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Sample records for beta-propeller phytase genes

  1. Optimization of five environmental factors to increase beta-propeller phytase production in Pichia pastoris and impact on the physiological response of the host.

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    Viader-Salvadó, José M; Castillo-Galván, Miguel; Fuentes-Garibay, José A; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María M; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we engineered Pichia pastoris Mut(s) strains to produce several beta-propeller phytases, one from Bacillus subtilis and the others designed by a structure-guided consensus approach. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of P. pastoris to produce and secrete these phytases in an active form in shake-flask cultures. In the present work, we used a design of experiments strategy (Simplex optimization method) to optimize five environmental factors that define the culture conditions in the induction step to increase beta-propeller phytase production in P. pastoris bioreactor cultures. With the optimization process, up to 347,682 U (82,814 U/L or 6.4 g/L culture medium) of phytase at 68 h of induction was achieved. In addition, the impact of the optimization process on the physiological response of the host was evaluated. The results indicate that the increase in extracellular phytase production through the optimization process was correlated with an increase in metabolic activity of P. pastoris, shown by an increase in oxygen demand and methanol consumption, that increase the specific growth rate. The increase in extracellular phytase production also occurred with a decrease in extracellular protease activity. Moreover, the optimized culture conditions increased the recombinant protein secretion by up to 88%, along with the extracellular phytase production efficiency per cell. PMID:24123973

  2. Design of Thermostable Beta-Propeller Phytases with Activity over a Broad Range of pHs and Their Overproduction by Pichia pastoris▿

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    Viader-Salvadó, José M.; Gallegos-López, Juan A.; Carreón-Treviño, J. Gerardo; Castillo-Galván, Miguel; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Thermostable phytases, which are active over broad pH ranges, may be useful as feed additives, since they can resist the temperatures used in the feed-pelleting process. We designed new beta-propeller phytases, using a structure-guided consensus approach, from a set of amino acid sequences from Bacillus phytases and engineered Pichia pastoris strains to overproduce the enzymes. The recombinant phytases were N-glycosylated, had the correct amino-terminal sequence, showed activity over a pH range of 2.5 to 9, showed a high residual activity after 10 min of heat treatment at 80°C and pH 5.5 or 7.5, and were more thermostable at pH 7.5 than a recombinant form of phytase C from Bacillus subtilis (GenBank accession no. AAC31775). A structural analysis suggested that the higher thermostability may be due to a larger number of hydrogen bonds and to the presence of P257 in a surface loop. In addition, D336 likely plays an important role in the thermostability of the phytases at pH 7.5. The recombinant phytases showed higher thermostability at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.5. This difference was likely due to a different protein total charge at pH 5.5 from that at pH 7.5. The recombinant beta-propeller phytases described here may have potential as feed additives and in the pretreatment of vegetable flours used as ingredients in animal diets. PMID:20693453

  3. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

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    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel phytase gene (Sphyl) from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

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    Li GUO; Jiaojiao WANG; Kai XIAO

    2008-01-01

    A novel phytase gene Sphyl was isolated based on screening a cDNA library which was constructed from germinated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Kefeng 6) cotyledon. The full-length cDNA of Sphyl was 1644 bp predicated to encode 547 amino acids including an N terminal signal peptide of 27 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indi-cated that Sphyl had high similarities with the phytase genes from Medicago truncatula and rice, and acid phosphatase genes from M. truncatula and Arabidopsis. Prokaryotic expression of Sphyl in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) showed that the induced protein had high phytase activities. The tran-scripts of Sphyl could be detected in various tissues, such as cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots of seedlings. The phytase activities in the above tissues were in accordance with their corresponding Sphyl transcripts. The transcripts of Sphyl in cotyledons showed an increasing trend from 5 to 30 days after germination, suggesting that Sphyl had involved the hydrolyses of the organic phosphorus compounds in seeds from the stages of early seed germination to young seedlings in soybean. Therefore, it was speculated that Sphyl played an important role during the seed germination and the growth of the seedlings by releasing inorganic phosphorus (P) from phosphorus reserve in seeds.

  5. Ectopic Expression of a Phytase Gene from Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic Enhances Phosphorus Absorption in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Xiao; Jian-Heng Zhang; Maria Harrison; Zeng-Yu Wang

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the phosphorus-absorption capacity of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing a novel phytase gene from Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic was evaluated. A full-length cDNA encoding an extracellular form of phytase was isolated from the model legume M. truncatula. The phytase gene (MtPHY1) has an open reading frame of 1 632 bp predicted to encode 543 amino acids, including an Nterminal signal peptide of 27 amino acids. The genomic sequence of the MtPHY1 gene is 5 151 bp, containing seven exons interrupted by six introns. Under high-Pi (2 mmol/L) growth conditions, higher levels of MtPHY1transcripts accumulated in the leaf and stem than in the root. The transcript level was reduced in the stem and increased in the root, with no obvious changes in the hybridization signal detected in the leaf under lowPi (10 μmol/L) conditions. Chimeric transgenes were constructed by placing MtPHY1 under the control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the root-specific MtPT1 promoter. Phytase activities in root apoplast of transgenic Arabidopsis were 12.3- to 16.2-fold of that in control plants. The phytase expressed was secreted into the rhizosphere, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis of phytate degradation by root exudates. Ectopic expression of MtPHY1 in Arabidopsis, leading to significant improvement in organic phosphorus absorption and plant growth, indicated that MtPHY1 has great potential for improving plant phosphorus absorption and phytoremediation.

  6. Molecular Cloning of Phytase Gene from ASUIA279 and Its Expression in Pichia pastoris System

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    M. H. Mahamad Maifiah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, one of the major storage form of phosphate in plants, with subsequent release of myo-inositol, phosphate and phytate-bound minerals. Non-ruminant animals such as chicken, swine and fish can't use the organic phosphorus and minerals from their diet because there is no phytase activity in their digestive tract. Phytate degrading enzyme is added to the animal feed diet to improve phosphorus availability from the dietary phytate and at the same time this lessen the phosphate pollution level in areas of intensive animal production as the phosphate would not be excreted out to the environment. ASUIA279, a bacterial strain isolated from Malaysian soil has potentially shown good phytase activity. In the present work, the gene encoding for phytase has been amplified from the plasmid DNA of recombinant ASUIA279(5 obtained from a previous study (unpublished data by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR methodology. The amplified phytase gene was extracted, purified then cloned into the pPICZA plasmid and transformed into Pichia pastorisX-33 strain for enzyme production.ABSTRAK: Fitase pemangkinan hidrolisis fitat (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, merupakan salah satu cara penyimpanan utama fosfat dalam tumbuhan, dengan pelepasan berturut myo-inositol , fosfat dan galian terikat fitat. Haiwan bukan ruminan seperti ayam, khinzir dan ikan tidak dapat memanfaatkan fosforus organik serta galian yang diperolehi daripada makanan kerana tidak mempunyai aktiviti fitase di dalam saluran pencernaan mereka. Enzim pengecilan fitase dicampurkan ke dalam pemakanan haiwan untuk mempertingkatkan keperolehan fosforus dari fitat diet. Pada masa yang sama ia dapat mengurangkan tahap pencemaran fosfat di kawasan yang terdapat penternakan haiwan secara intensif agar fosfat tidak dikumuhkan ke persekitaran. ASUIA279, satu strain bakteria yang diasingkan daripada tanih di Malaysiamenunjukkan aktiviti fitase

  7. Expression of Aspergillus nidulans phy Gene in Nicotiana benthamiana Produces Active Phytase with Broad Specificities

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    Tae-Kyun Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A full-length phytase gene (phy of Aspergillus nidulans was amplified from the cDNA library by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and it was introduced into a bacterial expression vector, pET-28a. The recombinant protein (rPhy-E, 56 kDa was overexpressed in the insoluble fraction of Escherichia coli culture, purified by Ni-NTA resin under denaturing conditions and injected into rats as an immunogen. To express A. nidulans phytase in a plant, the full-length of phy was cloned into a plant expression binary vector, pPZP212. The resultant construct was tested for its transient expression by Agrobacterium-infiltration into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Compared with a control, the agro-infiltrated leaf tissues showed the presence of phy mRNA and its high expression level in N. benthamiana. The recombinant phytase (rPhy-P, 62 kDa was strongly reacted with the polyclonal antibody against the nonglycosylated rPhy-E. The rPhy-P showed glycosylation, two pH optima (pH 4.5 and pH 5.5, an optimum temperature at 45~55 °C, thermostability and broad substrate specificities. After deglycosylation by peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase-F, the rPhy-P significantly lost the phytase activity and retained 1/9 of the original activity after 10 min of incubation at 45 °C. Therefore, the deglycosylation caused a significant reduction in enzyme thermostability. In animal experiments, oral administration of the rPhy-P at 1500 U/kg body weight/day for seven days caused a significant reduction of phosphorus excretion by 16% in rat feces. Besides, the rPhy-P did not result in any toxicological changes and clinical signs.

  8. Improvement of organic phosphate acquisition in transgenic tobacco plants by overexpression of a soybean phytase gene Sphyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li GUO; Yuxin ZHAO; Shuhua ZHANG; Haina ZHANG; Kai XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Due to the huge amount in the soil, phytate is an important potential source for providing the plants with available phosphorus (Pi) by the involved catalytic reaction of phytase. In this study, a construct fusing the open reading frame (ORF) of Sphyl into corresponding positions in the fragment of binary expression vector pBI121 was created and used to transform tobacco. Molecular identification by PCR and RT-PCR indicated the target gene Sphyl in the transgenic tobacco plants was transcribed under the regulation of an upstream promoter. Compared with the control plants, the phytase activities in all the transgenic plants were increased, with the increased range consistent with the expression levels in the transgenic plants. Under the growth conditions with phytate as the sole phosphorus source, the transgenic line 1 plants displayed a high expression level of Sphyl and shows notable improved growth performance, such as higher fresh weight and dry weight, as well as higher total P content and more accumulative P amount per plant than CK. This clearly indicated that overexpression of Sphyl could improve the phosphorus acquisition by the extruded Sphyl phytase in the rhizosphere, where this enzyme could catalyze the degradation of the phytate and release the available Pi for plants. The Sphyl gene seemed to have a potential value in the creation of new crop cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency.

  9. Molecular Cloning of Phytase Gene from ASUIA279 and Its Expression in Pichia pastoris System

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    M. H. Mahamad Maifiah; P. JAMAL; T. Nuge; N. S. Mohd Dali; A.S. Meor Hussin; Abd-Elaziem Farouk; and H. Mohd. Salleh

    2011-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), one of the major storage form of phosphate in plants, with subsequent release of myo-inositol, phosphate and phytate-bound minerals. Non-ruminant animals such as chicken, swine and fish can't use the organic phosphorus and minerals from their diet because there is no phytase activity in their digestive tract. Phytate degrading enzyme is added to the animal feed diet to improve phosphorus availability from the dietary...

  10. Gene expression profiling in hepatic tissue of newly weaned pigs fed pharmacological zinc and phytase supplemented diets

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    Link Jane E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element. However, Zn bioavailability from commonly consumed plants may be reduced due to phytic acid. Zn supplementation has been used to treat diarrheal disease in children, and in the U.S. swine industry at pharmacological levels to promote growth and fecal consistency, but underlying mechanisms explaining these beneficial effects remain unknown. Moreover, adding supplemental phytase improves Zn bioavailability. Thus, we hypothesized that benefits of pharmacological Zn supplementation result from changes in gene expression that could be further affected by supplemental phytase. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding newly weaned pigs dietary Zn (150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg as Zn oxide with or without phytase [500 phytase units (FTU/kg] for 14 d on hepatic gene expression. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg, or 1,000 mg Zn/kg with phytase (n = 4 per treatment was reverse transcribed and examined using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg (n = 4 per treatment was also evaluated using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. Results Expressed sequence tags for 61 putatively differentially expressed transcripts were cloned and sequenced. In addition, interrogation of a 13,297 element oligonucleotide microarray revealed 650 annotated transcripts (FDR ≤ 0.05 affected by pharmacological Zn supplementation. Seven transcripts exhibiting differential expression in pigs fed pharmacological Zn with sequence similarities to genes encoding GLO1, PRDX4, ACY1, ORM1, CPB2, GSTM4, and HSP70.2 were selected for confirmation. Relative hepatic GLO1 (P PRDX4 (P ACY1 (P HSP70.2 (P Conclusion Results suggest that feeding pharmacological Zn (1,000 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg affects genes involved in reducing oxidative stress and in amino acid metabolism, which are essential for cell

  11. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation

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    Hayflick, Susan J.; Kruer, Michael C.; Gregory, Allison; Haack, Tobias B.; Kurian, Manju A.; Houlden, Henry H.; Anderson, James; Boddaert, Nathalie; Sanford, Lynn; Harik, Sami I.; Dandu, Vasuki H.; Nardocci, Nardo; Zorzi, Giovanna; Dunaway, Todd; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Skinner, Steven; Holden, Kenton R.; Frucht, Steven; Hanspal, Era; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Mignot, Cyril; Héron, Delphine; Saunders, Dawn E.; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lascelles, Karine; Cuno, Stephan M.; Meyer, Esther; Garavaglia, Barbara; Bhatia, Kailash; de Silva, Rajith; Crisp, Sarah; Lunt, Peter; Carey, Martyn; Hardy, John; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Hogarth, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a ‘halo’ of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features. PMID:23687123

  12. Ensifer meliloti overexpressing Escherichia coli phytase gene ( appA) improves phosphorus (P) acquisition in maize plants

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    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Ajit; Archana, G.; Kumar, G. Naresh

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli phytase gene appA encoding enzyme AppA was cloned in a broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 ( lac promoter), termed pVA1, and transformed into the Ensifer meliloti 1020. Transformation of pVA1 in Ensifer meliloti { E. m (pVA1)} increased its phosphatase and phytase activity by ˜9- and ˜50-fold, respectively, compared to the transformants containing empty plasmid as control { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)}. The western blot experiments using rabbit anti-AppA antibody showed that AppA is translocated into the periplasm of the host after its expression. Ensifer meliloti harboring AppA protein { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} could acidify the unbuffered phytate minimal media (pH 8.0) containing Ca-phytate or Na-phytate as sole organic P (Po) source to below pH 5.0 and released P. However, both { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} neither dropped pH of the medium nor released P when the medium was buffered at pH 8.0 using Tris-Cl, indicating that acidification of medium was important for the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate. Further experiments proved that maize plants inoculated with { E. m. (pVA1)} showed increase in growth under sterile semi solid agar (SSA) medium containing Na-phytate as sole P source. The present study could be helpful in generating better transgenic bioinoculants harboring phosphate mineralization properties that ultimately promote plant growth.

  13. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

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    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  14. Cloning and Expression of Phytase appA Gene from Shigella sp. CD2 in Pichia pastoris and Comparison of Properties with Recombinant Enzyme Expressed in E. coli.

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    Moushree Pal Roy

    Full Text Available The phytase gene appAS was isolated from Shigella sp. CD2 genomic library. The 3.8 kb DNA fragment contained 1299 bp open reading frame encoding 432 amino acid protein (AppAS with 22 amino acid signal peptide at N-terminal and three sites of N-glycosylation. AppAS contained the active site RHGXRXP and HDTN sequence motifs, which are conserved among histidine acid phosphatases. It showed maximum identity with phytase AppA of Escherichia coli and Citrobacter braakii. The appAS was expressed in Pichia pastoris and E. coli to produce recombinant phytase rAppAP and rAppAE, respectively. Purified glycosylated rAppAP and nonglycosylated rAppAE had specific activity of 967 and 2982 U mg(-1, respectively. Both had pH optima of 5.5 and temperature optima of 60°C. Compared with rAppAE, rAppAP was 13 and 17% less active at pH 3.5 and 7.5 and 11 and 18% less active at temperature 37 and 50°C, respectively; however, it was more active at higher incubation temperatures. Thermotolerance of rAppAP was 33% greater at 60°C and 24% greater at 70°C, when compared with rAppAE. Both the recombinant enzymes showed high specificity to phytate and resistance to trypsin. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of phytase from Shigella sp.

  15. Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.

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    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals.

  16. Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.

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    Wang, Yi; Ye, Xiangsheng; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Fangsen

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P) in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT) controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1) seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals. PMID:23573285

  17. High mature grain phytase activity in the Triticeae has evolved by duplication followed by neofunctionalization of the purple acid phosphatase phytase (PAPhy) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger;

    2013-01-01

    and 6000 FTU/kg for rye. This is notably more than other cereals. For instance, rice, maize, and oat have MGPAs below 100 FTU/kg. The cloning and characterization of the PAPhy gene complement from wheat, barley, rye, einkorn, and Aegilops tauschii is reported here. The Triticeae PAPhy genes generally...

  18. Improving phosphorus acquisition of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) by transgenic expression of plant-derived phytase and acid phosphatase genes.

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    Ma, Xue-Feng; Wright, Elane; Ge, Yaxin; Bell, Jeremey; Xi, Yajun; Bouton, Joseph H; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2009-04-01

    Phosphate is one of the least available macronutrients restricting crop production in many ecosystems. A phytase gene (MtPHY1) and a purple acid phosphatase gene (MtPAP1), both isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula, were introduced into white clover (Trifolium repens L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenes were driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter or the root-specific MtPT1 promoter. Transcripts were detected in roots of the transgenic plants. Phytase or acid phosphatase (APase) activities in root apoplasts of the transgenic plants were increased up to three-fold compared to the wild type control. After the plants were grown 80 days in sand pots supplied with organic phosphorus (Po) as the sole P source, dry weights of shoot tissues of the best performing transgenic plants almost doubled that of the control and were comparable to the counterparts supplied with inorganic phosphorus (Pi). Relative biomass production of the transgenics under Po treatment was over 90% and 80% of that from the Pi treatment when the plants were grown in hydroponics (40 days) and sand pots (80 days), respectively. In contrast, biomass of the wild type controls under Po treatment was only about 50% of the Pi treatment in either hydroponic cultures or sand pots. In addition, shoot P concentrations of the transgenic plants were significantly increased compared to the control. Transgenic plants accumulated much higher amounts of total P (up to 2.6-fold after 80 days of growth) than the control in Po supplied sand pots. The results showed that transgenic expression of MtPHY1 or MtPAP1 in white clover plants increased their abilities of utilizing organic phosphorus in response to P deficiency. PMID:26493137

  19. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  20. Expression, purification and characterization of a phyAm-phyCs fusion phytase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-kou ZOU; Hong-ning WANG; Xin PAN; Guo-bao TIAN; Zi-wen XIE; Qi WU; Hui CHEN; Tao XIE; Zhi-rong YANG

    2008-01-01

    The phyAm gene encoding acid phytase and optimized neutral phytase phyCs gene were inserted into expression vector pPIC9K in correct orientation and transformed into Pichiapastoris in order to expand the pH profile of phytase and decrease the cost of production. The fusion phytase phyAm-phyCs gene was successfully overexpressed in P. pastoris as an active and ex-tracellular phytase. The yield of total extracellular fusion phytase activity is (25.4±0.53) U/ml at the flask scale and (159.1±2.92) U/ml for high cell-density fermentation, respectively. Purified fusion phytase exhibits an optimal temperature at 55 ℃ and an optimal pH at 5.5~6.0 and its relative activity remains at a relatively high level of above 70% in the range of pH 2.0 to 7.0. About 51% to 63% of its original activity remains after incubation at 75 ℃ to 95 ℃ for 10 min. Due to heavy glycosylation, the expressed fusion phytase shows a broad and diffuse band in SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). After deglycosylation by endoglycosidase H (EndoHf), the enzyme has an apparent molecular size of 95 kDa. The characterization of the fusion phytase was compared with those of phyCs and phyAm.

  1. Cloning of a novel phytase from an anaerobic rumen bacterium, Mitsuokella jalaludinii, and its expression in Escherichia coli

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    TAN Wan-qin; Phang Chiun Yee; Sieo Chin Chin; Yiap Beow Chin; Clemente Michael Wong Vui Ling; Norhani Abdullah; Son Radu; Ho Yin Wan

    2015-01-01

    The ful length phytase gene of Mitsuokel a jalaludini was successful y cloned and was found to be 1 047 bp in length, with 348 amino acids, and was designated as PHY7 phytase gene. A comparison of the sequence of PHY7 phytase gene of M. jalaludini with various microbial phytase gene sequences showed that it was not similar to those from other bacteria except Selenomonas ruminatium, thus suggesting that they may both express a new class of phytase. The PHY7 phytase gene was subsequently subcloned into bacterial expression vector, pET32a, for expression in Escherichia coli strain Ro-setta-gami. Expression of the recombinant phytase gene was optimised and characterised. The recombinant phytase was estimated to be approximately 55 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. The recombinant phytase exhibited optimum activity at 55°C, pH 4.5 and showed good pH stability from pH 3.5 to 5.5 (>78%relative activity). Metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+were found to exert signiifcant stimulatory effect on the recombinant phytase activity while Cu2+, Fe3+, and Zn2+greatly inhibited the enzyme activity. The recombinant phytase showed moderate resistance to trypsin proteolysis, but susceptible to pepsin proteolysis. The results of the study showed that several characteristics of recombinant phytase were slightly different from the native enzyme. Unfavourable characteristics such as reduced pH stability and metal ion effects should be taken into consideration during feed enzyme formulation.

  2. Cloning of a novel phytase from an anaerobic rumen bacterium, Mitsuokella jalaludinii, and its expression in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wan-qin[1; Phang Chiun Yee[1; Sieo Chin Chin[1,2; Yiap Beow Chin[3; Clemente Michael Wong VuiLing[4; Norhani Abdullah[1,5,6; Son Radu[7; Ho Yin Wan[1

    2015-01-01

    The full length phytase gene of Mitsuokellajalaludiniiwas successfully cloned and was found to be 1 047 bp in length, with 348 amino acids, and was designated as PHY7 phytase gene. A comparison of the sequence of PHY7 phytase gene of M. jalaludinii with various microbial phytase gene sequences showed that it was not similar to those from other bacteria except Selenomonas ruminafium, thus suggesting that they may both express a new class of phytase. The PHY7 phytase gene was subsequently subcloned into bacterial expression vector, pET32a, for expression in Escherichia coil strain Ro- setta-gami. Expression of the recombinant phytase gene was optimised and characterised. The recombinant phytase was estimated to be approximately 55 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. The recombinant phytase exhibited optimum activity at 55~C, pH 4.5 and showed good pH stability from pH 3.5 to 5.5 (>78% relative activity). Metal ions such as Caz+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exert significant stimulatory effect on the recombinant phytase activity while Cu2+, Fe3+, and Zn2+ greatly inhibited the enzyme activity. The recombinant phytase showed moderate resistance to trypsin proteolysis, but susceptible to pepsin proteolysis. The results of the study showed that several characteristics of recombinant phytase were slightly different from the native enzyme. Unfavourable characteristics such as reduced pH stability and metal ion effects should be taken into consideration during feed enzyme formulation.

  3. Transgenic Expression of the Recombinant Phytase in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiao-quan; LI Qian-feng; JIANG Li; ZHANG Da-jiang; WANG Hong-mei; GU Ming-hong; YAO Quan-hong

    2006-01-01

    In most of the cereal crop, phytic acid is the main storage form of phosphorus, which can decrease the bioavailability of phosphate. Transgenic expression of phytase is regarded as an efficient way to release phosphate from phytate in transgenic plants.In this study, a plant expression vector, containing the recombinant phytase gene driven by the maize ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter was constructed and introduced into an elite rice variety via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. During the experiment, a total of 15 independent transgenic rice lines were regenerated. The results of PCR and Southern blot indicated that the target gene was integrated into the genome of transgenic rice plants. Moreover, the RT-PCR analysis of total RNAs extracted from the immature seeds of several transgenic lines showed that the recombinant phytase gene could be normally expressed. The inorganic phosphorus content, both in the mature seeds and the leaf was significantly higher in the transgenic plants than in the untransformed wild type.

  4. C-terminus of progranulin interacts with the beta-propeller region of sortilin to regulate progranulin trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiu Zheng

    Full Text Available Progranulin haplo-insufficiency is a main cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD with TDP-43 aggregates. Previous studies have shown that sortilin regulates progranulin trafficking and is a main determinant of progranulin level in the brain. In this study, we mapped the binding site between progranulin and sortilin. Progranulin binds to the beta-propeller region of sortilin through its C-terminal tail. The C-terminal progranulin fragment is fully sufficient for sortilin binding and progranulin C-terminal peptide displaces progranulin binding to sortilin. Deletion of the last 3 residues of progranulin (QLL abolishes its binding to sortilin and also sortilin dependent regulation of progranulin trafficking. Since progranulin haplo-insufficiency results in FTLD, these results may provide important insights into future studies of progranulin trafficking and signaling and progranulin based therapy for FTLD.

  5. Structural Characterization of the Boca/Mesd Maturation Factors for LDL-Receptor-Type beta Propeller Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Collins; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    Folding and trafficking of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family members, which play essential roles in development and homeostasis, are mediated by specific chaperones. The Boca/Mesd chaperone family specifically promotes folding and trafficking of the YWTD {beta} propeller-EGF domain pair found in the ectodomain of all LDLR members. Limited proteolysis, NMR spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, and X-ray crystallography were used to define a conserved core composed of a structured domain that is preceded by a disordered N-terminal region. High-resolution structures of the ordered domain were determined for homologous proteins from three metazoans. Seven independent protomers reveal a novel ferrodoxin-like superfamily fold with two distinct {beta} sheet topologies. A conserved hydrophobic surface forms a dimer interface in each crystal, but these differ substantially at the atomic level, indicative of nonspecific hydrophobic interactions that may play a role in the chaperone activity of the Boca/Mesd family.

  6. A novel human tectonin protein with multivalent beta-propeller folds interacts with ficolin and binds bacterial LPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hooi Ping Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the human genome database has been completed a decade ago, approximately 50% of the proteome remains hypothetical as their functions are unknown. The elucidation of the functions of these hypothetical proteins can lead to additional protein pathways and revelation of new cascades. However, many of these inferences are limited to proteins with substantial sequence similarity. Of particular interest here is the Tectonin domain-containing family of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified hTectonin, a hypothetical protein in the human genome database, as a distant ortholog of the limulus galactose binding protein (GBP. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strong evolutionary conservation of hTectonin homologues from parasite to human. By computational analysis, we showed that both the hTectonin and GBP form beta-propeller structures with multiple Tectonin domains, each containing beta-sheets of 4 strands per beta-sheet. hTectonin is present in the human leukocyte cDNA library and immune-related cell lines. It interacts with M-ficolin, a known human complement protein whose ancient homolog, carcinolectin (CL5, is the functional protein partner of GBP during infection. Yeast 2-hybrid assay showed that only the Tectonin domains of hTectonin recognize the fibrinogen-like domain of the M-ficolin. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed real-time interaction between the Tectonin domains 6 & 11 and bacterial LPS, indicating that despite forming 2 beta-propellers with its different Tectonin domains, the hTectonin molecule could precisely employ domains 6 & 11 to recognise bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By virtue of a recent finding of another Tectonin protein, leukolectin, in the human leukocyte, and our structure-function analysis of the hypothetical hTectonin, we propose that Tectonin domains of proteins could play a vital role in innate immune defense, and that this function has been conserved over several

  7. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...

  8. Role of glycosylation in the functional expression of an Aspergillus niger phytase (phyA) in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Lei, X G

    1999-04-01

    Economical and thermostable phytase enzymes are needed to release phytate-phosphorus in plant foods for human and animal nutrition and to reduce phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to determine if a methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, was able to express a phytase gene (phyA) from Aspergillus niger efficiently and if suppression of glycosylation by tunicamycin affected its functional expression. The gene (1.4 kb) was inserted into an expression vector pPICZalphaA with a signal peptide alpha-factor, under the control of AOX1 promoter. The resulting plasmid was transformed into two P. pastoris strains: KM71 (methanol utilization slow) and X33 (wild-type). Both host strains produced high levels of active phytase (25-65 units/ml of medium) that were largely secreted into the medium. The expressed enzyme was cross-reacted with the polyclonal antibody raised against the wild-type enzyme and showed two pH optima, 2.5 and 5.5, and an optimal temperature at 60 degrees C. Compared with the phyA phytase overexpressed by A. niger, this phytase had identical capacity in hydrolyzing phytate-phosphorus from soybean meal and slightly better thermostability. Deglycosylation of the secreted phytase resulted in reduction in the size from 95 to 55 kDa and in thermostability by 34%. Tunicamycin (20 microg/ml of medium) resulted in significant reductions of both intracellular and extracellular phytase activity expression. Because there was no accumulation of intracellular phytase protein, the impairment did not seem to occur at the level of translocation of phytase. In conclusion, glycosylation was vital to the biosynthesis of the phyA phytase in P. pastoris and the thermostability of the expressed enzyme. PMID:10087168

  9. Tandem repeat of a seven-bladed beta-propeller domain in oligoxyloglucan reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Kondo, Hidemasa; Noro, Natsuko; Suzuki, Mamoru; Tsuda, Sakae; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    Oligoxyloglucan reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase (OXG-RCBH; EC 3.2.1.150) is an exoglucanase that recognizes the reducing end of oligoxyloglucan and releases two glucosyl residue segments from the main chain. The X-ray crystal structure of OXG-RCBH determined at 2.2 A resolution reveals a unique feature of this enzyme; OXG-RCBH consists of a tandem repeat of two similar domains, which are both folded into seven-bladed beta-propeller structures. The sequence alignment of the propeller blades, based on the structure, indicates that a weak repeat of the amino acid sequence occurred seven times to construct each domain. There is a cleft that can accommodate the substrate oligosaccharide between the two domains, which is a putative substrate binding subsite. Mutation of either Asp35 or Asp465, located in the putative catalytic center, to Asn resulted in a protein with no detectable catalytic activity, indicating the critical role of these amino acids in catalysis. PMID:15242597

  10. Dietary microbial phytase exerts mixed effects on the gut health of tilapia: a possible reason for the null effect on growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Ran, Chao; He, Suxu; Cao, Yanan; Yao, Bin; Ye, Yuantu; Zhang, Xuezhen; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of dietary microbial phytase on the growth and gut health of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀×Oreochromis aureus ♂), focusing on the effect on intestinal histology, adhesive microbiota and expression of immune-related cytokine genes. Tilapia were fed either control diet or diet supplemented with microbial phytase (1000 U/kg). Each diet was randomly assigned to four groups of fish reared in cages (3×3×2 m). After 12 weeks of feeding, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of tilapia were not significantly improved by dietary microbial phytase supplementation. However, significantly higher level of P content in the scales, tighter and more regular intestinal mucosa folds were observed in the microbial phytase group and the microvilli density was significantly increased. The adhesive gut bacterial communities were strikingly altered by microbial phytase supplementation (0·41phytase, as indicated by the up-regulated intestinal expressions of the cytokine genes (tnf-α and tgf-β) and hsp70. In addition, the gut microvilli height was significantly decreased in the phytase group. These results indicate that dietary microbial phytase may exert mixed effects on hybrid tilapia, and can guide our future selection of phytases as aquafeed additives - that is, eliminating those that can stimulate intestinal inflammation. PMID:27080419

  11. Identification and characterization of a mesophilic phytase highly resilient to high-temperatures from a fungus-garden associated metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-03-01

    Phytases are enzymes degrading phytic acid and thereby releasing inorganic phosphate. While the phytases reported to date are majorly from culturable microorganisms, the fast-growing quantity of publicly available metagenomic data generated in the last decade has enabled bioinformatic mining of phytases in numerous data mines derived from a variety of ecosystems throughout the world. In this study, we are interested in the histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) family phytases present in insect-cultivated fungus gardens. Using bioinformatic approaches, 11 putative HAP phytase genes were initially screened from 18 publicly available metagenomes of fungus gardens and were further overexpressed in Escherichia coli. One phytase from a south pine beetle fungus garden showed the highest activity and was then chosen for further study. Biochemical characterization showed that the phytase is mesophilic but possesses strong ability to withstand high temperatures. To our knowledge, it has the longest half-life time at 100 °C (27 min) and at 80 °C (2.1 h) as compared to all the thermostable phytases publicly reported to date. After 100 °C incubation for 15 min, more than 93 % of the activity was retained. The activity was 3102 μmol P/min/mg at 37 °C and 4135 μmol P/min/mg at 52.5 °C, which is higher than all the known thermostable phytases. For the high activity level demonstrated at mesophilic temperatures as well as the high resilience to high temperatures, the phytase might be promising for potential application as an additive enzyme in animal feed. PMID:26536874

  12. Citrobacter amalonaticus phytase on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris exhibits high pH stability as a promising potential feed supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lin, Ying; Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Liang, Shuli

    2014-01-01

    Phytase expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris avoids the expensive and time-consuming steps of protein purification and separation. Furthermore, yeast cells with anchored phytase can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. In this study, the phytase gene of Citrobacter amalonaticus was fused with the Pichia pastoris glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein homologue GCW61. Phytase exposed on the cell surface exhibits a high activity of 6413.5 U/g, with an optimal temperature of 60°C. In contrast to secreted phytase, which has an optimal pH of 5.0, phytase presented on the cell surface is characterized by an optimal pH of 3.0. Moreover, our data demonstrate that phytase anchored on the cell surface exhibits higher pH stability than its secreted counterpart. Interestingly, our in vitro digestion experiments demonstrate that phytase attached to the cell surface is a more efficient enzyme than secreted phytase.

  13. Mutations in the Beta Propeller WDR72 Cause Autosomal-Recessive Hypomaturation Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Walid; Parry, David A.; Shore, Roger C.; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Jafri, Hussain; Rashid, Yasmin; Al-Bahlani, Suhaila; Al Harasi, Sharifa; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Mighell, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Healthy dental enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized human tissue. Though acellular, nonvital, and without capacity for turnover or repair, it can nevertheless last a lifetime. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collective term for failure of normal enamel development, covering diverse clinical phenotypes that typically show Mendelian inheritance patterns. One subset, known as hypomaturation AI, is characterised by near-normal volumes of organic enamel matrix but with weak, creamy-brown opaque enamel that fails prematurely after tooth eruption. Mutations in genes critical to enamel matrix formation have been documented, but current understanding of other key events in enamel biomineralization is limited. We investigated autosomal-recessive hypomaturation AI in a consanguineous Pakistani family. A whole-genome SNP autozygosity screen identified a locus on chromosome 15q21.3. Sequencing candidate genes revealed a point mutation in the poorly characterized WDR72 gene. Screening of WDR72 in a panel of nine additional hypomaturation AI families revealed the same mutation in a second, apparently unrelated, Pakistani family and two further nonsense mutations in Omani families. Immunohistochemistry confirmed intracellular localization in maturation-stage ameloblasts. WDR72 function is unknown, but as a putative β propeller is expected to be a scaffold for protein-protein interactions. The nearest homolog, WDR7, is involved in vesicle mobilization and Ca2+-dependent exocytosis at synapses. Vesicle trafficking is important in maturation-stage ameloblasts with respect to secretion into immature enamel and removal of cleaved enamel matrix proteins via endocytosis. This raises the intriguing possibility that WDR72 is critical to ameloblast vesicle turnover during enamel maturation. PMID:19853237

  14. Molecular Cloning and Production of Recombinant Phytase from Bacillus subtilis ASUIA243 in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Soleha Mohd Dali; Tamrin Nuge; Mohd Hafidz Mahamad Maifiah; Faridah Yusof; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Abd-Elaziem Farouk; and Hamzah Mohd. Salleh

    2011-01-01

    Phytase gene obtained from Bacillus subtilis ASUIA243 was cloned into a medium vector and transformed into E. coli. Restriction enzyme digestion was conducted to get blunt-ended phytase gene and ligated into the Pichia expression vector, pPICZαA. The recombinant vector, pPICZαA-243HPp was then linearized with PmeI and transformed into P. pastoris strain X33. Screening for multi copy gene number of transformants was done by re-plating the selected colonies on increasing concentrati...

