining the galaxy of gene expression in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Edison T; Sotiriou, Christos

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports detailing the expression profiles of primary breast cancer have pointed to the utility of this approach in defining subclasses with distinct molecular configurations and clinical behaviour. Some of the subclasses can be predicted by current molecular tests: estrogen receptor status, p53 staining, and HER-2 overexpression. Others, however, are novel subgroups and may represent distinct cellular types. The results from two recent studies suggest common principles of classificatio...

  4. Defining Process Performance Indicators By Using Templates and Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Río Ortega, Adela del; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel; Durán Toro, Amador; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Process Performance Indicators (PPIs) are a key asset for the mea- 2 surement of the achievement of strategic and operational goals in process–oriented 3 organisations. Ideally, the definition of PPIs should not only be unambiguous, 4 complete, and understandable to non–technical stakeholders, but also traceable 5 to business processes and verifiable by means of automated analysis. in practice, 6 PPIs are defined either informally in natural language, with its well–known prob- 7 lems, or at a...

  5. Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Franz-Josef; Louise C. Laurent; Kostka, Dennis; Ulitsky, Igor; Williams, Roy; Lu, Christina; Park, In-Hyun; Rao, Mahendra S.; Shamir, Ron; Philip H. Schwartz; Schmidt, Nils O.; Loring, Jeanne F.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as self-renewing cell populations that can differentiate into multiple distinct cell types. However, hundreds of different human cell lines from embryonic, fetal, and adult sources have been called stem cells, even though they range from pluripotent cells, typified by embryonic stem cells, which are capable of virtually unlimited proliferation and differentiation, to adult stem cell lines, which can generate a far more limited repertory of differentiated cell types. The...

  6. Implementation of Traffic Engineering Control System for Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ GONZALEZ, SERGIO

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging networking paradigm that separates the network control plane from the data forwarding plane with the promise to dramatically improve network resource utilization, simplify network management, reduce operating cost, and promote innovation and evolution. Although traffic engineering techniques have been widely exploited in the past and current data networks, such as ATM networks and IP/ MPLS networks, to optimize the performance of communication ...

  7. Wireless Mesh Software Defined Networks (wmSDN)

    OpenAIRE

    Detti, A.; Pisa, C.; Salsano, S.; Blefari-Melazzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose to integrate Software Defined Networking (SDN) principles in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) formed by OpenFlow switches. The use of a centralized network controller and the ability to setup arbitrary paths for data flows make SDN a handy tool to deploy fine-grained traffic engineering algorithms in WMNs. However, centralized control may be harmful in multi-hop radio networks formed by commodity devices (e.g. Wireless Community Networks), in which node isolation and netw...

  8. Programming Abstractions for Software–Defined Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Riggio, Roberto; Marina, Mahesh; Schulz-Zander, Julius; Kuklinski, Slawomir; Rasheed, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) has received, in the last years, significant interest from the academic and the industrial communities alike. The decoupled control and data planes found in an SDN allows for logically centralized intelligence in the control plane and generalized network hardware in the data plane. Although the current SDN ecosystem provides a rich support for wired packet-switched networks, the same cannot be said for wireless networks where specific radio data-plane abstrac...

  9. Empirically defined health states for depression from the SF-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugar, C. A.; Sturm, R; Lee, T T; Sherbourne, C D; Olshen, R A; Wells, K B; Lenert, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define objectively and describe a set of clinically relevant health states that encompass the typical effects of depression on quality of life in an actual patient population. Our model was designed to facilitate the elicitation of patients' and the public's values (utilities) for outcomes of depression. DATA SOURCES: From the depression panel of the Medical Outcomes Study. Data include scores on the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as well as independently obtained diag...

  10. Congruence of morphologically-defined genera with molecular phylogenies

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonski, David; Finarelli, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Morphologically-defined mammalian and molluscan genera (herein “morphogenera”) are significantly more likely to be monophyletic relative to molecular phylogenies than random, under 3 different models of expected monophyly rates: ≈63% of 425 surveyed morphogenera are monophyletic and 19% are polyphyletic, although certain groups appear to be problematic (e.g., nonmarine, unionoid bivalves). Compiled nonmonophyly rates are probably extreme values, because molecular analyses have focused on “pro...

  11. SNAP Benefits: Can an Adequate Benefit Be Defined?123

    OpenAIRE

    Yaktine, Ann L.; Caswell, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible ...

  12. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Dorofeev; E.V. Bojarkin; A.A. Peshkova

    2013-01-01

    Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  13. Defining Reward Value by Cross-Modal Scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Anna H.; Silberberg, Alan; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in comparative psychology often use different food rewards in their studies, with food values defined by a pre-experimental preference test. While this technique rank orders food values, it provides limited information about value differences because preferences may reflect not only value differences, but also the degree to which one good may “substitute” for another (e.g., one food may substitute well for another food, but neither substitutes well for water). We propose scaling t...

  14. Biodegradable porous silicon barcode nanowires with defined geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Fakhoury, Jean Raymond; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are of proven importance in diverse fields such as energy production and storage, flexible electronics, and biomedicine due to the unique characteristics emerging from their one-dimensional semiconducting nature and their mechanical properties. Here we report the synthesis of biodegradable porous silicon barcode nanowires by metal assisted electroless etch of single crystal silicon with resistivity ranging from 0.0008 Ω-cm to 10 Ω-cm. We define the geometry of the barcode na...

  15. Safety Leadership Defined within the Australian Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the tenets of safety leadership within the Australian construction environment. The scope of this research aims to establish a universal definition of safety leadership and how it differs from other leadership disciplines. The literature review into this topic was governed by the parent disciplines of Safety and Leadership.  Gaps were identified in the literature that indicated safety leadership is not a well-defined concept and much of the work into safety leadership h...

  16. Physical activity in children: does how we define neighbourhood matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andy P.; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ness, Andy R.; Haynes, Robin; Riddoch, Chris J

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity levels in children are low and factors in the neighbourhood are believed to be influential. However, uncertainty remains about how best to define the neighbourhood. We therefore sought to study the role of area definition on neighbourhood variations in child physical activity using data collected at age 11 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK. We found the effect of neighbourhood of residence on variations in PA was small, explaining under 3% of varia...

  17. The Interplay of Biology and the Environment Broadly Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This special section of Developmental Psychology contains articles on the interplay of biology and the environment, broadly defined, that have the potential to change or challenge how developmental psychologists think. Topics include how experience affects gene expression; how genes affect how the environment is experienced and what effect the environment has; interactions between the environment and the presence or absence of early brain damage; motor neurons and the understanding of others’...

  18. Cellular Resolutions of Ideals Defined by Simplicial Homomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Benjamin; Klee, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the class of ordered homomorphism ideals and prove that these ideals admit minimal cellular resolutions constructed as homomorphism complexes. As a key ingredient of our work, we introduce the class of cointerval simplicial complexes and investigate their combinatorial and topological properties. As a concrete illustration of these structural results, we introduce and study nonnesting monomial ideals, an interesting family of combinatorially defined ideals.

  19. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach

    OpenAIRE

    Varga Somogy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatis...

  20. An index defined by focal points for periodic hamiltonians systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated to an n-dimensional linear Hamiltonian system a real number μ is defined as the mean number of focal points per unit of time. For general one parameter families of Hamiltonian systems with periodic coefficients the existence and the continuity of μ can be proved. Moreover, if the periodic system is hyperbolic, μ is associated to an integer. These results are extentions of Poincare's Study of Manpertuis' focal points. (Author)

  1. Design Space Decomposition for Cognitive and Software Defined Radios

    OpenAIRE

    Fayez, Almohanad Samir

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radios (SDRs) lend themselves to flexibility and extensibility because theydepend on software to implement radio functionality. Cognitive Engines (CEs) introduceintelligence to radio by monitoring radio performance through a set of meters and configuringthe underlying radio design by modifying its knobs. In Cognitive Radio (CR) applications,CEs intelligently monitor radio performance and reconfigure them to meet it applicationand RF channel needs. While the issue of introduci...

  2. Software Defined Networking Supported by IEEE 802.1Q

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, János; Haddock, Stephen; Saltsidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on how Software Defined Networking (SDN) principles can be applied to existing Ethernet merchant silicon considering the requirements modern networks face. We show that existing Layer 2 features specified by IEEE 802.1Q support SDN. The bridge architecture supports control plane/data plane split by design and also allows for external control e.g. by an SDN Controller. The data plane provided by existing chips is feature rich for network virtualization and supports...

  3. Analysis of Topology Poisoning Attacks in Software-Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Bui, Tien

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is an emerging architecture with a great potential to foster the development of modern networks. By separating the control plane from the network devices and centralizing it at a software-based controller, SDN provides network-wide visibility and flexible programmability to network administrators. However, the security aspects of SDN are not yet fully understood. For example, while SDN is resistant to some topology poisoning attacks in which the attacker misl...

  4. Optimized Packet Classification for Software-Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Perez, K.; Yang, X.; Scott-Hayward, S.; Sezer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends, such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN), introduce programmability to the network with the opportunity to dynamically route traffic based on flow descriptions. Packet header lookup is the first phase in this process. In this paper, we illustrate improved header lookup and flow rule update speeds over conventional lookup algorithms. This is achieved by performing individual packet header field searches and combining the search results. We propose that individual algorithms sho...

  5. A Survey of Security in Software Defined Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Hayward, Sandra; Natarajan, Sriram; Sezer, Sakir

    2016-01-01

    The proposition of increased innovation in network applications and reduced cost for network operators has won over the networking world to the vision of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). With the excitement of holistic visibility across the network and the ability to program network devices, developers have rushed to present a range of new SDN-compliant hardware, software and services. However, amidst this frenzy of activity, one key element has only recently entered the debate: Network Sec...

  6. A FIRM Approach to Software-Defined Service Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kathiravelu, Pradeeban; Grbac, Tihana Galinac; Veiga, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Service composition is an aggregate of services often leveraged to automate the enterprise business processes. While Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been a forefront of service composition, services can be realized as efficient distributed and parallel constructs such as MapReduce, which are not typically exploited in service composition. With the advent of Software\\-Defined Networking (SDN), global view and control of the entire network is made available to the networking controller,...

  7. Software Defined Networking: A Concept and Related Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar; Manu Sood

    2014-01-01

    SDN (Software Defined Networking) is the networking architecture that has gained attention of researchers in recent past. It is the future of programmable networks. Traditional networks were very complex and difficult to manage. SDN is going to change this by offering a standard interface (OpenFlow) between the control plane and the networking devices (data plane). Its implementation is fully supported by software so that we can control the behavior of networking devices through programmatic ...

  8. Scalability and Resilience of Software-Defined Networking: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    van Asten, Benjamin J.; van Adrichem, Niels L. M.; Kuipers, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) allows to control the available network resources by an intelligent and centralized authority in order to optimize traffic flows in a flexible manner. However, centralized control may face scalability issues when the network size or the number of traffic flows increases. Also, a centralized controller may form a single point of failure, thereby affecting the network resilience. This article provides an overview of SDN that focuses on (1) scalability concernin...

  9. Software-Defined Networking Based Capacity Sharing in Hybrid Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mateus,; Oliveira, Bruno; Margi, Cintia,; Astuto, Bruno Nunes; Turletti, Thierry; Obraczka, Katia

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to capacity sharing in hybrid networked environments, i.e., environments that consist of infrastructure-based as well as infrastructure-less networks. The proposed framework is based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and provides flexible, efficient, and secure capacity sharing solutions in a variety of hybrid network scenarios. In this paper, we describe the challenges raised by capacity sharing in hybrid networks, describe our framework in detail and ...

  10. Software Defined Optical Networks (SDONs): A Comprehensive Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagaturu, Akhilesh; Mercian, Anu; McGarry, Michael P.; Reisslein, Martin; Kellerer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The emerging Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm separates the data plane from the control plane and centralizes network control in an SDN controller. Applications interact with controllers to implement network services, such as network transport with Quality of Service (QoS). SDN facilitates the virtualization of network functions so that multiple virtual networks can operate over a given installed physical network infrastructure. Due to the specific characteristics of optical (photon...

  11. Towards autonomic DDoS mitigation using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Sahay, Rishikesh; Blanc, Gregory; Zhang, Zonghua; Debar, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS) have remained as one of the most destructive attacks in the Internet for over two decades. Despite tremendous efforts on the design of DDoS defense strategies, few of them have been considered for widespread deployment due to strong design assumptions on the Internet infrastructure, prohibitive operational costs and complexity. Recently, the emergence of Software Defined Networking (SDN) has offered a solution to reduce network management complexit...

  12. Enhancing Availability of Services Using Software-Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Klepac; Tomas Hegr; Leos Bohac

    2015-01-01

    The immense growth of client requirements imposed on data centre and cloud providers results in a conflict with traditional networking concepts lacking the required agility. In order to promote flexibility, which data centre providers promise to their clients, this discrepancy needs to be resolved, for instance by employing the novel concept of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). This paper utilises this concept in order to minimise service downtime while performing live virtual machine migrat...

  13. A Configurable Packet Classification Architecture for Software-Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Pérez, K.; Yang, X.; Scott-Hayward, S.; Sezer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Network management tools must be able to monitor and analyze traffic flowing through network systems. According to the OpenFlow protocol applied in Software-Defined Networking (SDN), packets are classified into flows that are searched in flow tables. Further actions, such as packet forwarding, modification, and redirection to a group table, are made in the flow table with respect to the search results. A novel hardware solution for SDN-enabled packet classification is presented in this paper....

  14. OpenDaylight as a controller for Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Figuerola, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    This document intends to be an in depth approach to the new possibilities that telecommunication networks are o↵ering through the new paradigms of Network Functions Virtualization and Software Defined Networking, which are following the development to the cloud and the open source principle. The main advantage that these innovations provide is a cost reduced, dy- namical and highly programmable network without sacrificing too much the performance. However, to take advantage of these improveme...