  15. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood. PMID:26481852

  16. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a new phytase from the phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae DSMZ 18074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Na; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2008-07-01

    The soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae is an economically important pathogen of many crops. A new phytase gene, appA, was cloned from P. wasabiae by degenerate PCR and TAIL-PCR. The open reading frame of appA consisted of 1,302 bp encoding 433 amino acid residues, including 27 residues of a putative signal peptide. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 45 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.5. The amino acid sequence contained the conserved active site residues RHGXRXP and HDTN of typical histidine acid phosphatases, and showed the highest identity of 48.5% to PhyM from Pseudomonas syringae. The gene fragment encoding the mature phytase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant phytase had a specific activity of 1,072+/-47 U/mg for phytate substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified phytase were pH 5.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The Km value was 0.17 mM, with a Vmax of 1,714 micromol/min/mg. This is the first report of the identification and isolation of phytase from Pectobacterium. PMID:18667849

  17. Computational based functional analysis of Bacillus phytases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anukriti; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Gaur, Smriti

    2016-02-01

    Phytase is an enzyme which catalyzes the total hydrolysis of phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate and digests the undigestable phytate part present in seeds and grains and therefore provides digestible phosphorus, calcium and other mineral nutrients. Phytases are frequently added to the feed of monogastric animals so that bioavailability of phytic acid-bound phosphate increases, ultimately enhancing the nutritional value of diets. The Bacillus phytase is very suitable to be used in animal feed because of its optimum pH with excellent thermal stability. Present study is aimed to perform an in silico comparative characterization and functional analysis of phytases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to explore physico-chemical properties using various bio-computational tools. All proteins are acidic and thermostable and can be used as suitable candidates in the feed industry. PMID:26672917

  18. DR1769, a protein with N-terminal beta propeller repeats and a low-complexity hydrophilic tail, plays a role in desiccation tolerance of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S; Misra, Hari S

    2013-09-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes five putative quinoproteins. Among these, the Δdr2518 and Δdr1769 mutants became sensitive to gamma radiation. DR2518 with beta propeller repeats in the C-terminal domain was characterized as a radiation-responsive serine/threonine protein kinase in this bacterium. DR1769 contains beta propeller repeats at the N terminus, while its C-terminal domain is a proline-rich disordered structure and constitutes a low-complexity hydrophilic region with aliphatic-proline dipeptide motifs. The Δdr1769 mutant showed nearly a 3-log cycle sensitivity to desiccation at 5% humidity compared to that of the wild type. Interestingly, the gamma radiation and mitomycin C (MMC) resistance in mutant cells also dropped by ∼1-log cycle at 10 kGy and ∼1.5-fold, respectively, compared to those in wild-type cells. But there was no effect of UV (254 nm) exposure up to 800 J · m(-2). These cells showed defective DNA double-strand break repair, and the average size of the nucleoid in desiccated wild-type and Δdr1769 cells was reduced by approximately 2-fold compared to that of respective controls. However, the nucleoid in wild-type cells returned to a size almost similar to that of the untreated control, which did not happen in mutant cells, at least up to 24 h postdesiccation. These results suggest that DR1769 plays an important role in desiccation and radiation resistance of D. radiodurans, possibly by protecting genome integrity under extreme conditions.

  19. DR1769, a Protein with N-Terminal Beta Propeller Repeats and a Low-Complexity Hydrophilic Tail, Plays a Role in Desiccation Tolerance of Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S.

    2013-01-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes five putative quinoproteins. Among these, the Δdr2518 and Δdr1769 mutants became sensitive to gamma radiation. DR2518 with beta propeller repeats in the C-terminal domain was characterized as a radiation-responsive serine/threonine protein kinase in this bacterium. DR1769 contains beta propeller repeats at the N terminus, while its C-terminal domain is a proline-rich disordered structure and constitutes a low-complexity hydrophilic region with aliphatic-proline dipeptide motifs. The Δdr1769 mutant showed nearly a 3-log cycle sensitivity to desiccation at 5% humidity compared to that of the wild type. Interestingly, the gamma radiation and mitomycin C (MMC) resistance in mutant cells also dropped by ∼1-log cycle at 10 kGy and ∼1.5-fold, respectively, compared to those in wild-type cells. But there was no effect of UV (254 nm) exposure up to 800 J · m−2. These cells showed defective DNA double-strand break repair, and the average size of the nucleoid in desiccated wild-type and Δdr1769 cells was reduced by approximately 2-fold compared to that of respective controls. However, the nucleoid in wild-type cells returned to a size almost similar to that of the untreated control, which did not happen in mutant cells, at least up to 24 h postdesiccation. These results suggest that DR1769 plays an important role in desiccation and radiation resistance of D. radiodurans, possibly by protecting genome integrity under extreme conditions. PMID:23794625

  20. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  1. [Surface display of phytase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient bioethanol production from corn starch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Yang, Haiquan; Fan, You

    2015-12-01

    Production of bioethanol using starch as raw material has become a very prominent technology. However, phytate in the raw material not only decreases ethanol production efficiency, but also increases phosphorus discharge. In this study, to decrease phytate content in an ethanol fermentationprocess, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered forheterologous expression of phytase on the cell surface. The phy gene encoding phytase gene was fused with the C-terminal-half region of α-agglutinin and then inserted downstream of the secretion signal gene, to produce a yeast surface-display expression vector pMGK-AG-phy, which was then transformed into S. cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, successfully displayed phytase on the surface of cells producing 6.4 U/g wet cells and its properties were further characterized. The growthrate and ethanol production of the PHY strain were faster than the parent S. cerevisiae strain in the fermentation medium by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Moreover, the phytate concentration decreased by 91% in dry vinasse compared to the control. In summary, we constructed recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could effectively reduce the content of phytate, improve the utilization value of vinasse and reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate. PMID:27093833

  2. Phytase-active lactic acid bacteria from sourdoughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuobariene, Lina; Cizeikiene, Dalia; Gradzeviciute, Egle;

    2015-01-01

    bacteria (LAB) which could be used as a starter to increase mineral bioavailability in whole-meal bread. Hence, LAB isolates were isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs, tested for phytase activity, and phytase active isolates were identified. Studies of phytase activity of the isolates were carried out...... at conditions optimal for leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30°C). The phytase active isolates belonged to the species Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Phytase activities of the tested LAB isolates were both extra- and intra...

  3. Unraveling the major triticeae phytases – towards cereals with high grain phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh

    Phytic acid is the main storage form of phosphate in plant seeds. Phosphorus in this form is largely indigestible by monogastric animals due to insufficient activity of the hydrolytic enzyme phytase in their digestive tract and in most plant seeds. Moreover as a strong chelator, undigested phytic...... contribute to the hydrolysis of phytic acid in food and feed. In contrast rice and maize possess insufficient phytase activity in the mature grain to have a notable effect on the phytic acid. The aim of the present study was to (1) uncover the genetic basis for the major phytases in cereal grains (2) explain...

  4. [A woman with beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration identified by the WDR45 mutation presenting as Rett-like syndrome in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, Naoya; Tsuneishi, Syuichi; Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Ryuzaburo; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Daisaku; Nakagawa, Taku; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Takada, Satoshi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-05-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is one of the neurodegenerative disorders characterized by iron deposition in the brain and is the only known disease in humans to be caused by an aberration in autophagocytosis. Here, we present the case of a 42-year-old woman with BPAN identified by the WDR45 mutation. From early childhood, she was recognized as having global developmental delay, and she frequently sucked her hand, which was considered to be a stereotypical movement. She had a febrile convulsion at 6 months of age but there was no history of epilepsy. The delay in language development was more severe than the delay in motor development; she was able to dress herself, walk unaided, and follow simple instructions until adolescence. After the age of 20, her movement ability rapidly declined. By the time she was 42 years old, she was bedridden and unable to communicate. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 21 years revealed no abnormality except non-specific cerebral atrophy. However, MRI at 39 years revealed abnormalities in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, with neurodegeneration and iron accumulation in the brain. Genetic analysis for WDR45 revealed that she had a splice site mutation (NM_007075.3: c.830 + 2 T > C) which was previously reported, and a diagnosis of BPAN was confirmed. For specific therapies to be developed for BPAN in the future, it is necessary to establish early diagnosis, including genetic analysis. PMID:27349085

  5. Performance of microbial phytases for gastric inositol phosphate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial phytases catalyze dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thereby potentially releasing chelated iron and improving human iron absorption from cereal-based diets. For this catalysis to take place in vivo, the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. This study...

  6. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  7. Secretive expression of Aspergillus fumigatus phytase in tobacco improves phosphorus nutrition in plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Gao Xiaorong; Su Qiao; An Lijia

    2007-01-01

    To generate transgenic plants capable of utilizing exogenous phytate,an Aspersgillus fumigatus phytase gene(fphyA) was constitutively expressed in tobacco and recombinant enzyme was secreted from plant roots into the rhizosphere using the signal sequence from tobacco calretieulin.After 40 days of plant growth in hydroponic media,phytase activities in leaves,stems,roots and growth media of transgenic plants were 8.6-fold,7.4-fold,12.6-fold and 14.3-fold higher than those of wild-type plants.Signifi-cant improvements in plant growth and phosphoms(P)utilization were observed in the transgenic plants.When phytate was supplied as the sole P source.45-day-old transgenic tobaccos accumulated 1.0-fold and 0.5-fold more shoot and root biomass than wild-type tobaccos.with a concomitant of 1.7-fold increase in total P concentration.These results indicate that secretive expression of the A.fumigatus phytase improves acquisition and use of P from phytate in plants.

  8. Cloning, Sequencing, and In Silico Analysis of β-Propeller Phytase Bacillus licheniformis Strain PB-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Propeller phytases (BPPhy are widely distributed in nature and play a major role in phytate-phosphorus cycling. In the present study, a BPPhy gene from Bacillus licheniformis strain was expressed in E. coli with a phytase activity of 1.15 U/mL and specific activity of 0.92 U/mg proteins. The expressed enzyme represented a full length ORF “PhyPB13” of 381 amino acid residues and differs by 3 residues from the closest similar existing BPPhy sequences. The PhyPB13 sequence was characterized in silico using various bioinformatic tools to better understand structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of BPPhy class by multiple sequence alignment and homology search, phylogenetic tree construction, variation in biochemical features, and distribution of motifs and superfamilies. In all sequences, conserved sites were observed toward their N-terminus and C-terminus. Cysteine was not present in the sequence. Overall, three major clusters were observed in phylogenetic tree with variation in biophysical characteristics. A total of 10 motifs were reported with motif “1” observed in all 44 protein sequences and might be used for diversity and expression analysis of BPPhy enzymes. This study revealed important sequence features of BPPhy and pave a way for determining catalytic mechanism and selection of phytase with desirable characteristics.

  9. A Phytase-Based Reporter System for Identification of Functional Secretion Signals in Bifidobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Osswald

    Full Text Available Health-promoting effects have been attributed to a number of Bifidobacterium sp. strains. These effects as well as the ability to colonise the host depend on secreted proteins. Moreover, rational design of protein secretion systems bears the potential for the generation of novel probiotic bifidobacteria with improved health-promoting or therapeutic properties. To date, there is only very limited data on secretion signals of bifidobacteria available. Using in silico analysis, we demonstrate that all bifidobacteria encode the major components of Sec-dependent secretion machineries but only B. longum strains harbour Tat protein translocation systems. A reporter plasmid for secretion signals in bifidobacteria was established by fusing the coding sequence of the signal peptide of a sialidase of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 to the phytase gene appA of E. coli. The recombinant strain showed increased phytase activity in spent culture supernatants and reduced phytase levels in crude extracts compared to the control indicating efficient phytase secretion. The reporter plasmid was used to screen seven predicted signal peptides in B. bifidum S17 and B. longum E18. The tested signal peptides differed substantially in their efficacy to mediate protein secretion in different host strains. An efficient signal peptide was used for expression and secretion of a therapeutically relevant protein in B. bifidum S17. Expression of a secreted cytosine deaminase led to a 100-fold reduced sensitivity of B. bifidum S17 to 5-fluorocytosine compared to the non-secreted cytosine deaminase suggesting efficient conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to the cytotoxic cancer drug 5-fluorouracil by cytosine deaminase occurred outside the bacterial cell. Selection of appropriate signal peptides for defined protein secretion might improve therapeutic efficacy as well as probiotic properties of bifidobacteria.

  10. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerovuo, J.; Rouvinen, J.; Hatzack, Frank-Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very...... a reaction mechanism different from that of other phytases. By combining the data presented in this study with (1) structural information obtained from the crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phytase [Ha, Oh, Shin, Kim, Oh, Kim, Choi and Oh (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 147-153], and (2) computer...

  11. Microbial and biochemical studies on phytase enzyme in some microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed calcium and magnesium salts of phytic acid myoinositol hexa phosphoric acid are widely distributed in food stuffs of plant origin, they may bind essential proteins, phospholipids and microelements to form indigestible compounds. In this concern, destruction of phytic acid and its salts by different methods is very important, one of them is by using microbial phytase. This study aims to produce phytase enzyme from microorganisms and study the best conditions of production and purification and also the properties of the partially purified phytase. 22 figs., 29 tabs., 61 refs

  12. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  13. Molecular Cloning and Production of Recombinant Phytase from Bacillus subtilis ASUIA243 in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Soleha Mohd Dali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytase gene obtained from Bacillus subtilis ASUIA243 was cloned into a medium vector and transformed into E. coli. Restriction enzyme digestion was conducted to get blunt-ended phytase gene and ligated into the Pichia expression vector, pPICZαA. The recombinant vector, pPICZαA-243HPp was then linearized with PmeI and transformed into P. pastoris strain X33. Screening for multi copy gene number of transformants was done by re-plating the selected colonies on increasing concentration of zeocin. One positive clone, X243HPp#2 was then grown in BMGY media as the starting culture, followed by induction in BMMY media for protein expression study. The supernatant was then analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot method to check the protein expression.ABSTRAK: Gen fitase yang didapati daripada Bacillus subtilis ASUIA243 diklonkan sebagai vektor perantara dan berubah menjadi E. coli. Sekatan pencernaan enzim dijalankan untuk mendapatkan gen fitase berhujung tumpul dan diligatkan dengan vektor ekspresi Pichia, pPICZαA. Vektor rekombinan, pPICZαA-243HPp kemudian dilinearkan dengan PmeI dan berubah menjadi P. pastoris strain X33. Penyaringan untuk nombor gen berbilang salinan yang menjalani transformasi genetik dijalankan dengan menyalur semula koloni terpilih dengan penambahan kepekatan zeocin. Satu klon positif, X243HPp#2 kemudian dibiarkan hidup dalam perantara BMGY sebagai kultur permulaan, diikuti dengan aruhan dalam perantara BMMY untuk kajian penglahiran protein. Supernatan kemudian dikaji dengan SDS-PAGE dan kaedah sap Western untuk menyemak penglahiran protein.KEYWORDS:  phytase, Bacillus subtilis, Pichia pastoris, gene cloning.

  14. Hydrolysis of precipitated phytate by three distinct families of phytases

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, BL; Tang, J; Leung, A.; Leung, C

    2006-01-01

    While genetically modified plants that secrete histidine acid phosphatases (HAPs), β-propeller phytases (BPPs) and purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have been shown to assimilate soluble phytate, little is known about whether these plants have the ability to hydrolyze precipitated phytate. In this study, the ability of representative members of these three classes of phytases to hydrolyze metal-phytate salts and to hydrolyze phytate adsorbed to aluminum precipitates was compared. All three phyt...

  15. Effect of dietary phytase transgenic corn on physiological characteristics and the fate of recombinant plant DNA in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, phens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens.

  16. Chromobacterium Sp. From The Tropics: Detection And Diversity Of Phytase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia S.; Nascimento, Andréa M.A.; Cláudia I., Lima-Bittencourt; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Santos, Fabrício R.; Vilas-Boas, Adlane

    2011-01-01

    Phytases are a group of enzymes that catalyze phytic acid hydrolysis with release of phosphorus (P). The ability of Chromobacterium sp. to produce phytase was detected in 115 out of 118 candidate bacteria isolated from different Brazilian biomas. This is the first report revealing the genus Chromobacterium as phytase producer. PMID:24031608

  17. Chromobacterium sp. from the tropics: detection and diversity of phytase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytases are a group of enzymes that catalyze phytic acid hydrolysis with release of phosphorus (P. The ability of Chromobacterium sp. to produce phytase was detected in 115 out of 118 candidate bacteria isolated from different Brazilian biomas. This is the first report revealing the genus Chromobacterium as phytase producer.

  18. Chromobacterium sp. From the tropics: detection and diversity of phytase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia S; Nascimento, Andréa M A; Cláudia I, Lima-Bittencourt; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Santos, Fabrício R; Vilas-Boas, Adlane

    2011-01-01

    Phytases are a group of enzymes that catalyze phytic acid hydrolysis with release of phosphorus (P). The ability of Chromobacterium sp. to produce phytase was detected in 115 out of 118 candidate bacteria isolated from different Brazilian biomas. This is the first report revealing the genus Chromobacterium as phytase producer. PMID:24031608

  19. Construction of a transformation system for the stable expression of foreign genes in Chlorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yiyun; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Changhai

    2007-01-01

    A stable transformation system for the expression of foreign genes in the unicellular green marine alga (Chlorella sp. MACC/C95) was established. Using electroporation, the alga was transformed with a plasmid containing the phytase gene under the control of CaMV35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase(npt)as a seleetable marker gene. The integration of the phytase gene into the Chlorella genome was revealed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of phytasegene at the transcript level. The enhanced activity of phytase enzyme in the transformants confirmed the integration and successful expression of phytase gene. The introduced phytase gene and its protein expression were stably maintained for at least 30 generations in media devoid of selectable antibiotics G418. This is an important step toward the production of useful foreign proteins in Chlorella sp. MACC/C95.

  20. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri- to hexakisphosphate (InsP3-6) degradation and iron and zinc release...... cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...... simulated gastric conditions. The data infer that acid stable microbial phytases can help improve iron bioavailability from phytate-rich cereal substrates via post-ingestion activity....

  1. Characteristics of Recombinant Phytase (rSt-Phy) of the Thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile and its applicability in dephytinizing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Bibhuti; Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-12-01

    Sporotrichum thermophile produces very low titres of phytase (St-Phy) extracellularly, which is acidstable, thermostable, and protease insensitive with broad substrate specificity, and therefore, the gene encoding phytase (St-Phy) has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant phytase (rSt-Phy) has the molecular mass of 55 kDa with Km and Vmax (calcium phytate), kcat and kcat/Km of 0.143 mM, 185.05 nmoles mg(-1)  s(-1), 5.1 × 10(3) s(-1), and 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) display slight stimulatory effect on the enzyme, while it is inhibited by other ions to a varied extent. The enzyme is also inhibited by chaotropic agents (guanidinium hydrochloride, potassium iodide, and urea), Woodward's reagent K, and 2,3-butanedione but resistant to both pepsin and trypsin. The rSt-Phy is useful in dephytinization of tandoori and naan (unleavened flat Indian breads), and bread, liberating soluble inorganic phosphate that mitigates anti-nutrient effects of phytic acid. PMID:26433599

  2. The secretion of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 by Arabidopsis roots reveals its potential for increasing phosphate acquisition and biomass production during co-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2016-09-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the soil; however, the plant lacks the capacity to utilize it for Pi nutrition and growth. Microbial phytases constitute a group of enzymes that are able to remobilize Pi from PA. Thus, the use of these phytases to increase the capacity of higher plants to remobilize Pi from PA is of agronomical interest. In the current study, we generate transgenic Arabidopsis lines (ePHY) overexpressing an extracellular form of the phytase PHY-US417 of Bacillus subtilis, which are characterized by high levels of secreted phytase activity. In the presence of PA as sole source of Pi, while the wild-type plants show hallmark of Pi deficiency phenotypes, including the induction of the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes (PSI, e.g. PHT1;4) and the inhibition of growth capacity, the ePHY overexpressing lines show a higher biomass production and no PSI induction. Interestingly, when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors, wild-type Arabidopsis plants (or tobacco) show repression of the PSI genes, improvement of Pi content and increases in biomass production. In line with these results, mutants in the high-affinity Pi transporters, namely pht1;1 and pht1;1-1;4, both fail to accumulate Pi and to grow when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of secreted phytases in improving the Pi content and enhancing growth of not only the transgenic lines but also the neighbouring plants. PMID:26914451

  3. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, G.; Madsen, C. K.; Holm, P. B.;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here...... type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain...... development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed...

  4. Regulation of Raoultella terrigena comb.nov. phytase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Marcela; González, Aracely; Bastarrachea, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the release of phosphate from phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) to inositol polyphosphates. Raoultella terrigena comb.nov. phytase activity is known to increase markedly after cells reach the stationary phase. In this study, phytase activity measurements made on single batch cultures indicated that specific enzyme activity was subject to catabolite repression. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed a positive effect in expression during exponential growth and a negative effect during stationary phase. RpoS exhibited the opposite effect during both growth phases; the induction to stationary phase decreased twofold in the rpoS::Tn10 mutant, but the effect of RpoS was not clearly determined. Two phy::MudI1734 mutants, MW49 and MW52, were isolated. These formed small colonies in comparison with the MW25 parent strain when plated on Luria-Bertani (LB) or LB supplemented with glucose. They did not grow in minimal media or under anaerobiosis, but did grow aerobically on LB and LB glucose at a lower rate than did MW25. The beta-galactosidase activity level in these mutants increased three to four fold during stationary growth in LB glucose and during anaerobiosis. Addition of cAMP during the exponential growth of MW52 on LB glucose provoked a decrease in beta-galactosidase activity during the stationary phase, confirming its negative effect on phytase expression during stationary growth.

  5. Variation in activity of root extracellular phytase between genotypes of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Mohammad Farouq

    1997-01-01

    Barley genotypes grown in nutrient solution under P nutrient stress and sterile conditions were compared in activity of root-associated and root-released extracellular phytase. The activity of root-associated phytase of all genotypes was about 10 times higher than that of root-released phytase...... and the genotypes performed differently with regard to the activity of the enzymes. The winter barley genotype, Marinka had the highest activity of root-associated extracellular phytase which differed significantly from Alexis and Senate, but not from Regatta. Alexis showed the lowest activity of root......-released extracellular phytase which differed significantly from those of Marinka and Regatta, but not from Senate. Generally, there was a significant correlation between the activity of root-associated and released extracellular phytase....

  6. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4  · 7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production.

  7. Extracellular expression of alkaline phytase in Pichia pastoris: Influence of signal peptides, promoters and growth medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phytase isolated from pollen grains of Lilium longiflorum (LlALP possesses unique catalytic and thermal stability properties that suggest it has the potential to be used as a feed supplement. However, substantial amounts of active enzymes are needed for animal feed studies and endogenous levels of LlALP in lily pollen are too low to provide the required amounts. Active rLlALP2 (coded by LlAlp2, one of two isoforms of alkaline phytase cDNA identified in lily pollen has been successfully expressed in intracellular compartments of Pichia pastoris, however enzyme yields have been modest (25–30 mg/L and purification of the enzyme has been challenging. Expression of foreign proteins to the extracellular medium of P. pastoris greatly simplifies protein purification because low levels of endogenous proteins are secreted by the yeast. In this paper, we first describe the generation of P. pastoris strains that will secrete rLlALP2 to the extracellular medium. Data presented here indicates that deletion of native signal peptides at the N- and C-termini of rLlALP2 enhanced α-mating factor (α-MF-driven secretion by four-fold; chicken egg white lysozyme signal peptide was ineffective in the extracellular secretion of rLlALP2. Second, we describe our efforts to increase expression levels by employing a constitutive promoter from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PGAP in place of the strong, tightly controlled promoter of alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PAOX1. PGAP enhanced the extracellular expression levels of rLlALP2 compared to PAOX1. Finally, we report on the optimization of the culture medium to enhance yields of rLlALP2. The strength of PGAP varies depending on the carbon source available for cell growth; secreted expression of rLlALP2 was highest when glycerol was the carbon source. The addition of histidine and Triton X-100 also enhanced extracellular expression. Taken together, the employment of PGAP under optimized culture

  8. Effect of phytase supplementation on growing pigs performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary concentrations of phytate are crucial for its anti-nutritive properties and its negative impact on P availability. The increase of dietary phytate level is shown to increase endogenous losses of amino acids and minerals in pigs. The partial availability of the P component of phytate to simple-stomached species attains importance as the world's rock phosphate reserves are not renewable, which could lead to a P supply crisis in the future. Supplementing phytase is becoming increasingly common as a method to improve the availability of P in plant ingredients containing high levels of phytate P. Fourty-eight pigs (Swedish Landrace boars × Dutch landrace sows weaned at day 35 with an initial BW of 8.72±0.28 kg were used for a 40-day weaner performance study. The study was structured as a complete randomized design to evaluate the response of weaner pigs to four concentrations of microbial phytase produced by Aspergillus niger: (T1 basal diet; (T2 basal diet + 1000 FTU/kg; (T3 diet with decreased dicalcium phosphate + 1000 FTU/kg; and (T4 diet with no dicalcium phosphate + 1000 FTU/kg. Control group of piglets (T1 has achieved standard body mass while addition of phytase in meal increased body mass by 6.59% in T2 and 7.52% in T3. Phytase supplementation prevented decreased body weight gain diets where available phosphorous level was reduced by 50. The amount of consumed feed per day was not significantly different. Feed efficiency of T2 and T3 groups was by 3.23% better and of T4 for 11.29% lower compared to the control group of piglets (T1. Lower production results achieved by the use of low phosphorous diets can be avoided to a certain level by the use of microbial phytase. The use of phytase in pig diet significantly improved phosphorous availability, as well as of other mineral substances from the phytate complex. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  9. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  10. Improving the neutral phytase activity from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 1061 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Rong; Wang, Zupeng; Yan, Xiuhua

    2015-03-01

    Neutral phytase is used as a feed additive for degradation of anti-nutritional phytate in aquatic feed industry. Site-directed mutagenesis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 1061 phytase was performed with an aim to increase its activity. Mutation residues were chosen based on multiple sequence alignments and structure analysis of neutral phytsaes from different microorganisms. The mutation sites on surface (D148E, S197E and N156E) and around the active site (D52E) of phytase were selected. Analysis of the phytase variants showed that the specific activities of mutants D148E and S197E remarkably increased by about 35 and 13% over a temperature range of 40-75 °C at pH 7.0, respectively. The k cat of mutants D148E and S197E were 1.50 and 1.25 times than that of the wild-type phytase, respectively. Both D148E and S197E showed much higher thermostability than that of the wild-type phytase. However, mutants N156E and D52E led to significant loss of specific activity of the enzyme. Structural analysis revealed that these mutations may affect conformation of the active site of phytase. The present mutant phytases D148E and S197E with increased activities and thermostabilities have application potential as additives in aquaculture feed. PMID:25613522

  11. Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that oc

  12. Characteristics Of Phytases From Soybeans And Microorganisms Involved In The Tempe Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Buckle2

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tempe was prepared from Forest variety of soybeans inoculated with pure culture of the mould Rhizopus oligosporus strain CT11K2. Partially purified phytases from soybeans, mould of the R. oligosporus strain CT11K2, yeasts (Endomycopsis burtonii, Candida diddensiae and Candida tropicalis and bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus dysgalactiae involved during tempe production were prepared according to procedure developed by Sutardi (1988. The crude phytases were characterized and phytic acid, inorganic and total phosphorous content of soybeans, intermediate products and tempe, were also determined.Results show that phytases, produced by microorganisms involved in tempe production, and by endogenous soybean phytase, had significantly different characteristics especially on optimum pH, temperature and substrate, Km and Vmax values, inactivation and activation energy and also temperature coefficient. All phytases contribute to the reduction in phytic acid content; and mould phytase, especially the extra-cellular enzyme, and the endogenous soybean phytase, showed the dominant effect on phytic acid degradation compared with other microbial phytases and physical treatments such as soaking, boiling and steaming.Phytic acid content of soybeans was reduced by more than 50% from about 10.4 to about 4.9 - 5.0 mg/g (DWB in fresh tempe (after 40 h fermentation at 30oC

  13. The efficacy of phytase in corn-soybean meal-based diets for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der J.D.; Versteegh, H.A.J.; Simons, P.C.M.; Kies, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial phytase hydrolyzes poorly degradable vegetable phytate P in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry; thereby increasing the availability of organic P to an extent that remains to be established. For this purpose, the P equivalency value of phytase in cornsoybean meal layer diets was assessed

  14. Effect of ph and temperature on the activity of phytase products used in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L de P Naves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity of three commercial microbial phytase (Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisae products used in broiler nutrition was determined at different pH (2.0 to 9.0 and temperature (20 to 90°C values. Enzymatic activity was determined according to the reaction of the phytase with its substrate (sodium phytate, in four replicates, and was expressed in units of phytase activity (FTU. A. oryzae phytase exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.0 and 40°C, but its absolute activity was the lowest of the three phytases evaluated. A. niger phytase exhibited maximal activity close to pH 5.0 and 45ºC, whereas S. cerevisae phytase presented its highest activity at pH close to 4.5 and temperatures ranging between 50 and 60°C. It was concluded that A. niger and S. cerevisae phytase products exhibited the highest absolute activities in vitro at pH and temperature values (pH lower than 5.0 and 41ºC corresponding to the ideal physiological conditions of broilers, which would theoretically allow high hydrolysis rate of the phytate contained in the feed.

  15. Different site-specific N-glycan types in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) PAP phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, G.; Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Welinder, Karen Gjesing;

    2011-01-01

    Phytase activity in grain is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism, and in food and feed. Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases (PAPhy). Mature wheat grain is dominated by TaPAPhy_a which, in the present work, has been characterized by extensive peptide a...

  16. Evaluation of different microbial phytases on phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2010-01-01

    Phytase increases the availability of phytate phosphorus (P) in plant feedstuffs resulting in a reduced need for inorganic P addition and therefore minimized P excretion. Thus, the majority of pig feed is supplemented with microbial phytases. The present study aimed to examine three commercial...... phytases: one fungal 3-phytase from Aspergillus ficuum and two formulations of a bacterial 6-phytase from E. coli. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, soybean and rapeseed meal supplemented with vitamins and minerals without any added inorganic phosphate. Calcium was adjusted to 6.3 g...

  17. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Koreissi, Y.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Moretti, D.; Schuth, S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Egli, I. (I.M.); Zimmerman, M. B.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and deph...

  18. 农杆菌介导植酸酶基因转化大豆的研究%Transformation of Phytase Gene into Soybean via Agrobacterium-mediated Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦; 夏善勇; 张军; 段忠卫; 刘鑫磊; 李希臣

    2011-01-01

    以大豆胚尖为受体,利用农杆菌介导法将来源于泡盛曲霉的植酸酶基因phy转入黑农37和吉林小粒豆中.此法取材方便,操作简单,产生嵌合体的可能件低.在筛选培养基中经草胺膦(1.0 mg·L-1)筛选,获得抗性植侏.对获得的草胺磷抗性植株采用除草剂(10%Basta)筛查表型鉴定与目的基因、筛选标记基因PCR分子检测相结合的方法,检测结果直观、可信度高.最终获得5株阳性植株,转化率为0.5%.%The Phy gene cloned from Aspergillus awamori was transformed into soybean varieties Heinong37 and Jilinxiaoli soybean through Agrobacterium-mediated method with soybean embryonic tips as acceptors. The method has advantage of easy operation and lower chimera rate. The regenerated plants were screened by glufosinate-ammonium( 1.0 mg · L-1 )of medium.The regenerated plantlets resistant to glufosinate-ammonium were detected by combining the PCR analysis of the target gene as well as selective marker gene and the herbicide screening. The result was intuitive and credible. Finally, 5 positive plants were obtained, and the transformation efficiency reached 0. 5%.

  19. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  20. Engineering of protease-resistant phytase from Penicillium sp.: high thermal stability, low optimal temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Honglei; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2010-12-01

    Phytase is widely used as a feed additive in industry. It is important to investigate the thermal stability, optimal pH and temperature and protease resistance of phytases in application. We introduced random mutations in a protease-resistance phytase gene of Penicillium sp. using Mn²+-dITP random mutation method, and identified two mutants 2-28 (T11A, G56E, L65F, Q144H and L151S) and 2-249 (T11A, H37Y, G56E, L65F, Q144H, L151S and N354D) with improved thermal stability and optimal temperature and pH. The mutants retained their high resistance to pepsin. The catalytic activity at 37 °C was up to 133.3 U and 136.6 U per mg protein with broad optimal temperature ranges of 37-55 °C and 37-50 °C, respectively. After a heat treatment at 100 °C for 5 min, the two mutant proteins retained about 72.81% and 92.43% of the initial activity, respectively. In addition, the optimal pH of mutant 2-249 was reduced to 4.8. All these improved properties made them more suitable to be used as feed additive in the feed industry than the present commercial phytases. Structure analysis suggested that the replacements of G56E, L65F, Q144H, and L151S improved the thermal stability of the protein by increasing new hydrogen bonds among the adjacent secondary structures. Moreover, the mutation of L151S enhanced the activity in the range of 37-70 °C and pH 2.5-7.0 by facilitating the interaction between the substrate and the catalytic centre. The substitution of N354D influenced the pH profile by weakening the bondage with the side chain of D353, which caused a pKa shift of the catalytic centre. PMID:20826112

  1. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  2. Fungal phytases: characteristics and amelioration of nutritional quality and growth of non-ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-08-01

    Fungal phytases are histidine acid phosphatases, a subclass of acid phosphatases, which catalyse the hydrolysis of phytic acid resulting in the release of phosphate moieties and thus mitigate its antinutritional properties. The supplementation of feed with phytases increases the bioavailability of phosphorus and minerals in non-ruminant animals and reduces the phosphorus pollution due to phosphorus excretion in the areas of intensive livestock production. Although phytases are reported in plants, animals and micro-organisms, fungal sources are used extensively for the production of phytases on a commercial scale. Phytases have been produced by fungi in both solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). The fungal phytases are high molecular weight proteins ranging from 35 to 500 kDa. They are optimally active within pH and temperature ranges between 4.5 and 6.0, and 45 and 70 °C respectively. Phytate degradation leads to amelioration in the nutritional status of foods and feeds by improving the availability of minerals, phosphorus and proteins in non-ruminant animals and human beings and thus mitigates the environmental phosphorus pollution. Our article focuses on the role of fungal phytases in improving nutritional value of foods and feeds with concomitant increase in growth of non-ruminant animals and mitigating environmental phosphorus pollution. PMID:25132310

  3. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  4. Evolution of the beta-propeller fold.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, I.; Söding, J.; Lupas, A.

    2008-01-01

    β-Propellers are toroidal folds, in which repeated, four-stranded β-meanders are arranged in a circular and slightly tilted fashion, like the blades of a propeller. They are found in all domains of life, with a strong preponderance among eukaryotes. Propellers show considerable sequence diversity and are classified into six separate structural groups by the SCOP and CATH databases. Despite this diversity, they often show similarities across groups, not only in structure but also in sequence, ...

  5. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...

  6. Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α

    OpenAIRE

    Rafidah Mohd Ariff; Anwar Fitrianto; Mohd Yazid Abd. Manap; Aini Ideris; Azhar Kassim; Afinah Suhairin; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no sign...

  7. Purification, biochemical characterization, and genetic cloning of the phytase produced by Burkholderia sp. strain a13

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende Graminho, Eduardo; Takaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    A phytase-producing bacterium, Burkholderia sp. a13 (JCM 30421), was isolated from Lake Kasumigaura by enrichment cultivation using minimum medium containing phytic acid as the sole phosphorus source. The phytase production by strain a13 was induced by the presence of phytic acid and repressed by the addition of glucose. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 44 kDa and a phytase activity of 174 μmol min–1 mg–1. The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity, but the highest activity wa...

  8. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops......Genetic transformation is currently met with substantial skepticism among the general public in Europe and consequently also by the growers, the agro-industry, and the retailers. One major concern is the mingling of genetic material between species. In the light of this, we have initiated a project...

  9. Meta-analysis of effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and bioavailability of copper and zinc in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, P; Jongbloed, A W; Thissen, J T N M

    2012-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of microbial phytase in pig diets on digestibility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn. Studies (n = 22) into effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and plasma levels of Cu and Zn were included in a dataset and regression analysis was performed to quantify the effect of Aspergillus niger derived 3-phytase in studies (n = 14) with a maximum dietary Zn content of 100 mg/kg and a maximum Cu addition of 20 mg/kg. Phytase inclusion increased digestibility of Zn (P = 0.003) and plasma Zn content (P < 0.001) without affecting digestibility and plasma level of Cu. Based on a comparison with dose-response studies with Zn, we estimated 500 phytase units (FTU) of microbial phytase is equivalent to 27 mg of Zn from ZnSO(4).

  10. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYTASE PRODUCING BACILLUS SUBTILS BtRS2 FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF Bt COTTON FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    K. Usha Sri

    2013-01-01

    Soil samples of Bt Rhizosphere were collected from Bt cotton growing area of Andhra Pradesh, India and was used as a source material for isolation and screening of phytase producing bacteria. 19Bacteria were isolated from Bt Rhizosphere. Phytase enzyme activity of the cultures was screened on modified phytase solubulizing medium (MPSM). The result inferred that six isolates BtRS1 to BtRS6 were strongly positive in enzyme activity than six of other microorganisms while seven isolates were foun...

  11. Pharmacological zinc and phytase supplementation enhance metallothionein mRNA abundance and protein concentration in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Michelle M; Hill, Gretchen M; Link, Jane E; Raney, Nancy E; Tempelman, Robert J; Ernst, Catherine W

    2004-03-01

    The swine industry feeds pharmacological zinc (Zn) to newly weaned pigs to improve health. Because most swine diets are plant-based with a high phytic acid content, we hypothesized that adding phytase to diets could reduce the amount of Zn required to obtain beneficial responses. The role of metallothionein (MT) in Zn homeostasis could be important in this positive response. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Zn and phytase on relative MT mRNA abundance and protein concentration in newly weaned pigs. Diets containing adequate (150 mg Zn/kg) or pharmacological concentrations of Zn (1000 or 2000 mg Zn/kg), as zinc oxide, with or without phytase [0, 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg, Natuphos, BASF] were fed in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Plasma and tissue minerals were measured in pigs killed after 14 d of dietary intervention. Hepatic and renal relative MT mRNA abundance and protein were greater (P pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase, or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase vs. the remaining treatments. Intestinal mucosa MT mRNA abundance and protein were greater (P pigs fed 2000 mg Zn/kg with phytase than in pigs fed 2000 mg Zn/kg alone or 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase. Pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg plus phytase or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase had higher plasma, hepatic, and renal Zn than those fed the adequate Zn diets or 1000 mg Zn/kg. We conclude that feeding 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase enhances MT mRNA abundance and protein and Zn absorption to the same degree as 2000 mg Zn/kg with and without phytase. PMID:14988443

  12. Characteristics Of Phytases From Soybeans And Microorganisms Involved In The Tempe Production

    OpenAIRE

    K A Buckle2); Sutardi1)

    2004-01-01

    Tempe was prepared from Forest variety of soybeans inoculated with pure culture of the mould Rhizopus oligosporus strain CT11K2. Partially purified phytases from soybeans, mould of the R. oligosporus strain CT11K2, yeasts (Endomycopsis burtonii, Candida diddensiae and Candida tropicalis) and bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus dysgalactiae) involved during tempe production were prepared according to procedure developed by Sutardi (1988). The crude phytases were characterized and...

  13. Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Singh; Vinod Kumar; Sanjeev Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174 U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal...

  14. Corn seeds as bioreactors for the production of phytase in the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rumei; Zhang, Chunyi; Yao, Bin; Xue, Guangxing; Yang, Wenzhu; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Junmin; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Ping; Fan, Yunliu

    2013-05-20

    Corn seed is a major ingredient of animal feed worldwide. However, it contains phytate, a major phosphate storage form that is unavailable to monogastric animals like pigs and poultry. We report a transgenic corn with bioavailable phosphate, achieved by seed-specific overexpression of Aspergillus niger phytase, an enzyme catalyzing the release of phosphate from phytate. We obtained maximal phytase activity of 125 FTU/g kernels, 1000-fold above that of the wild type, with 1000 g of kernels containing up to 67 times the feed industry requirement. Enzymatic characterization of Zea mays recombinant phytase (ZmrPhy) showed it to be equivalent to yeast (Pichia pastoris) recombinant phytase (PprPhy), a commercially available phytase product. An animal feeding trial demonstrated that ZmrPhy had similar nutritional effects on broiler chickens to PprPhy in terms of reducing inorganic phosphorus addition to feed and phosphate excretion in animal manure. These results suggest that transgenic phytase corn can be used directly in the feed industry. Experiments were conducted to assess the food safety of the corn; the results demonstrated no difference versus regular corn. This is the first genetically modified corn officially issued with a biosafety certificate in China and has great potential in the animal feed industry.

  15. Production and characterization of phytase from Bacillus spp. as feed additive in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rande B. Dechavez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytases are phosphohydrolases that catalyze the release of phosphate from phytate (myo inositol hexakisphosphate, the major phosphorus (P form mostly occurring in animal feeds of plant origin. These enzymes can be supplemented in animal diets to reduce inorganic phosphorus supplementation and fecal phosphorus excretion. Four species of Bacillus namely, B. pumilus , B.megaterium , B. coagulans , and B. licheniformis were used to study the biochemical characteristics of their phytases. All the strains investigated were able to hydrolyze extracellular phytate. The activity of phytase increased markedly at the late stationary phase in all the species tested. Highest enzyme activity was found in phytase from B. megaterium after the 4th day of culture. The crude phytases from the different Bacillus strains were optimally active at pH values ranging 5.5 to 7.0 at 37 0 C and retained their activity at temperatures up to 80 0 C. The enzymes exhibited thermostability, retaining ~50 %activity at 70 0 C and were fairly stable up to pH 10. These properties indicate that the Bacillus phytases appear to be suitable for animal feed supplementation in aquaculture to improve the bioavailability of phosphorus.

  16. Establishment of Phytase-Specific Qualitative PCR Detection Method and Construction of a Positive Plasmid Molecule%植酸酶基因定性PCR检测方法及阳性质粒分子的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘信; 曹应龙; 武玉花; 厉建萌; 吴刚; 张丽; 卢长明

    2012-01-01

    Phytase gene is valuably applicated in agricultural production, especially in genetic engineering of crops. In order to meet the requirements of safety regulation of transgenic crops, the gene-specific qualitative PCR detection method targeting the fungal-originated phytase gene was developed. A primer pair Phytase-F5/R5 yielding a 389 bp amplicon was selected from 11 primer pairs, then the PCR reaction system was optimized by improving Mg2+ concentration, primer concentration and primer anneal temperature. Twenty transgenic and nontransgenic lines from different crops were used as templates in PCR, showing that the PCR method had good amplification specificity. The results of sensitivity testing indicated that the phytase amplicon was still observed when the template concentration was down to 0.05%, which reaches the national standards for GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) detection method. In addition, we cointegrated the phytase gene and the endogenous reference genes from six major crops of wheat, rice, cotton, soybeans, corn, and rapeseed into a vector, yielding a positive plasmid molecule pBS Endoge-nous-phytase. The positive plasmid molecule was suitable for screening phytase gene in the six crops about wheat, soybeans, corn, cotton, rice, and rape. This study provides positive materials and detection method for safety regulation of genetically modified crops carrying phytase gene.%植酸酶基因在农业生产中具有很高的应用价值,正被广泛用于农作物的基因工程研究.为了满足转植酸酶基因作物安全监管的需要,通过优化PCR检测条件,建立了植酸酶基因特异性定性PCR检测方法.该方法具有良好的扩增特异性和检测灵敏度,可以满足我国植酸酶转基因作物监管需要.此外,我们将6种主要农作物(小麦、水稻、棉花、大豆、玉米和油菜)的内标准基因和植酸酶基因克隆到同一载体上,构建成了阳性质粒分子pBS Endogenousphytase

  17. Elimination of a disulfide bridge in Aspergillus niger NRRL 3135 Phytase (PhyA) enhances heat tolerance and optimizes its temperature versus activity profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of microbial phytases in animal feed, rich in phytate, and intended for animals with simple stomachs is now widely accepted. The commercial phytases currently available are all histidine acid phosphatases (HAP) and have been termed histidine acid phytases (HAPhy). The HAPhy enables ...

  18. Used of microbial phytase to replace inorganic phosphorus in sex-reversed red tilapia: 1 dose response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutiporn Phromkunthong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex-reversed red tilapia of average initial body weight 5.5 g were fed seven practical diets containing 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 units of microbial phytase/kg and two diets containing 0.2 and 0.3% feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP (but no microbial phytase, respectively. The experiment was carried out in 235- l glass aquaria filled with 180 l water and attached with a closed-recirculating water system with 0.8 l/min flow rate. The experimental period was 10 weeks. All experimental diets were formulated with plant-based protein of 30% and 6% fat. Results indicated an improvement in apparent digestibility coefficient of phosphorus (ADCP in fish given phytase supplemented feed. There was no difference in ADCP when 1,000 unit phytase/kg diet or higher phytase levels (2,000 and 4,000 unit phytase/kg diet or 0.2 and 0.3% DCP were supplemented. A significant increase was noted for hemoglobin in tilapia that received 1,000 unit phytase/kg diet or higher levels compared to the control. Serum phosphorus ma kedly increased when the fish were given feeds with 1,000 unit phytase/kg diet and over, while the supplementation of 500 unit phytase/kg diet and over increased serum zinc level. Higher levels of phosphorus were retained in bone whereas lower levels of phosphorus presented in the feces of tilapia fed feeds supplemented with phytase. Growth performance was markedly influenced when the fish were given feed with 4,000 unit phytase/kg diet.

  19. Interrelationships of glycosylation and aggregation kinetics for Peniophora lycii phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg-Nielsen, R.; Fuglsang, C.C.; Arleth, L.;

    2006-01-01

    temperature, T-d, defined by DSC, largely unaltered. At pH 4.5-5.0, for example, dgPhy aggregated similar to 200 times faster than Phy, even though the difference in T-d was only 1-3 degrees C. To elucidate the mechanism by which the glycans promote kinetic stability, we measured the effect of ionic strength......The kinetics of thermally induced aggregation of the glycoprotein Peniophora lycii phytase (Phy) and a deglycosylated form (dgPhy) was studied by dynamic (DLS) and static (SLS) light scattering. This provided a detailed insight into the time course of the formation of small aggregates (similar to...... effects of pH and ionic strength, we suggest that the inhibition of aggregation is more likely to depend on steric hindrance of the glycans in the aggregated form of the protein....

  20. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  1. Effect of exogenous phytase on feed inositol phosphate hydrolysis in an in vitro rumen fluid buffer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Pedersen, Dorte Niss; Glitsø, Lene Vibe; Skov, L.K.;

    2011-01-01

    for inositol phosphates via high performance ion chromatography. Addition of phytase (Phy1) resulted in enhanced degradation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) in rapeseed cake, whereas addition of exogenous phytase did not improve the degradation of InsP6 in wheat. Only rapeseed cake was therefore used...

  2. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models.

  3. Meta-analysis of effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and bioavailability of copper and zinc in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of microbial phytase in pig diets on digestibility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn. Studies (n = 22) into effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and plasma levels of Cu and Zn were included in a dataset and regression analysis was perform

  4. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models. PMID:26384212

  5. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koreissi, Y.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Moretti, D.; Schuth, S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Egli, I.; Zimmerman, M.B.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds

  6. Novel phytase from Pteris vittata resistant to arsenate, high temperature, and soil deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Guy, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Arsenate interferes with enzymatic processes and inhibits inorganic phosphorus (Pi) uptake in many plants. This study examined the role of phytase and phosphatase in arsenate tolerance and phosphorus (P) acquisition in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata . Enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of phytate in P. vittata extracts was not inhibited by arsenate at 5 mM or by heating at 100 °C for 10 min. Root exudates of P. vittata exhibited the highest phytase activity (18 nmol Pi mg(-1) protein min(-1)) when available P was low, allowing its growth on media amended with phytate as the sole source of P. Phosphorus concentration in P. vittata gametophyte tissue grown on phytate was equivalent to plants grown with inorganic phosphate at 2208 mg kg(-1), and arsenic was increased from 1777 to 2630 mg kg(-1). After 2 h of mixing with three soils, P. vittata phytase retained more activity, decreasing from ∼ 26 to ∼ 25 nmol Pi mg(-1) protein min(-1), whereas those from Pteris ensiformis and wheat decreased from ∼ 18 to ∼ 1 nmol Pi mg(-1) protein min(-1). These results suggest P. vittata has a uniquely stable phytase enabling its P acquisition in P-limiting soil environments. Furthermore, the P. vittata phytase has potential use as a soil amendment, a transgenic tool, or as a feed additive supplement, reducing the need for nonrenewable, polluting P fertilizers.

  7. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1 the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2 the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3 the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects.

  8. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... phytate complexes, and (3) the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects....... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...

  9. Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a plant alkaline phytase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven C; Yang, Mimi; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

    2010-12-01

    Phytases catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-insositol hexakisphosphate), the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells. Phytic acid constitutes 3-5% of the dry weight of cereal grains and legumes such as corn and soybean. The high concentration of phytates in animal feed and the inability of non-ruminant animals such as swine and poultry to digest phytates leads to phosphate contamination of soil and water bodies. The supplementation of animal feed with phytases results in increased bioavailability to animals and decreased environmental contamination. Therefore, phytases are of great commercial importance. Phytases with a range of properties are needed to address the specific digestive needs of different animals. Alkaline phytase (LlALP1 and LlALP2) which possess unique catalytic properties that have the potential to be useful as feed and food supplement has been identified in lily pollen. Substantial quantities of alkaline phytase are needed for animal feed studies. In this paper, we report the heterologous expression of LlALP2 from lily pollen in Pichia pastoris. The expression of recombinant LlALP2 (rLlALP2) was optimized by varying the cDNA coding for LlALP2, host strain and growth conditions. The catalytic properties of recombinant LlALP2 were investigated extensively (substrate specificity, pH- and temperature dependence, and the effect of Ca(2+), EDTA and inhibitors) and found to be very similar to that of the native LlALP2 indicating that rLlALP2 from P. pastoris can serve as a potential source for structural and animal feed studies. PMID:20655385

  10. Fabrication of phytic acid sensor based on mixed phytase-lipid Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseli, Luciano; Moraes, Marli L; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Ferreira, Marystela; Nobre, Thatyane M; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2006-09-26

    This paper reports the surface activity of phytase at the air-water interface, its interaction with lipid monolayers, and the construction of a new phytic acid biosensor on the basis of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Phytase was inserted in the subphase solution of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) Langmuir monolayers, and its incorporation to the air-water interface was monitored with surface pressure measurements. Phytase was able to incorporate into DPPG monolayers even at high surface pressures, ca. 30 mN/m, under controlled ionic strength, pH, and temperature. Mixed Langmuir monolayers of phytase and DPPG were characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms, and the presence of the enzyme provided an expansion in the monolayers (when compared to the pure lipid at the interface). The enzyme incorporation also led to significant changes in the equilibrium surface compressibility (in-plane elasticity), especially in liquid-expanded and liquid-condensed regions. The dynamic surface elasticity for phytase-containing interfaces was investigated using harmonic oscillation and axisymmetric drop shape analysis. The insertion of the enzyme at DPPG monolayers caused an increase in the dynamic surface elasticity at 30 mN m(-)(1), indicating a strong interaction between the enzyme and lipid molecules at a high-surface packing. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films containing 35 layers of mixed phytase-DPPG were characterized by ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and crystal quartz microbalance nanogravimetry. The ability in detecting phytic acid was studied with voltammetric measurements. PMID:16981769

  11. Phosphorus equivalence of a Consensus phytase produced by Hansenula polymorpha in diets for young turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Garcia, Enric; Perez-Vendrell, Anna M; Broz, Jiri

    2005-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of a so-called consensus phytase preparation produced by Hansenula polymorpha on growth, tibia and toe ash and P retention of young turkeys. A total of 192 female turkeys (BUT 9 strain) were placed into 96 batteries at two per cage and assigned to one of eight diets: A negative control containing 2.5 g non-phytate P per kg feed (T-1); T-1 plus 125, 250, 500, 1000 or 10 000 phytase units (U) per kg feed, respectively, (T-2 to T-6); T-1 plus 0.5 or 1.0 g Pi/kg feed as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), respectively, (T-7 and 8). The experiment lasted 32 d, and excreta were collected and weighed between 26 and 29 d of age. Feed was also weighed during this period in order to calculate P retention. Performance was calculated for the 0 to 32 d period. At the end of the experiment one bird per pen was killed for tibia and toe ash content determination, except for T-2, T-3, and T-7. Body weight, FCR, toe and tibia ash, and P retention responded to phytase or Pi supplementation. Using linear or quadratic models for comparing performance of the treatments containing supplemental Pi with phytase treatments, an equivalence between phytase and Pi was calculated. Body weight, toe ash, tibia ash and P retention showed a significant response to phytase supplementation. The values of equivalence for body weight, toe ash, tibia ash and P retention were 251, 597, 391 and 390 U to 1 g Pi/kg feed. At 10 000 U/kg feed there was a significant response in terms of weight gain and P retention, indicating that turkeys respond to levels greater than 1 000 U/kg feed.

  12. Effect of phytase supplementation to diets for weanling pigs on the utilization of phosphorus and calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Fa Liao; Willem C. Sauer; Arie Kies; Miguel Cervantes; John K. Htoo; Jim Ming He

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with weanling pigs to determine the effect of phytase supplementation to four diet types on the apparent total tract digestibility and retention of P and Ca. Phytase was supplemented at rates of 0, 500, and 1000FTU/kg to the four diets. A 20% crude protein (CP) corn-soybean meal diet was used in Exp. 1; a 20% CP wheat-soybean meal diet in Exp. 2; a 20% CP wheat-soybean meal-canola meal diet in Exp. 3; and a 19% CP barley-peas-canola meal diet in Exp. 4. Six bar...

  13. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno Nogueira; Elza Iouko Ida

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p < 0.05). The phytase and acid phosphatase activities of sunflowers BRS191 and C11 were the highest on the 4th and 5th days of germination, respectively, with the release of the phosphor...

  14. Extracellular expression of alkaline phytase in Pichia pastoris: Influence of signal peptides, promoters and growth medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi Yang; Sasha Teymorian; Philip Olivares; Pushpalatha P.N. Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phytase isolated from pollen grains of Lilium longiflorum (LlALP) possesses unique catalytic and thermal stability properties that suggest it has the potential to be used as a feed supplement. However, substantial amounts of active enzymes are needed for animal feed studies and endogenous levels of LlALP in lily pollen are too low to provide the required amounts. Active rLlALP2 (coded by LlAlp2, one of two isoforms of alkaline phytase cDNA identified in lily pollen) has been successf...

  15. Phytase activity and degradation of phytic acid during rye bread making

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Merete Møller; Damstrup, Marianne Linde; Thomsen, Agnete Dal; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærgaard; Hansen, Åse

    2006-01-01

    Changes in phytic acid content, activity of phytase and α-amylase in rye breads were determined during rye bread making. The activity of phytase is highest in grain and flour whereas the activity in the sourdoughs is almost the half of the activity in the flour. The activity was unchanged in the dough after mixing and proofing. Degradation of phytic acid (IP6) into lower inositol-phosphates and free phosphate is almost completed during the production of rye bread with long fermentati...

  16. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  17. Influence of supplemental phytase on growth performance, digestion and phosphorus balance of lambs fed sorghum-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Melgoza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus excretion in lambs from urine and faeces is considerably high due to elevated concentration of grains in the diets. This study evaluated the effect of supplemental phytase on in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD, feed intake, growth performance, total tract digestion and phosphorus (P balance in finishing lambs fed sorghum-based diets. An exogenous phytase mixture was added at dosage of 0, 750, 1500 and 2250 FTU (phytase units per kg diet as fed. Thirty-two finishing lambs (21.5±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to those diets and fed for 60 d. The P concentration in the diets varied between 2.0 to 2.4 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Inclusion of phytase in the diet had no effect on IVDMD. However, total tract digestion of DM, NDF and P were linearly (P0.05 by phytase, but P retention showed a linear increment as the enzyme increased in the diet. Growth performance of lambs was not affected by phytase. Therefore, phytase supplementation improved P digestion and retention, but it did not change P excretion and growth performance in finishing lambs fed sorghum-based diets.

  18. In vivo and in vitro digestibility of plant ingredients and diets by Bacillus phytases in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rande B. Dechavez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate four Bacillus phytases for their efficacy in making plant-baseddiets bioavailable to tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus using in vivo digestibility measurement and todetermine the in vitro level of dephosphorylation. The four Bacillus strains used were B. pumilus , B. megaterium , B. coagulans, and B. licheniformis. Phytase activities varied between bacterial sources aswell as between feed ingredients. For the cassava leaf meal, Pi released was highest in B. pumilus andwas not significantly different from those of B. megaterium and B. licheniformis. For the soybean meal, Pirelease was in this decreasing order: B. megaterium > B. pumilus > B. coagulans > B. licheniformisphytase. For the corn meal, addition of B. licheniformis phytase to the reaction mixture resulted insignificantly the highest Pi released followed by B. coagulans phytase which was not significantly differentfrom that of B. megaterium phytase which released the lowest Pi. Pi released by B. pumilus phytase fromcorn meal was not significantly different from the lowest Pi release of B. megaterium phytase. Theapparent digestibility coefficient (ADC values for the feed dry matter (DM ranged from 86.3 to 88.3%and were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05.

  19. Comparison of 3 phytases on energy utilization of a nutritionally marginal wheat-soybean meal broiler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2015-11-01

    The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds.

  20. Effect of Phytase Treatment on Phosphate Availability in the Potential Food Supplement Corn Distillers’ Grains with Solubles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas P. West

    2014-01-01

    The most effective treatment of the potential food supplement corn distillers’ grains with solubles using a fungal phytase to degrade phytic acid and release phosphorus was explored. Compared to the untreated grains with solubles, the phytic acid level in the grains with solubles was reduced by phytase treatment but treatment with 4 units of enzyme/g was more effective than 2 units of enzyme/g after 2 h. At 30°C or 45°C, 4 units of phytase/g reduced the phytic acid content of the grains with ...

  1. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF LAYER HEN FED FERMENTED Jatropha Curcas L. MEAL SUPPLEMENTED WITH CELLULASE AND PHYTASE ENZYME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding fermented Jatropha curcas L.meal (JCM supplemented with cellulase and phytase on the performances of ISA-Brown laying henaged 25-30 weeks. The Jatropha curcas meal was fermented using Rizhopus oligosporus. In this study200 laying hens were used and distributed to 5 treatments and 4 replications in Completely RandomizedDesign. The diet treatments were: R0 = control diet (without JCM, R1; diet contained fermented JCM7.5%, R2; diet contained fermented JCM 7.5% + celullase 200 g/ton, R3; diet contained fermented JCM7.5% + phytase 200 g/ton and R4; diet contained fermented JCM 7.5% + cellulase 200 g/ton + phytase200 g/ton. The parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day egg production, egg massproduction, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. The results showed that feeding fermented JCM 7.5%,both enzyme supplemented as well as unsupplemented significantly decreased (P<0.05 the feedconsumption, hen day egg and egg mass production. However, the treatments did not influence the eggweight. Supplementation of cellulase (R2 or phytase (R3 improved the feed conversion ratio with thevalue as same as the R0 diet.

  3. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted;

    2014-01-01

    for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...

  4. Dry and wet diets with and without phytase for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Garcia de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effect of adding water and phytase to middling diets on digestibility, metabolism, performance, carcass characteristics, and the bone mineralization of growing and finishing pigs. For the digestibility trial, 16 pigs were distributed in randomized blocks, placed in digestibility cages following a 2 x 2 factorial design (dry and wet diets, with and without phytase. For the performance trial, 48 piglets were distributed into a complete randomized design. During the growing period, wet diets presented higher values for digestibility and energy metabolism. In the finishing stage, the addition of water to the feed caused a greater weight gain and interfered with the carcass length. The balance of the mineral matter and the availability of calcium and phosphorus were influenced by the diets with phytase. The addition of water to the diets in the growing phase improved the digestibility and energy metabolism, and increased the weight gain, carcass length and calcium content in bones during the finishing period. The supplementation of phytase improved energy metabolism and the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus, and the balance of mineral matter.

  5. The genomic complement of purple acid phosphatase phytases in the Triticeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger;

    2011-01-01

    demonstrated that these enzymes are purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy’s) encoded by a few highly conserved mRNA’s expressed either during grain filling (PAPhy_a’s) or germination (PAPhy_b’s). In the present study, 15 genomic PAPhy sequences from wheat, barley, rye, einkorn and Aegilops taushii were...

  6. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  7. Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Layers Fed Diet Supplemented with Microbial Phytase and Cellulase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A 31-week feeding trial was conducted to investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of microbial phytase and cellulase on performance,nutrients utilization and tibia quality of laying hens fed maize and soybean meal diets.192 18-week-old Hisex layers were used in the trial A 2×2×2 factorial design was used in the experiment with three factors of two levels each:0.38% and 0.16% of dietary non-phytate P(nP).0 and 300 U*kg-1 of phytase (Ph),and 0 and 0.10% of cellulase (Ce).The results showed that supplementation of 300 U*kg-1 phytase significantly improved utilization of dietary crude ash,CP,Ca,total P and copper (P<0.05),and improved tibia breaking strength (P<0.05).No effect of phytase on performance was observed.Addition of 0.10% cellulase decreased feed intake (P<0.05),increased utilization of CF (P<0.05) and Ca(P<0.01),and decreased total tibia ash weight (P<0.05).300 U*kg-1 phytase and 0.10% cellulase exhibited obvious positive interactions to enhance utilization of dietary phytic P and copper (P<0.05).0.16% nP did not reduce performance of the layers,but improved egg shell quality at 20 wks,increased utilization of dietary total P,phytic P and Copper (P<0.01),decreased utilization of dietary CP,increased tibia breaking strength and Ca,Mn contents of tibia(P<0.01)

  8. Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread

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    Soodeh Shockravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian′s food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 ± 7.4 vs. 19.2 ± 5.2, P = 0.03. Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats.

  9. Phytase production by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm: characterization of enzymatic activity after spray drying in presence of carbohydrates and nonconventional adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandez; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-02-28

    Microbial phytases are enzymes with biotechnological interest for the feed industry. In this article, the effect of spray-drying conditions on the stability and activity of extracellular phytase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus biofilm is described. The phytase was spray-dried in the presence of starch, corn meal (>150 μm), soy bean meal (SB), corn meal (Spray drying of the R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase using different drying adjuvants showed interesting results, being quite feasible with regards their biotechnological applications, especially for poultry diets. PMID:24196167

  10. Biochemical effect of a histidine phosphatase acid (phytase) of Aspergillus japonicus var. Saito on performance and bony characteristics of broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Alexandre; de Quadros, Thays Cristina Oliveira; Junqueira, Otto M; Graña, Alfredo Lora; de Lima Montaldi, Ana Paula; Alarcon, Ricardo Fernandes; Jorge, João Atílio; de Lourdes T M Polizeli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes that hydrolyze the ester linkage of phytic acid, releasing inositol and inorganic phosphate. The phytic acid (phytate) is a major form of phosphorus in plant foods. Knowing that diet for animal of production has the cereal base (corn and soybean), primarily, broilers need for an alternative to use of the phosphate present in these ingredients, since it does not naturally produce the enzyme phytase, which makes it available. The aims of this work was studding the safe supplementation of Aspergillus japonicus var. Saito crude phytase in feeding broilers and check the biochemical effect on performance and bones of these animals. The enzymatic extract did not have aflatoxins B1, B2, G2 and G1 and zearalenone and ochratoxin, and low concentrations of this extract did not have cytotoxic effects on cells derived from lung tissue. The in vivo experiments showed that the phytase supplied the available phosphate reduction in the broiler feed formulation, with a live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, viability, productive efficiency index and carcass yield similar to the control test. Furthermore, the phytase supplementation favored the formation of bone structure and performance of the broilers. The results show the high biotechnological potential of A. japonicus phytase on broiler food supplementation to reduce phosphorus addition in the food formulation. So, this enzyme could be used as a commercial alternative to animal diet supplementation.

  11. Biochemical effect of a histidine phosphatase acid (phytase) of Aspergillus japonicus var. Saito on performance and bony characteristics of broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Alexandre; de Quadros, Thays Cristina Oliveira; Junqueira, Otto M; Graña, Alfredo Lora; de Lima Montaldi, Ana Paula; Alarcon, Ricardo Fernandes; Jorge, João Atílio; de Lourdes T M Polizeli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes that hydrolyze the ester linkage of phytic acid, releasing inositol and inorganic phosphate. The phytic acid (phytate) is a major form of phosphorus in plant foods. Knowing that diet for animal of production has the cereal base (corn and soybean), primarily, broilers need for an alternative to use of the phosphate present in these ingredients, since it does not naturally produce the enzyme phytase, which makes it available. The aims of this work was studding the safe supplementation of Aspergillus japonicus var. Saito crude phytase in feeding broilers and check the biochemical effect on performance and bones of these animals. The enzymatic extract did not have aflatoxins B1, B2, G2 and G1 and zearalenone and ochratoxin, and low concentrations of this extract did not have cytotoxic effects on cells derived from lung tissue. The in vivo experiments showed that the phytase supplied the available phosphate reduction in the broiler feed formulation, with a live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, viability, productive efficiency index and carcass yield similar to the control test. Furthermore, the phytase supplementation favored the formation of bone structure and performance of the broilers. The results show the high biotechnological potential of A. japonicus phytase on broiler food supplementation to reduce phosphorus addition in the food formulation. So, this enzyme could be used as a commercial alternative to animal diet supplementation. PMID:27625972

  12. Statistical optimization and mutagenesis for high level of phytase production by Rhizopus oligosporus MTCC 556 under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Radha, K V

    2016-03-01

    The present study deals with production of phytase from Rhizopus oligosporus MTCC 556 by solid state fermentation (SSF) using different (ADT27, IR20, PAIYUR1, KG, and RASI) rice bran varieties, in which ADT27 rice bran yield maximum of 6.2 U gds⁻¹ phytase. Statistical optimization was employed by Central Composite Design (CCD); the results showed that 3.0 g dextrose, 2.5 g ammonium nitrate, substrate size of 80 mesh, 10 mg calcium chloride was 116 hr at optimal for phytase production by SSF, with maximum of 23.14 U gds'. Phytase production improved by 4 fold (31.3 U/gds) due to chemical mutagenesis (mutant Rhizopus oligosporus MTCC 1116) in optimized media composition. Partially purified phytase showed approximately 90 kDa of molecular mass and was optimally active at 5.5 pH and 50°C temperature. Substrate specificity exhibited in sodium phytic acid and phytase activity was stimulated by Zn²⁺ and Ca²⁺. PMID:27097445

  13. Effect of Phytase Treatment on Phosphate Availability in the Potential Food Supplement Corn Distillers’ Grains with Solubles

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    Thomas P. West

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective treatment of the potential food supplement corn distillers’ grains with solubles using a fungal phytase to degrade phytic acid and release phosphorus was explored. Compared to the untreated grains with solubles, the phytic acid level in the grains with solubles was reduced by phytase treatment but treatment with 4 units of enzyme/g was more effective than 2 units of enzyme/g after 2 h. At 30°C or 45°C, 4 units of phytase/g reduced the phytic acid content of the grains with solubles by at least 94% after 2 h. The available phosphate in the grains treated for 2 h with 4 units of enzyme/g was increased by at least 1.5-fold compared to the untreated grains. Although phytic acid levels in the grains with solubles was reduced at 28°C, 30°C, 37°C, 40°C, or 45°C using 4 units of phytase/g for 2 h, the greatest reduction (96% in phytic acid concentration occurred at 40°C. The available phosphate in the phytase-treated grains at 40°C was increased after 2 h by 1.9-fold compared to the control grains. Overall, phytase treatment of this potential food supplement improved it by increasing its phosphate content while reducing its phytic acid content.

  14. The effect of combined preparation, probiotic and phytase on performance parameters and vitality of weaned piglets.

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    FESTIM SHYTAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined preparation with probiotic Schaumalac F 80M BONVITAL 4b 1841 (2,5 x 1010 KBE Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 and phytase was supplemented to a basal ration with 4%. The effects on growth performance on thirty five weaned piglets/each group were studied for thirty days experimental period. The supplementation of combined preparation improved slightly Daily Weight Gain (DWG, Feed Consumption (FC and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg weight gain. At the end of experimental period, daily weight gain was increased 6% more and feed conversion ratio was decreased 3.4%, compared to the control group or without supplementation. The results indicate that the combined preparation may be less suppressive to the Escherichia coli. Overall a positive effect of the probiotic and phytase on growth performance was observed.

  15. Microbial phytase and liquid feeding increase phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg) fed dry; diet 3, diet 2 fed in liquid form (fermented 17.5 h, 20 °C, 50% residual in the tank). InsP6-P was not present in gastric or ileal digesta in pigs fed diet 3 due to complete InsP6 degradation before feeding. In pigs fed diet 2 the amount of gastric InsP6-P...

  16. Effect of Form and Amount of Phosphorus and Phytase Supplementation on Phosphorus Utilization by Ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Shanklin, Rachel Kristina

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF AMOUNT AND FORM OF PHOSPHORUS AND PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION ON PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY RUMINANTS by Rachel Kristina Shanklin Committee Chair, Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) The use of animal manures to replace commercial fertilizer has increased the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. However, this practice has resulted in excess P being applied to the soil in some areas. Excess P may run-off into surface wa...

  17. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...

  18. Effect of dietary NPP level and phytase supplementation on the laying performance over one year period

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    Annamaria Tischler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our trial was aimed to study the effect of different dietary non-phytin phosphorus (NPP levels with and without phytase enzyme supplementation on laying performance and eggshell quality of Tetra SL-LL in the last 25 weeks of the long-term (17 months egg production. A total of 69 Tetra SL-LL layers were allocated into 3 dietary treatments. Two diets with different levels of NPP (2.45 or 2.15 g/kg, HP and LP, respectively were formulated, and 0 or 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme was added to low NPP feed (LP and LP+E, respectively. Dietary Ca was uniformly adjusted (38.2 g/kg to feed in each treatment. In the course of the trial, intensity of egg production (%, egg weight (g/egg, number of the broken eggs and feed intake (g/d/bird were recorded. Every 2 weeks 20 eggs per treatment were broken to determine the shell strength and thickness. Our results show that low NPP diet had detrimental effect on the intensity of egg production (P<0.05 and phytase added to the LP diet resulted the lowest number of broken eggs (P<0.05. In conclusion, NPP content of the layer diet can be reduced from 2.45 to 2.15 g/kg in the last 25 weeks of the elongated laying term (12-17 month of laying, if supplemented with 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme without compromising the egg production, and in the same time it can improve eggshell quality and reduce the number of broken eggs.