  15. Network Security through Software Defined Networking: a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    François, Jérôme; Dolberg, Lautaro; Festor, Olivier; Engel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Network security is a predominant topic both in academia and industry. Many methods and tools have been proposed but the attackers are still able to launch massive and effective attacks. Keeping the pace with the new threats appearing or becoming more sophisticated everyday is of a paramount of importance. Software Defined Networking (SDN) has recently emerged and promotes the programmability of the networks, which thus allows to enable in-network security functions. This includes firewalls, ...

  16. G-Structures defined on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Concepts and techniques from the theory of G-structures of higher order are applied to the study of certain structures (volume forms, conformal structures, linear connections and projective structures) defined on a pseudo-Riemanniann manifold. Several relationships between the structures involved have been investigated. The operations allowed on G-structures, such as intersection, inclusion, reduction, extension and prolongation, were used for it.

  17. Re-defining rural marketing: Insights from touring theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Walmsley, BA

    2012-01-01

    There remains little academic consensus on a definition of rural marketing, and as a concept, rural marketing has therefore struggled to establish its own vocabulary and ideas. Modi (2009) argues that rural marketing should be defined in terms of the impact it has on the developmental of rural people. This paper builds on this developmental concept of rural marketing by exploring the touring theatre sector and illustrating how theatre spaces and audiences differ fundamentally in urban and rur...

  18. Survey on Network Virtualization Hypervisors for Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Blenk, Andreas; Basta, Arsany; Reisslein, Martin; KELLERER, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking (SDN) has emerged as a promising paradigm for making the control of communication networks flexible. SDN separates the data packet forwarding plane, i.e., the data plane, from the control plane and employs a central controller. Network virtualization allows the flexible sharing of physical networking resources by multiple users (tenants). Each tenant runs its own applications over its virtual network, i.e., its slice of the actual physical network. The virtualizati...

  19. Multiband Software Defined Radar for Soil Discontinuities Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband Software Defined Radar based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technique is proposed in this work for an accurate soil discontinuities detection, taking into account also the dispersive behavior of media. A multilayer soil structure is assumed as a validation test to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, by accurately retrieving the unknown thicknesses and permittivities of the soil layers.

  20. An approach to define semantics for BPM systems interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Mariela; Caliusco, María Laura; Chiotti, Omar; Rosa Galli, María

    2015-04-01

    This article proposes defining semantics for Business Process Management systems interoperability through the ontology of Electronic Business Documents (EBD) used to interchange the information required to perform cross-organizational processes. The semantic model generated allows aligning enterprise's business processes to support cross-organizational processes by matching the business ontology of each business partner with the EBD ontology. The result is a flexible software architecture that allows dynamically defining cross-organizational business processes by reusing the EBD ontology. For developing the semantic model, a method is presented, which is based on a strategy for discovering entity features whose interpretation depends on the context, and representing them for enriching the ontology. The proposed method complements ontology learning techniques that can not infer semantic features not represented in data sources. In order to improve the representation of these entity features, the method proposes using widely accepted ontologies, for representing time entities and relations, physical quantities, measurement units, official country names, and currencies and funds, among others. When the ontologies reuse is not possible, the method proposes identifying whether that feature is simple or complex, and defines a strategy to be followed. An empirical validation of the approach has been performed through a case study.

  1. Differentiation of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Homogeneous cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes provide an excellent model system for studying the regulation of glial structure and function. Recently, a chemically defined (CD) medium was developed for purified cultures of astrocytes, thus eliminating the requirement for serum and providing a controlled system for the study of astroglial properties. Due to the widespread use of astrocyte cultures and the potential benefits to be gained from using a defined medium, astrocyte cultures raised in CD medium were analyzed for purity as well as morphological and biochemical properties. Purity was assessed using immunocytochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and fibronectin. Astrocytes raised in CD medium are 95% pure using the expression of GFAP as a criterion. Fewer than 1% of the cells in CD medium stained positive for fibronectin eliminating the possibility that CD medium is selective for meningeal or endothelial cells. Astrocytes raised in CD medium exhibit a striking degree of morphological differentiation as seen in scanning electron micrographs. They also exhibit a high degree of biochemical differentiation illustrated by increases in the specific activity of S-100 protein and the induction of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids. A defined medium that supports the proliferation of rat astrocytes and enhances numerous morphological and biochemical properties should greatly facilitate the study of factors controlling glial proliferation and differentiation.

  2. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjaer Unmack; Chernyy, Sergey; Andresen, Thomas L; Larsen, Niels B

    2016-01-21

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patient-specific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduced as a flexible and cost-efficient method for producing multiplexed dosing assays. The high spatial resolution of light projector technology defines multiple compound doses by the volume of individual compound-embedded hydrogel segments. Quantitative dosing of multiple proteins with a dynamic range of 1-2 orders of magnitude is demonstrated using fluorescently labeled albumins. The hydrogel matrix results from photopolymerization of low-cost poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGDA), and tuning of the PEGDA composition enables fast complete dosing of all tested species. Dosing of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds is demonstrated using two first-line chemotherapy regimens combining oxaliplatin, SN-38, 5-fluorouracil, and folinic acid, with each compound being dosed from a separate light-defined hydrogel segment. Cytotoxicity studies using a colorectal cancer cell line show equivalent effects of dissolved and released compounds. Further control of the dosing process is demonstrated by liposomal encapsulation of oxaliplatin, stable embedding of the liposomes in hydrogels for more than 3 months, and heat-triggered complete release of the loaded oxaliplatin. PMID:26619161

  3. Defining ovarian reserve to better understand ovarian aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Though a widely utilized term and clinical concept, ovarian reserve (OR has been only inadequately defined. Based on Medline and PubMed searches we here define OR in its various components, review genetic control of OR, with special emphasis on the FMR1 gene, and discuss whether diminished OR (DOR is treatable. What is generally referred to as OR reflects only a small portion of total OR (TOR, a pool of growing (recruited follicles (GFs at different stages of maturation. Functional OR (FOR depends on size of the follicle pool at menarche and the follicle recruitment rate. Both vary between individuals and, at least partially, are under genetic control. The FMR1 gene plays a role in defining FOR at all ages. Infertility treatments have in the past almost exclusively only centered on the last two weeks of folliculogenesis, the gonadotropin-sensitive phase. Expansions of treatments into earlier stages of maturation will offer opportunity to significantly improve ovarian stimulation protocols, especially in women with DOR. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may represent a first such intervention. Data generated in DHEA-supplemented women, indeed, suggest a new ovarian aging concept, based on aging of ovarian environments and not, as currently is believed, aging oocytes.

  4. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome. PMID:19579532

  5. Ljubljana urban region - a problem region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kušar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Agglomerative regions are a special type of problem regions with a specific set of development problems. An analysis of the economic, demographic, social,spatial and environmental processes and the situation in the Ljubljana urban region has highlighted the main problems in the region and the reasons behind them. The results fully confirmed the initial assumption that the region in question has all the characteristics of the agglomerative type of problem regions.

  6. Disparate sequence characteristics of the Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S.K.; Justesen, A.F.; Giese, H.

    1997-01-01

    , Egh falls into the group of Ascomycetes located at a basal position. The regulatory region of the Egh gpd gene has no homology to corresponding sequences in other filamentous Ascomycetes. Codon usage was determined for the four characterized Egh genes (tub2, Egh7, Egh16 and gpd) and found to be...... and plant genes in sequence mixtures. The Egh gpd promoter appears to be superior to that of the Egh beta-tubulin gene (tub2) for driving the E. coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in transformation experiments....

  7. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection by PCR Using Vaginal Swab Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Madico, Guillermo; Thomas C Quinn; Rompalo, Anne; Mckee, Kelly T.; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    1998-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. A PCR test using vaginal swab samples for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed to add T. vaginalis infection to the growing list of STDs that can be detected by DNA amplification techniques. A primer set, BTUB 9/2, was designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis. All strains (15 of 15) of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected ...

  8. Defining land degradation and desertification risk using simple indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairis, Or.

    2012-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for defining land degradation and desertification risk by using simple indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation, social economic, and land management characteristics. A number of 72 candidate indicators have been identified and analyzed for assessing land desertification risk under various processes and causes of degradation. Data were collected from 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites located in various environmental, social and economical conditions. The main processes or causes of land degradation and desertification identified in the study field sites were soil erosion, soil salinization, water stress, overgrazing, and forest fires. The number of candidate indicators defined for each process or cause of land degradation was ranged from 16 to 50. Classes have been defined for each indicator and numbers have been assigned for each class according to its importance on desertification. After creating the appropriate data basis, a forward stepwise statistical analysis was conducted for all indicators corresponding to each process or cause of land degradation and the sensitivity of each indicator to desertification risk was identified. Algorithms were derived for each process or cause that can be easily used for identifying land degradation and desertification risk at farm level. The performance of the derived methodology was assessed using the independent indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter content, and soil aggregate stability. The analysis of the data have shown that the used candidate indicators were significantly reduced to a number of effective indicators ranging from 8 to 17 in the various processes or causes of land degradation and desertification. Among the most important indicators identified as affecting land degradation and desertification risk were rain seasonality, soil depth, slope gradient, plant cover, rate of burned area, grazing control, rate of land abandonment, land use intensity, population

  9. Facet Defining Inequalities for the Simple Graph Partioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we investigate the facial structure of the simple graph...... partitioning polytopes P(b), b = 3,...,n, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. In particular we introduce two new classes af facet defining inequalities that are induced by cliques and multistars....

  10. Alpha emitters activity measurement using the defined solid angle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defined solid angle counting method can reach a very high accuracy, specially for heavy ions as alpha particles emitted by a radioactive source. The activity measurement of such sources with a relative uncertainty of the order of 0.01% is investigated. Such an accuracy is available only under suitable conditions: the radiation emitted by the source must be isotropic and all the particles emitted in the effective solid angle must be detected. The efficiency detection value must be equal to unity and phenomena such as absorption or scattering must be null. It is shown that corrections often become necessary. All parameters which can influence the measurements are studied

  11. Better Use of Data to Define Nutrition Priority and Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition and dietary survey data has been useful in defining themagnitude of malnutrition and dietary deficit. Such information has been helpful in gaining attention to support or to do more to improve nutrition-advocacy. However, there are also greater opportunities to use the common data to guide the program action. In summary, we have plenty of good nutrition and dietary information available to us in the planning and operation of nutrition intervention program. If we go beyond the use of data to justify area or subject of engagement, we can also use the same data for more efficient and more effective program without additional cost to us.

  12. Defining the galaxy of gene expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports detailing the expression profiles of primary breast cancer have pointed to the utility of this approach in defining subclasses with distinct molecular configurations and clinical behaviour. Some of the subclasses can be predicted by current molecular tests: estrogen receptor status, p53 staining, and HER-2 overexpression. Others, however, are novel subgroups and may represent distinct cellular types. The results from two recent studies suggest common principles of classification by expression profiling. These principles are examined and the impact of these results on understanding the biology and the clinical behaviour of breast tumors is explored

  13. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  14. Defining an information flow control policy with declassification and countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Cases, Llorenç

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Information systems manage different types of data, commonly classified between public and secret data. The origin of some programs is not known by the final user, having the risk of executing a program and leaking some of the secret data. Information flow control serves to track how are the variables accessed and used in order to know if a program may leak a secret. Information flow policies define how information can flow, allowing no flow from secret to public variables in the cas...

  15. SNS Device Made With Edge-Defined Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.

    1992-01-01

    YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta)/Au/Nb superconductor/normal-conductor/superconductor (SNS) microbridge devices fabricated using now-standard lithographic techniques and edge geometry to define normally conducting links having submicron-by-several-microns cross-sectional dimensions. Edge geometry allows current to flow only in these planes and takes advantage of longer coherence length at critical YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta)/Au/Nb interface. Sensitivity to damage on edge of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta)/Au/Nb reduced.

  16. Technical Evaluation Report 38: Defining a Theological Education Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Palka

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The current paper builds on Reports #34 and 35 in this series, which discussed the use of collaborative software to develop online communities in distance education (DE. The paper illustrates the manner in which an educational community's needs should be carefully examined, in the process of designing techniques that fulfill these needs at a distance. Student perceptions of their theological education community at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri (http://www.csl.edu/Home.html are investigated, via a survey instrument designed to define the students' communal needs.

  17. Unity-Based Diversity: System Approach to Defining Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What is information? This is the first question that information science should answer clearly. However, the definitions of information have been so diversified that people are questioning if there is any unity among the diversity, leading to a suspicion on whether it is possible to establish a unified theory of information or not. To answer this question, a system approach to defining information is introduced in this paper. It is proved that the unity of information definitions can be maintained with this approach. As a by-product, an important concept, the information eco-system, was also achieved.

  18. Defining Role-Playing Games as Language-Games

    OpenAIRE

    Arjoranta, Jonne

    2011-01-01

    Role-playing games are a diverse phenomenon, ranging from digital games to live action role-playing. Finding a definition that suits them all is hard, but attempts have been many. All of the definitions emphasize some aspects of role-playing games like rules, the role of players or the story. Many definitions do not describe role-playing games as such, but the activity that is role-playing. This paper looks at one of the latest attempts to define role-playing games, by Hitchens an...

  19. Defining initiating events for purposes of probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is primarily directed towards technical staff involved in the performance or review of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). It highlights different approaches and provides typical examples useful for defining the Initiating Events (IE). The document also includes the generic initiating event database, containing about 300 records taken from about 30 plant specific PSAs. In addition to its usefulness during the actual performance of a PSA, the generic IE database is of the utmost importance for peer reviews of PSAs, such as the IAEA's International Peer Review Service (IPERS) where reference to studies on similar NPPs is needed. 60 refs, figs and tabs

  20. Defining the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Equine Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Wilkins, Pamela A

    2015-12-01

    Defining and describing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis facilitated recognition and investigation of the complex disease processes involving the host response to infection and trauma. Over the years a variety of definitions of SIRS have been examined and applied to numerous research studies to improve critical care in both human and veterinary clinical practice. This article summarizes the history of the development of the SIRS definition, outlines the pathophysiologic processes that are involved in SIRS, and provides a specific definition for use in foal medicine. PMID:26612743

  1. Design of BPS digital frontend for software defined radio receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪梅; KIM Jae-hyung; 王法广; LEE Sang-hyuk; 王雪松

    2015-01-01

    In radio receivers, complete implementation of the software defined radio (SDR) concept is mainly limited by frontend. Based on bandpass sampling (BPS) theory, a flexible digital frontend (DFE) platform for SDR receiver is designed. In order to increase the processing speed, Gigabit Ethernet was applied in the platform at speed of 5×108 bit/s. By appropriate design of interpolant according to the position of input RF signals, multi-band receiving can be realized in the platform with suppression more than 35 dB without changing hardware.