  19. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  20. Pulque, an alcoholic drink from rural Mexico, contains phytase. Its in vitro effects on corn tortilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Luis Raul; Olivos, Manuel; Gutierrez, Ma Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    Pulque is made by fermenting the agave sap or aguamiel of Agave atrovirens with a whole array of microorganisms present in the environment including several lactic acid bacteria and yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ascorbic acid was determined in pulque and aguamiel, respectively. Phytase activity in lees, liquid and freeze-dried pulque was assayed by measuring the appearance of phosphate from phytate by a colorimetric method likewise phosphate from phytate present in fresh corn tortilla was measured after in vitro incubation with pulque. Iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and selenium contents were measured in pulque and corn tortilla as well as in nixtamalized corn flour (NCF), the latter is used to make instant tortilla, since corn provides most of the energy as well as most of the phytate in the Mexican rural diet. Pulque showed phytase activity but much less ascorbic acid and iron than previously reported; additionally, phytase in pulque hydrolyzed most of phytate's corn tortilla. Lees, which is mostly made of pulque's microbiota, significantly accumulated iron and zinc but no selenium. NCF was fortified with iron by the manufacturers but poorly blended. There were significant differences on selenium content between tortillas samples, apparently some soils in central Mexico are selenium deficient. Moderate pulque intake appears to increase the bioavailability of iron and zinc bound by phytate in corn.

  1. Influence of Different Levels of Phytase Enzyme on Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica Performance

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    Nasrollah Vali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of phytase enzyme (Natuphos 500 supplementation in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica (3 to 45 days of age on body weight, carcass performance, percentage of tibia bone ash and tibia phosphorus. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design arranged with five levels (150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 FTU/Kg of phytase enzyme as treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and two control groups (positive and negative controls. None of the phytase levels had eff ect on carcass yield at 45 days of age (p>0.05, except first treatment with 70.06% of carcass yield that was significantly different than treatment 5 (p0.05. Female quails at body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight without viscera and legs weight were better than male (p<0.01, but male quails at carcass yield (69.06% were significantly different (p<0.01 in contrast to the females (66.30%.

  2. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

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    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

  3. Influence of Different Levels of Phytase Enzyme on Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Vali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of phytase enzyme (Natuphos 500 supplementation in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica (3 to 45 days of age on body weight, carcass performance, percentage of tibia bone ash and tibia phosphorus. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design arranged with five levels (150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 FTU/Kg of phytase enzyme as treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and two control groups (positive and negative controls. None of the phytase levels had eff ect on carcass yield at 45 days of age (p>0.05, except first treatment with 70.06% of carcass yield that was significantly different than treatment 5 (p0.05. Female quails at body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight without viscera and legs weight were better than male (p<0.01, but male quails at carcass yield (69.06% were significantly different (p<0.01 in contrast to the females (66.30%.

  4. Extra-phosphoric effects of superdoses of a novel microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Santos, T S; Paiva, D; Bradley, J R; Wladecki, H; Honaker, C; McElroy, A P

    2013-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of a novel microbial phytase on broiler performance from d 0 to 42 and tibia ash at d 21. Male Cobb 500 broilers (n = 2,016) were fed 1 of 7 experimental diets: positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations; PC plus dicalcium phosphate (PC+DCP) formulated to provide Ca and P at 0.10% above the PC; PC plus 500 U/kg of microbial phytase (PC+500); negative control (NC) with Ca and P reduced from the PC by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively; and NC plus 500 (NC+500), 1,000 (NC+1,000), or 1,500 (NC+1,500) U/kg of microbial phytase. Diets were fed in 3 phases from d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, and d 43 to 49 to 32 birds/pen and 9 replicate pens/diet. From d 0 to 21, broilers fed the NC diet had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) BW gain and tibia ash compared with broilers fed all other diets, except tibia ash in birds fed PC+500. Phytase supplementation at 500, 1,000, or 1,500 U/kg to the NC improved (P ≤ 0.05) BW gain and tibia ash comparable with the PC. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved (P ≤ 0.05) in broilers fed NC+1,500 compared with broilers fed all other diets. From d 0 to 49, growth performance was not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. However, FCR was improved (P ≤ 0.05) in broilers fed 1,500 U/kg of microbial phytase compared with broilers fed the PC, PC+DCP, and NC. There were no differences in performance or tibia ash between broilers fed the PC or PC+DCP, which would indicate the PC diet was sufficient in Ca and P. Therefore, the improvements in FCR in the NC+1500 may be associated with mitigation of the antinutrient effects of phytate rather than improved P utilization.

  5. Microbial Phytase as a Way to Improve Growth Performance of Weaned Piglets and to Reduce Phosphorus Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZANA PENGU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The microbial phytase preparation (Aspergillus niger, NATUPHOS was supplemented to a basal ration 750 FTU/kg feed and the effects on growth performance of weaned piglets were studied. The supplementation of microbial phytase improved slightly Daily Weight Gain (DWG, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and increases the digestibility and bioavailability of phosphorus from phytate, reduces the amount of inorganic phosphorus needed to maximize growth and bone mineralization and markedly reduces fecal excretion of phosphorus. At the end of experimental period, Daily Weight Gain (DWG was increased 6.15% more and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR was decreased 4.7%, compared to the control group. Overall a positive effect of the microbial phytase on performance parameters was observed. The P-excretion in the faeces was reduced by 25-30%.

  6. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread.

  7. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  8. Effect of non-phytate phosphorus levels and phytase sources on the growth performance, serum biochemical and tibial parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian R. Jiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 3×3 fattorial arrangement with dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP levels and phytase sources (3- and 6-phytase was conducted to evaluate the effects of NPP levels, phytase sources and their possible interactions on growth performance, serum biochemical and tibia parameters of broiler chickens from hatch to 42 days of age. A total of 540 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into nine dietary treatments, each containing 5 replicates pens with 12 birds per pen. Interaction was statistically significant in the performance till day 21 of trial, supplementation of low NPP diet decreased body weight (BW (P<0.001, depressed average daily gain (ADG (P<0.001 and deteriorated average daily feed intake (ADFI (P<0.001 over day 42. During the 8-to-21-day period, even if interaction between NPP levels and phytase sources was significant (P<0.01, BW, ADG and ADFI always increased due to dietary supplementation of phytase, with source not differing. Dietary high NPP enhanced serum calcium and P concentrations on day 21 and 42 (linear contrast, P<0.01, while decreased alkaline phosphatase (AKP activity on day 42 (linear contrast, P<0.001, and interaction was not significant. Both dietary sources of phytase decreased serum AKP activities on day 42 (P<0.001, and urea nitrogen content on day 21 (P<0.01 and 42 (P<0.001. Both phytase improved ash percentage on day 21 and P content in tibia at 21 and 42 days of age (P<0.001. The results confirmed that dietary supplementation of phytase may enhance P availability during the 8-to-21-day period. Nevertheless, no difference between the two phytase sources was observed.

  9. Microbial phytase in finisher diets of White Pekin ducks: effects on growth performance, plasma phosphorus concentration, and leg bone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, J I; Adeola, O; Stroshine, R

    1999-03-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the growth response of White Pekin ducks to inclusion of microbial phytase in finisher diet. In Exp. 1, 1-d-old male ducks (240 total) were reared in litter-floor pens and fed regular starter diet until 3 wk of age. At 3 wk of age, ducks were randomly divided into six groups of 10 ducks each and each group was fed one of four diets. Three finisher diets containing 16% CP and 0.18% available phosphorus (AP) without supplemental P were formulated with microbial phytase (Natuphos) added at 0, 750, or 1,500 phytase units/kg of diet. The fourth diet was a control finisher diet that was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (DCP) to supply dietary AP of 0.41%. Group BW and feed intake were measured weekly to assess growth response. At 6 wk of age, leg bones (tibia, femur, metatarsus) from five randomly selected ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics. In Exp. 2, a total of 120 ducks reared as in Exp. 1 were randomly divided into six groups of five ducks each and fed one of four diets. A basal finisher diet was formulated to contain 16% CP and 0.18% AP. Monosodium phosphate was added to the basal diet to give dietary AP levels of 0.18, 0.27, and 0.36%. The fourth diet was the basal diet supplemented with microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg of diet). Ducks were fed these diets from 3 to 6 wk of age. At the end of the study, ducks were bled by cardiac puncture and blood plasma was analyzed for P concentration. Leg bones from all ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics as in Exp. 1. Feed intake increased linearly with increased level of dietary phytase, whereas the weight gain response was quadratic only during the last week of Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, there was a quadratic response for weight gain due to dietary AP. Weight gain due to phytase (750 units) was not different from ducks fed diets at 0 or 0.18% AP. Plasma P concentration increased linearly as dietary AP increased. Plasma P levels

  10. Radioisotope and mathematical modeling in the assessment of supplementation of Phytase in diets for growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including increasing levels of phytase enzyme in pig diets for growing pigs, using the mathematical model. Data from 20 crossbred male piglets, castrated and weighing 26.80 kg on average was used. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages to collect feces and urine in a 17 day period. A randomized block experimental design containing five treatments and four repetitions was used. The experimental diet provided to piglets contained corn and soybean and was supplemented with five increasing levels of phytase enzyme (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 UF/kg), corresponding to 0.00 %, 0.01 %, 0.02 %, 0.03 % and 0.04 % respectively. The variables evaluated were: intake, excretion, output flow of P in the digestive tract, bloodstream, bones and soft tissues. The phytase enzyme did not affect the P intake (P>0.05 (F10), the P excreted in urine (F02) and the output flow of P in the bones (F32 e F23) and soft tissue (F42 e F24), however, there was a reduction in P excreted in feces (F01) of 8.92 %, 26.76 %, 22.53 % and 28.64 % to the levels 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000UF/kg, respectively and showed a positive linear effect (P12). Corn and soybean meal based diets can be used with 50% of P by dicalcium phosphate, adding 250UF/kg diet for growing pigs, and may cause a reduction of 27 % of P excretion in feces. (author)

  11. Nutritional and energetic value of rice by-products, with or without phytase, for growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cezar Dadalt; Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro; Alexandre de Mello Kessler; William Rui Wesendonck; Luciane Bockor; Gilson Alexandre Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional and energetic value of rice by-products, with or without phytase, using growing pigs. Thirty-six male pigs were housed in individual metabolic cages. Total collection of feces and urine was carried out in two periods of ten days: five days for adaptation and five days for collection. A randomized blocks design was used, considering the sampling period as a block, with five treatments and seven replicates. Two control diets (with and with...

  12. Phytic acid degradation by phytase – as viewed by 31P NMR and multivariate curve resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Merete Møller; Viereck, Nanna; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2007-01-01

    The 31P NMR method is a most direct and useful method to describe the degradation of phytic acid to lower inositol phosphates by the action of the enzyme phytase. The use of chemometric and CARS visualizes and helps in the interpretation of the results. By means of LatentiX it has been possible to visualize the time-dependent hydrolysis of phytic acid and by PCA the complexity of the phytic acid is shown in the score plots. By modeling the spectra in CARS it is possible to identify and quanti...

  13. Dephosphorylation of Phytate by Using the Aspergillus niger Phytase with a High Affinity for Phytate

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashima, Tadashi; Tange, Tatsuya; Anazawa, Hideharu

    1999-01-01

    A phytase (EC 3.1.3.8) with a high affinity for phytic acid was found in Aspergillus niger SK-57 and purified to homogeneity in four steps by using ion-exchange chromatography (two types), gel filtration, and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme gave a single stained band at a molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa. The Michaelis constant of the enzyme for phytic acid (18.7 ± 4.6 μM) was statistically analyzed. In regard to the ort...

  14. The influence of dietary microbial phytase and calcium on the accumulation of cadmium in different organs of pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, B.; Lantzsch, H.J.; Drochner, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Tierernaehrung

    2001-07-01

    A total of 72 barrows (initial body weight 16.7 kg) was used, to evaluate the influence of microbial phytase supplementation alone or in combination with calcium to barley soybean meal diets on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and bone. The control group received the basal diet with 6 g Ca and a low native Cd concentration of 0.03 mg/kg dry matter (DM). In the experimental groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 dietary cadmium concentration was elevated to 0.78 mg/kg DM. The diet of group 3 was supplemented with 800 U microbial phytase/kg, the diet of group 4 with 6 g Ca/kg. The diet of group 5 contained both supplements. The addition of microbial phytase caused an increase of Cd retention in kidney and liver at 30 and 50 kg body weight. This effect was counteracted by the contemporary addition of calcium. A supplementation of Ca alone showed no effect on the Cd accumulation in kidney and liver. In muscle, brain and bone no effects of phytase and calcium on the accumulation of Cd could be found. (orig.)

  15. Reduction of phytate content in unfermented whole grain wheat flour dough using permeabilized phytase active Candida versatilis mutants

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    Bindu Sadanandan*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High phytic acid (PA content in whole wheat flour products reduces the bioavailability of nutrients, especially dietary minerals. Monogastric animals cannot breakdown PA, an organophosphorus compound as they do not produce the enzyme phytase. Hence phytate gets excreted from the system leading to phosphorus deficiency and accumulates in the environment. Accumulation of PA also causes serious soil and water pollution during animal husbandry. In non-fermented food products the benefit of activation of innate grain phytases or microbial phytases cannot be exploited. In the present study the use of freeze-thaw permeabilized phytase active mutant yeast cells to reduce PA content in unfermented foods has been successfully tested.  Candida versatilis mutants, UVY 505 and EMY 505 used in this process were able to bring about phytate reduction of 24.32 to 45%. The substantial but not complete removal of PA here also helps to derive the cardiovascular and other health benefits of PA acknowledged of late. The method developed is simple, rapid, chemical free, nontoxic, economical and ideal for food applications.

  16. Comparative Proteomics of Leaves from Phytase-Transgenic Maize and Its Non-transgenic Isogenic Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanhua; Yi, Xiaoping; Wang, Limin; Peng, Cunzhi; Sun, Yong; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Jiaming; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xuchu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate unintended effects in genetically modified crops (GMCs), a comparative proteomic analysis between the leaves of the phytase-transgenic maize and the non-transgenic plants was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 57 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were successfully identified, which represents 44 unique proteins. Functional classification of the identified proteins showed that these DEPs were predominantly involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism category, followed by post-translational modification. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that most of the DEPs participated in carbon fixation in photosynthesis. Among them, 15 proteins were found to show protein-protein interactions with each other, and these proteins were mainly participated in glycolysis and carbon fixation. Comparison of the changes in the protein and tanscript levels of the identified proteins showed that most proteins had a similar pattern of changes between proteins and transcripts. Our results suggested that although some significant differences were observed, the proteomic patterns were not substantially different between the leaves of the phytase-transgenic maize and the non-transgenic isogenic type. Moreover, none of the DEPs was identified as a new toxic protein or an allergenic protein. The differences between the leaf proteome might be attributed to both genetic modification and hybrid influence. PMID:27582747

  17. The role played by phytase and metabolism in the accumulation of uranium in the poultry bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Manso Guevara, M.V.; Vanin, V.R.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Helene, O.A.M.; Martins, M.N.; Gouveia, A.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cestari, A.C.; Jorge, S.A.C. [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), SP (Brazil); Nogueira, G.P.; Fonseca, L.E.C. [UNESP, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Zamboni, C.B.; Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jorge, S.A.C. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Imunologia Viral; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F [Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba); Garcia, F. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BA (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Groups of seven days old Cobb broilers were fed with feed doped with uranyl nitrate at a fixed concentration of 20 ppm-U, and two concentrations of phytase (120 and 180 ppm). Two animals per group were sacrificed weekly up to their adultness. The uranium content in tibia was measured by neutron activation analysis. It was observed that the biokinetics of U does not change by administration of phytase, but the U concentration in the bones increased by up to a factor of 2, and in a non expected periodically time oscillating fashion. Quite surprising too, the concentration of uranium ({mu}g-U/g-bone) is decreasing all along the animal life spanning period of 14-42 days, meaning that the skeleton mass is growing faster than the corresponding accumulation of uranium is. This last finding is interpreted as a possible interplay between two metabolic peculiarities, associated both with U transfer to (uptake), and U removed from (clearance) the bones, respectively. (author)

  18. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A LIPOLYTIC AND PHYTASE PRODUCING PROBIOTIC FOR POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN POULTRY FEED

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    K. RAZDAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a total of 35 bacterial isolates from 17 food and fecal samples were examined. Five among those were earmarked as putative probiotic candidates. All the selected isolates survived the low pH conditions of 2.0, and resisted the presence of bile salts (0.02-0.25% and NaCl (2-14 %, indicating their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal (GI tract conditions and hence making them suitable candidates for probiotic applications. The selected probiotic isolates showed considerable levels of hydrophobicity indicating their potential adhering properties with the gut epithelium. In addition the five selected probiotic candidates depicted substantial antagonistic action against potent pathogens like Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. alcaligenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. The isolates CM-4 and KD-7 were most remarkable as they inhibited all the pathogens tested including S. aureus and Streptococcus sp. Extracellular enzymatic studies showed that all the five strains produced phytase whereas isolate CM-4 and KD-7 were the only lipase producers found. However no amylase protease activity was detected. Isolate CM-4 was found to be the best among all five as it showed all desirable probiotic features viz. bile salt, NaCl and pH tolerance, maximum hydrophobicity, antagonistic action against pathogens, phytase and lipase activity, therefore was identified by using 16S rDNA sequencing and MEGA BLAST.

  19. Dietary calcium, phosphorus, and phytase effects on bird performance, intestinal morphology, mineral digestibility, and bone ash during a natural necrotic enteritis episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Diego; Walk, Carrie; McElroy, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Ca, P, and phytase on performance, intestinal morphology, bone ash, and Ca and P digestibility during a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak. The 35-d trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial, which included 2 Ca levels (0.6 and 0.9%), 2 P levels (0.3 and 0.45%), and 2 levels of phytase [0 and 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg]. Birds were placed on litter from a previous flock that exhibited clinical signs of NE. Birds and feed were weighed on d 12, 19, and 35, and BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were calculated. Mortality was recorded daily, and gastrointestinal pH was measured. Tibias and ileal digesta were also collected. Birds began exhibiting clinical signs of NE on d 9, and NE-associated mortality persisted until d 26. Dietary Ca supplemented at 0.9% or inclusion of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase significantly increased mortality compared with 0.6% Ca or 0 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively. From d 0 to 12, birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P with phytase had greater BW gain compared with birds fed 0.6% Ca, 0.45% available P, and phytase. From d 0 to 19, birds fed diets with 0.9% Ca and 0.3% available P had decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion compared with birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P. Calcium at 0.9% increased gizzard (d 19) and jejunum (d 12) pH. Phytase supplementation significantly increased Ca digestibility regardless of Ca and P levels of the diets. In addition, diets containing 0.6% Ca and 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase resulted in a significant increase in P digestibility. The results suggest that dietary Ca level may influence NE-associated mortality. In addition, bird performance was affected by interactions of Ca, P, and phytase during the exposure to Clostridium perfringens and the subsequent NE outbreak. Results showed improvements in bird performance when birds were fed 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P in diets supplemented with phytase, which was likely consequent to the

  20. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments and proteins in the digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens fed with phytase transgenic corn.

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    Qiugang Ma

    Full Text Available The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n = 144 were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05 except on yolk color (P<0.05. Transgenic phyA2 gene and protein were rapidly degraded in the digestive tract and were not detected in blood, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, and eggs of laying hens fed with diet containing PTC. It was concluded that performance of hens fed diets containing PTC, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with CC. There was no evidence of phyA2 gene or protein translocation to the blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens.

  1. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments and proteins in the digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens fed with phytase transgenic corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiugang; Gao, Chunqi; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Lihong; Hao, Wenbo; Ji, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n = 144) were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05) except on yolk color (PTransgenic phyA2 gene and protein were rapidly degraded in the digestive tract and were not detected in blood, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, and eggs of laying hens fed with diet containing PTC. It was concluded that performance of hens fed diets containing PTC, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with CC. There was no evidence of phyA2 gene or protein translocation to the blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens.

  2. Effect of Wheat Middlings, Microbial Phytase, and Citric Acid on Phytate-Phosphorus, Calcium, and Protein Utilization of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yi-feng; LIAO He-rong; WANG Jin-fu; LI Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    A corn-soybean meal diet (CSB) (or Diet 1) containing 23% crude protein (CP) was used as the positive control, and another corn-soybean meal diet containing 21% CP and 15% wheat middlings (WM) (or Diet 2) was used as the basal diet, which was treated with four different treatments. Digestibility experiment was employed to discuss the collective effect of citric acid, and intrinsic and microbial phytase. By comparing and analyzing effects of them in the low-nutrient broiler diets, the results showed five treatments had similar effects on Tibia ash (%) (mg) (P > 0.05). Under the supplementation of bacterial phytase or citric acid, the daily body weight gain (ADG), gain:feed (G:F) ratio, and calcium (Ca) utilization were similar to that of standard-nutrient CSB diet (Diet 1) (P > 0.05). And, fecal phosphorus (P) and CP utilization were lower than (P < 0.05) that of Diet 1. But P utilization was significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that of Diet 1.However, the ADG, G:F, and CP utilization produced by supplementation of intrinsic phytase were lower than those of Diet 1, but other aspects were similar to those produced by Diet 1 (P > 0.05). In Diet 5, citric acid, intrinsic and bacterial phytase were added to the diet, which produced a 1.4% decrease on fecal P, a 7.2% increase on Ca utilization, which was significantly higher than (P < 0.01) those of the other four Diets, a 3.9% increase on G:F, which was similar to that of Diet 1, and a 2.3% increase on CP utilization, which was higher than (P < 0.05) that of the other three diets. In summary, the results of this study indicated that citric acid, intrinsic and bacterial phytase might have some additive or synergistic effects, and low-nutrient CSB diets with 15% wheat middlings, 750 U kg-1 phytase, and 3% citric acid might substitute completely for standard CSB in broilers.

  3. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  4. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  5. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  6. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  7. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-12-01

    1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment rice bran concentrations were 0, 300 or 600 g rice bran per kg with or without a phytase and 1 g Pi/kg. Ducks were grown from 19 to 40 d of age. 2. In experiment 1, a response to phytase was observed for weight gain and food intake on most diets except those with 200 g rice bran (3 g Pi) and 4.00 g rice bran (1 g P)i/kg. Main effects showed that 400 g rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); increasing Pi depressed food intake, while food phytase increased food intake and growth rate over 2 to 19 d. There were several interactions. Dry matter and P retention were reduced but N digestibility improved when rice bran was increased from 200 g to 400 g/kg at 2 to 10 d of age; apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and calcium retentions were improved, similar results being seen at 10 to 19 d of age. Calcium and P retentions increased with the addition of food phytase and, at 10 to 19 d of age, phytase increased dry matter digestibility. Increasing Pi improved calcium and P retention, but only at 2 to 10 d of age. 3. Tibia ash (g or g/kg) content of bone was lowest on the diet without rice bran and without phytase; Pi concentration had no effect but phytase increased tibia ash on diets with 0 and 200 g rice bran and 1 g Pi/kg. Retention of several minerals in tibia ash declined at the highest rice bran inclusion rate; Pi level and phytase both increased Mg retention. 4. In experiment 2, food intake and growth rate of ducks, but not FCR, declined as rice bran inclusion increased from 0 to 600 g/kg. Phytase improved growth rate but not food intake and FCR on all 3 diets. Dry matter digestibility declined with increasing rice bran inclusion, but AME increased; retention of P and Mg declined but those of Ca and Fe

  8. Isolation of a thermostable acid phytase from Aspergillus niger UFV-1 with strong proteolysis resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paulo S; Guimarães, Valéria M; de Melo, Ricardo R; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2015-03-01

    An Aspergillus niger UFV-1 phytase was characterized and made available for industrial application. The enzyme was purified via ultrafiltration followed by acid precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. This protein exhibited a molecular mass of 161 kDa in gel filtration and 81 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), indicating that it may be a dimer. It presented an optimum temperature of 60 °C and optimum pH of 2.0. The K M for sodium phytate hydrolysis was 30.9 mM, while the k cat and k cat / K M were 1.46 ×10 (5) s (-1) and 4.7 × 10 (6) s (-1) .M (-1) , respectively. The purified phytase exhibited broad specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, presenting activity on sodium phytate, p-NPP, 2- naphthylphosphate, 1- naphthylphosphate, ATP, phenyl-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, calcium phytate and other substrates. Enzymatic activity was slightly inhibited by Mg (2+) , Cd (2+) , K (+) and Ca (2+) , and it was drastically inhibited by F (-) . The enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 90% activity at 60 °C during 120 h and displayed a t 1/2 of 94.5 h and 6.2 h at 70 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated strong resistance toward pepsin and trypsin, and it retained more than 90% residual activity for both enzymes after 1 h treatment. Additionally, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed phytate in livestock feed, liberating 15.3 μmol phosphate/mL after 2.5 h of treatment. PMID:26221114

  9. Nutritional and energetic value of rice by-products, with or without phytase, for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Dadalt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional and energetic value of rice by-products, with or without phytase, using growing pigs. Thirty-six male pigs were housed in individual metabolic cages. Total collection of feces and urine was carried out in two periods of ten days: five days for adaptation and five days for collection. A randomized blocks design was used, considering the sampling period as a block, with five treatments and seven replicates. Two control diets (with and without phytase - Phy were used in the digestibility calculations, the latter in order to evaluate the enzyme influence on energy digestibility of the tested ingredients. The control diet was replaced by 30% of one of the ingredients: defatted rice bran (DRB with and without Phy and dephytinised defatted rice bran (DDRB. The use of Phy in the control diet did not influence DRB+Phy energy digestibility. Relative to DRB+Phy, dephytinised defatted rice bran had higher contents of ME and digestible protein but lower digestible P and Ca. Phy supplementation increased Ca and P utilization of DRB and improved energy and protein digestibility. The DRB without Phy showed the lowest digestibility coefficients for all responses. Metabolizable energy, digestible protein, phosphorus and calcium of DRB, DRB+Phy and DDRB were respectively, 2140, 2288 and 2519kcal kg-1; 79.25, 92.41 and 107.10g kg-1; 1.62, 3.41, and 2.11g kg-1 and 2.80, 3.79 and 2.90g kg-1.

  10. Isolation of a thermostable acid phytase from Aspergillus niger UFV-1 with strong proteolysis resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An Aspergillus niger UFV-1 phytase was characterized and made available for industrial application. The enzyme was purified via ultrafiltration followed by acid precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. This protein exhibited a molecular mass of 161 kDa in gel filtration and 81 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, indicating that it may be a dimer. It presented an optimum temperature of 60 °C and optimum pH of 2.0. The KM for sodium phytate hydrolysis was 30.9 mM, while the kcat and kcat/KM were 1.46 ×105 s−1 and 4.7 × 106s−1.M−1, respectively. The purified phytase exhibited broad specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, presenting activity on sodium phytate, p-NPP, 2- naphthylphosphate, 1- naphthylphosphate, ATP, phenyl-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, calcium phytate and other substrates. Enzymatic activity was slightly inhibited by Mg2+, Cd2+, K+ and Ca2+, and it was drastically inhibited by F−. The enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 90% activity at 60 °C during 120 h and displayed a t1/2 of 94.5 h and 6.2 h at 70 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated strong resistance toward pepsin and trypsin, and it retained more than 90% residual activity for both enzymes after 1 h treatment. Additionally, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed phytate in livestock feed, liberating 15.3 μmol phosphate/mL after 2.5 h of treatment.

  11. Quantitative analysis of phytate globoids isolated from wheat bran and characterization of their sequential dephosphorylation by wheat phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Lisbeth; Josefsen, Lone; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2007-01-01

    Wheat phytase was purified to investigate the action of the enzyme toward its pure substrate (phytic acid - myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) and its naturally occurring substrate (phytate globoids). Phytate globoids were purified to homogeneity from wheat bran, and their nutritionally relevant...... parameters were quantified by ICP-MS. The main components of the globoids were phytic acid (40% w/w), protein (46% w/w), and several minerals, in particular, K > Mg > Ca > Fe (in concentration order). Investigation of enzyme kinetics revealed that Km and V-max decreased by 29 and 37%, respectively, when pure...... phytic acid was replaced with phytate globoids as substrate. Time course degradation of phytic acid or phytate globoids using purified wheat phytase was followed by HPIC identification of inositol phosphates appearing and disappearing as products. In both cases, enzymatic degradation initiated at both...

  12. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P DCP were greater (P DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( PDCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  13. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunashree B. Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentations (SSF for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  14. SpyRing interrogation: analyzing how enzyme resilience can be achieved with phytase and distinct cyclization chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Christopher; Bennett, S Paul; Howarth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes catalyze reactions with exceptional selectivity and rate acceleration but are often limited by instability. Towards a generic route to thermo-resilience, we established the SpyRing approach, cyclizing enzymes by sandwiching between SpyTag and SpyCatcher (peptide and protein partners which lock together via a spontaneous isopeptide bond). Here we first investigated the basis for this resilience, comparing alternative reactive peptide/protein pairs we engineered from Gram-positive bacteria. Both SnoopRing and PilinRing cyclization gave dramatic enzyme resilience, but SpyRing cyclization was the best. Differential scanning calorimetry for each ring showed that cyclization did not inhibit unfolding of the inserted β-lactamase. Cyclization conferred resilience even at 100 °C, where the cyclizing domains themselves were unfolded. Phytases hydrolyze phytic acid and improve dietary absorption of phosphate and essential metal ions, important for agriculture and with potential against human malnutrition. SpyRing phytase (PhyC) resisted aggregation and retained catalytic activity even following heating at 100 °C. In addition, SpyRing cyclization made it possible to purify phytase simply by heating the cell lysate, to drive aggregation of non-cyclized proteins. Cyclization via domains forming spontaneous isopeptide bonds is a general strategy to generate resilient enzymes and may extend the range of conditions for isolation and application of enzymes. PMID:26861173

  15. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF).

  16. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF). PMID:26176365

  17. Influence of dietary non-phytate phosphorous levels and phytase supplementation on the performance and bone characteristics of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Precise phosphorus nutrition is important for significant reductions in both P pollution and ration costs. The influence of different levels (% of dietary nPP fed from 0 to 20 d (0.45, 0.40, 0.35, 0.30, 0.25, compared with feeding 0.20 nPP with and without 500 F.T.U. of phytase per kg of diet and from 21 to 36 d of age (0.414, 0.364, 0.314, 0.264, 0.214, compared with 0.164 nPP with and without 500 F.T.U. of phytase per kg of diet were evaluate using a total of 588 day-old commercial broiler chicks. Each treatment was replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW, daily gain (DG, feed intake (DFI, feed conversion ratio, plasma P level and bone characteristics were determined, and from these data the P equivalency of the phytase was estimated. Feeding diets containing less than 0.40% of nPP to birds between 0 and 20d resulted in inferior BW, DFI, plasma P level and bone characteristics compared with the control. However, optimum FCR and mortality was supported at lower levels of nPP (0.25%. Between 21 and 36 d, 0.364% was enough to optimise BW, DFI, and femur ash (%; whilst only 0.314% or greater was needed to support optimum DG, toe and tibia ash and only 0.214 to 0.264% was required to optimise shank, femur and tibia lengths; FCR and survivability. A broken line analysis also showed that the nPP (% requirement ranged from 0.267 to 0.410 and 0.272 to 0.380% during 0 to 20 and 21 to 36 d, respectively. Phytase supplementation improved performance and bone criterion and its P equivalency, depending upon the response of interest and birds age, ranged from 0.00 to 0.110%. In conclusion, the results showed that the combination of a lower level of nPP and phytase may be used to increase dietary P utilization, without severe changes in performance and bone quality.

  18. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  19. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. v. Sperber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg. Phytic acid (IP6 is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP and glycerophosphate (GPO4 as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰, which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰ where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ −12‰, again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ε to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate

  20. Environmental Assessment of Ronozyme® P5000 CT Phytase as an Alternative to Inorganic Phosphate Supplementation to Pig Feed Used in Intensive Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling of the two considered systems...... of avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural land use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use......Ronozyme® P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can be used as an alternative...

  1. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. Ronozyme (R) P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can...... use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use of agricultural land is given very large relative weight. Recommendations and Perspectives. Hundreds of enzyme products are commercially available on the market today, each with a range of different applications. There are several...... indications that enzymes like Ronozyme Phytase can play an important role in a transition to a more sustainable society, and more focus should be addressed to the evolving enzyme technology in environmental research....

  2. Recovery of phytase produced by solid-state fermentation on citrus peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ernesto Rodríguez-Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of phytase produced by solid-state fermentation of citrus peel was studied employing a multistage leaching process. It was observed that the extracts containing EDTA retained over 90% of phytase activity at room temperature after 24 h after the leaching. A fractional design 2² (with 4 replicates at the central point was carried out for testing the pH and agitation as process independent factors. Only the interaction between the pH and agitation showed a significant influence. These factors were optimized with a central composite design. Agitation at 300 rpm and pH at 5.0 were the best conditions to extract the enzyme from solid matrix. The modeling of the process indicated that diffusivity of the enzyme in the solvent was the controlling mechanism. The corresponding kinetic constant and saturation concentration in this process were 0.89 min-1 and 4.0 IU/mL, respectively. The multistage process indicated that after two steps, it was possible to recover 85% of total enzyme produced.A extração de fitases produzidas por fermentação em estado sólido de polpa cítrica foi estudada utilizando um processo de extração sólido-líquido em varias etapas. A adição de EDTA permite manter durante 24 horas a temperatura ambiente 90% da atividade inicial do caldo com a enzima extraída. Um planejamento fatorial 2², com 4 replicas no ponto central, foi desenvolvido para testar os valores de ph e agitação convenientes para a extração das enzimas. A interação entre ambos os fatores foi estadisticamente significativa. A atividade da enzima foi otimizada nos valores onde o pH (5.0 e a agitação (350 rpm resultaram ser as melhores condições para extrair a enzima da matriz sólida. O ajuste do modelo matemático obtido mostra que é possível considerar a difusividade como o mecanismo que controla o processo de transferência de massa. A constante cinética que descreve este processo e a concentração de saturação foram 0.039 min

  3. Effect of phytase supplementation to a high- and a low-phytate diet for growing pigs on the utilization of phosphorus and calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Fa Liao; Willem C. Sauer; John K. Htoo; Miguel Cervantes; Arie Kies; Alfonso Araiza; Adriana Morales

    2007-01-01

    The effect on the utilization of P and Ca of phytase supplementation to a high- and low-phytate diet for growing pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, was determined. Eight barrows, 40.6 ±1.7kg BW, were assigned to four dietary treatments according to a repeated 4×4 Latin square design (n=8). Diets were: 1) a high-phytate diet containing 20% rice bran, a rich source of phytate-P; 2) diet 1 supplemented with 2000 phytase units (FTU) per kg; 3) a low-phytate diet containing 2...

  4. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  5. Influence of superdoses of a novel microbial phytase on growth performance, tibia ash, and gizzard phytate and inositol in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, C L; Santos, T T; Bedford, M R

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of a novel microbial phytase on performance, tibia ash, and the content of phytate, phytate esters, and inositol in the gizzard of young broilers. Male Cobb 500 broilers (n = 1,680) were fed 1 of 7 experimental diets: positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations; PC plus dicalcium phosphate (PC+DCP) formulated to provide Ca and P at 0.10% above the PC; PC plus 500 U/kg of microbial phytase (PC+500); negative control (NC) with Ca and P reduced from the PC by 0.16% and 0.15%, respectively; and the NC plus phytase at 500 (NC+500), 1,000 (NC+1,000), or 1,500 (NC+1,500) U/kg. Diets were fed in crumbled form to 20 birds/pen and 12 replicate pens/diet from d 0 to 21. On d 21, 4 birds/pen were euthanized for collection of right tibias and gizzard digesta for determination of tibia ash and gizzard phytate. In general, broilers fed the NC diet had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake and BW gain compared with broilers fed diets supplemented with phytase, but not different than the PC or PC+DCP. Phytase supplementation in the NC diet improved (P ≤ 0.05) BW gain comparable with or above that of the PC. Feed conversion ratio was improved in broilers fed the NC+1,000 or NC+1,500 compared with broilers fed all other diets. Tibia ash was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in broilers fed the NC compared with broilers fed all other diets, and phytase supplementation improved tibia ash comparable with the PC. Phytase supplementation reduced (P ≤ 0.05) phytate (inositol hexa-phosphate) concentration in the gizzard. Inositol concentration in the gizzard was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in birds fed NC+1,000 or NC+1,500 compared with all other diets and this was correlated with growth performance (P ≤ 0.05) rather than tibia ash (P > 0.05). Improvements in feed conversion ratio associated with superdoses of phytase may be attributed to phytate destruction and the provision of inositol.