  2. Defining Non-Traditional Security and Its Implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YizhouWang

    2004-01-01

    Non-traditional security, often abbreviated to NTS, is a popular but rather ambiguous concept within and outside academic circles. How to accurately define this term? What should be considered in prioritising the needs to curb various NTS threats, given a country's limited resources and capacities? By raising thought-provoking questions, the author tries to explain the perplexity concerning NTS issues, arguing that NTS is important in economic, political and security sense, but that more efforts are needed from the academics in order to reach a consensus in understanding and dealing with NTS issues.

  3. Topic B. Disposal objectives: are they fair and properly defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the author was asked to make some connections between the ethical issues that are presently being discussed and the objectives and the principles which have been espoused in the nuclear waste disposal area. He tries to group it under the following set of questions : are the objectives and principles which we espouse properly defined. Are they sufficiently complete. Have we missed any out. Did we make any additional suggestions. Are they fair when we measure them against these ethical principles. Are they too ambitious. Are we going too far in one direction. (O.L.)

  4. Software-Defined Radio for Space-to-Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ken; Jih, Cindy; Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben A.; Fritz, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the Space- to-Space Communications System (SSCS) Software- Defined Radio (SDR) research project to determine the most appropriate method for creating flexible and reconfigurable radios to implement wireless communications channels for space vehicles so that fewer radios are required, and commonality in hardware and software architecture can be leveraged for future missions. The ability to reconfigure the SDR through software enables one radio platform to be reconfigured to interoperate with many different waveforms. This means a reduction in the number of physical radio platforms necessary to support a space mission s communication requirements, thus decreasing the total size, weight, and power needed for a mission.

  5. Using software-defined networking principles for wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsson, Martin; Orfanidis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an architecture based on software-defined networking (SDN) for wireless sensor networks. Ideas of how to design and make use of the flexibility that SDN offers are presented. We discuss how SDN principles can lead to the use of commodity hardware in a wider range of WSN deployments and then tailor the software only to meet the requirements of the specific deployments and their applications. A few examples are introduced that demonstrate how the architecture can be us...

  6. Defining Dry Ports by the Logistic Performance Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Although the dry port concept is not new, the research regarding the issue in question and the activities related to it have only recently stirred a high interest, especially due to their advantages. The dry port concept is based on a seaport directly connected by rail to inland intermodal terminals, where shippers can leave and/or collect their goods in intermodal loading units as if directly at the seaport [1]. This paper will present and define a dry port Logistic Performance Index (LPI) f...

  7. Definable functions in the simply typed lambda-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Mateusz

    2007-01-01

    It is a common knowledge that the integer functions definable in simply typed lambda-calculus are exactly the extended polynomials. This is indeed the case when one interprets integers over the type (p->p)->p->p where p is a base type and/or equality is taken as beta-conversion. It is commonly believed that the same holds for beta-eta equality and for integers represented over any fixed type of the form (t->t)->t->t. In this paper we show that this opinion is not quite true. We prove that the...

  8. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    such as configuration of devices, ports, queues, etc. An Application Programming Interface (API) for dynamic configuration of QoS resources in the network devices is implemented herein, by using the capabilities of OVSDB. Further, the paper demonstrates the possibility to create network services with coarse granularity......The OpenFlow (OF) protocol is widely used in Software Defined Networking (SDN) to realize the communication between the controller and forwarding devices. OF allows great flexibility in managing traffic flows. However, OF alone is not enough to build more complex SDN services that require complete...

  9. Hierarchical Poly Tree computer architectures defined by computational multidisciplinary mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Joe; Gute, Doug; Johnson, Keith

    1989-01-01

    This paper will develop an alternative computer architecture called the Poly Tree. Based on the requirements of computational mechanics and the concept of hierarchical substructuring, the paper will explore the development of problem-dependent parallel networks of processors which will enable significant, often superlinear, speed enhancements; provide a logical/efficient framework for linear/nonlinear and transient structural mechanics problems; and provide a logical framework from which to apply model reduction procedures. In addition, the paper will explore optimal processor arrangements which define the overall system granularity. Consideration will also be given to system I/O requirements.

  10. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  11. Approaches to defining reference regimes for river restoration planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechie, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reference conditions or reference regimes can be defined using three general approaches, historical analysis, contemporary reference sites, and theoretical or empirical models. For large features (e.g., floodplain channels and ponds) historical data and maps are generally reliable. For smaller features (e.g., pools and riffles in small tributaries), field data from contemporary reference sites are a reasonable surrogate for historical data. Models are generally used for features that have no historical information or present day reference sites (e.g., beaver pond habitat). Each of these approaches contributes to a watershed-wide understanding of current biophysical conditions relative to potential conditions, which helps create not only a guiding vision for restoration, but also helps quantify and locate the largest or most important restoration opportunities. Common uses of geomorphic and biological reference conditions include identifying key areas for habitat protection or restoration, and informing the choice of restoration targets. Examples of use of each of these three approaches to define reference regimes in western USA illustrate how historical information and current research highlight key restoration opportunities, focus restoration effort in areas that can produce the largest ecological benefit, and contribute to estimating restoration potential and assessing likelihood of achieving restoration goals.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Accumulated Savings in Defined Contribution Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Latković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effect of parameters in the standard model for calculation of accumulated savings in a defined contribution pension system. Three parameters affect accumulated savings in the standard model: saving duration, return of the pension fund and the growth in employee gross wage. By using a linear approximation we calculated marginal contributions for small changes in the parameters of the standard model and analyzed their relations for a set of referent parameters which are most suitable for the 2nd pillar pension system in Croatia. It is shown that the return of a pension fund has a major influence on accumulated savings, while the influence of the growth in employee gross wage is slightly smaller. Also, we calculated the influence of raising the contribution rate in the 2nd pillar on the accumulated savings in a simple scenario in which that rate is raised by equal amounts over the whole of a saving period. These results allow easier planning of pension insurance in the defined contribution system at a general level as well as at an individual level.

  13. Addressing the Challenge of Defining Valid Proteomic Biomarkers and Classifiers

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dakna, Mohammed

    2010-12-10

    Abstract Background The purpose of this manuscript is to provide, based on an extensive analysis of a proteomic data set, suggestions for proper statistical analysis for the discovery of sets of clinically relevant biomarkers. As tractable example we define the measurable proteomic differences between apparently healthy adult males and females. We choose urine as body-fluid of interest and CE-MS, a thoroughly validated platform technology, allowing for routine analysis of a large number of samples. The second urine of the morning was collected from apparently healthy male and female volunteers (aged 21-40) in the course of the routine medical check-up before recruitment at the Hannover Medical School. Results We found that the Wilcoxon-test is best suited for the definition of potential biomarkers. Adjustment for multiple testing is necessary. Sample size estimation can be performed based on a small number of observations via resampling from pilot data. Machine learning algorithms appear ideally suited to generate classifiers. Assessment of any results in an independent test-set is essential. Conclusions Valid proteomic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis only can be defined by applying proper statistical data mining procedures. In particular, a justification of the sample size should be part of the study design.

  14. Cultural sensitivity in public health: defined and demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, K; Baranowski, T; Ahluwalia, J S; Braithwaite, R L

    1999-01-01

    There is consensus that health promotion programs should be culturally sensitive (CS). Yet, despite the ubiquitous nature of CS within public health research and practice, there has been surprisingly little attention given to defining CS or delineating a framework for developing culturally sensitive programs and practitioners. This paper describes a model for understanding CS from a public health perspective; describes a process for applying this model in the development of health promotion and disease prevention interventions; and highlights research priorities. Cultural sensitivity is defined by two dimensions: surface and deep structures. Surface structure involves matching intervention materials and messages to observable, "superficial" characteristics of a target population. This may involve using people, places, language, music, food, locations, and clothing familiar to, and preferred by, the target audience. Surface structure refers to how well interventions fit within a specific culture. Deep structure involves incorporating the cultural, social, historical, environmental and psychological forces that influence the target health behavior in the proposed target population. Whereas surface structure generally increases the "receptivity" or "acceptance" of messages, deep structure conveys salience. Techniques, borrowed from social marketing and health communication theory, for developing culturally sensitive interventions are described. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of culturally sensitive programs. PMID:10355471

  15. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  16. Defining the cortical visual systems: "what", "where", and "how"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creem, S. H.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The visual system historically has been defined as consisting of at least two broad subsystems subserving object and spatial vision. These visual processing streams have been organized both structurally as two distinct pathways in the brain, and functionally for the types of tasks that they mediate. The classic definition by Ungerleider and Mishkin labeled a ventral "what" stream to process object information and a dorsal "where" stream to process spatial information. More recently, Goodale and Milner redefined the two visual systems with a focus on the different ways in which visual information is transformed for different goals. They relabeled the dorsal stream as a "how" system for transforming visual information using an egocentric frame of reference in preparation for direct action. This paper reviews recent research from psychophysics, neurophysiology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging to define the roles of the ventral and dorsal visual processing streams. We discuss a possible solution that allows for both "where" and "how" systems that are functionally and structurally organized within the posterior parietal lobe.

  17. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  18. Gate-defined Quantum Confinement in Suspended Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Quantum confined devices in carbon-based materials offer unique possibilities for applications ranging from quantum computation to sensing. In particular, nanostructured carbon is a promising candidate for spin-based quantum computation due to the ability to suppress hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins, a dominant source of spin decoherence. Yet graphene lacks an intrinsic bandgap, which poses a serious challenge for the creation of such devices. We present a novel approach to quantum confinement utilizing tunnel barriers defined by local electric fields that break sublattice symmetry in suspended bilayer graphene. This technique electrostatically confines charges via band structure control, thereby eliminating the edge and substrate disorder that hinders on-chip etched nanostructures to date. We report clean single electron tunneling through gate-defined quantum dots in two regimes: at zero magnetic field using the energy gap induced by a perpendicular electric field and at finite magnetic fields using Landau level confinement. The observed Coulomb blockade periodicity agrees with electrostatic simulations based on local top-gate geometry, a direct demonstration of local control over the band structure of graphene. This technology integrates quantum confinement with pristine device quality and access to vibrational modes, enabling wide applications from electromechanical sensors to quantum bits. More broadly, the ability to externally tailor the graphene bandgap over nanometer scales opens a new unexplored avenue for creating quantum devices.

  19. Defining reward value by cross-modal scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anna H; Silberberg, Alan; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Researchers in comparative psychology often use different food rewards in their studies, with food values defined by a pre-experimental preference test. While this technique rank orders food values, it provides limited information about value differences because preferences may reflect not only value differences, but also the degree to which one good may "substitute" for another (e.g., one food may substitute well for another food, but neither substitutes well for water). We propose scaling the value of food pairs by a third food that is less substitutable for either food offered in preference tests (cross-modal scaling). Here, Cebus monkeys chose between four pairwise alternatives: fruits A versus B; cereal amount X versus fruit A and cereal amount Y versus fruit B where X and Y were adjusted to produce indifference between each cereal amount and each fruit; and cereal amounts X versus Y. When choice was between perfect substitutes (different cereal amounts), preferences were nearly absolute; so too when choice was between close substitutes (fruits); however, when choice was between fruits and cereal amounts, preferences were more modest and less likely due to substitutability. These results suggest that scaling between-good value differences in terms of a third, less-substitutable good may be better than simple preference tests in defining between-good value differences. PMID:23771492

  20. Use of plant operating history to define transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue and crack growth analyses of components subjected to transient loads have been under continuous development during the recent past to include effects of environment on the components. The accuracy of the evaluation method on the predicted reliability of the components in the operating environment has become a focus of attention. Methods have integrated available material/component test data to improve evaluation techniques. However, in the area of definition of thermal transient loads the analyst still has to remain conservative, because no realistic guidelines have been developed to define thermal transients and their sequences. Fatigue re-evaluations of components are becoming increasingly necessary in operating plants as they age due to two reasons: (1) Components show age related degradation and cannot be repaired/replaced due to economic/logistic reasons. (2) Components experience transient conditions which were not considered in the original design. In either case, the evaluation of remaining life of components involves definition of transients and their sequence from the time the component was put in service until the end of life. As a common practice, initial plant design transients are used in a conservative definition of sequences to obtain results unrealistic for the situation, which sometimes leads to inaccurate estimate of the remaining life of components. The objective of this paper is to use plant operating history and plant monitoring data to provide procedures and techniques to define realistic transients for evaluation

  1. Safety Leadership Defined within the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the tenets of safety leadership within the Australian construction environment. The scope of this research aims to establish a universal definition of safety leadership and how it differs from other leadership disciplines. The literature review into this topic was governed by the parent disciplines of Safety and Leadership.  Gaps were identified in the literature that indicated safety leadership is not a well-defined concept and much of the work into safety leadership has been borrowed from other schools of leadership. An exploratory research methodology was utilised which rooted the research into the post-positivist methodology. There were twenty interviews conducted for this research, with participants coming from various leadership positions across multiple construction projects around Australia. Findings detailed a saturation of data that allowed for an empirical definition towards safety leadership to be established. As a person’s scope of responsibility increases, their view of safety leadership becomes synonymous with leadership; although differences do exist. These differences were attributed to the importance of demonstrating safety and working within the legal framework of Australian construction projects. It is proposed that this research offers a substantial contribution to knowledge, based upon a well-defined definition into safety leadership.