  6. 植酸酶在畜禽养殖中的研究进展%Research Progress on Phytase in Animal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永超; 王建平

    2012-01-01

    When adding phytase to animal feed, the phosphorus in animal feed can be used effectively, and reducing the discharge of phosphorus. The article reviewed studies and development on phytase and its application in animal feed.%在饲料中添加植酸酶能够提高饲料利用率,增加动物对饲料中有效磷的利用率,减少磷的排出。文章综述了植酸酶的研究进展及在饲粮中的应用。

  7. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...... the “b” type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. In spite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during...... grain development and germination. In wheat it was demonstrated that “a” and “b” isogene expression is driven by different promoters (~31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains...

  8. Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. T...

  9. In vitro versus in situ evaluation of the effect of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus solubility in soya bean and rapeseed meal broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2014-01-01

    1. In vitro assays provide a rapid and economical tool to evaluate dietary effects, but have limitations. In this study, the effect of phytase supplementation on solubility, and presumed availability, of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in soya bean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) based diets were evaluated both in situ and by a two-step in vitro digestion assay that simulated the gastric and small intestine (SI) phases of digestion. 2. Comparison of the in vitro findings to in situ findings was used to evaluate the in vitro assay. Ross 308 broilers (n = 192) were fed on one of 6 SBM or RSM diets supplemented with 0, 500 or 5000 FTU/kg phytase from 0 to 28 d post hatch. The 6 diets and raw SBM and RSM were exposed to a two-step in vitro assay. Ca and P solubility and pH in the gizzard and jejunal digesta and in the gastric and SI phase of in vitro digestion were measured. 3. Both in vitro and in situ analyses detected that Ca solubility was lowest when diets were supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase, compared to the control diets and diets supplemented with 5000 FTU/kg phytase. Phosphorus solubility increased with increasing phytase level. Both methods also identified that mineral solubility plateaus in the gastric phase. 4. Overall relationship of the two methods was strong for both determination of gastric phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively) and also SI phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.71 and 0.82, respectively). However, mineral solubility and pH were higher when measured in vitro than in situ, and the in situ assay identified an interaction among the effects of phase, protein source and phytase inclusion level on Ca solubility that the in vitro assay did not detect. 5. This two-step in vitro assay successfully predicted phytase efficacy, but to determine detailed response effects in the animal, in situ data is still required.

  10. Performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and plasma constituents of meat type drakes fed diets containing different levels of lysine with or without a microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Y A

    2003-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to study growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and plasma constituents of Campbell drakes fed diets containing different levels of lysine with or without a microbial phytase. Basal vegetable duck all-mash diets were fed during the growing (1-35 d of age), and finishing period (36-56 d of age) and were formulated to contain 0.90% and 0.73% lysine (negative control), respectively. These diets were supplemented or not with L-lysine HCl, which resulted in a dietary lysine level of 0.90, 0.95, 1.01 and 1.06% and 0.73, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.94%, during the growing and finishing period, respectively. Furthermore, the diets were fed with or without 600 FTU phytase (Natuphos) except for those containing 1.06 and 0.94% lysine during the growing and finishing period, respectively (positive control). A lysine level of 1.01/0.87% in the growing/finishing diet significantly increased BWG and improved FCR of drakes by 2.1 and 1.8%, respectively. Phytase significantly increased BWG by 2.1% and 3.5% after feeding the basal diet and 1.01/0.87% lysine, respectively. Also, FCR was significantly improved by 2.2 and 1.8% of groups fed 0.95/0.80, and 1.01/0.87% lysine, respectively. Phytase as an independent variable increased BWG by 1.8, and improved FCR by 1.0%. Lysine and/or phytase did not affect carcass yield, and meat quality treats as well as plasma constituents of drakes. However, lysine level at 0.95/0.80% and 1.01/0.87% significantly decreased abdominal fat deposition compared to either the negative or the positive control. In conclusion, a lysine level of 1.01/0.87% in the growing/finishing diets for drakes is adequate. After phytase supplementation of the basal diet the BWG at a lysine level of 0.90/0.73% were similar to the positive control (1.06/0.94% lysine). However, the best FCR was obtained after feeding diets containing 1.01/0.87% lysine supplemented with phytase.

  11. Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on small intestinal morphology in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Nourmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of citric acid (CA (0, 3 and 6% and microbial phytase (MP (0, 500 and 1000 IU/kg on morphology of different segments of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum in broiler chickens fed on corn and soybean meal based diets. The effect of 9 experimental treatments (3×3 factorial design were assessed using 270 7-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete block design in three replicates of 10 birds each. The mean villi length (VL, crypt depth (CD and goblet cell number (GCN in duodenum, jejunum and ileum and villi width (VW and VL:CD ratio in duodenum was significantly greater for the birds fed on acidified diets compared to the control birds at day 42 of age (P<0.01. Inclusion of 3% CA in diet significantly decreased the epithelial thickness (ET in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P<0.01. The birds received diets with 1000 IU/kg of MP showed significant increase in CD (P<0.01 and GCN in jejunum (P<0.05, and significant decrease in VL:CD ratio and ET in the duodenum (P<0.01, jejunum (P<0.05 and ileum (P<0.01 segments. No variable of interest were affected by CA × MP interaction. It was concluded that CA and MP independently exhibit positive impact on morphometery of small intestine, toward facilitating the nutrient absorption and reducing the metabolic demands of the intestinal tract in broiler chickens.

  12. Enzyme mediated silicon-oxygen bond formation; the use of Rhizopus oryzae lipase, lysozyme and phytase under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Vincenzo; Bassindale, Alan R; Brandstadt, Kurt F; Lawson, Rachel; Taylor, Peter G

    2010-10-21

    The potential for expanding the variety of enzymic methods for siloxane bond formation is explored. Three enzymes, Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL), lysozyme and phytase are reported to catalyse the condensation of the model compound, trimethylsilanol, formed in situ from trimethylethoxysilane, to produce hexamethyldisiloxane in aqueous media at 25 °C and pH 7. Thermal denaturation and reactant inhibition experiments were conducted to better understand the catalytic role of these enzyme candidates. It was found that enzyme activities were significantly reduced following thermal treatment, suggesting a potential key-role of the enzyme active sites in the catalysis. Similarly, residue-specific modification of the key-amino acids believed to participate in the ROL catalysis also had a significant effect on the silicon bio-catalysis, indicating that the catalytic triad of the lipase may be involved during the enzyme-mediated formation of the silicon-oxygen bond. E. coli phytase was found to be particularly effective at catalysing the condensation of trimethylsilanol in a predominantly organic medium consisting of 95% acetonitrile and 5% water. Whereas the use of enzymes in silicon chemistry is still very much a developing and frontier activity, the results presented herein give some grounds for optimism that the variety of enzyme mediated reactions will continue to increase and may one day become a routine element in the portfolio of the synthetic silicon chemist. PMID:20683529

  13. Phytase-Producing Potential and Other Functional Attributes of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates for Prospective Probiotic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Syed Tabia; Bhat, Bilqeesa; Gupta, Mahak; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Wide variations among multifaceted-health benefitting attributes of probiotics fueled investigations on targeting efficacious probiotics. In the current study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from poultry gut, feces of rat, chicken, human infants, and fermented foods were characterized for desired probiotic functional properties including the phytase-producing ability which is one of the wanted characteristics for probiotics for potential applications for upgrading animal nutrition, enhancing feed conversion, and minimizing anti-nutritional properties. Among 62 LAB isolates Weissella kimchii R-3 an isolate from poultry gut exhibited substantial phytase-producing ability (1.77 U/ml) in addition to other functional probiotic characteristics viz. hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, coaggregation with bacterial pathogens, and antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Survival of W. kimchii R-3 cells (in free and calcium alginate encapsulated state) was examined sequentially in simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Encapsulated cells exhibited better survival under simulated gut conditions indicating that encapsulation conferred considerable protection against adverse gut conditions. Furthermore, simulated gastric and intestinal juices with pepsin and pancreatin showed higher survival of cells than the juices without pepsin and pancreatin. W. kimchii R-3 due to its significant functional probiotic attributes may have prospective for commercial applications in human/animal nutrition.

  14. Phytase-Producing Potential and Other Functional Attributes of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates for Prospective Probiotic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Syed Tabia; Bhat, Bilqeesa; Gupta, Mahak; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Wide variations among multifaceted-health benefitting attributes of probiotics fueled investigations on targeting efficacious probiotics. In the current study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from poultry gut, feces of rat, chicken, human infants, and fermented foods were characterized for desired probiotic functional properties including the phytase-producing ability which is one of the wanted characteristics for probiotics for potential applications for upgrading animal nutrition, enhancing feed conversion, and minimizing anti-nutritional properties. Among 62 LAB isolates Weissella kimchii R-3 an isolate from poultry gut exhibited substantial phytase-producing ability (1.77 U/ml) in addition to other functional probiotic characteristics viz. hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, coaggregation with bacterial pathogens, and antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Survival of W. kimchii R-3 cells (in free and calcium alginate encapsulated state) was examined sequentially in simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Encapsulated cells exhibited better survival under simulated gut conditions indicating that encapsulation conferred considerable protection against adverse gut conditions. Furthermore, simulated gastric and intestinal juices with pepsin and pancreatin showed higher survival of cells than the juices without pepsin and pancreatin. W. kimchii R-3 due to its significant functional probiotic attributes may have prospective for commercial applications in human/animal nutrition. PMID:27349529

  15. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future. PMID:26906117

  16. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus, and green mungbeans (Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  17. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans ((Phaseolus aureus,and green mungbeans ((Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  18. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (Pporridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  19. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  20. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  1. Effects of production area and microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if the area in which soybeans are grown influences the concentration of P, phytate, and macro- and microminerals in the soybean meal (SBM) produced from the beans and, therefore, also influences the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in SBM. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of microbial phytase will increase the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM regardless of where the beans were grown. Twenty sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities located in different regions of the United States that were separated into 3 zones: 1) the northern growing area (Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota), 2) the eastern growing area (Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio), and 3) the western growing area (Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska). For each source of SBM, 2 diets based on cornstarch and SBM were formulated; one of these diets contained no microbial phytase and the other diet contained 500 units/kg of microbial phytase. Two hundred growing barrows (16.90 ± 1.79 kg initial BW) were individually placed in metabolism crates and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 40 diets and 5 replicate pigs per treatment. Feces were collected for 4 d after a 4-d adaptation period using the marker-to-marker procedure. Results indicated that there were no differences in concentration of Ca, P, phytate, and macro- and microminerals among SBM from the different zones. However, there was a tendency ( = 0.055) for an increase in concentration of nonphytate P in SBM from the western growing area (0.25%) compared with SBM from the northern growing area (0.23%) and the eastern growing area (0.23%). There were no differences in feed intake, absorbed P, ATTD of P, STTD of P, Ca intake, Ca output, or ATTD of Ca for pigs fed SBM from the 3 zones. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.066) for an increase in P intake and P output from pigs fed SBM from the

  2. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilization by growing pigs: effect of dietary phosphorus, calcium and exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Jondreville, C; Sauvant, D; Narcy, A

    2012-10-01

    Optimizing phosphorus (P) utilization in pigs requires improving our capacity to predict the amount of P absorbed and retained, with the main modulating factors taken into account, as well as precisely determining the P requirements of the animals. Given the large amount of published data on P utilization in pigs, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the impact of the different dietary P forms, calcium (Ca) and exogenous phytases on the digestive and metabolic utilization criteria for dietary P in growing pigs. Accordingly, the amount of phytate P (PP) leading to digestible P (g/kg) was estimated to be 21%, compared with 73% for non-phytate P (NPP) from plant ingredients and 80% for NPP from mineral and animal ingredients (P meta-analysis improves our understanding of P utilization, with major modulating factors taken into account. The information generated will be useful for the development of robust models to formulate environmentally friendly diets for growing pigs.

  3. Display of phytase on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to degrade phytate phosphorus and improve bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Xiao, Yan; Shen, Wei; Govender, Algasan; Zhang, Liang; Fan, You; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2016-03-01

    Currently, development of biofuels as an alternative fuel has gained much attention due to resource and environmental challenges. Bioethanol is one of most important and dominant biofuels, and production using corn or cassava as raw materials has become a prominent technology. However, phytate contained in the raw material not only decreases the efficiency of ethanol production, but also leads to an increase in the discharge of phosphorus, thus impacting on the environment. In this study, to decrease phytate and its phosphorus content in an ethanol fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered through a surface-displaying system utilizing the C-terminal half of the yeast α-agglutinin protein. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, was constructed by successfully displaying phytase on the surface of cells, and enzyme activity reached 6.4 U/g wet biomass weight. Ethanol productions using various strains were compared, and the results demonstrated that the specific growth rate and average fermentation rate of the PHY strain were higher 20 and 18 %, respectively, compared to the control strain S. cerevisiae CICIMY0086, in a 5-L bioreactor process by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. More importantly, the phytate phosphorus concentration decreased by 89.8 % and free phosphorus concentration increased by 142.9 % in dry vinasse compared to the control in a 5-L bioreactor. In summary, we constructed a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could improve ethanol production performance and effectively reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate. PMID:26610799

  4. A multi-factors rational design strategy for enhancing the thermostability of Escherichia coli AppA phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Baojin; Xu, Hui; Cao, Yu; Ma, Shuhan; Guo, Hongxiu; Song, Tao; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi

    2013-05-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of the importance of protein surface properties for protein thermostability,there are seldom studies on multi-factors rational design strategy, so a more scientific, simple and effective rational strategy is urgent for protein engineering. Here, we first attempted to use a three-factors rational design strategy combining three common structural features, protein flexibility, protein surface, and salt bridges. Escherichia coli AppA phytase was used as a model enzyme to improve its thermostability. Moreover, the structure and enzyme features of the thermostable mutants designed by our strategy were analyzed roundly. For the single mutants, two (Q206E and Y311K), in five exhibited thermostable property with a higher success rate of prediction (40 %). For the multiple mutants, the themostable sites were combined with another site, I427L, we obtained by directed evolution, Q206E/I427L, Y311K/I427L, and Q206E/Y311K/I427L, all exhibited thermostable property. The Y311K/I427L doubled thermostability (61.7 %, and was compared to 30.97 % after being heated at 80 °C for 10 min) and catalytic efficiency (4.46 was compared to 2.37) improved more than the wild-type AppA phytase almost without hampering catalytic activity. These multi-factors of rational design strategy can be applied practically as a thermostabilization strategy instead of the conventional single-factor approach.

  5. Effect of amount and source of manganese and/or phytase supplementation on productive and reproductive performance and some physiological traits of dual purpose cross-bred hens in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Y A; Qota, E M; Bovera, F; Tag El-Din, A E; Mansour, S A

    2010-04-01

    1. The effect of different amounts of added manganese (Mn) (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) in inorganic and organic form and phytase (0 and 300 U) was investigated on productive, reproductive and haematological traits on 480 hens and 60 cocks (Inchas breeds) divided into 12 groups: 10 and 20 Mn x 0 and 300 phytase x 2 Mn sources (8 groups), two negative controls (0 Mn x 2 levels of phytase) and two positive controls (40 Mn x 2 Mn sources). 2. Phytase supplementation increased laying rate by 1.1% and egg weight by 0.4 g. 3. Manganese supplementation at 10 mg/kg over dietary sources improved hatchability, at 20 mg/kg decreased death embryos and abnormality as those of hens supplemented with 40 mg/kg Mn. Inorganic Mn at 10 mg/kg significantly increased egg mass compared to the organic form. Inorganic Mn was more efficient in decreasing abnormal chicks than organic Mn. Phytase supplementation significantly increased hatchability of fertile eggs and decreased the number of abnormal chicks of groups fed on diets unsupplemented with Mn and those supplemented with 10 mg/kg Mn. 4. Mn supplementation at 10 mg/kg over dietary sources significantly improved sperm mass motility and decreased abnormal sperm. Phytase significantly decreased lymphocyte cells and plasma AST. 5. Mn supplementation of the control diet (containing only 16 mg/kg from raw materials) with 20 mg/kg of Mn from either organic or inorganic source is adequate to support egg production traits, egg quality, reproductive traits and economic efficiency of dual purpose cross-bred hens; however, phytase supplementation may reduce the required Mn supplementation to 10 mg/kg.

  6. Modifying broiler diets with phytase and vitamin D metabolite (25-OH D(3)): impact on phosphorus in litter, amended soils, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joshua M; Sims, J Thomas; Maguire, Rory O; Saylor, William W; Angel, Roselina

    2010-01-01

    Adding phytase and 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D(3)) to broiler diets has been shown effective at reducing total P concentrations in broiler litter. This study was conducted to determine the impact of field application of broiler litter from modified diets on P solubility in litter-amended soils and P losses in runoff. Five broiler diets and their resulting litters were evaluated: a high P diet, a low P diet, each of those basal diets with phytase added, and a low P diet with phytase and 25-OH D(3) added. A field study was initiated at two sites with each of the five broiler litters and a commercial P fertilizer (triple superphosphate [TSP]) applied at the same total P rate (150 kg P ha(-1)) and a control where no P was applied. Soil P was monitored over time at two depths (0-5 cm and 0-15 cm) soils were collected in the spring and fall to perform rainfall simulation studies. Broiler litter or TSP application increased soil water-soluble P and Mehlich 3-P concentrations relative to the control, however there were no consistent differences detected between litter treatments. Results from the rainfall simulation experiments indicate that diet modification with phytase or 25-OH D(3) does not increase the potential for P losses in runoff from amended soils relative to traditional diets. Moreover, broiler diet modification to reduce excreted P could be a potentially effective method for reducing watershed scale P surpluses in areas of intensive broiler production, without raising concerns over soluble P losses from litter-amended soils. PMID:20048320

  7. Available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for male broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso Tizziani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Detection of the Phytase (phyA2)Transgenic Corn%转植酸酶基因(phyA2)玉米定性、定量PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彩虹; 田少亭; 路兴波; 李凡; 杨淑珂; 孙红炜

    2012-01-01

    The detection of phytase transgenic corn is important to supervise its release and provides technical support. According to phytase gene (phyA2) sequences in transgenic phyA2 corn (Zea mays), the primers for qualitative and quantitative were designed. The qualitative PCR results showed that the primers were only effective to detect phyA 2 transgenic corn, which indicated that the primers were highly specific. The SYBR Green I fluorescence quantitative PCR of endogenous reference zSSIIb zea mays starch synthase isoform zSTSII-2 and phyA2 genes were studied in this paper. Transgenic contens were calculated according to the standard Ci-copies linear graphs of the two genes. The results showed that the standard curves of zSSIIb and phyA2 genes had higher R2 value as 0.998 and 0.995, respectively, and the melting curves had single peak which mean the primers were specific. The mixed corn samples were detected to be 1.1%, 0.54% and 0.17%, respectively, which were close to the true values. The qualitative and quantitative PCR methods were developed in this study which can be effective at detecting phyA 2 transgenic corn.%转植酸酶基因玉米检测是对转植酸酶基因玉米释放进行有效监管的重要前提和技术支撑.本研究根据转植酸酶基因玉米(Zea mays)外源植酸酶基因phyA2序列设计基因特异性引物,进行了定性、定量PCR检测.定性结果显示,该引物可有效检测植酸酶玉米中phyA2基因,而在其他不含植酸酶基因的材料中则检测不到相应基因,表明该引物具有很高的特异性.以玉米内标准基因玉米淀粉合酶异构体zSTSII-2基因(zSSIIb)和植酸酶基因phyA2为对象,进行SYBR Green Ⅰ染料法荧光定量PCR反应,绘制2种基因扩增循环数-拷贝数标准曲线图,根据混合样品中(zSSIIb)和植酸酶基因phyA2的拷贝数计算样品中的转基因含量,并做熔解曲线分析.结果表明,zSSIIb和phyA2标准曲线相关系数分别为0.998和0.995,相关性

  9. Effect of supplemented fungal phytase on performance and phosphorus availability by phosphorus-depleted juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and on the magnitude and composition of phosphorus waste output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Schøn Ekmann, K.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg;

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a supplemental fungal phytase on performance and phosphorus availability by juvenile rainbow trout fed diets with a high inclusion of plant based protein and on the magnitude and composition of the waste phosphorus production was tested in a 2 × 3 factorial design at a temperature...... of plant-derived protein. Conversely, the results demonstrated that fungal phytase should not be supplemented to diets in which the available phosphorus level already meets the requirement of the fish, as this will lead to a significant increase in the dissolved/suspended phosphorus waste output....... of 11 °C. Two factors comprised of two dietary fungal phytase levels (0 or 1400 U kg− 1 feed− 1), and three dietary total phosphorus levels (0.89, 0.97 or 1.12%). All fish were acclimated to the lowest total phosphorus diet for 16 days, which included 0.29% phytate-phosphorus and no supplemental fungal...

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohd. Yusoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  11. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  12. Effects of Different Germination Conditions on Phytase Activity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)%不同发芽条件对蚕豆植酸酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羽洧; 解卫华; 马娟; 郁志芸

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆为试材,研究发芽过程中植酸酶在蚕豆不同部位的变化和性质.发芽蚕豆不同部位植酸酶活性呈现先高后低的变化趋势,子叶植酸酶在发芽第6天达最高值.超声波处理对发芽蚕豆胚根、子叶和胚芽植酸酶活性有一定促进作用,其中以15min超声波处理对胚根和胚芽植酸酶活性影响最大,5min处理、10min处理和15min处理均对子叶植酸酶活性有显著影响.在发芽过程中不同光照对蚕豆进行处理,不论胚根、子叶还是胚芽,黑暗处理植酸酶活性高于光照处理.核酸抑制剂放线菌素(Act-D)和蛋白质抑制剂环已酰胺(CHM)对发芽蚕豆胚根、子叶和胚芽中的植酸酶活性有一定影响,其中以CHM的抑制效果最为明显.%Phytase activity and property in different faba bean fractions during germination were investigated with faba bean as the testing piece. The phytase activity appeared a change trend of increasing first then decreased with the maximum value at the sixth day during germination in cotyledon. Ultransonic treatments had facilitations on phytase activity in cotyledon, radicle and plumule among which 15 min treatment has the biggest effect on phytase activity in radicle and plumule. 5 min treatment, 10 min treatment and 15 min treatment had obvious effects on phytase activity in cotyledon. Whether cotyledon,radicle and plumule,faba bean during darkness treatment had higher phytase activity than that of different illuminations during germination. Act - D and CHM had certain effects on cotyledon, radicle and plumule of phytase activity in faba bean, among which, the CHM had the largest inhibition effect on phytase activity.

  13. The Use of Steered Ileo-cecal Valve Cannulated Pigs to Evaluate the Effects of Adding Phytase or Beta-mannanase to the Diet on Amino Acid, Mineral and Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, John Scott

    2000-01-01

    Forty-six barrows fitted with steered ileo-cecal valve cannulas were used in four experiments to evaluate the effects of supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase or beta-mannanase on the apparent ileal (AID) and/or apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of amino acids, N, Ca, P, DM and energy. In Exp. 1, the addition of phytase to low CP corn-soybean meal based diets increased the AID of Ca (P < .01), P (P < .001), and all amino acids (P < .10) measured except Leu, Ser, Pro, Met, ...

  14. In vitro probiotic evaluation of phytase producing Lactobacillus species isolated from Uttapam batter and their application in soy milk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraniya, Appukuttan; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2015-09-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are health promoters and have been traditionally consumed without the knowledge that they have beneficial properties. These bacteria mainly involve in secreting antimicrobials, enhance immune-modulatory effects, and preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier by competitively inhibiting the pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. argentoratensis, and Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum isolated from fermented Uttapam batter. The isolates produced bacteriocins that were effective against several pathogens. All the isolates exhibited tolerance to bile, gastric, and intestinal conditions. Beneficial properties like cholesterol assimilation and production of enzymes such as β-galactosidase, phytase and bile hydrolase varied among the isolates. Four isolates from each sub-species effectively adhered to Caco-2 cells and prevented pathogen adhesion. Using these strains, the soy milk was fermented, which exhibited higher antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and decreased phytate content when compared to unfermented soy milk. Thus, these probiotic isolates can be successfully used for formulation of functional foods that thereby help to improvise human health.

  15. The gene engineering of feed phytase%饲用植酸酶的基因工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅英; 彭健

    2006-01-01

    植酸酶即肌醇六磷酸水解酶,是催化植酸及植酸盐水解成肌醇与磷酸(或磷酸盐)的一类酶的总称(Ullah AH.,1996)。植酸酶广泛存在于微生物、植物和动物中,但猪与家禽等单胃动物体内缺乏该酶。目前商品化的植酸酶均来源于微生物,主要有黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger)(EC3.1.3.8)、无花果曲霉(Aspergillus ficuum)(EC 3.1.3.5)和米曲霉(Aspergillus oryzae)(EC3.1.3.26)。另报道还有聚多曲霉菌(Aspergillus sydowl)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtills)及隔孢伏革菌(Peniphora lycii)等,但以黑曲霉和无花果曲霉的效率较高(张若寒,2002)。

  16. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filt...

  17. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with ...

  18. Culturable autochthonous gut bacteria in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with or without chitin. Characterization by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ability to produce enzymes and in vitro growth inhibition of four fish pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Askarian, Fatemeh; Zhou, Zhigang; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Sperstad, Sigmund; Ringø, Einar

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the effect of chitin (5% supplementation) on the adherent aerobic intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). One hundred and seventy three isolates were isolated but 34 isolates died prior to positive identification. Sixty four out of 139 autochthonous gut bacteria were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and further tested for protease, amylase, cellulase, phytase, lipase and chitinase activities. Moreover, the most promising enz...

  19. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD...

  20. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma galli

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supple mentation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-D3) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallis...

  1. Effect of transgenic phytase corn on growth performance and Ca-P metabolism in broiler%转植酸酶基因玉米对肉仔鸡生长性能及钙磷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军民; 邓丽青; 陈茹梅; 马永喜

    2011-01-01

    The effect of transgenic phytase corn on growth performance and Ca-P metabolism were investigated in broilers. 480 AA broilers (1-day-old) were divided into four treatments of three replicates each. The control group was fed CaHPO4 without phytase;the test groups were fed half of CaHPO4 ,test Ⅰ , Ⅱ and Ⅲ were fed 500 U/kg of exogenous phytase,500 U/kg and 750 U/kg phytase which was from transgenic phytase corn,respectively. The results showed that broilers' health status in each group were normal during the trial,there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the average daily gain and FCR (feed conversion rate) ;each group of calcium,phosphorus and nitrogen in serum and tibia was no significant difference (P>0.05) ;the retention of phosphorus in faeces in test group at days 21 and 42 after treatment were lower than that of the control group by 49.43% ,55.17% ,54.02% and 31.50%, 32.28 %, 14.96 % respectively, which was significantly different (P<0.01) ;there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between transfer phytase corn group and the microbial phytase. Transgenic phytase corn as a source of phytase can replace the exogenous phytase in broiler diets,not only does not affect the production performance, but also can reduce the use level of CaHPO4 and N-P emissions.%选择480只AA商品代肉仔鸡,随机分为4组,每组3个重复,对照组添加磷酸氢钙,试验各组磷酸氢钙减半,分别添加500 U/kg的外源植酸酶和500、750 U/kg转植酸酶基因玉米来源的植酸酶.试验结果表明:肉仔鸡试验期间健康状况正常,各组平均日增重、饲料转化率均无显著差异(P>0.05);各组间血清和胫骨中钙、磷、氮水平无显著差异(P>0.05);试验组21和42日龄时粪中磷的存留量分别比对照组降低49.43%、55.17%、54.02%和31.50%、32.28%、14.96%,差异极显著(P<0.01);转植酸酶基因玉米组与微生物植酸酶组相比差异不显著(P>0.05).转

  2. Preparation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of dual-domain β-propeller phytase from Bacillus sp. HJB17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Guo, Gangxin; Li, Qianqian; Feng, Duo; Liu, Yong; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Gao, Wei; Yao, Bin

    2014-12-01

    β-Propeller phytases (BPPs) are abundant in nature. Recently, dual-domain BPPs have been found in which the typical BPP domain is responsible for phytate hydrolysis. The dual-domain BPP (PhyH) from Bacillus sp. HJB17 was obtained with an incomplete N-terminal BPP domain (PhyH-DI; residues 41-318) and a typical BPP domain (PhyH-DII; residues 319-644) at the C-terminus. PhyH-DI was found to act synergistically (with a 1.2-2.5-fold increase in phosphate release) with PhyH-DII, other BPPs (PhyP and 168PhyA) and a histidine acid phosphatase. The structure of PhyH was therefore studied with the aim of explaining these functions. PhyH with the secreted signal peptide of the first 40 amino acids deleted (PhyHT) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified and active PhyHT protein was obtained by refolding from the precipitant. PhyHT was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystal grew in a condition consisting of 0.2 M sodium acetate trihydrate, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 9.5, 25%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000 using 1 mg ml(-1) protein solution at 289 K. A complete data set was collected from a crystal to 2.85 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belonged to space group P1211, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.82, b = 140.19, c = 81.94 Å, α = 90.00, β = 92.00, γ = 90.00°. The asymmetric unit was estimated to contain one molecule of PhyHT. PMID:25484224

  3. Heat-treatment, phytase and fermented liquid feeding affect the presence of inositol phosphates in ileal digesta and phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene;

    2010-01-01

    × 4 Latin square with four pigs fed four diets. A basal wheat/barley-based diet was fed either as non-heat-treated or heat-treated (steam-pelleted at 90°C). The heat-treatment resulted in an inactivation of plant phytase below detectable level. Diet 1 (non-heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 2......The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo...... cannula for total collection of digesta at 2 h intervals during an 8 h sampling period after feeding the morning meal. Each period lasted for 2 weeks: 8 days of adaptation followed by 3 days of total collection of faeces and 3 days of total collection of ileal digesta. The experiment was designed as a 4...

  4. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  5. The effects of transportation stress on Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) fed corn-based diet in comparison with wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraei Hamzekolaei, M H; Zamani Moghaddam, A K; Tohidifar, S S; Dehghani Samani, A; Heydari, A

    2016-08-01

    Harvesting, handling and transporting quails to the slaughterhouses, other farms and laboratories might covertly reduce their welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two major sources of energy in poultry nutrition on reducing transportation stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica). Male quails (n = 60) were divided into two groups. The first group was fed corn-based diet, and the second was fed wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase. At the end of the experiment (day 35), quails were subjected to 80 km of transportation. Immediately on arrival and after 24 h, heterophil counts, lymphocyte counts and H:L ratios were measured. On arrival, H counts were lower, L counts were higher, and H:L ratios were lower for corn-fed group. After 24 h, wheat-fed group showed lower increment of H counts, greater increment of L counts and also decrement of H:L ratios rather than corn-fed group which showed increment of H:L ratios. However, these ratios were still lower in corn-fed group. Results indicate that corn-based diets can help Japanese quail to better resist transportation stress, although it seems that feeding wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase and phytase could have positive effects for coping better with stress after journeys. PMID:26459218

  6. Effects of phytase on enhancement of phosphorus utilization from plant materials in bybrid catfish [Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther x Clarias gariepinus (Burchell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong,W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid catfish of initial weight 5.57-5.72g were studied in 235-1 glass tanks filled with 1801 water and closed-recirculation system with 0.8 l/m flow rate was attached. Complete randomized design was employed in which there were three replications (20 fingerlings each in each of nine treatments. The experimental period was 10 weeks. Formula 1 feed was the control in which fishmeal and soybean meal were used as protein source and was nutritionally suitable for catfish. In formulae 2-6 Feeds, only plant materials were used as feed components and sprayed phytase was aplied at 0,250,500,750 and 1,000 unit/kg feed. For formula 7-9 feeds, phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (DCP at 0.1,0.2 and 0.3% was supplemented. The results showed that the supplementation of 500 unit/kg feed as well as of 0.2% phosphorus were the most effective in improving the weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency (FCR, PER and ANPU. The supplementation of phytase as well as of DCP elevated the bone as well as in the whole body while the blood parameters were not markedly affected.

  7. Fitase na alimentação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Desempenho e digestibilidade Phytase as feeding for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da adição de diferentes níveis de fitase (0, 500, 1500 e 3000 unidades de fitase ativa [UFA]/kg de ração em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo (8,88 ± 0,02 g. Todas as rações foram fornecidas até saciedade durante 45 dias. O nível de fitase baseou-se nos parâmetros de desempenho e digestibilidade e foi estimado pelos modelos quadrático e/ou LRP ("broken line". De acordo com os resultados obtidos com os níveis de fitase, o modelo LRP apresentou o melhor ajustamento de dados. A suplementação de fitase aumentou o desempenho, a retenção de minerais nos ossos, a digestibilidade da proteína e a disponibilidade de cálcio e fósforo. Os melhores resultados de desempenho, retenção de minerais nos ossos e digestibilidade foram obtidos com 700 UFA/kg de ração.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of addition of different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1500 and 3000 units of active phytase [UFA]/kg diet in the diets for Nile tilapia (8.88 ± 0.02 g. All diets were fed to satiation daily for 45 days. The phytase level determination was based on the performance and digestibility parameters and was estimated by the quadratic and/or the broken line models. The broken line model showed a better adjustment for phytase levels according to the observed results. Phytase supplementation increased performence, bone minerals, protein digestibility and calcium and phosphorus availability. The best results of performance, bone mineral retentions and digestibility were obtained with 700 UFA/kg of diet.

  8. Effect of germination conditions on the phytate content and phytase activity of barley%不同发芽条件对大麦中植酸含量及植酸酶活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善飞; 董亮; 李欣; 张利; 赵长新

    2012-01-01

    The key factors of germinating temperature, pH value of leaching water and the varieties and content of metal ions in leaching water in the process of barley sprout affected the content of phytic acid and the activities of phytase notably. Result showed that,at the germination temperature of 16X2 , phytase was activated earlier than higher or lower temperature, phytase activity reached to 4. 032 8 U/g dry base ,which was more conducive to the decomposition of phytic acid. When leaching water was under neutral conditions, phytase activity increased rapidly. Adding Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Fe3+ and other metal ions during leaching peried had a greater inhibitory effect on phytase activity.%大麦发芽过程中,发芽温度、浸麦水pH值及浸麦水中金属离子的种类和含量是影响大麦中植酸含量及植酸酶活力的重要因素.实验发现,当发芽温度为16℃时,植酸酶较高温和低温发芽更早的被激活,其活力达到4.032 8 U/g(绝干),更加有利于植酸的分解;在浸麦水为中性条件下浸麦,植酸酶活力上升较快,植酸含量迅速下降;在浸麦期间添加Ca2+、Mg2和Fe3+等金属离子对植酸酶的活力有较大抑制作用.

  9. Conservation of the Human Integrin-Type Beta-Propeller Domain in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.; Denessiouk, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem copies are found. PMID:22022374

  10. Conservation of the human integrin-type beta-propeller domain in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanupratap Chouhan

    Full Text Available Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca(2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca(2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem copies are found.