  2. Minimizing communication cost among distributed controllers in software defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Elbreiki, Walid; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm to increase the flexibility of today's network by promising for a programmable network. The fundamental idea behind this new architecture is to simplify network complexity by decoupling control plane and data plane of the network devices, and by making the control plane centralized. Recently controllers have distributed to solve the problem of single point of failure, and to increase scalability and flexibility during workload distribution. Even though, controllers are flexible and scalable to accommodate more number of network switches, yet the problem of intercommunication cost between distributed controllers is still challenging issue in the Software Defined Network environment. This paper, aims to fill the gap by proposing a new mechanism, which minimizes intercommunication cost with graph partitioning algorithm, an NP hard problem. The methodology proposed in this paper is, swapping of network elements between controller domains to minimize communication cost by calculating communication gain. The swapping of elements minimizes inter and intra communication cost among network domains. We validate our work with the OMNeT++ simulation environment tool. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism minimizes the inter domain communication cost among controllers compared to traditional distributed controllers.

  3. Defining and determining the significance of impacts: concepts and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term impact is conceptually and mathematically defined to be the difference in the state or value of an ecosystem with versus without the source of impact. Some resulting problems associated with the measurement of impacts based on comparisons of baseline and operational data are discussed briefly. The concept of a significant adverse impact on a biological system is operationally defined in terms of an adverse impact which, according to a proposed decision-tree, justifies rejection of a project or a change in its site, design, or mode of operation. A gradient of increasing difficulty in the prediction of impacts exists as the scope of the assessment is expanded to consider long-term, far-field impacts with respect to higher levels of biological organization (e.g., communities or ecosystems). The analytical methods available for predicting short-term, near-field impacts are discussed. Finally, the role of simulation modeling as an aid to professional judgment in predicting the long-term, far-field consequences of impacts is considered, and illustrated with an example. (U.S.)

  4. Cellular Reprogramming Using Defined Factors and MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Eguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of human bodies, organs, and tissues contains numerous steps of cellular differentiation including an initial zygote, embryonic stem (ES cells, three germ layers, and multiple expertized lineages of cells. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been recently developed using defined reprogramming factors such as Nanog, Klf5, Oct3/4 (Pou5f1, Sox2, and Myc. This outstanding innovation is largely changing life science and medicine. Methods of direct reprogramming of cells into myocytes, neurons, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts have been further developed using modified combination of factors such as N-myc, L-myc, Sox9, and microRNAs in defined cell/tissue culture conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are also emerging multipotent stem cells with particular microRNA expression signatures. It was shown that miRNA-720 had a role in cellular reprogramming through targeting the pluripotency factor Nanog and induction of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs. This review reports histories, topics, and idea of cellular reprogramming.

  5. Cellular Reprogramming Using Defined Factors and MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Takanori; Kuboki, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    Development of human bodies, organs, and tissues contains numerous steps of cellular differentiation including an initial zygote, embryonic stem (ES) cells, three germ layers, and multiple expertized lineages of cells. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been recently developed using defined reprogramming factors such as Nanog, Klf5, Oct3/4 (Pou5f1), Sox2, and Myc. This outstanding innovation is largely changing life science and medicine. Methods of direct reprogramming of cells into myocytes, neurons, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts have been further developed using modified combination of factors such as N-myc, L-myc, Sox9, and microRNAs in defined cell/tissue culture conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are also emerging multipotent stem cells with particular microRNA expression signatures. It was shown that miRNA-720 had a role in cellular reprogramming through targeting the pluripotency factor Nanog and induction of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). This review reports histories, topics, and idea of cellular reprogramming. PMID:27382371

  6. Opportunistic spectrum sharing in software defined wireless network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yang; Yong Li; Depeng Jin; Li Su; Lieguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a rapid growth in mobile and wireless networks (MWNs) which significantly change human life. However, proliferating mobile de-mands lead to several intractable chal enges that MWN has to face. Software-defined network is expected as a promising way for future network and has captured growing attention. Network virtualization is an essential feature in software-defined wireless network (SDWN), and it brings two new entities, physical networks and virtual networks. Accordingly, efficiently assigning spectrum resource to virtual networks is one of the fundamental problems in SDWN. Directly orienting towards the spectrum resource al o-cation problem, firstly, the fluctuation features of virtual network requirements in SDWN are researched, and the opportunistic spectrum sharing method is introduced to SDWN. Then, the prob-lem is proved as NP-hardness. After that, a dynamic programming and graph theory based spectrum sharing algorithm is proposed. Simulations demonstrate that the opportunistic spectrum sharing method conspicuously improves the system performance up to around 20%–30%in SDWN, and the proposed algorithm achieves more efficient performance.

  7. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  8. Regional Tourism Development - Western Region Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriana Sava

    2011-01-01

    Regional development can be considered a means of economic growth and of living standards, in order to reduce existing imbalances. Evolution and development of tourism is part of the overall development processes of economy and regional development. Development Region West is one of the eight development regions of Romania, which was established in 1998. One possibility of developing tourism in the region would be niche tourism such as speleo-tourism.

  9. Defining learning disability: what place does intelligence testing have now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, G

    2001-08-01

    In summary, therefore, when we endeavour to make any statements on the presence and/or degree of learning disability in children, we need to consider carefully how we define our population. Intelligence testing, or some similar psychometric procedures should be available, but with two substantial caveats. First, the results of the tests must be taken in the context of the respective test situations, and any relevant wider child/environmental factors. In practice, where testing is carried out by a chartered psychologist according to standard protocols, these considerations are dealt with, and will be cited in the commentary on the test results. Second, intelligence testing, while helpful, is not sufficient of itself for definition. There must be evidence for early onset in the developmental period. Here, it is surprising in clinical practice how often the evidence is far from clear; population migration and resultant variations in practice and documentation are contributory factors here. However, all indications are that evidence of early onset may become even more important in the near future, in the face of these latter secular trends. In addition to intelligence testing, therefore, some measure of social functioning should be made, such as a Vineland assessment. It should be noted, however, that many of the same provisos that apply to intelligence testing apply here. While the combination of the two is quite robust, just as intelligence assessment alone is insufficient, the same applies to assessment of social functioning. Furthermore, the complexities of definition by service received, for example by school attended, must be considered carefully. To ignore a child's reception into special education is to miss important information, whether in terms of the preceding background factors or the resultant impact of experience at the school. But to identify or classify a child according to type of special education received, and to then go on to make prognostic

  10. User-defined Services in G-Lite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranova, R.

    2009-10-01

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural model for developing reliable distributed systems, where functionality is provided as services. g-Lite is a middleware for Grid computing, which provides low and high level services for access to Grid resources. Some of the services exposed by the environment are service-enabled (follow the principles of SOA), but the rest are not. This makes the environment partially service-oriented and creates difficulties with the development of Grid applications. From SOA principle point of view, the problems in g-Lite are related with lack of rules for- and difficulties with creating, registering, deploying and certifying user-defined Grid service in the environment. In this article we discuss these issues and provide a simple solution to avoid these problems.

  11. Implementation of Physical Layer Key Distribution using Software Defined Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kambala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was well known from Shannon’s days that characteristics of the physical channel like attenuation, fading and noise can impair reliable communication. But it was more recently that the beneficial side effects of channel characteristics in ensuring secret communication started getting attention. Studies have been made to quantify the amount of secrecy that can be reaped by combining channel coding with security protocols. The Wiretap channel proposed by Wyner is arguably one of the oldest models of physical layer security protocols. In this paper, we present a brief tutorial introduction to the Wiretap channel, followed by an application of the physical layer model to a class of Key Distribution protocols. We present results from an implementation of key distribution protocols using Software Defined Radio tools along with physical RF hardware peripherals. We believe this approach is much more tangible and informative than computer based simulation studies.

  12. Defining and assessing critical thinking skills for student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing critical thinking skills is a key aim of higher education and is important in preparing student radiographers for their future careers in clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to attempt to devise and assess six key components of critical thinking appropriate for radiographic practice. Each of the six components was divided into three dimensions and a Critical Thinking Skills Scoring Chart (CTSSC) devised to assess students' written performance against each dimension. Scores revealed that approximately 30% of students were rated as good and approximately 10% of students were rated as poor in each component, although there was some variability between different dimensions. It is suggested that educators need to encourage and support students to develop their critical thinking skills by reviewing their curriculum to clearly define specific skills and ensure that they are appropriately taught and assessed

  13. From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Dixon, Dan; Khaled, Rilla;

    2011-01-01

    games, pervasive games, alternate reality games, or playful design. However, it is not clear how “gamification” relates to these, whether it denotes a novel phenomenon, and how to define it. Thus, in this paper we investigate “gamification” and the historical origins of the term in relation...... to precursors and similar concepts. It is suggested that “gamified” applications provide insight into novel, gameful phenomena complementary to playful phenomena. Based on our research, we propose a definition of “gamification” as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.......Recent years have seen a rapid proliferation of mass-market consumer software that takes inspiration from video games. Usually summarized as “gamification”, this trend connects to a sizeable body of existing concepts and research in human- computer interaction and game studies, such as serious...

  14. CARRIER SYNCHRONIZATION IN SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO FOR 8PSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.MUTHAIAH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim behind the growth of software defined radio is the skill to reconfigure radios, thereby increasing the efficiency in the usage of radio resources. In wireless communication the multipath effectproduce interference and also changes in the phase of the signal. In order to correctly recover the transmitted data with minimum error, carrier synchronization is essential. One of the challenging tasks in a communication system is synchronization of the carrier signal. In this paper 8PSK modulation scheme is used for data transmission. Since 8PSK achieves high data rate, the probability of actual signal recovery is quite difficult. Here the carrier recovery for 8PSK modulation has been performed.

  15. Better Use of Data to Define Nutrition Priority and Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAYYIP

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition and dietary survey data has been useful in defining the magnitude of malnutrition and dietary deficity,Such information has been helpful in gaining attention to support or to do more to improve nutrition-advocacy,However,there are also greater opportunities to use the common data to guide the program action.In summary,we have plenty of good nutrition and dietary information available to us in the planning and operation of nutrition intervention program.If we go beyond the use of data to justity area or subject of engagement,we can also use the same data for more efficient and more effective program without additional cost to us.

  16. Defining organizational capacity for public health services and systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Davis, Meredith; Mays, Glen P

    2012-11-01

    More than a decade has passed since a conceptual framework was introduced to guide public health services and systems research (PHSSR) and elucidate the relationships associated with system performance. Since then, research has primarily focused on performance, standards, and key processes, with less emphasis on identification of measures or methods. Capacity lies at one end of the conceptual framework, although little emphasis has been placed on measuring and defining "capacity" of the public health system. This is striking, given organizational capacity is a critical determinant of performance and is necessary for understanding systematic effectiveness, sustainability, or generalizability. As a nascent field, PHSSR needs to develop a definition of organizational capacity and elucidate its relationship within a research framework. Evidence must be developed on the temporal and causal relationships between capacity, process/performance, and outcomes. The purpose of this article was to review research frameworks and capacity measures in various disciplines to expand the existing PHSSR conceptual framework. PMID:23023278

  17. On Memory Accelerated Signal Processing within Software Defined Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Vincenzo; Di Dio, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Since J. Mitola's work in 1992, Software Defined Radios (SDRs) have been quite a hot topic in wireless systems research. Though many notable achievements were reported in the field, the scarcity of computational power on general purpose CPUs has always constrained their wide adoption in production environments. If conveniently applied within an SDR context, classical concepts known in computer science as space/time tradeoffs can be extremely helpful when trying to mitigate this problem. Inspired by and building on those concepts, this paper presents a novel SDR implementation technique which we call Memory Acceleration (MA) that makes extensive use of the memory resources available on a general purpose computing system, in order to accelerate signal computation. MA can provide substantial acceleration factors when applied to conventional SDRs without reducing their peculiar flexibility. As a practical proof of this, an example of MA applied in the real world to the ETSI DVB-T Viterbi decoder is provided. Actu...

  18. Data defining markers of human neural stem cell lineage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikari, Lotta E; Okolicsanyi, Rachel K; Griffiths, Lyn R; Haupt, Larisa M

    2016-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing and multipotent cells, however, NPCs are considered to be more lineage-restricted with a reduced self-renewing capacity. We present data comparing the expression of 21 markers encompassing pluripotency, self-renewal (NSC) as well as neuronal and glial (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) lineage specification and 28 extracellular proteoglycan (PG) genes and their regulatory enzymes between embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived human NSCs (hNSC H9 cells, Thermo Fisher) and human cortex-derived normal human NPCs (nhNPCs, Lonza). The data demonstrates expression differences of multiple lineage and proteoglycan-associated genes between hNSC H9 cells and nhNPCs. Data interpretation of markers and proteoglycans defining NSC and neural cell lineage characterisation can be found in "Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as novel markers of human neural stem cell fate determination" (Oikari et al. 2015) [1]. PMID:26958640

  19. Nanometer CMOS Sigma-Delta Modulators for Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, Alonso; Rosa, José M

    2012-01-01

    This book presents innovative solutions for the implementation of Sigma-Delta Modulation (SDM) based Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), required for the next generation of wireless hand-held terminals. These devices will be based on the so-called multistandard transceiver chipsets, integrated in nanometer CMOS technologies. One of the most challenging and critical parts in such transceivers is the analog-digital interface, because of the assorted signal bandwidths and dynamic ranges that can be required to handle the A/D conversion for several operation modes.   This book describes new adaptive and reconfigurable SDM ADC topologies, circuit strategies and synthesis methods, specially suited for multi-standard wireless telecom systems and future Software-defined-radios (SDRs) integrated in nanoscale CMOS. It is a practical book, going from basic concepts to the frontiers of SDM architectures and circuit implementations, which are explained in a didactical and systematic way. It gives a comprehensive overview...

  20. Defining accident sequences for conducting probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major portion of any PRA activity is devoted to the identification of potential accident sequences which could lead to radiological releases. A systematic application of acceptable methods and techniques is desirable. Event tree and fault tree analysis form the basis for plant/system modeling. Consensus approaches for acquisition of information, model development, assumptions, constraints, inclusion of common cause events, interrelationships of event trees and fault trees, accuracy, completeness and manner of documentation are presented. Alternative methods which may be used or directed toward a specialized purpose are also of interest. Particular emphasis is placed on defining in practical terms the specific tasks of accident sequence definition and what is required, why it is necessary and how each task relates to the overall risk assessment process