  11. Effects of phytase on the performance and broiler meat qualityEfeitos da fitase no desempenho e na qualidade da carne de frangos de corte

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    Alexandre Oba

    Full Text Available The effects of phytase on the performance, carcass yield and on the meat quality (lipid oxidation of drumstick and breast muscle were evaluated on broilers submitted to diets containing corn, soybean and defatted corn germ meal, an ingredient with high level of phytic acid. Three hundred male broilers, with 4 d of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (represented by three levels of phytase in the diet: 0; 750 e 1500 FTU/kg of ration, with ten replicates and ten broilers per experimental unit. The feeding program was divided in three periods, according the age, starting (4 to 21 d, growing (22 to 35 d and finishing phases (36 to 42 d. There were no phytase´s effects on growth performance and carcass yield. There was an increasing the TBARS values to the refrigerated drumstick and the breast muscles, corresponding a negative effect on the lipid oxidation of meat.Foram avaliados os efeitos da enzima fitase sobre o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e a qualidade da carne (oxidação lipídica dos músculos da coxa a e peito de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas formuladas à base de milho, farelo de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD, um ingrediente com alta concentração de ácido fítico. Foram utilizados 300 frangos de corte machos, com quatro dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (correspondentes a três níveis dietéticos de fitase: 0; 750 e 1500 FTU/kg de ração e dez repetições com dez aves cada. Foi utilizado um programa alimentar em três fases, inicial (4 a 21 dias de idade, crescimento (22 a 35 dias e terminação (36 a 42 dias. Os níveis de fitase não afetaram o desempenho e o rendimento das carcaças e suas partes, mas aumentaram os valores de TBARS do músculo da coxa e do peito refrigerados, indicando piora da oxidação lipídica da carne.

  12. Research on preparing instant phytase by using freeze-drying method%冷冻干燥法制备速溶植酸酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊孝; 刘伟; 史衍鲁

    2011-01-01

    采用毕赤酵母发酵制备酶液,膜超滤浓缩、硫酸铵盐析法沉淀酶蛋白,结合冷冻干燥法制得速溶型植酸酶.结果表明,对酶活力达19 500 U/ml的发酵液进行浓缩后,以70%饱和度的硫酸铵进行盐析,分离后的酶蛋白经过冷冻干燥得到活力为500 000 U/g的植酸酶,速溶性好,溶解后清亮透明.酶的冻干粉50 ℃保存90 d内酶活力仍能维持96%以上的活力.为高酶活速溶植酸酶的工业化生产提供了一条可行的思路.%The freeze-drying technology for producing instant phytase was studied. The crude preparation was obtained by Pichia pastoris high cell density fermentation, microporous membrane ultrafiltration,ammonium sulfate precipitation and freeze-drying. Fermentation liquid, activity achieved 19 500 U/ml,was managed by ultrafiltration membrane, concentrated with ammonium sulphate in 70% saturation. After freeze-drying, the final product was obtained with up to 500 000 U/g. The preparation could soluble in water quickly with no turbidity, no precipitation and good transparency. The powder remained over 96%of its activity under 50 ℃ within 90 days. Our studies provide a feasible method for preparing instant phytase with higher activity.

  13. 正交实验法优化转基因玉米中植酸酶的提取工艺%Optimization of the Extract Technology on the Phytase from Transgenic Corn by Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 柳鸿敏; 于壮; 张欣芳; 盖春宇; 邢珍娟; 陈奕冰; 李静; 张明

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal test method was used to study the ultrasonic extraction conditions of the phytase from transgenic corn. It was found that the content of the phytase extracted was the highest under the conditions of ultrasonic extraction for 15min, using pH 5.50 buffer liquid at a liquid-solid ratio of 4 tol, which guaranteed for the evaluation of the transgenic corn.%采用正交实验法研究pH值、料液比和提取时间等因素对酶提取效率的影响,探索超声提取转基因玉米中植酸酶最佳提取条件.结果显示,最佳提取条件为提取液pH值5.5,料液比为1:4,提取时为15 min.

  14. Genotypic variation in the ability of landraces and commercial cereal varieties to avoid manganese deficiency in soils with limited manganese availability: is there a role for root-exuded phytases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Timothy S; French, Andrew S; Brown, Lawrie K; Karley, Alison J; White, Philip J; Ramsay, Luke; Daniell, Tim J

    2014-07-01

    The marginal agricultural-systems of the Machair in the Western Isles of Scotland often have limited micronutrient availability because of alkaline soils. Traditional landraces of oats, barley and rye are thought to be better adapted to cope with the limited manganese (Mn) availability of these soils. When commercial cultivars are grown on the Machair, limited Mn-availability reduces crop yield and quality. We hypothesised that traditional cereal landraces selected on the Machair acquire Mn more effectively and that this could be linked to exudation of phytase from roots which would release Mn complexed with inositol phosphates. Growth and Mn-acquisition of five landraces and three commercial cultivars of barley and oats were determined in Machair soil. In addition, root phytase activities were assayed under Mn-starvation and sufficiency in hydroponics. In Machair soil, landraces had greater capacity for acquiring Mn and a greater ability to achieve maximum yield compared to the commercial cultivars. Under Mn-starvation, root phytase exudation was upregulated in all plants, suggesting that this trait might allow cereals to acquire more Mn when Mn-availability is limited. In the landraces, exuded phytase activity related positively to relative Mn-accumulation, whereas in the commercial cultivars this relationship was negative, suggesting that this trait may be secondary to an efficiency trait that has been lost from commercial germplasm by breeding. This research shows that cereal landraces possess traits that could be useful for improving the Mn-acquisition of commercial varieties. Exploiting the genetic diversity of landraces could improve the sustainability of agriculture on marginal calcareous lands globally.

  15. Homozygosity mapping and targeted genomic sequencing reveal the gene responsible for cerebellar hypoplasia and quadrupedal locomotion in a consanguineous kindred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsuner, Suleyman; Tekinay, Ayse Begum; Doerschner, Katja; Boyaci, Huseyin; Bilguvar, Kaya; Unal, Hilal; Ors, Aslihan; Onat, O. Emre; Atalar, Ergin; Basak, A. Nazli; Topaloglu, Haluk; Kansu, Tulay; Tan, Meliha; Tan, Uner; Gunel, Murat; Ozcelik, Tayfun

    2011-01-01

    The biological basis for the development of the cerebro-cerebellar structures required for posture and gait in humans is poorly understood. We investigated a large consanguineous family from Turkey exhibiting an extremely rare phenotype associated with quadrupedal locomotion, mental retardation, and cerebro-cerebellar hypoplasia, linked to a 7.1-Mb region of homozygosity on chromosome 17p13.1–13.3. Diffusion weighted imaging and fiber tractography of the patients' brains revealed morphological abnormalities in the cerebellum and corpus callosum, in particular atrophy of superior, middle, and inferior peduncles of the cerebellum. Structural magnetic resonance imaging showed additional morphometric abnormalities in several cortical areas, including the corpus callosum, precentral gyrus, and Brodmann areas BA6, BA44, and BA45. Targeted sequencing of the entire homozygous region in three affected individuals and two obligate carriers uncovered a private missense mutation, WDR81 p.P856L, which cosegregated with the condition in the extended family. The mutation lies in a highly conserved region of WDR81, flanked by an N-terminal BEACH domain and C-terminal WD40 beta-propeller domains. WDR81 is predicted to be a transmembrane protein. It is highly expressed in the cerebellum and corpus callosum, in particular in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. WDR81 represents the third gene, after VLDLR and CA8, implicated in quadrupedal locomotion in humans. PMID:21885617

  16. Activity of fungal phytases stored in two ways in response to the period of storage at room temperature Atividade de fitases fúngicas armazenadas de duas maneiras em resposta ao período de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente

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    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct experiments were conducted simultaneously with phytases of Aspergillus oryzae and A. niger for determining enzyme activity in response to storage period (up to 180 days at room temperature - RT. In the first experiment, enzymes were stored as they were acquired (pure form and the activity was measured periodically during 180 days of storage at RT. In the second experiment, the phytases were incorporated to a supplement containing vitamins, minerals, and amino acids; and then this supplement was stored at RT up to 180 days, so that every 30 days of storage was collected one aliquot from each replicate for determining enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the phytase activity is affected by storage duration. To ensure 80% of the initial activity, the phytases of A. oryzae and A. niger can be stored in the pure forms for up to 53 and 135 days at RT, respectively. However, if the phytases of A. oryzae and A. niger are incorporated to a supplement containing vitamins, minerals, and amino acids then the storage period at RT should not exceed 67 and 77 days, respectively.Dois experimentos distintos foram realizados simultaneamente com fitases de Aspergillus oryzae e A. niger para a determinação da atividade enzimática em resposta ao período de armazenamento (por até 180 dias em temperatura ambiente - TA. No primeiro experimento, as enzimas foram armazenadas como adquiridas (forma pura e a atividade foi determinada periodicamente durante 180 dias de armazenamento em TA. No segundo experimento, as fitases foram incorporadas a um suplemento contendo vitaminas, minerais e aminoácidos. Então este suplemento foi armazenado em TA por até 180 dias, de modo que, a cada 30 dias de armazenamento, uma alíquota de cada repetição foi coletada para a determinação da atividade enzimática. Conclui-se que a atividade da fitase é afetada pela duração do armazenamento. Para assegurar 80% da atividade inicial, as fitases de A. oryzae e A. niger

  17. 一株产植酸酶酵母菌株的分类鉴定与诱变育种%Identification and Mutation of the Phytase-producing Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠友; 程飞; 邱亮; 包佳源; 樊美珍; 黄勃

    2011-01-01

    根据酵母形态学特征、生理生化特性和ITS区序列的测定结果把产植酸酶酵母RCEF4907菌株分类鉴定为东方伊萨酵母Issatchenkia orientalis.利用亚硝基胍、紫外线、亚硝酸和氯化锂4种诱变剂对酵母RCEF4907菌株进行复合诱变处理,将经过处理的菌悬液用植酸钙琼脂平板进行初筛,然后取发酵上清液在37℃,pH2.5的条件下,利用钒钼酸铵比色法测定植酸酶活力进行复筛.经过多次诱变处理后,最终从大量的突变菌株中筛选出高产植酸酶的G3297突变株,其植酸酶活性达到409 U/mL,是出发菌株RCEF4907的5.76倍.%The phytase-producing yeast RCEF4907 were identified as lssatchenkia orientalis based on its sequence, the morphological and physiological characteristics. A large number of mutants were qualitatively screened by calcium phytate agar medium after I. orientalis RCEF4907 isolate was mutated with Nitrosoguanidine, Ultraviolet, Nitrous acid and Lithium chloride. The ratio of clear zones to colony diameter of the mutants was used to estimate extracellular phytase production. The high-yield phytase mutant was isolated by quantitative analysis of phytase activity of fermentation broth with Vanadium-Ammonium Molybdate colorimetric method at 37℃ and pH2.5. The phytase activity of the mutant G3297 obtained from a great amount of mutants was 409U/mL, which was 5.76 times than the I. orientalis RCEF4907.

  18. FITASE EM DIETAS PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO: (I IMPACTO AMBIENTAL PHYTASE IN DIETS FOR GROWING PIGS: (I ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

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    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o nível adequado de fitase (0, 300, 600 e 900UF/kg da dieta a ser adicionado em dietas de suínos que continha dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB, um na exigência do animal (18%; NRC, 1988 e outro em nível menor (16%, para a redução do nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio excretados, com o intuito de evitar poluição ambiental. Foram utilizados 24 leitões com peso médio inicial de 18,4kg alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para ensaio de metabolismo através do método de coleta total usando o marcador óxido férrico. Dietas isoenergéticas com 3295kcal de EM/kg foram fornecidas para os animais de acordo com o peso metabólico. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: quantidade de nitrogênio consumido e excretado total; quantidade de fósforo consumido e excretado nas fezes e urina; quantidade de cálcio consumido e excretado nas fezes e urina. Foi observado um aumento na biodisponibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados ao ser adicionado fitase nos níveis entre 421 - 466UF/kg da dieta.The objective of this experiment was determine the appropriate level of phytase (0, 300, 600 and 900PU/kg of the diet to be added in swine diets containing two levels of crude protein (CP, one in the demand of the animal (18% - NRC, 1988 and another in lower level (16%, for evaluation of the most effective reduction in excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium, to avoid larger environmental problems. Twenty four pigs with an initial avearage weight of 18.4kg were housed in metabolic cages for determination of the nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium metabolism through the method of total colection of faeces using ferric oxide as a marker. The diets were supplied for the animals related to their metabolic weight, and were isoenergetic with 3295kcal of ME/kg. The parameters evaluated were the amount of consumed and total excreted nitrogen; amount of phosphorus and calcium consumed and excreted in the feces and in the urine. An increase

  19. IRON AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS FED PHYTASE-ADDED RATIONS WITH LOWER PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FERRO E IMUNIDADE HUMORAL EM SUÍNOS ALIMENTADOS COM FITASE E NÍVEIS REDUZIDOS DE FÓSFORO

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    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Endogenous enzymes such as phytase have been widely used in swine production to increase phosphorus, amino acid and energy availability from feeds. This study aimed to evaluate the immune system through quantification of blood components associated to iron metabolism and determine humoral immune response elements in pigs fed phytase-added diets without micro minerals and vitamins and partial or total deletion of inorganic phosphorus. Forty-eight crossbred females with initial weight of 60 kg were randomly sorted into six groups of eight animals each, as follows: G1 -standard (complete ration (control group; G2 - standard ration except that micromineral and vitamin supplement was deleted; G3 - group 2 ration with phytase, G4 - group 2 ration less 1/3 of inorganic P with phytase, G5 -  group 2 ration less 2/3 of inorganic P with phytase and G6 - group 2 ration without inorganic P with phytase. Statistical difference (p>0,05 was not recorded neither in white cells and platelet counts nor hemoglobin, serum iron levels, considering all the animals in all treatments. Nevertheless, pigs up to 100 kg that consumed diet without micro minerals and vitamins, total deletion of inorganic P and phytase addition presented increased ferritin levels (p>0,05 when compared to animals fed similar diet with inorganic phosphorus and phytase. The enzyme guaranteed maintenance of iron stocks even in the absence of supplementation. Such difference was not recorded with 120-kg animals fed similar rations. Average total protein, IgG and IgM levels were not influenced by phytase, mineral and vitamin supplementation or inorganic phosphorus levels. The results demonstrate that decrease of inorganic phos-phorus, withdrawal of vitamin and mineral supplements and phytase addition in diets of finishing pigs do not lead to significant changes in hematological, biochemical and humoral immune response parameters.

  20. Suplementação de fitase microbiana na dieta de alevinos de jundiá: efeito sobre o desempenho produtivo e as características de carcaça Dietary microbial phytase supplementation of silver catfish fingerlings: effect of performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Bastos Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da adição de diferentes níveis de fitase na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo e as características de carcaça de alevinos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen. Foram utilizados 208 alevinos com peso vivo inicial médio de 2,92±0,59g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0, 500, 1.000 e 1.500FTU kg-1 e quatro repetições. Na composição das dietas, foram utilizados somente ingredientes de origem vegetal e o alimento foi fornecido duas vezes ao dia. A cada quinzena, foram avaliados os parâmetros produtivos e, ao término do período experimental (45 dias, foram ainda realizadas avaliações nas carcaças. O ganho de peso médio foi significativamente crescente (PThis study evaluated the effects of adding increasing levels of microbial phytase to diets on performance and carcass traits of silver catfish fingerlings (Rhamdia quelen. Two-hundred and eight silver catfish fingerlings (average initial weight: 2.92±0.59g were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 phytase units kg-1 of diet with 4 replications, in a completely randomized design. No animal protein was added to the diets. The experiment was conducted for 45 days and fish were fed twice daily. Effects of phytase on performance were measured each 15 days and carcass traits were evaluated at the end of trial. Increasing levels of phytase linearly improved weight gain, from 1.24±0.27g (no phytase to 1.73±0.23g (1500PU kg-1 of diet (P<0.05; and rate of specific growth, from 0.78±0.12% (no phytase to 1.07±0.11% (1500PU kg-1 of diet (P<0.05. However, ether extract of carcass was linearly reduced, from 13.54±0.02% (no phytase to 10.59±0.10% (1500PU kg-1 of diet (P<0.05. Increasing levels of dietary microbial phytase, up to 1500PU kg-1 of diet, improve performance and carcass traits of silver catfish fingerlings.

  1. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  2. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lu

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage with 10 cages (replicates for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  3. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  4. Nutrient reduction in rations with phytase for growing pigs Redução de nutrientes em rações com fitase para suínos em crescimento

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    Valéria Vânia Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance, the energy and nutrient balance and economic viability of production of growing pigs fed diets with reduced levels and phytase. In experiment 1, 60 barrows and gilts (initial weight 25 ± 1.72 kg were housed in a randomized block design with three diets, ten replicates and two animals per experimental unit (one male and one female. One of the diets was formulated with a reduced level with phytase and evaluated in comparison to a positive-control diet that was formulated according to the nutritional recommendations for animals of this breed, and a negative-control diet without phytase. The different diets did not affect feed intake, but the diet with phytase promoted better final weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion, although it did not differ from the positive control diet. In experiment 2, 27 barrows (initial weight 49 ± 3.67 kg were housed in random blocks with three diets and nine replicates with experimental plot represented by one animal. The diets did not affect the balance of energy and nutrients but had a significant effect on the efficiency of utilization of calcium and phosphorus, which was the lowest in animals that received the positive-control diet. Economic viability improved when nutrients were reduced and phytase was added in the ration. The addition of phytase (500 ftu/kg in rations formulated with nutritional levels reduced for growing swines improves rearing productivity and it is economical viable.Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o desempenho, o balanço de energia e nutrientes e a viabilidade econômica da produção de suínos em crescimento alimentados com rações com níveis reduzidos e fitase. No experimento 1, 60 suínos machos castrados e fêmeas (peso inicial de 25 ± 1,72 kg foram alojados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três dietas, dez repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental (macho e fêmea. Uma das

  5. Radioisotope and mathematical modeling in the assessment of supplementation of Phytase in diets for growing pigs; Radioisotopo e modelagem matematica na avaliacao da suplementacao de fitase em dietas para suinos em crescimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, L.C.; Moreira, J.A.; Oliveira, R.L.R., E-mail: japmoreira@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Vitti, D.M.S.S. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Patino, R.M. [Universidade de Sucre, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including increasing levels of phytase enzyme in pig diets for growing pigs, using the mathematical model. Data from 20 crossbred male piglets, castrated and weighing 26.80 kg on average was used. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages to collect feces and urine in a 17 day period. A randomized block experimental design containing five treatments and four repetitions was used. The experimental diet provided to piglets contained corn and soybean and was supplemented with five increasing levels of phytase enzyme (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 UF/kg), corresponding to 0.00 %, 0.01 %, 0.02 %, 0.03 % and 0.04 % respectively. The variables evaluated were: intake, excretion, output flow of P in the digestive tract, bloodstream, bones and soft tissues. The phytase enzyme did not affect the P intake (P>0.05 (F{sub 10}), the P excreted in urine (F{sub 02}) and the output flow of P in the bones (F{sub 32} e F{sub 23}) and soft tissue (F{sub 42} e F{sub 24}), however, there was a reduction in P excreted in feces (F{sub 01}) of 8.92 %, 26.76 %, 22.53 % and 28.64 % to the levels 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000UF/kg, respectively and showed a positive linear effect (P<0.08) for the endogenous P (F{sub 12}). Corn and soybean meal based diets can be used with 50% of P by dicalcium phosphate, adding 250UF/kg diet for growing pigs, and may cause a reduction of 27 % of P excretion in feces. (author)

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (RAG1/2) in red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Lu, Y S; Jian, J C; Wu, Z H

    2012-04-01

    Recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), involved in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. In this paper, the cDNA of RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Results showed the full length of RAG1 cDNA was 3944 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 200 bp, a 3'-UTR of 561 bp and an open reading frame of 3183 bp encoding 1060 amino acids. Three important structural motifs, a RING/U-box domain, a RING/FYVE/PHD-type domain and a RAG Nonamer-binding domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG1 by InterProScan analysis. The full length of RAG2 cDNA was 2200 bp, consisting of a 141 bp 5'-UTR, a 457 bp 3'-UTR and an open reading frame of 1602 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Two important structural motifs, a Galactose oxidase/kelch, beta-propeller domain and a kelch-type beta-propeller domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG2 by InterProScan analysis. BLAST analysis revealed that the RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper shared a high homology with other known RAG1 and RAG2 genes, while the greatest degree of identity was observed with Hippoglossus hippoglossus RAG1 at 82% and Takifugu rubripes RAG2 at 87%, respectively. The differential expressions of RAG1 and RAG2 in various tissues of red snapper were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. The overall expression pattern of the two genes was quite similar. In healthy red snappers, the RAGs transcripts were mainly detected in thymus, following head kidney, spleen, intestine, liver and brain. After vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus 48 h later, the RAGs m

  7. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif eHanif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655 was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 µg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 µg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 µg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 µg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 x 10-10 kat mg-1 protein than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 x 10-10 kat mg-1protein. B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic potential. Phytase-encoding gene β-propeller (BPP showed 92% amino acid similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no.WP_014114128.1 and 83% structural similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no 3AMR_A. Potato inoculation with B. subtilis strain KPS-11 increased the root/shoot length and root/shoot weight of potato as compared to non-inoculated control plants. Moreover, rifampicin-resistant derivative of KPS-11 were able to survive in the rhizosphere and on the roots of potato up to sixty days showing its colonization potential. The study indicates that B. subtilis strain KPS-11 can be a potential candidate for development of potato inoculum in P-deficient soils.

  8. 含10%双低菜籽饼肉鸡日粮中添加植酸酶的饲喂效果试验%Feeding Effect Experiment of Phytase Addition in Broiler Diets Containing 10% Double- low Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 张洁; 夏林; 李莉娜

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-- day--old byoider chickens were randomly divided into two groups to feed the diet with chinese double -low rapeseed cake 10%, A 28 -day growth trial were conducted to study on growth performance. Control group without adding Phytase, study group add 600 U/kg phytase substituted 50% dicalcim phosphate in diet. Results indicate that the survival rate, daily weight gain , feed utilization and benefits in study group had incrensing tendency ( P 〉 0.05 ) as compared with those in the control.%选用1日龄的铁脚麻肉鸡240只,进行为期28天的饲养试验,试验日粮含10%双低菜籽饼,试验组添加600U/kg植酸酶取代50%的磷酸氢钙,对照组不添加植酸酶。结果表明:试验组鸡群的成活率、日增重和饲料转化率比对照组有所提高,经济效益明显。

  9. 外源植酸酶对野鸭湖湿地土壤有机磷转化的影响研究%Effects of Soil Organic Phosphorus Transformation on Fertilizing Outside Source of Phytase in Yeyahu Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲博; 李敏; 其美; 朱芸芸; 赵暾; 孙晓建

    2015-01-01

    湿地土壤中最主要的有机磷形态是肌醇磷酸盐,占有机磷总量的60%左右,而植酸酶作为催化水解肌醇磷酸盐的主要酶类,在整个有机磷体系转化过程中起着不可或缺的作用。采用室内培养的方法,研究了添加外源植酸酶对湿地土壤各有机磷组分含量变化的影响规律,同时也研究了在添加外源植酸酶后,湿地土壤各有机磷组分含量随时间延长的变化规律。结果表明,在温度,水分等条件适宜的情况下向湿地土壤中添加植酸酶可以在短期内提高土壤有机磷的有效性,使稳定性较高的有机磷向活性较高的有机磷转化。经植酸酶处理的土壤活性有机磷和中活性有机磷含量均高于对照组,且随植酸酶添加量增加以及培养时间的推移呈递增趋势。在第75天培养结束时,高、中、低3组植酸酶处理土壤的活性有机磷质量分数分别增加了173.05%、158.16%和122.75%,中活性有机磷质量分数增加了84.22%、68.7%和53.92%。此外,添加植酸酶处理的湿地土壤稳定性有机磷含量均低于对照,高、中、低3组植酸酶处理土壤的中稳定性有机磷质量分数减少了62.81%、37.31%和26.14%,高稳定性有机磷质量分数减少了94.71%、87.66%和79.52%,且随着植酸酶含量的增加以及培养时间的推移呈递减趋势。高、中、低3组植酸酶处理土壤中的总有机磷质量分数分别比对照组低54.03%、42.53%和35.43%。说明在植酸酶作用下,土壤中存在有机磷向无机磷转化的过程。因此通过添加外源植酸酶可以促进稳定性有机磷向活性有机磷转化,提高了土壤有机磷的有效性,使其更容易被植物吸收利用,从而保障了湿地磷循环系统的稳定性和高效性。%Inositol phosphates were as the main form of wetlands soil organic phosphorus, comprising up to 60%of organic P, and it can be catalyzed by phytases into phytic

  10. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Costantini, Antonella;

    2015-01-01

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces...

  11. Low pH-Triggered Beta-Propeller Switch of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Assists Rhinovirus Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecsni, Tuende; Berka, Ursula; Pickl-Herk, Angela; Bilek, Gerhard; Khan, Abdul Ghafoor; Gajdzig, Leszek; Fuchs, Renate; Blaas, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Minor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs) bind three members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family: LDLR proper, very-LDLR (VLDLR) and LDLR-related protein (LRP). Whereas ICAM-1, the receptor of major group HRVs actively contributes to viral uncoating, LDLRs are rather considered passive vehicles for cargo delivery to the low-pH environment of endosomes. Since the Tyr-Trp-Thr-Asp β-propeller domain of LDLR has been shown to be involved in the dissociation of bound LDL via intramolecular competition at low pH, we studied whether it also plays a role in HRV infection. Human cell lines deficient in LDLR family proteins are not available. Therefore, we used CHO-ldla7 cells that lack endogenous LDLR. These were stably transfected to express either wild-type (wt) human LDLR or a mutant with a deletion of the β-propeller. When HRV2 was attached to the propeller-negative LDLR, a lower pH was required for conversion to subviral particles than when attached to wt LDLR. This indicates that high-avidity receptor binding maintains the virus in its native conformation. HRV2 internalization directed the mutant LDLR but not wt LDLR to lysosomes, resulting in reduced plasma membrane expression of propeller-negative LDLR. Infection assays using a CHO-adapted HRV2 variant showed a delay in intracellular viral conversion and de novo viral synthesis in cells expressing the truncated LDLR. Our data indicate that the β-propeller attenuates the virus-stabilizing effect of LDLR binding and thereby facilitates RNA release from endosomes, resulting in the enhancement of infection. This is a nice example of a virus exploiting high-avidity multimodule receptor binding with an intrinsic release mechanism. PMID:19706701

  12. Effect of Dietary Phytase Supplementation on Availability of Ca, P and Bone Development in Pigs%微生物植酸酶对猪钙、磷利用率及骨骼发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊杰; 车向荣

    2007-01-01

    本试验旨在研究从断奶到肥育结束,在饲粮中添加微生物植酸酶对猪钙、磷代谢及骨骼发育的影响.试验采用完全随机设计,将72头35日龄断奶的仔猪分为4组,每组3个重复,每个重复6头.试验在相同钙水平基础上设4个组,分别为:1)玉米-豆粕基础日粮(对照组);2)基础日粮+植酸酶-50%磷酸氢钙(处理1);3)基础日粮+植酸酶-75%磷酸氢钙(处理2);4)基础日粮+植酸酶-100%磷酸氢钙(处理3).试验期按体重分3个阶段:8~20 kg、20~50 kg、50~90 kg,3个阶段植酸酶的添加量分别为750、500和250 U/kg.试验结果表明:(1)在8~20 kg和20~50 kg阶段,添加植酸酶的3个处理,钙、磷消化率显著高于对照组(P<0.05);血钙和血磷浓度,处理1和处理2与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05),处理3显著低于对照组(P<0.05).在50~90 kg阶段,添加250 U/kg植酸酶代替100%磷酸氢钙,血磷、血钙浓度显著低于对照组(P<0.05);(2)在试验的3个阶段添加植酸酶同时降低饲粮无机磷水平,对血清碱性磷酸酶活性均无显著影响(P>0.05);(3)添加植酸酶使胃中植酸磷消化率显著提高(P<0.01),粪中磷排出量显著降低(8~20 kg、20~50 kg阶段,P<0.01;50~90 kg阶段,P<0.05);(4)添加植酸酶代替50%或75%磷酸氢钙,猪的掌骨灰分与采食正常磷日粮的对照组无显著差异,但代替100%磷酸氢钙组,猪的掌骨灰分和蹠骨强度则显著低于对照组(P<0.05);添加植酸酶代替50%磷酸氢钙组,猪的蹠骨强度显著高于对照组(P<0.05),代替75%磷酸氢钙组与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).总之,在断奶和生长阶段,在猪玉米-豆粕日粮中添加植酸酶可代替部分磷酸氢钙,促进了钙、磷消化利用,促进了骨骼生长,也促进了植酸磷的利用,降低了粪磷排出.%The effects of supplementing microbial phytase into diet during the period of weaning and finishing in pig on the metabolism of Ca, P and bone

  13. Effects of Adding Microbial Phytase in Low-Available-Phosphorus Diet on Mineral Metabolism of Broilers%低有效磷饲粮添加植酸酶对肉仔鸡矿物质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩然; 杨宗泽; 张建文

    2001-01-01

    100只艾维因肉仔鸡随机分为5组,每个组设4个重复。第1组喂标准饲粮;第2,3,4,5组喂低有效磷(0.20%)饲粮,分别加植酸酶0,350,500,650 FTU/kg,饲养试验分两个阶段:0~3周,4~6周。试验期为5周,观察各组肉鸡的营养物质表观利用率、胫骨质量、血清化学指标的变化,研究低有效磷饲粮中添加植酸酶对矿物质代谢的影响及作用机制。试验结果表明:在低有效磷饲粮中添加植酸酶对矿物代谢有一定积极影响,以植酸酶最大添加量650 FTU/kg组的效果为最佳。%100 four-day-old birds were randomly divided into five groups, each with four replications. In group 1, broilers were fed on basal diets with inorganic phosphorous as control. While in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, broilers were fed on low-P basal diets, in which microbial phytase was added at the concentrations of 0, 350, 500 and 650 phytase units per kilogram of the diets respectively. In the five-weeks trial duration, the balance of phosphorous, calcium and crude protein, tibia strength and its mineral composition, and the mineral concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in serium were measured to decide the efficacy of phytase added in low-P diets. The efficacy of the 650 FTU/kg group was the best in all low-P groups.

  14. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the

  15. Effects of Fermentation Product Containing Phytase on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Phosphorous Apparent Metabolism of Laying Hens Fed Different Levels of Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; DONG Xiao-fang; TONG Jian-ming; XU Shang-zhong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermentation product containing phytase (FPP) that was fermented using waste vinegar residue (WVR) as substrate from Aspergillus ifcuum NTG-23 on productive performance, egg quality, and phosphorus apparent metabolism of laying hens. First, 375 22-wk-old Jinghong hens were allocated into 5 treatments (5 replicates of 15 hens each) in an 8-wk experiment for evaluating the parameters of productive performance, egg quality, serum, and tibia. Experimental diets contained 4%FPP and 96%corn-soybean diet. The levels of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) were 1.34, 1.01, 0.67, 0.34 and 0%. Next, thirty 31-wk-old Jinghong hens were fed 5 types of diets for evaluating phosphorous apparent metabolism rate. Egg productive rate, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, Haugh unit, egg albumen height, serum calcium, tibia ash, tibia ash calcium and tibia breaking strength were not different signiifcantly among 5 treatments. The signiifcant difference of average daily feed intake was not appeared when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.67%;the eggshell hardness, eggshell thickness and serum phosphorus were not reduced signiifcantly until the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.34%. The yolk color was improved when the laying hens fed deifcient DCP corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 22.14%reduction in excreta phosphorus was observed when the laying hens fed low phosphorus (0.67%DCP) corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 30%elevation of phosphorus apparent metabolism rate was obtained when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was decreased from 1.34 to 1.01%. The reducing cost of layer diet was totalized about 120 CNY 1 000 kg-1 diet when the content of DCP was 0.67%in corn-soybean-FPP diet. These results indicated that FPP could be applied in laying hen as a potential, cost-effective and rational application of WVR.

  16. A simple and accurate two-step long DNA sequences synthesis strategy to improve heterologous gene expression in pichia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Ke Yang

    Full Text Available In vitro gene chemical synthesis is a powerful tool to improve the expression of gene in heterologous system. In this study, a two-step gene synthesis strategy that combines an assembly PCR and an overlap extension PCR (AOE was developed. In this strategy, the chemically synthesized oligonucleotides were assembled into several 200-500 bp fragments with 20-25 bp overlap at each end by assembly PCR, and then an overlap extension PCR was conducted to assemble all these fragments into a full length DNA sequence. Using this method, we de novo designed and optimized the codon of Rhizopus oryzae lipase gene ROL (810 bp and Aspergillus niger phytase gene phyA (1404 bp. Compared with the original ROL gene and phyA gene, the codon-optimized genes expressed at a significantly higher level in yeasts after methanol induction. We believe this AOE method to be of special interest as it is simple, accurate and has no limitation with respect to the size of the gene to be synthesized. Combined with de novo design, this method allows the rapid synthesis of a gene optimized for expression in the system of choice and production of sufficient biological material for molecular characterization and biotechnological application.

  17. Aproveitamento de nutrientes e de energia da ração de codornas japonesas em postura com o uso de fitase Nutrient and energy utilization from the feedings of laying Japanese quails by using phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heder José D'Avila Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de fitase no aproveitamento dos ingredientes da ração para codornas. Foram utilizadas 200 codornas japonesas fêmeas com 251 dias de idade, peso médio de 187,2 ± 6,0 g e taxa de produção de ovos de 84,8%, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro dietas experimentais e cinco repetições de dez aves por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais consistiram de uma ração basal à base de milho e farelo de soja, formulada para atender às exigências nutricionais das codornas e às recomendações da matriz da fitase, suplementada com 0, 200, 400 ou 600 unidades de fitase (uf/kg. Utilizando-se o método de coleta total de excretas, foram determinados os valores de matéria seca ingerida, matéria seca excretada, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da energia corrigida ou não pelo balanço de nitrogênio. Foi calculada também a quantidade de fósforo, cálcio e nitrogênio retido por ave/dia. De maneira geral, houve melhora no aproveitamento da energia das rações com a suplementação de fitase. Os níveis de 195 e 186 uf/kg resultaram em maior aproveitamento da EMA e EMAn. Não houve diferença na retenção de fósforo e cálcio. O nível de 600 (uf/kg promove menor excreção de nitrogênio, porém o de 368 uF/kg é suficiente para máxima retenção de nitrogênio pelas codornas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phytase addition on the use of feeding ingredients for laying quails. It was used 200 female Japanese quails at 251 days of age at an average weight of 187.2 ± 6.0 g and egg production rate of 84.8%. The quails were distributed in a complete random design with four experimental diets and five repetitions of ten birds per experimental unity. The experimental diets were consisted of corn and

  18. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  19. 植酸酶对0~3周樱桃谷鸭生长性能、钙、磷表观存留率影响%Effects of Phytase on Growth Performance and Cacium Phosphorus Apparent Retention Ratio of Duckling in 0~3 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾振全; 顾惠明; 金岭梅; 赵枝新

    2001-01-01

    为了在负对照组(钙、磷水平各减少0.1%)日粮基础上添加植酸酶对肉鸭生长、钙、磷表观存留率的影响,用64只1日龄樱桃谷鸭进行试验,按体重随机分为4组,代谢期6天。试验组鸭分别添加植酸酶300和500PU/kg。结果表明:添加植酸酶显著提高试鸭的日采食量、日增重、钙、磷的表观存留率,植酸酶可以部分替代磷酸氢钙。%An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of addition phytase in negative control group (cacium, phosphorus level reducing by 0.1% each) on growth, cacium, phosphorus apparent retention ration of ducklings which diet based on soybean meal and sorghum. 64 ducklings of l day old were randomly allotted by body weight to one of four groups The balance lasted for 6 days. The two test group diet contain 300and 500 phytase unit PU each. The results showed mean feed conversion rate, average daily feed intake, daily gain and cacium, phosphorus apparent retention ratio were affected by addition phytase. The phytase can replace part CaHPO4.2H2O in ducking's diet.

  20. Fluxo biológico do fósforo no metabolismo de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo fitase Biological P flow on metabolism of pigs fed diets containg phytase

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    José Aparecido Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar o fluxo biológico do P em suínos, na fase de crescimento, alimentados com dietas à base de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de arroz desengordurado e óleo de soja, isentas de P inorgânico e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase (253, 759, 1.265 e 1.748 UF/kg de dieta, e destacar o melhor nível de utilização da enzima, usando modelos matemáticos. O modelo utilizado foi determinístico e compartimental, em que o trato gastrintestinal (C1, o plasma C2, os ossos (C3 e os tecidos moles (ossos, coração, figado, rins e músculos, estudados em conjunto (C4, representaram os compartimentos. Foram utilizados dados de metabolismo e cinética do P nos tecidos, obtidos pela técnica de diluição isotópica. Os parâmetros estimados foram: absorção, retenção, P endógeno que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, P dietético absorvido, incorporação, reabsorção, balanço de P, P proveniente do osso, dos tecidos moles e do total absorvido que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal. o modelo biomatemático utilizado mostrou-se eficiente em explicar o fluxo do fósforo no organismo de suínos em crescimento. A fitase interferiu no fluxo biológico do P do compartimento C1 para o C3 e no refluxo dos compartimentos C3 e C4 para o C1. O nível 759 UF/kg de ração disponibilizou mais eficientemente o fósforo orgânico para o metabolismo dos suínos.The study was conducted to evaluate the biological flow of P in pigs fed diets based on corn, soybean meal, defatted rice bran (DRB and soybean oil, with increasing phytase levels (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU/kg of diet, using mathematics models. The model was deterministic and compartimental, in which the gastrintestinal tract (GIT (C1, the plasma C2, the bones (C3 and the soft tissues (liver, heart, kidney and muscle (C4 represented the compartments. Metabolism data and kinetics of P in tissues were used in the model, obtained by the isotopic dilution technique. The

  1. Utilização de ácidos orgânicos e fitase em dietas para leitões na creche Utilization of organic acids and phytase in diets for weaned piglets

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    E.V.H. Rocha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito da inclusão de um complexo de ácidos orgânicos (AO e diferentes níveis de fitase em dietas de leitões na creche. Foram utilizados 40 leitões desmamados (7,8±0,8kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, durante um período experimental de 28 dias. Os tratamentos foram: T1- ração basal com 500UF/kg (controle; T2- ração basal com 500UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO; T3- ração basal com 450UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO; T4- ração basal com 400UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO; e T5- ração basal com 350UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO. A adição de AO à ração que continha 500UF propiciou maior (P0,05 no ganho de peso. Para o consumo de ração médio diário, observou-se uma regressão quadrática (PThe effect of inclusion of organic acids complex (OAC and different levels of phytase in piglet diets were evaluated. Forty weaned piglets (7.8±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments and four repetitions, during an experimental period of 28 days. The treatments were: T1-basal diet with 500 phytase unit/kg (control; T2-basal diet with 500PU/kg + 0.2% of OAC; T3-basal diet with 450PU/kg + 0.2% of OAC; T4-basal diet with 400PU/kg + 0.2% of OAC; and T5-basal diet with 350PU/kg + 0.2% complex of OA. The addition of OAC at the 500PU diet increased (P0.05 in the weight gain. For the daily average feed intake, it was observed a quadratic effect (P<0.05, and the 411PU level caused lesser feed intake. The level of 500PU + OAC resulted in higher percentage of hard feces compared to the control group during the two last weeks of the experimental period. It was concluded that the effect of the OAC resulted positive when phytase was supplemented to the diets of piglets from eight to 20kg.

  2. Digestibility of the cottonseed meal with or without addition of protease and phytase enzymes in swine diet - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12360

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    Maria do Carmo Mouhaupt Marques Ludke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the digestibility of cottonseed meal with or without addition of enzymes (phytase and protease for growing pigs. It was used 18 barrows, housed in metabolism cages, distributed in a completely randomized design, standardizing body weight (bw with average of 25.8 ± 3.6 kg, with three treatments and six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a reference diet based on corn and soybean meal, the second treatment with replacement of 30% of the reference diet by cottonseed meal without enzymes, and the third with 30% of the reference diet replaced by cottonseed meal with added enzymes. Was determined the digestible protein, digestible energy, digestibility of dry matter, energy and protein. It was also registered the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus. The use of cottonseed meal with the addition of enzymes in diets for growing pigs has no effect on the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, but improved the absorption of phosphorus, consequently reducing its excretion in the feces. There was no improvement in nitrogen balance in the diets containing cottonseed meal with enzymes.

  3. Iron bioavailability from a lipid-based complementary food fortificant mixed with millet porridge can be optimized by adding phytase and ascorbic acid but not by using a mixture of ferrous sulfate and sodium iron EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Hessou, Joamel; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-08-01

    Home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) is a promising approach to improve bioavailable iron and energy intake of young children in developing countries. To optimize iron bioavailability from an LNS named complementary food fortificant (CFF), 3 stable isotope studies were conducted in 52 young Beninese children. Test meals consisted of millet porridge mixed with CFF and ascorbic acid (AA). Study 1 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals with meals fortified with a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA. Study 2 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals without or with extra AA. Study 3 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortified meals with meals containing phytase added prior to consumption, once without or once with extra AA. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. In study 1, iron absorption from FeSO4 (8.4%) was higher than that from the mixture of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 (5.9%; P porridge.

  4. 放射型根瘤杆菌植酸酶对麸皮中植酸的脱磷作用%Dephosphorization of Phytic Acid in Wheat Bran by Phytase from Agrobacterium radiobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 王陶; 杨克

    2011-01-01

    Crude phytase solution separated from Agrobacterium radiobacter fermentation broth was used to hydrolyze wheat bran for phytic acid dephosphorization.Using one-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method,such process conditions as enzyme amount,substrate concentration,pH,temperature and hydrolysis time were optimized to be 750 U/g,40 mg/mL,7,45 ℃,and 5 h,respectively.Under the optimized conditions,the hydrolysis rate of phytic acid was up to 81.50%.%采用放射型根瘤杆菌植酸酶粗酶液水解麸皮中的植酸,研究其脱磷的最适条件。依据单因素试验和正交试验获得脱磷的最优条件为加酶量750U/g、底物质量浓度40mg/mL、温度45℃、pH7、时间5h。最优条件下,麸皮中植酸的水解率在5h达最大,为81.50%。

  5. Feed efficiency in Mangalarga Marchador foals fed diet supplemented with probiotics or phytase Eficiência alimentar de potros da raça Mangalarga Marchador alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos ou fitase

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    Raquel Silva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of probiotic or phytase supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion (FC in 24 Mangalarga Marchador foals (16 males, 8 females, with 241.6 ± 23.2 days of age, and 216.7 ± 27.8 kg of body weight (BW. The study lasted 28 days, the first 23 days for diet and handling adaptation, and the last five days for feces collection. The basal diet consisted of Cynodon pasture and pelleted concentrate (1.2 kg/100 kg BW, as well as water and mineral salt ad libitum. Treatments groups were assigned as follows: basal diet (control; basal diet + 5 g/day of live yeast culture (10(9 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; basal diet + 2 g/day of live bacteria (10(8 CFU/g of B. bifidum, E. faecium, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and yeast culture (10(5 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; and basal diet + 1250 FTU/day of phytase. Pasture DMI was estimated with an external marker (LIPE™ associated with cecal in situ digestibility of dry matter. All foals were randomized, by replicated, using a 4 × 2 factorial, and results were compared using Student t-test, taking into consideration the effect of initial BW as covariate for the percentage DMI per BW. Among foals, DMI varied from 2.4 to 2.8% BW, with foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast having lower DMI (total diet and forage. All animals had an ADG of 0.33 kg/day, and foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast had FC 32.42 to 43.83% lower than foals supplemented with phytase or fed only basal diet. The phytase dose of 205 FTU/kg DM in the basal diet had no effects. Probiotic composed of live bacteria and yeast culture improved feed efficiency of forage and can be used as a nutritional strategy to maintain body condition in foals during the dry season.O trabalho foi realizado visando avaliar a influência da suplementação de probióticos ou fitase sobre o consumo diário de matéria seca (CMS, o ganho de peso diário (GPD e a conversão alimentar

  6. Modelos matemáticos para o estudo do fluxo biológico do fósforo em suínos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase Mathematical models for the study of the biological flow of phosphorus in pigs fed with diets containing increasing levels of phytase

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    J.A. Moreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar o fluxo biológico do fósforo entre os compartimentos, fisiológicos ou anatômicos, de suínos mantidos em dietas que continham níveis crescentes de fitase, usando o P-32 como traçador. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por níveis de enzima fitase, 253, 759, 1265 e 1748 UF/kg, nas dietas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ingestão, excreção, atividades específicas e fluxo de P nos compartimentos (trato digestivo, corrente sanguínea, tecidos moles e ossos. A enzima fitase não interferiu nas excreções fecais e urinárias, nas atividades específicas, na incorporação e na reabsorção de P nos ossos e nos tecidos moles e no fluxo bidirecional do trato digestivo e na corrente sanguínea, mas afetou linearmente a absorção e a retenção nos ossos. As respostas mais evidentes dos efeitos da adição da fitase são observadas nos níveis mais baixos.The biological flow of P was evaluated among the physiologic or the anatomical compartments of pigs fed diets with increasing phytase levels, using P-32 as tracer. The experimental design was completely randomized. Treatments consisted of phytase levels in diets (253, 759, 1265, and 1748UF/kg. The evaluated variables were: feed intake, excretion, specific activities and flow of P in the compartments (gut, blood, bone, and soft tissus. Phytase level did not interfere with fecal and urinary excretion, specific activities, incorporation and resorption of bone, and soft tissue P and in the bidirectional flow of gut and blood, but linearly affected P absorption and bone P retention. The best response was observed with the lowest phytase levels.

  7. Effects of phytase on growth, digestive enzyme activity and digestibility in juvenile redfin puffer Takifugu rubripes%植酸酶对红鳍东方鲀幼鱼生长、消化酶及消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥科; 孙阳; 屈菲; 姜志强; 毛明光; 李艳秋; 吴洪

    2013-01-01

    A 60-day feeding trail was conducted to study the influence of phytase on growth performance,digestive enzyme activity and apparent digestibility in juvenile fedfin puffer Takifugu rubripes with body weight of(4.58 ±0.05) g.The fish were fed diets containing fish meal protein (control group D1),and 70% of fish meal protein and 30% of soybean meal protein (control group D2).In the experimental group,the fish were fed the 30% fish meal diets supplemented with phytase at a rate of 500 (S1),1 000 (S2),1 500 (S3),and 2 000 (S4) U/kg with triplicate.The results showed that there were no significant effects on the survival rate of the juveniles in different groups(P>0.05).The best growth performance was observed in the juveniles in the control group D1,significantly better than that in the control group D2 (P < 0.05).There were significantly higher final body weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) and lower food conversion rate (FCR) in the fish fed the diets containing phytase at a rate over 1 000 U/kg (P<0.05).The fish fed the diets containing phytase had higher intestinal activities of protease,lipase and amylase,and showed more dry matter digestibility without significant difference (P>0.05).The maximum dietary protein digestibility was observed in the juveniles fed the diets supplemented with phytase at a dose of 1 000 U/kg diet,and significantly higher activity of lipase was found in the juveniles fed the diets supplemented with phytase at a dose of 1 000 and 1500 U/kg diet (P<0.05).Increase in dietary phytase level from 500 U/kg to 2 000 U/kg led to significantly elevated digestibility of phosphorus by the fish (P<0.05).In conclusion,it is suggested that the optimal level of dietary phytase be from 1 000 U/kg diet to 1 500 U/kg diet since the phytase will promote the growth and improve digestibility of the puffer.%以初始体质量为(4.58±0.05)g的红鳍东方鲀Takifgu rubripes幼鱼为对象,进行为期60 d的饲养试验,研究植酸

  8. Effects of phytase on vertebral shapes and non-specific immune related enzymes activities in channel%植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰脊椎形态和非特异性免疫相关酶活力的影响

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    华雪铭; 王世忠; 陈瑶琴; 钟国防; 周洪琪

    2014-01-01

    ( myo-inositol-hexaphosphate phosphohydrolase) was the main storage form of phosphorus ( P) in plant proteins and not available for fish due to the lack of intestinal phytase for efficient phytate hydrolysis during digestion . Therefore , most of the phytate-P was excreted into the water which contributed to eutrophication effects . Phytase could be added to plant-based diets to hydrolyze non-digestible phytate into available-P during passing through the fish gut and improve the P availability , which reduced P excretion and its loss into the environment in fish diets . Furthermore , phytase could also improve protein digestibility by hydrolyze the form of phytate-protein complexes that are resistant to proteolytic digestion . In the present , most researches on phytase were directed toward determining its effect on bioavailability of nutrients ( P and protein) and the grow th performance of fish . Based on the fact that nutrients ( P and protein) were essential to maintain bone health and non-specific immune responses in fish , it was necessary to explore the effects of phytase on the bone health and non-specific immune responses in fish . This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of liquid phytase on vertebral shapes and non-specific immune responses in channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ) . Six isonitrogenous ( 37.50% crude protein) and isocaloric ( 17.00 kJ/g gross energy) diets were formulated , a negative control ( NC) diet :a basal diet was supplemented with 1% dicalcium phosphate ( CaHPO4 ) , a positive control ( PC ) diet : the NC diet was supplemented with another 1% dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4) ,in addition ,four phytase supplementation groups:the NC diets with graded levels ( 250 , 500 , 1 000 , 2 000 U/kg) of phytase were assigned and fed channel catfish (5.78 ± 0.07) g/individual with 5 replicates for 60 days after a foster period . Results showed that the mass gain rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly

  9. MICROMINERAL-VITAMIN SUPPLEMENT, INGARNIC PHOSPHORUS REDUCTION AND PHYTASE ADDITION IN FINISHING RATIONS FOR SWINE RETIRADA DO SUPLEMENTO MICROMINERAL-VITAMÍNICO, REDUÇÃO DE FÓSFORO INORGÂNICO E ADIÇÃO DE FITASE EM RAÇÕES DE SUÍNOS NA FASE DE TERMINAÇÃO

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    Suelson Pereira dos Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of mineral-vitamin supplement withdrawal associated to inorganic phosphorus and phytase addition on swine performance and carcass characteristics in finishing phase.

    48 hybrid swine females with initial average weight of 66,34 kg and final average weight of 106,14 kg were housed in 24 stalls for 38 days and allotted to a completely randomized experimental design with six treatments (T1 – basal feed; T2 – basal feed without mineral vitamin supplement; T3 – basal feed without mineral vitamin supplement with phytase; T4 – basal feed without mineral vitamin supplement less1/3 of inorganic phosphorus with phytase; T5 - basal feed without mineral vitamin supplement less 2/3 of inorganic phosphorus with phytase and T6 – basal feed without mineral vitamin supplement and inorganic phosphorus with phytase with four replications of two animals each. Daily weight gain, total average weight gain and feed:gain ratio were determined and carcass characteristics were evaluated: loin eye area, backfat depth, carcass length, carcass weight and carcass yield. Although reduction in inorganic phosphorus levels or phytase addition had no influence in carcass characteristics (P>0,05, there was significant effect in performance (P<0,05, resulting in less average feed intake, weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Likewise, reduction in inorganic phosphorus levels or phytase addition under the conditions of this trial did not improve economic efficiency when compared to basal feed.

    KEY WORDS: Finishing phase pig, phosphorus, phytase.

    Para avaliar o efeito da retirada do suplemento micromineral-vitamínico associada à redução dos níveis de fósforo inorgânico e adição de fitase em rações, sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos na fase de terminação, realizou-se um experimento na Escola de Veterin

  10. Associação de carboidrase e fitase em dietas valorizadas para poedeiras semipesadas - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12735 Association of carbohydrases and phytase in enriched diets for semi heavy layers - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12735

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    Jerônimo Ávito Gonçalves de Brito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da associação de carboidrases e fitase em dietas de poedeiras. Foram utilizadas 300 poedeiras Isa Brown com 26 semanas, submetidas aos tratamentos: Controle Positivo: sem enzimas e valorização dos nutrientes; T2: valorização em 1,5 e 6% a EMA (kcal kg-1, do milho e o farelo de soja, respectivamente, e redução nos níveis nutricionais conforme a matriz nutricional para a fitase; T3: valorização da EMA do milho e o farelo de soja (idem T2 e redução nos níveis de cálcio e fósforo conforme matriz nutricional da fitase; T4: T2 suplementado com 100 g t-1 de carboidrases e 30 g t-1 de fitase; T5: T3 suplementado com 100 g t-1 de carboidrases e 30 g t-1 de fitase. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, seis repetições e parcela subdividida no tempo (6 períodos de 21 dias. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a produção, consumo, peso dos ovos e qualidade dos ovos. A valorização dos nutrientes preconizada com a utilização das enzimas foi eficiente tecnicamente para manutenção do desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas nas condições avaliadas, necessitando de outras pesquisas com maior redução nos níveis energéticos para avaliação do efeito das enzimas sobre a disponibilidade de energia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of carbohydrases and phytase in diets of laying hens. A total of 300 Isa Brown hens at 26 weeks were submitted to the following treatments: Positive Control: without enzyme and nutrient recovery, T2: enrichment by 1.5 and 6% AME (kcal kg-1 of corn and soybean meal, respectively, and reduction in nutrient levels as the nutrient matrix for the phytase; T3: EMA enrichment of corn and soybean meal (T2 identification and reduced levels of calcium and phosphorus as the phytase nutrient matrix; T4: T2 supplemented with 100 g ton.-1 of carbohydrases and 30 g ton.-1 of phytase; T5: T3

  11. Effect of different inclusion levels of defatted corn germ meal in diets supplemented with phytase for laying hensEfeito de diferentes níveis de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado em dietas suplementadas com fitase para poedeiras comerciais

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    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was designed to evaluate the performance, egg quality and minerals on tibia of laying hens from 28 to 44 weeks of age subjected to diets containing varying levels of DCGM (0, 12 and 30% and phytase (0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg of diet. The experiment was carried in four cycles of 28 days and the variables studied were: the performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion and egg quality (egg specific gravity, yolk color, shell thickness and Haugh unity value. In the finish of experiment, five birds per treatment were abated for determination of the calcium and phosphorus in tibia. There was no interaction between DCGM and phytase on evaluated parameters. Inclusion of DCGM resulted in significantly higher feed intake and worst yolk pigmentation, than the 0% treatment. Increasing the phytase dose to 1000 FTU/kg improves yolk pigmentation. For the others variables no effect were observed for levels of DCGM or phytase. Based on the results from the present study, DCGM could be included at a rate of up to 30% of a commercial layer diets without any significant detrimental effects on the egg production, but with yolk pigment addition. The phytase improve the yolk color.O experimento foi realizado com objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos e a concentração de minerais na tíbia de poedeiras leves alimentadas com rações contendo farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD e fitase. Foram utilizadas 360 poedeiras de 28 a 44 semanas de idade. As rações experimentais continham diferentes inclusões de FGMD (0%, 12% e 30% e de fitase (0; 500 e 1000 FTU/kg, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 3X 3, totalizando nove rações, com cinco repetições e oito aves por repetição. O experimento teve a duração de quatro ciclos de 28 dias cada, em que foram avaliados consumo de ração, produção, massa e peso médio dos ovos, conversão alimentar

  12. METABOLIC EVALUATIONS IN PIGS WITH MICRO MINERAL AND VITAMINS WITHDRAWAL, INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS REDUCTION AND PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION AVALIAÇÃO METABÓLICA DA REDUÇÃO DE FÓSFORO INORGÂNICO E SUPRESSÃO DE MICROMINERAIS E VITAMÍNAS EM DIETAS COM FITASE PARA SUÍNOS

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    Moema Pacheco Chediak Matos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of diets without micro minerals and vitamins, reduced inorganic phosphorus levels and phytase addition in bone metabolism and renal and hepatic functions in finishing pigs. Forty eight 105-day old females were randomly allotted in six groups: standard diets (T1, composed of corn, soybean meal and wheat meal; standard ration without micro mineral and vitamin supplement (T2; T2 ration with phytase (T3 T2 ration reducing 1/3 of inorganic P with phytase (T4, T2 ration reduced 2/3 of inorganic P with phytase (T5 and T2 ration with complete reduction of inorganic P with phytase (T6. The experiment was carried out in two phases: phase 1: 24 animals slaughtered at 150 days of age (106.65 kg; and phase 2: 24 animals slaughtered at 175 days of age (123.87 kg. The serum parameters evaluated were: total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, calcium/phosphorus ratio, total protein, albumin, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine. All biochemical parameters were analyzed using commercial kits in an automatic analyzer. The levels obtained for all analyzed parameters ranged within normal established values for this species and age. Inorganic phosphorus decrease in phytase-added diets did not interfere in bone metabolism. Vitamin and mineral supplements withdrawal and progressive decrease of inorganic phosphorus and phytase addition in diets of finishing pigs did not change hepatic or renal function. Micro minerals and vitamin restriction for 60 days during finishing phase in pigs did not lead to clinical changes.KEY WORDS: Bone metabolism, hepatic function, renal function. 植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰生长性能、营养物质表观消化率及氮、磷排泄的影响%Influence of Phytase on Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients, Excretion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨虹; 刘行彪; 黄可; 付熊; 吴晗冰

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of phytase on growth performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to determine the optimum additive amount of phytase. A total of 540 juvenile channel catfish with an average body weight of (1. 74 ±0. 02) g were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate. The fish in control group were fed a basal diet, and the fish in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 300, 500, 1 000, 1 500 and 2 000 U/kg phytase, respectively. After a 90-day growth experiment, a total of 75 channel catfish [ average body weight of (16. 70 ±0.85) g ] in each group were randomly distributed into 3 replicates and 25 fish in each replicate, for measuring the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion. The nitrogen and phosphorus excretion experiment lasted for 72 h. The results of growth experiment showed as follows: compared with the control group, the weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and apparent digestibility of nutrients in the groups with the diets supplemented with 500 to 2 000 U/kg phytase were significantly improved (P 0. 05). The results of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion experiment showed as follows: the excretion of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal phosphorus per kilogram of weight gain were decreased with the dietary phytase level increasing, and the above indices in the groups with the diets supplemented with 1 000 to 2 000 U/kg phytase were significantly lower compared with the control group (P <0. 05). Based on these findings, this study concludes that supplementation of 1 500 U/kg phytase in diets can improve the growth performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients in channel catfish, and decrease the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion into aquaculture water.%本试验旨在研究植酸酶对斑点叉尾鮰生长性能、营养物质

  13. Rações com níveis reduzidos de proteína bruta, cálcio e fósforo com fitase e aminoácidos para frangos de corte Diets with reduced crude protein, calcium and phosphorus levels with phytase and amino acids for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Minati Gomide

    2011-11-01

    ácidos.In performance and metabolism trials, diets with reduced levels of crude protein, calcium and available phosphorus on the performance, carcass characteristics, tibia ashes, balance and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus of broiler chickens in phase from 8 to 21 and 8 to 35 days were evaluated. In each phase, 30 and 25 birds per experimental unit were used in the performance assay and five and three in the metabolism assay, respectively, in a completely randomized experimental design, with six replications. Treatments consisted of diet with 21% crude protein without phytase (control, formulated with nutritional levels recommended on the Brazilian tables, and diets with 21, 20, 19 and 18% crude protein with phytase (8 to 21 days and from 8 to 35 days, the control diet had 20% crude protein without phytase (control, and others diets with 20, 19, 18, 17% crude protein, with phytase. In the diets with phytase (80 g of Ronozyme NP(M phytase per ton of diet, the level of available phosphorus was reduced in 0.15 and the calcium in 0.30 percentage points in relation to the control diet. No effect was observed with the reduction of nutrients on feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion in either phase or for the study of carcass characteristics to the 35 days. However, higher abdominal fat percentage was observed when the broilers were fed diet with lower protein level. The excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased when birds received diets with reduced levels of these nutrients. Ash percentage in the tibia was not influenced by treatments. It is possible to reduce protein level, available phosphorus, and calcium of the diets in up to 3, 0.15 and 0.30 percentage points when the diets are supplemented with phytase and amino acids, respectively.

  14. Immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Alt, F.W. (Columbia Univ., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA). Hudson Labs.); Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. Topics covered are: B Cells; Organization and rearrangement of immunoglobin genes; Immunoglobin genes in disease; Immunoglobin gene expression; and Immunoglobin-related genes.

  15. Relação cálcio:fósforo disponível e níveis de fitase para poedeiras semipesadas no primeiro e segundo ciclos de postura Calcium:available phosphorus ratio and phytase levels for semi heavy laying hens in the first and second posture cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2008-12-01

    ções deficientes em fósforo disponível com 600 UF melhora o peso dos ovos no segundo ciclo de postura.Two experiments were carried out to investigate the calcium (Ca:available phosphorus (aP ratio and the level of phytase in the first and second posture cycle. In the first posture cycle, 128 birds were distributed to a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, composed of three Ca:aP ratio [14:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.30% aP, 12:1 (3.5% Ca and 0.30% aP, and 9:1 (3.5% Ca and 0.38% aP], two levels of phytase (0 and 600 Phytase Units - PU and a Ca:aP control [11:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.38% aP]. In the second posture cycle, 240 birds were distributed to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of two Ca (3.5 and 4.2%, two aP (0.30 and 0.38% levels and two phytase levels (0 and 600 PU. In the first posture cycle, among birds fed diets without phytase, the greater eggs weight was obtained with 9:1 Ca:aP ratio and the smaller, with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio. The best eggs mass and feed conversion by eggs mass (FCEM were observed in birds fed a diet with 14:1 Ca:Pd ratio and worse, with the ration with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio. In birds fed diet with phytase, the best FCEM was obtained with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio and worse, with 9:1 Ca:aP ratio. In the second posture cycle, the diet consumption decreased with increasing levels of calcium (3.5 to 4.2%, available phosphorus (0.30 to 0.38% and phytase (0 to 600 PU. Feed conversion by eggs mass or per dozen eggs improved, respectively, with increasing levels of available phosphorus and phytase, while specific gravity improved with the increase of dietary calcium level. For laying hens in the first posture cycle, it is recommended 14:1 (4.2% Ca:0.30% Pd ratio without phytase and 12:1 (3.5% Ca:0.30% Pd ratio with 600 PU and, for birds in the second posture cycle, it is recommended 14:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.38% Pd ratio. The supplementation of diets deficient in available phosphorus with 600 PU improves egg weight in the second posture cycle.

  16. Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir José Conte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron

  17. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world's population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes) has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains) and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA) metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings (NTS). Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of yellow stripe like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II) complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  18. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  19. Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of phytate-hydrolysing fungi by 18S rDNA sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iti Gontia-Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries.

  1. Redução de proteína e fósforo em rações com fitase para frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade: desempenho e teores de minerais na cama Decreasing dietary levels of protein and phosphorum supplemented with phytase for broilers from 1 to 21 old: performance and mineral levels in the litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Lopes da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho e o teor de minerais na cama de frangos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade, alimentados com rações contendo níveis reduzidos de proteína bruta (PB e fósforo disponível (Pd suplementadas com aminoácidos e fitase. Foram utilizados 1.500 pintos de corte machos de um dia de idade, da marca comercial Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 + 1, com três níveis de PB (15, 17 e 19%, três de Pd (0,25; 0,34 e 0,45% e uma ração controle formulada de acordo com os níveis nutricionais recomendados por pesquisadores brasileiros, totalizando dez tratamentos e seis repetições de 25 aves. Nas rações com 0,25 e 0,34% de Pd, adicionaram-se 500 FTU de fitase, reduzindo em 17% o teor de cálcio. O ganho de peso das aves que consumiram as rações com 17% de PB, 0,34 e 0,45 de Pd ou com 19% de PB e diferentes de níveis de Pd foi similar ao daquelas alimentadas com a ração controle. O consumo das aves que receberam as rações com 15 e 17% de PB e 0,25% de Pd + fitase foi menor que o daquelas que consumiram a ração controle. Não houve diferenças entre as rações para a conversão alimentar. Com exceção do nitrogênio, houve redução nos teores de minerais na cama quando as aves foram alimentadas com a ração contendo 17% de PB e 0,34% de Pd. Reduções para 17% nos teores de PB e para 0,34% nos teores de Pd das rações para frangos na fase inicial não prejudicam o desempenho das aves, desde que as rações sejam suplementadas com aminoácidos e fitase. Nesses níveis de PB e Pd, observou-se redução no impacto ambiental, como conseqüência da redução nos teores de P, Ca, Cu e Zn na cama.The trial was carried out to evaluate the performance and mineral levels in the litter of broilers from 1 to 21 days old, fed diets with low-crude protein (CP and low available phosphorus (AP supplemented with synthetic amino acids and phytase. A

  2. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  3. Development of low phytate rice by RNAi mediated seed-specific silencing of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase gene (IPK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Ali

    Full Text Available Phytic acid (InsP(6 is considered to be the major source of phosphorus and inositol phosphates in most cereal grains. However, InsP(6 is not utilized efficiently by monogastric animals due to lack of phytase enzyme. Furthermore, due to its ability to chelate mineral cations, phytic acid is considered to be an antinutrient that renders these minerals unavailable for absorption. In view of these facts, reducing the phytic acid content in cereal grains is a desired goal for the genetic improvement of several crops. In the present study, we report the RNAi-mediated seed-specific silencing (using the Oleosin18 promoter of the IPK1 gene, which catalyzes the last step of phytic acid biosynthesis in rice. The presence of the transgene cassette in the resulting transgenic plants was confirmed by molecular analysis, indicating the stable integration of the transgene. The subsequent T4 transgenic seeds revealed 3.85-fold down-regulation in IPK1 transcripts, which correlated to a significant reduction in phytate levels and a concomitant increase in the amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi. The low-phytate rice seeds also accumulated 1.8-fold more iron in the endosperm due to the decreased phytic acid levels. No negative effects were observed on seed germination or in any of the agronomic traits examined. The results provide evidence that silencing of IPK1 gene can mediate a substantial reduction in seed phytate levels without hampering the growth and development of transgenic rice plants.

  4. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  5. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela; Goedegebuur, Frits; Van Solingen, Pieter; Ward, Michael

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  6. Gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  7. Níveis de energia metabolizável em rações formuladas com base no conceito de proteína ideal e suplementadas com fitase para leitões dos 15 aos 35 kg Metabolizable energy levels in diets formulated according to the ideal protein concept and supplemented with phytase for piglets from 15 to 35 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Milagres de Almeida

    2008-05-01

    15 to 35 kg to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP formulated according to the ideal protein concept and phytase supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized block design, in a factorial arrangement of treatments 3 × 2 + 1, with three ME levels (3,080, 3,230, and 3,380 kcal/kg, two of CP (14% and 16%, supplemented with synthetic amino acids and 1000 FTU/kg of phytase, with calcium level reduced by 25% and phosphorus by 30%. Additional control treatment was formulated with 18% CP and without phytase, to attend the nutrient requirements of pigs according to Brazilian Feedstuffs Tables recommendations. Therefore, seven treatments, six replications and two animals per experimental unit were used. No treatment effect on daily weight gain, feed conversion, daily ME intake and weight of organs (absolute and relative of pigs was observed.Feed intake was higher and fat deposition rate, lower in pigs fed diet with 3,380 kcal ME/kg. Decreasing nitrogen intake, increasing efficiency of nitrogen utilization for gain and lower blood urea content were observed for pigs fed 14% CP diets compared to those with 18%. The reduction of levels of ME, CP, available phosphorus and calcium to 3,080 kcal/kg, 14%, 0.54% and 0.28%, respectively, in rations for pigs, formulated based on ideal protein concept and phytase, do not affect performance of pigs from 15 to 35 kg.

  8. [Language gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  9. Efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de arroz em dietas suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte = Effect of different inclusion levels of rice bran in diets supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Robério Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenhozootécnico, rendimento de carcaça e a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas contendo quantidades crescentes de farelo de arroz integral (FAI, suplementados com fitase. Foram utilizados 600 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagemRoss, alojados em boxes de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos seguintes tratamentos: T1-ração referência (milho e farelo de soja; T2-ração referência com 750 FTU g-1; T3-ração com 3,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T4-ração com 7,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T5-ração com 10,5% FAI com 750 FTU g-1 e T6-ração com 14% FAIcom 750 FTU g-1. A inclusão de fitase, com a utilização de FAI até o nível de 14% e redução do fósforo inorgânico na formulação da ração, não afetou o desempenho zootécnico e características de carcaça dos frangos de corte, porém reduziu a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia dos ossos.The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the productive performance, carcass yield, phosphorus availability and tibia ash in broilers subjected to diets containing increasing amounts of whole rice bran (WRB, supplemented with phytase. Six hundred broilers (Ross, all males, were allocated in boxesaccording to a completely randomized design, being fed the following regimens: T1 standard feed (corn and soybean meal; T2 standard feed with 750 FTU g-1; T3 feed with 3.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1; T4 feed with 7.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1 T5 feed with 10.5% WRB with 750 FTU g-1 and T6 feed with 14% WRB with 750 FTU g-1. The inclusion of phytase with the use of WRB to the level of 14% and the reduction of the inorganic P in the formulation of the feed did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of the broiler chickens; however, it did decrease the presence of phosphorus and ash in the tibia.

  10. Effect of Phytase Transgenic Corn on Laying Performance and Serum Biochemical Indicators of Laying Breeders%转植酸酶基因玉米对蛋种鸡产蛋性能及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉崇银; 吕林; 刘松柏; 李素芬; 张丽阳; 兰云贤; 罗绪刚

    2013-01-01

    本试验旨在研究转植酸酶基因玉米对蛋种鸡产蛋性能及血清生化指标的影响.试验采用单因子完全随机设计,将144只27周龄健康、产蛋率相近的海兰(灰)蛋用种鸡分成2个处理组,每个处理组8个重复,每个重复9只鸡.对照组饲喂含非转植酸酶基因亲本玉米的玉米—豆粕型日粮,试验组饲喂含转植酸酶基因玉米的玉米豆粕型日粮,2个处理组蛋种鸡日粮中可利用磷及其他养分含量均相等或相近.试验共进行1 9周,预试期2周,正试期17周.结果表明,试验组与对照组产蛋性能各项指标均没有显著差异(P>0.05);在血清生化指标中,除试验组血清碱性磷酸酶含量极显著高于对照组外(P<0.01),其他各项指标均没有显著差异(P>0.05).因此,在本试验期内,转植酸酶基因玉米对蛋种鸡产蛋性能和血清生化指标均未产生不良影响.%This experiment was conducted to study the effect of phytase transgenic corn on laying performance and serum biochemical indicators of layer breeders. A single-factor completely randomized design was used in this experiment. A total of 144 27-week-old Hailan (grey) laying breeders were divided into 2 treatments with 8 replicates of 9 chickens per replicate. Chilckens of the control group were fed with isogenic conventional corn (CC) diet,and chickens of the test group were fed with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) diet. During the experiment,the concentrations of all nutrients (containing available phosphorus) in the diet of the two treatments were equal. The experiment lasted for 19 weeks, the preliminary period of the trial was 2 weeks and the trial period was 17 weeks. The results showed that there was no significant differences in laying performance between the two groups (P>0. 05). The alkaline phosphatase in serum of the test group was significant higher (P0. 05) between the two groups in other serum biochemical indicators. These results indicated that PTC diet

  11. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  12. 日粮非植酸磷和基因工程酵母菌植酸酶水平对22~42日龄黄羽肉鸡生长和胫骨发育的影响%Nonphytate Phosphorus Requirement and Efficacy of a Genetically Engineered Yeast Phytase on Yellow Broilers at 22-42-Day-Old of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宗勇; 林映才; 周桂莲; 李得忠; 蒋守群; 席鹏彬; 张罕星

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究确定22~42日龄黄羽肉鸡非植酸磷(NPP)的需要量及毕赤酵母基因工程菌植酸酶(PHYA)的磷当量值.[方法]选用22日龄岭南黄羽肉公鸡1320只,随机分为11个处理,每处理4个重复,每重复30只鸡.处理1为基础日粮(NPP水平为0.08%),不添加磷酸氢钙和植酸酶;处理2~7在基础日粮中分别添加不同水平化学纯磷酸氢钙,日粮NPP水平分别为0.16%、0.24%、0.32%、0.40%、0.48%、0.56%:处理8~11在基础日粮中分别添加200、400、600 U·kg~(-1) PHY A、400 U·kg~(-1)美国进口植酸酶产品(PHY B).[结果]肉鸡日增重随日粮NPP水平升高而增加,0.32%~0.56%组平均日增重显著高于对照组和0.16%组(P<0.05),0.48%组日增重最大;添加磷组肉鸡采食量显著高于对照组(P<0.05);0.40%组料重比最低,显著低于对照组(P<0.05);随日粮NPP水平升高肉鸡胫骨脱脂干骨重,干骨中磷含量和灰分中磷含量均显著升高,0.48%组达到最高,显著高于对照组、0.16%和0.24%组(P<0.05),添加磷组干骨中钙含量与灰分含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).添加400、600 U·kg~(-1) PHY A和400 U·kg~(-1) PHY B显著提高了日增重、采食量和胫骨脱脂干骨重(P<0.05),添加2种植酸酶均显著提高了胫骨干骨中钙、磷含量与灰分中磷含量(P<0.05),添加600 U·kg~(-1) PHY A显著提高了干骨中灰分含量(P<0.05).[结论]22~42日龄满足黄羽肉鸡最佳生长和骨骼发育的NPP需要量为0.40%,PHY A的磷当量为685 U·kg~(-1).%[Objective] An experiment was conducted to investigate the requirement of nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) and efficacy of a genetically engineered yeast phytase (PHY A) by Lingnan yellow broilers from 22 d to 42 d. [Method] A total of 1320 one-day-old male chicks were randomly divided into eleven dietary treatment groups, which consisted of four replicate floor pens with 30 birds per pen. The control group (Treatment 1) was fed with basal diet of NPP 0

  13. Planos nutricionais com a utilização de aminoácidos e fitase para frangos de corte mantendo o conceito de proteína ideal nas dietas Nutritional plans with use of amino acids and phytase for broiler chickens maintaining the ideal protein profile in the diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Minati Gomide

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte, recebendo rações com níveis reduzidos de PB, P disponível (Pd e Ca, suplementadas com fitase e aminoácidos. As fases de crescimento avaliadas foram: fase 1, 1 - 21dias de idade e fase 2, 22 - 42 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, sendo os tratamentos constituídos de cincos planos nutricionais (PN, com seis repetições de 25 aves cada. Os planos nutricionais são: PN1 - ração basal (21,4% PB - fase 1 + ração basal (19,3% PB - fase 2; PN2 - ração a basal (fase 1 + ração com 18% PB (fase 2; PN3 - ração basal (fase 1 + ração com 16% PB (fase 2; PN4 - ração com 19% PB (fase 1 + ração com 16% PB (fase 2; e PN5 = ração com 17 % PB (fase 1 + ração com 16% PB (fase 2. Exceto para a ração basal, reduziu-se o nível de Pd para 0,34 e 0,30% e o de Ca para 0,80 e 0,70% nas fases 1 e 2, respectivamente; nestas rações foram adicionados 500 FTU de fitase/kg de ração. As aves alimentadas com PN2 e PN3 apresentaram desempenho semelhante ao daquelas que receberam PN1, enquanto o das aves que receberam os PN4 e PN5 permaneceu inalterado. Os rendimentos de carcaça e peito não foram influenciados pelos planos nutricionais. As aves que consumiram a ração basal nas duas fases de criação (PN1 apresentaram maior rendimento de coxa+sobre-coxa. Houve aumento da gordura abdominal quando as aves receberam os PN3, 4 e 5. É possível reduzir a PB da ração até 16% na fase 2, suplementada com fitase e aminoácidos, desde que a ração da primeira fase seja formulada com níveis nutricionais recomendados.This study was carried out to evaluate the performance and characteristics of carcass of broiler chickens fed diets with reduced levels of CP, available P (aP and Ca, supplemented with phytase and amino acids. The growth phases evaluated were: Phase1, 1 - 21 days old, phase 2, 22 - 42 days old. A

  14. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium for broilers from 8 to 35 days of age fed rations containing phytase Níveis de fósforo disponível e de cálcio para frangos de corte de 8 a 35 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimar Cardoso Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments using Cobb broiler chicks from 8 to 35 days of age were carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing levels of calcium and available phosphorus in diets supplemented with 500 ftu phytase/kg on the performance of the birds, the content of ashes in the tibia, the metabolizable energy of the diet, and the metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used 1,404 broiler chicks in the experiment 1 to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, food conversion and percentage of the ashes in the tibia. In the experiment 2, simultaneously carried out with experiment 1, a total of 390 birds were transferred to a metabolism room to determine the metabolizable energy and metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used in the two experiments, a complete random design in a 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme with three levels of available phosphorus (0.375; 0.325; and 0.275% and four levels of calcium (0.85; 0.75; 0.65 and 0.55% in the diets, supplemented with phytase. It was also used a control diet without phytase, based on corn and soybean bran, formulated with 0.425% of available phosphorus and 0.85% of calcium. In the experiment 1, the reduction of levels of calcium and phosphorus did not cause a significant difference on the performance and percentage of bone ashes. The levels of calcium and available phosphorus used in the experiment 2 can be reduced down to 0.65 and 0.325%, respectively, because the effects are similar to those obtained with the currently suggested levels.Dois experimentos com pintos de corte da linhagem Cobb no período de 8 a 35 dias de idade foram realizados para avaliar o efeito da redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 ftu de fitase/kg sobre o desempenho das aves, o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a energia metabolizável (EMAn da dieta e a metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 1

  15. Genes and Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode Genes and Psoriasis Genes hold the key to understanding ... is responsible for causing psoriatic disease. How do genes work? Genes control everything from height to eye ...

  16. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  17. Níveis de proteína e fósforo em rações com fitase para frangos de corte, na fase de 14 a 21 dias de idade: 2. valores energéticos e digestibilidade de nutrientes Protein and phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers chicken from 14 to 21 days-old: energy values and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Lopes da Silva

    2008-03-01

    out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy values (AMEn, dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC, the excretion and apparent retention coefficient of phosphorus (P, nitrogen (N, calcium (Ca, potassium (K, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, using 250 Cobb male broiler chickens receiving the treatments distributed in a factorial schedule 3 ´ 3 + 1 (available phosphorus level - 0.25; 0.34 and 0.45% and crude protein level [CP]- 15.0; 17.0 and 19.0% and a control diet, with normal nutritional levels, with five replicates of five birds each. In the diets with reduced levels of available phosphorus (aP, 500 FTU of phytase were added and calcium requirement was reduced in 17%. Except for control treatment, all the diets were formulated on digestible amino acids basis. The energetic values of the diets with 15.0 and 17.0% CP, independently of the aP levels used or the phytase supplementation, presented higher AMEn that the control diet possibility regarding to supplemental amino acids addition. The DMDC of the diets with reduced CP levels and different levels of aP were higher than the control diet. The CP reduction in the diet associated to lower aP levels and phytase enzyme supplementation allowed to reduce the minerals excretion, which showed better retention coefficients, except for Zinc that presented lower retention coefficient than the the control diet. However, all minerals excretion, as relatively compared to the control diet, was minimized when lower levels of CP and aP was used in the diet, supplemented with phytase. The manipulation of the protein and phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with amino acids and phytase could reduce mainly the excretion of nitrogen, P and Cu, minimizing the environment pollution caused by these elements.

  18. Defatted corn germ meal and phytase in the diet of pigs: effects on meat quality and a fresh sausageUtilização do farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado, como fonte de fitato, associado à fitase em rações de suínos: efeitos sobre a qualidade da carne e da linguiça tipo frescal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bridi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of phytic acid, mainly carried by the defatted corn germ meal (DCGM, and the addition of phytase in pig diets in the finishing phase on the parameters related to the meat and fresh sausage qualities. Were used 32 pigs of commercial line “Pen Ar Lan”, with initial weight of 60.31 ± 5.32 kg, 16 barrows and 16 females, distributed in a 2x2x2 factorial design: diet without adding DCGM and inclusion of 40% of DCGM, diets without phytase inclusion and inclusion of 1000 FTU and the gender, barrows and gilts. The animals received food and water ad libitum during the experimental period of 29 days. Upon reaching 87.19 ± 7.08 of kg body weight, the animals were slaughtered. Samples were collected from the Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis of meat and fresh sausage qualities. Samples of loin were assessed for pH, color, marbling, drip loss, texture, chemical composition and lipid oxidation. In fresh sausage were evaluated color, pH, chemical composition and oxidation. The results showed that diets with phytic acid, mainly carried by the defatted corn germ meal, influenced the lipid stability of meat and fresh sausage. The inclusion of phytase didn’t affect the oxidation. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do ácido fítico, veiculado principalmente pelo farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD, e da adição de fitase em rações de suínos em fase de terminação sobre os parâmetros relacionados à qualidade da carne e da linguiça tipo frescal. Para o experimento foram utilizados 32 suínos da linhagem Pen Ar Lan, com peso médio inicial de 60,31 ± 5,32 kg, sendo 16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualisados num modelo fatorial 2x2x2, com 4 repetições, sendo os fatores: rações sem inclusão de FGMD e com inclusão de 40% de FGMD, rações sem inclusão de fitase e com inclusão de 1000 FTU, e os gêneros machos

  19. Gene gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayachandran, Lakshmi S; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Edelweiss, Evelina; Gupta, Kapil; Maier, Josef; Gordeliy, Valentin; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Berger, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Most essential activities in eukaryotic cells are catalyzed by large multiprotein assemblies containing up to ten or more interlocking subunits. The vast majority of these protein complexes are not easily accessible for high resolution studies aimed at unlocking their mechanisms, due to their low cellular abundance and high heterogeneity. Recombinant overproduction can resolve this bottleneck and baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS) have emerged as particularly powerful tools for the provision of eukaryotic multiprotein complexes in high quality and quantity. Recently, synthetic biology approaches have begun to make their mark in improving existing BEVS reagents by de novo design of streamlined transfer plasmids and by engineering the baculovirus genome. Here we present OmniBac, comprising new custom designed reagents that further facilitate the integration of heterologous genes into the baculovirus genome for multiprotein expression. Based on comparative genome analysis and data mining, we herein present a blueprint to custom design and engineer the entire baculovirus genome for optimized production properties using a bottom-up synthetic biology approach. PMID:23328086

  20. Sequence and structural analysis of the Asp-box motif and Asp-box beta-propellers; a widespread propeller-type characteristic of the Vps10 domain family and several glycoside hydrolase families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quistgaard Esben M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asp-box is a short sequence and structure motif that folds as a well-defined β-hairpin. It is present in different folds, but occurs most prominently as repeats in β-propellers. Asp-box β-propellers are known to be characteristically irregular and to occur in many medically important proteins, most of which are glycosidase enzymes, but they are otherwise not well characterized and are only rarely treated as a distinct β-propeller family. We have analyzed the sequence, structure, function and occurrence of the Asp-box and s-Asp-box -a related shorter variant, and provide a comprehensive classification and computational analysis of the Asp-box β-propeller family. Results We find that all conserved residues of the Asp-box support its structure, whereas the residues in variable positions are generally used for other purposes. The Asp-box clearly has a structural role in β-propellers and is highly unlikely to be involved in ligand binding. Sequence analysis of the Asp-box β-propeller family reveals it to be very widespread especially in bacteria and suggests a wide functional range. Disregarding the Asp-boxes, sequence conservation of the propeller blades is very low, but a distinct pattern of residues with specific properties have been identified. Interestingly, Asp-boxes are occasionally found very close to other propeller-associated repeats in extensive mixed-motif stretches, which strongly suggests the existence of a novel class of hybrid β-propellers. Structural analysis reveals that the top and bottom faces of Asp-box β-propellers have striking and consistently different loop properties; the bottom is structurally conserved whereas the top shows great structural variation. Interestingly, only the top face is used for functional purposes in known structures. A structural analysis of the 10-bladed β-propeller fold, which has so far only been observed in the Asp-box family, reveals that the inner strands of the blades are unusually far apart, which explains the surprisingly large diameter of the central tunnel of sortilin. Conclusion We have provided new insight into the structure and function of the Asp-box motif and of Asp-box β-propellers, and expect that the classification and analysis presented here will prove helpful in interpreting future data on Asp-box proteins in general and on Asp-box β-propellers in particular.

  1. Principles of gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mammen Biju; Ramakrishnan T; Sudhakar Uma; Vijayalakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics an...

  2. Organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, S; Brack, C; Hozumi, N; Pirrotta, V

    1978-01-01

    The nucleotide-sequence determination of a cloned, embryonic Vlambda gene directly demonstrated that V genes are separate from a corresponding C gene in embryonic cells. Analysis by restriction enzymes of total cellular DNA from various sources strongly suggested that the two separate immunoglobulin genes become continuous during differentiation of B lymphocytes. There seems to be a strict correlation between the joining event and activation of the joined genes. Cloning of more immunoglobulin genes from embryo and plasma cells will not only provide direct demonstration of such a gene-joining event but also help in the elucidation of a possible relationship of the event to gene activation mechanisms.

  3. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

  4. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  5. Identifying Gene Interaction Enrichment for Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jigang Zhang; Jian Li; Hong-Wen Deng

    2009-01-01

    Gene set analysis allows the inclusion of knowledge from established gene sets, such as gene pathways, and potentially improves the power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, conventional methods of gene set analysis focus on gene marginal effects in a gene set, and ignore gene interactions which may contribute to complex human diseases. In this study, we propose a method of gene interaction enrichment analysis, which incorporates knowledge of predefined gene sets (e.g. gene ...

  6. LRP4 third β-propeller domain mutations cause novel congenital myasthenia by compromising agrin-mediated MuSK signaling in a position-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Bisei; Cabrera-Serrano, Macarena; Nakata, Tomohiko; Milone, Margherita; Asai, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kenyu; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ito, Yasutomo; Engel, Andrew G.; Ohno, Kinji

    2014-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders in which the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is compromised by one or more specific mechanisms. Using Sanger and exome sequencing in a CMS patient, we identified two heteroallelic mutations, p.Glu1233Lys and p.Arg1277His, in LRP4 coding for the postsynaptic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4. LRP4, expressed on the surface of the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is a receptor for neurally secreted agrin, and LRP4 bound by agrin activates MuSK. Activated MuSK in concert with Dok-7 stimulates rapsyn to concentrate and anchor AChR on the postsynaptic membrane and interacts with other proteins implicated in the assembly and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. LRP4 also functions as an inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. The identified mutations in LRP4 are located at the edge of its 3rd beta-propeller domain and decrease binding affinity of LRP4 for both MuSK and agrin. Mutations in the LRP4 3rd beta-propeller domain were previously reported to impair Wnt signaling and cause bone diseases including Cenani–Lenz syndactyly syndrome and sclerosteosis-2. By analyzing naturally occurring and artificially introduced mutations in the LRP4 3rd beta-propeller domain, we show that the edge of the domain regulates the MuSK signaling whereas its central cavity governs Wnt signaling. We conclude that LRP4 is a new CMS disease gene and that the 3rd beta propeller domain of LRP4 mediates the two signaling pathways in a position-specific manner. PMID:24234652

  7. Uso do conceito de proteína ideal em rações com diferentes níveis energéticos, suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte de 1a 21 dias de idade Use of the ideal protein concept in diets with different energy levels supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens of 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Kaneo Nagata

    2009-04-01

    AMEn/kg, T4 the diet with 19.0% of CP and 3000 kcal of AMEn/kg, and T5 the diet with 19.0% of CP and 3100 kcal of AMEn/kg. Except for the control diet, the diets were formulated with 0.34% of AP, 0.80% of Ca and supplemented with phytase. The weight gains of the chickens were similar (P>0.05, independently of the experimental diets. However, the worst feed conversion was observed for the birds fed with 17.0% of CP. The birds which were fed diets with 19.0% of CP and 3000 or 3100 kcal of AMEn/kg showed performance similar to those fed with the control diet. The excretion of N and P reduced, on average, 16.5% and 22.0%, respectively, and there was increase in the P retention for the birds that were fed the experimental rations. The retention of Ca and N was smaller and similar, respectively, for the birds that consumed experimental rations. From these results, it is concluded that the diet with 19.0% of CP and 3000 kcal of AMEn/kg, supplemented with phytase, does not affect the 1-to-21-day-old broiler chickens and enables to decrease the environmental impact of the nutrients.

  8. Autism and Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  9. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.;

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes we...

  10. Principles of gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammen Biju

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics and future percepts and the technical and ethical issues of using gene therapy.

  11. Metatranscriptomics reveals the diversity of genes expressed by eukaryotes in forest soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Damon

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic organisms play essential roles in the biology and fertility of soils. For example the micro and mesofauna contribute to the fragmentation and homogenization of plant organic matter, while its hydrolysis is primarily performed by the fungi. To get a global picture of the activities carried out by soil eukaryotes we sequenced 2×10,000 cDNAs synthesized from polyadenylated mRNA directly extracted from soils sampled in beech (Fagus sylvatica and spruce (Picea abies forests. Taxonomic affiliation of both cDNAs and 18S rRNA sequences showed a dominance of sequences from fungi (up to 60% and metazoans while protists represented less than 12% of the 18S rRNA sequences. Sixty percent of cDNA sequences from beech forest soil and 52% from spruce forest soil had no homologs in the GenBank/EMBL/DDJB protein database. A Gene Ontology term was attributed to 39% and 31.5% of the spruce and beech soil sequences respectively. Altogether 2076 sequences were putative homologs to different enzyme classes participating to 129 KEGG pathways among which several were implicated in the utilisation of soil nutrients such as nitrogen (ammonium, amino acids, oligopeptides, sugars, phosphates and sulfate. Specific annotation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes identified enzymes active on major polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, lignin and glycoside hydrolases represented 0.5% (beech soil-0.8% (spruce soil of the cDNAs. Other sequences coding enzymes active on organic matter (extracellular proteases, lipases, a phytase, P450 monooxygenases were identified, thus underlining the biotechnological potential of eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. The phylogenetic affiliation of 12 full-length carbohydrate active enzymes showed that most of them were distantly related to sequences from known fungi. For example, a putative GH45 endocellulase was closely associated to molluscan sequences, while a GH7 cellobiohydrolase was closest to crustacean sequences, thus

  12. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement.

  13. Gene therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban Chatterjee; Nidhi Singh; Mini Saluja

    2013-01-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person′s genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is ′the use of genes as medicine′. It...

  14. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  15. CHROMATIN LOOPS, GENE POSITIONING AND GENE EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd eHolwerda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments and intense research over the last years have led to a better understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the genome and its influence on genome function inside the cell nucleus. We will summarize topological studies performed on four model gene loci: the α- and β-globin gene loci, the antigen receptor loci, the imprinted H19-Igf2 locus and the Hox gene clusters. Collectively, these studies show that regulatory DNA sequences physically contact genes to control their transcription. Proteins set up the three-dimensional configuration of the genome and we will discuss the roles of the key structural organizers CTCF and cohesin, the nuclear lamina and the transcription machinery. Finally, genes adopt non-random positions in the nuclear interior. We will review studies on gene positioning and propose that cell-specific genome conformations can juxtapose a regulatory sequence on one chromosome to a responsive gene on another chromosome to cause altered gene expression in subpopulations of cells.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic corn on growth performance and mineral digestibility in weaned pigs%转植酸酶基因玉米对断奶仔猪生长性能和钙磷表观消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎相广; 陈明霞; 吴同山; 王敬军; 田存锋; 王修启

    2014-01-01

    试验旨在研究转植酸酶基因玉米(phytase transgenic corn,PTC)对断奶仔猪生长性能和钙磷表观消化率的影响,为转植酸酶基因玉米在断奶仔猪饲料中的应用提供参考.选取192头28日龄的健康三元杂交(杜×长×大)断奶仔猪,随机分为4个处理,每个处理6个重复,每个重复8头猪,预饲7d,正试期28 d.正对照组饲喂基础日粮,负对照组饲喂低磷日粮(CaHPO4含量为正对照组的50%,除磷外其它营养成分与正对照组一致),4%转植酸酶基因玉米组(4% PTC)和6%转植酸酶基因玉米组(6% PTC)是在负对照组的基础上分别用4%或6%的转植酸酶基因玉米等量替代普通玉米.结果表明:试验第28 d,4% PTC组和6% PTC组的平均日增重均显著高于正对照组和负对照组(P<0.05);试验1~14 d,4% PTC组和6% PTC组的平均日增重均显著高于负对照组(P<0.05),料重比均显著低于负对照组(P<0.05);试验1~28 d,4% PTC组和6% PTC组的平均日增重均显著高于正对照组和负对照组(P<0.05),6% PTC组的平均日采食量显著高于正对照组和负对照组(P<0.05),负对照组的料重比显著高于其它各组(P<0.05);负对照组钙和磷的表观消化率均显著低于其它各组(P<0.05),正对照组磷的表观消化率显著低于6% PTC组(P<0.05).结果表明,低磷日粮中使用转植酸酶基因玉米可提高断奶仔猪的平均日采食量和平均日增重,改善生长性能,提高断奶仔猪对钙和磷的表观消化率.

  17. Efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de arroz em dietas suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.554 Effect of different inclusion levels of rice bran in diets supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.554

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho zootécnico, rendimento de carcaça e a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas contendo quantidades crescentes de farelo de arroz integral (FAI, suplementados com fitase. Foram utilizados 600 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Ross, alojados em boxes de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos seguintes tratamentos: T1-ração referência (milho e farelo de soja; T2-ração referência com 750 FTU g-1; T3-ração com 3,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T4-ração com 7,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T5-ração com 10,5% FAI com 750 FTU g-1 e T6-ração com 14% FAI com 750 FTU g-1. A inclusão de fitase, com a utilização de FAI até o nível de 14% e redução do fósforo inorgânico na formulação da ração, não afetou o desempenho zootécnico e características de carcaça dos frangos de corte, porém reduziu a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia dos ossos.The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the productive performance, carcass yield, phosphorus availability and tibia ash in broilers subjected to diets containing increasing amounts of whole rice bran (WRB, supplemented with phytase. Six hundred broilers (Ross, all males, were allocated in boxes according to a completely randomized design, being fed the following regimens: T1 standard feed (corn and soybean meal; T2 standard feed with 750 FTU g-1; T3 feed with 3.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1; T4 feed with 7.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1 T5 feed with 10.5% WRB with 750 FTU g-1 and T6 feed with 14% WRB with 750 FTU g-1. The inclusion of phytase with the use of WRB to the level of 14% and the reduction of the inorganic P in the formulation of the feed did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of the broiler chickens; however, it did decrease the presence of phosphorus and ash in the tibia.

  18. Cochlear Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Lawrence R.; Akil, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in cochlear gene therapy over the past several years. Cochlear gene therapy has undergone tremendous advances over the past decade. Beginning with some groundbreaking work in 2005 documenting hair cell regeneration using virallymediated delivery of the mouse atonal 1 gene, gene therapy is now being explored as a possible treatment for a variety of causes of hearing loss.

  19. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  20. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  1. Reading and Generalist Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading…

  2. A Pilot Study of Gene/Gene and Gene/Environment Interactions in Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebranious, Nader; Mukesh, Bickol; Giampietro, Philip F.; Glurich, Ingrid; Mickel, Susan F.; Waring, Stephen C.; Catherine A McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although some genes associated with increased risk of Alzheimer Disease (AD) have been identified, few data exist related to gene/gene and gene/environment risk of AD. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore gene/gene and gene/environment associations in AD and to obtain data for sample size estimates for larger, more definitive studies of AD.

  3. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  4. Modelling prokaryote gene content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Susko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The patchy distribution of genes across the prokaryotes may be caused by multiple gene losses or lateral transfer. Probabilistic models of gene gain and loss are needed to distinguish between these possibilities. Existing models allow only single genes to be gained and lost, despite the empirical evidence for multi-gene events. We compare birth-death models (currently the only widely-used models, in which only one gene can be gained or lost at a time to blocks models (allowing gain and loss of multiple genes within a family. We analyze two pairs of genomes: two E. coli strains, and the distantly-related Archaeoglobus fulgidus (archaea and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive bacteria. Blocks models describe the data much better than birth-death models. Our models suggest that lateral transfers of multiple genes from the same family are rare (although transfers of single genes are probably common. For both pairs, the estimated median time that a gene will remain in the genome is not much greater than the time separating the common ancestors of the archaea and bacteria. Deep phylogenetic reconstruction from sequence data will therefore depend on choosing genes likely to remain in the genome for a long time. Phylogenies based on the blocks model are more biologically plausible than phylogenies based on the birth-death model.

  5. Gene conversion in human rearranged immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, John M; Stott, David I

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, many DNA sequences have been published suggesting that all or part of the V(H) segment of a rearranged immunoglobulin gene may be replaced in vivo. Two different mechanisms appear to be operating. One of these is very similar to primary V(D)J recombination, involving the RAG proteins acting upon recombination signal sequences, and this has recently been proven to occur. Other sequences, many of which show partial V(H) replacements with no addition of untemplated nucleotides at the V(H)-V(H) joint, have been proposed to occur by an unusual RAG-mediated recombination with the formation of hybrid (coding-to-signal) joints. These appear to occur in cells already undergoing somatic hypermutation in which, some authors are convinced, RAG genes are silenced. We recently proposed that the latter type of V(H) replacement might occur by homologous recombination initiated by the activity of AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), which is essential for somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. The latter has been observed in other species, but not in human Ig genes, so far. In this paper, we present a new analysis of sequences published as examples of the second type of rearrangement. This not only shows that AID recognition motifs occur in recombination regions but also that some sequences show replacement of central sections by a sequence from another gene, similar to gene conversion in the immunoglobulin genes of other species. These observations support the proposal that this type of rearrangement is likely to be AID-mediated rather than RAG-mediated and is consistent with gene conversion.

  6. Evaluating gene × gene and gene × smoking interaction in rheumatoid arthritis using candidate genes in GAW15

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Ling; Li Xiaohui; Yang Kai; Cui Jinrui; Fang Belle; Guo Xiuqing; Rotter Jerome I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We examined the potential gene × gene interactions and gene × smoking interactions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the candidate gene data sets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 2. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to test gene × gene interactions among candidate genes. The case-only sample was used to test gene × smoking interactions. The best predictive model was the single-locus model with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs247660...

  7. 植酸酶基因中稀有密码子的改造提高其在毕赤酵母中的表达量%Increasing Expression Level of Phytase Gene (phyA) in Pichia pastoris by Changing Rare Codons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 赵海霞; 王红宁; 杨婉身; 吴琦; 倪燕

    2005-01-01

    对来源于黑曲霉N25(Aspergillus niger China Strain)的植酸酶基因phyA进行PCR介导的定点突变,不改变其所编码氨基酸,选用毕赤酵母偏爱的密码子对该基因保守序列中第81位和第85位的Arg密码子进行同义突变.构建了含正确突变的克隆载体pUC18-phyAm和酵母表达载体pPIC9kphyAm,电击转化毕赤酵母,经MM、MD平板筛选和产物的酶活性测定,筛选出突变与未突变高酶活酵母转化子各2株.这4株转化子的Southern印迹结果表明,phyA基因以单交换方式单拷贝整合到酵母染色体DNA中.表达产物的SDS-PAGE分析表明,重组酵母中的植酸酶能有效分泌和表达,蛋白质分子大小为70.15 kD.转化子酶活测定结果表明,经密码子优化的突变重组酵母酶活力明显高于未进行优化的重组酵母转化子.经密码子优化的突变重组酵母株PP-NPm-8于麦芽汁培养基中诱导36 h后酶活力可达47 600U/ml,其活力比未优化重组酵母株PP-NP-2(23 667 U/ml)提高了约1倍,且重组转化子遗传稳定性良好.

  8. 来源于假单孢菌206植酸酶基因的克隆、表达及酶学性质研究%Gene Cloning, Expression and Characterization of an HAP Phytase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 206

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅楠; 黄火清; 姚斌; 赵青; 刘昆; 马文康

    2013-01-01

    从浙江嘉兴人工鱼塘底泥样品筛选到产植酸酶活性较高的假单孢菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)206.通过简并PCR和TAIL-PCR技术从Pseudomonas fluorescens 206菌株基因组DNA中克隆得到一个新的编码组氨酸酸性植酸酶(HAP)的基因,命名为phyP.该基因ORF全长1 284 bp,编码了427个氨基酸和一个终止密码子,前24个氨基酸为信号肽.将phyP在大肠杆菌中表达,重组蛋白经硫酸铵分级沉淀和阴离子交换柱纯化后达到电泳纯.对其酶学性质分析表明:重组植酸酶PhyP最适pH为5.5,在pH3.5-7.5的条件下具有较好的稳定性;重组植酸酶PhyP最适温度为45℃,在25℃时也具有较高的酶活性,因此植酸酶PhyP在饲料行业,尤其是水产行业具有潜在的应用前景.

  9. Delivery Systems in Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hu; Anas El-Aneed; Cui Guohui

    2005-01-01

    1 Gene therapy Gene therapy includes the treatment of both genetically based and infectious diseases by introducing genetic materials which have therapeutic effects[1~3]. In its simplest terms, a wild type gene (which is non-functional in the cell leading to disease development) is introduced into the somatic cell lacking this gene to restore the normal gene function in this cell. Many gene therapy strategies, however, utilize genes to destroy specific cells.

  10. Gene Conversion and Evolution of Gene Families: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Ohta

    2010-01-01

    The importance of gene conversion for the evolution of gene families is reviewed. Four problems concerning gene conversion, i.e., concerted evolution, generation of useful variation, deleterious effects, and relation to neofunctionalization, are discussed by surveying reported examples of evolving gene families. Emphasis is given toward understanding interactive effects of gene conversion and natural selection.

  11. Gene promoters dictate histone occupancy within genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Roberto; Erickson, Benjamin; Zhang, Lian; Kim, Hyunmin; Valiquett, Elan; Bentley, David

    2013-10-01

    Spt6 is a transcriptional elongation factor and histone chaperone that reassembles transcribed chromatin. Genome-wide H3 mapping showed that Spt6 preferentially maintains nucleosomes within the first 500 bases of genes and helps define nucleosome-depleted regions in 5' and 3' flanking sequences. In Spt6-depleted cells, H3 loss at 5' ends correlates with reduced pol II density suggesting enhanced transcription elongation. Consistent with its 'Suppressor of Ty' (Spt) phenotype, Spt6 inactivation caused localized H3 eviction over 1-2 nucleosomes at 5' ends of Ty elements. H3 displacement differed between genes driven by promoters with 'open'/DPN and 'closed'/OPN chromatin conformations with similar pol II densities. More eviction occurred on genes with 'closed' promoters, associated with 'noisy' transcription. Moreover, swapping of 'open' and 'closed' promoters showed that they can specify distinct downstream patterns of histone eviction/deposition. These observations suggest a novel function for promoters in dictating histone dynamics within genes possibly through effects on transcriptional bursting or elongation rate.

  12. Lamins and their genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an important nuclear structure. The studies on its peptides lamins and genes have made substantial progress in recent years. In this paper, the new achievements in studies of new lamin members and their functions, lamin genes and their origin and differentiation, are reviewed and discussed. Some research areas that deserve to be investigated further are put forward.

  13. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  14. The GeneMANIA prediction server: biological network integration for gene prioritization and predicting gene function

    OpenAIRE

    Warde-Farley, David; Sylva L. Donaldson; Comes, Ovi; Zuberi, Khalid; Badrawi, Rashad; Chao, Pauline; Franz, Max; Grouios, Chris; Kazi, Farzana; Lopes, Christian Tannus; Maitland, Anson; Mostafavi, Sara; Montojo, Jason; Shao, Quentin; Wright, George

    2010-01-01

    GeneMANIA (http://www.genemania.org) is a flexible, user-friendly web interface for generating hypotheses about gene function, analyzing gene lists and prioritizing genes for functional assays. Given a query list, GeneMANIA extends the list with functionally similar genes that it identifies using available genomics and proteomics data. GeneMANIA also reports weights that indicate the predictive value of each selected data set for the query. Six organisms are currently supported (Arabidopsis t...

  15. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  16. [Is gene technology immoral?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, H

    1994-10-01

    Since it came into being in the USA in the early 1970s, gene technology has always been fundamentally controversial, especially in the German-speaking countries. The optimistic--or critical--supporters of gene technology are convinced that, in view of gene technology's not otherwise attainable advantages for human and animal health, for food production and other important aims, it would be ethically unacceptable to restrict to the minimum or even ban it. On the other hand, the radical critics are convinced that gene technology, in view of its anthropologically false starting-point, the questionable interests behind it, and above all its unforeseeable, serious negative implications for mankind and environment, is unacceptable on ethical grounds. Critical reflexion on these polarized arguments must start from the question why precisely gene technology is so controversial, and what are the criteria for ethical assessment. These reflexions presuppose that the prior judgement of gene technology as a technology in the ideological field is rooted in life attitudes, history and nature in general, and this is true not only of gene technology's opponents but also its supporters. It is thus a question of one ideology vs. another. Chief importance here attaches to the mankind-nature relationship and the need to take seriously the fundamental ambivalence of all (!) human action with unforeseeable consequences. The conclusion is that neither to demonize nor to glorify gene technology, as a matter of principle, does justice to its wide and varied positive or negative potential. The ethical assessment of gene technology must be differentiated according to the aims and possible implications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7939540

  17. Antisense gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied...... to mammalian cells, the technology of RNAi expanded from being a valuable experimental tool to being an applicable method for gene-specific therapeutic regulation, and much effort has been put into further refinement of the technique. This review will focus on how RNAi has developed over the years and how...

  18. Gene Therapy of Cancerous Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Valenčáková, A.; Dziaková, A.; Hatalová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy of cancerous diseases provides new means of curing patients with oncologic illnesses. There are several approaches in treating cancer by gene therapy. Most commonly used methods are: cancer immunogene therapy, suicide gene therapy, application of tumor-suppressor genes, antiangiogenic therapy, mesenchymal stem cells used as vectors, gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and bacteria used as anti-cancer agents. Cancer gene immunotherapy uses several immunologic agents for the purp...

  19. What Is a Gene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is a Gene? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is ...

  20. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  1. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  2. Gene-gene, gene-environment, gene-nutrient interactionsand single nucleotide polymorphisms of inflammatorycytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in the etiologyof type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The rise in thepro-inflammatory cytokines is the essential step inglucotoxicity and lipotoxicity induced mitochondrialinjury, oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis inT2DM. Among the recognized markers are interleukin(IL)-6, IL-1, IL-10, IL-18, tissue necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), C-reactive protein, resistin, adiponectin, tissueplasminogen activator, fibrinogen and heptoglobins.Diabetes mellitus has firm genetic and very strongenvironmental influence; exhibiting a polygenic modeof inheritance. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in various genes including those of pro and antiinflammatorycytokines have been reported as a riskfor T2DM. Not all the SNPs have been confirmed byunifying results in different studies and wide variationshave been reported in various ethnic groups. Theinter-ethnic variations can be explained by the factthat gene expression may be regulated by gene-gene,gene-environment and gene-nutrient interactions. Thisreview highlights the impact of these interactions ondetermining the role of single nucleotide polymorphismof IL-6, TNF-α, resistin and adiponectin in pathogenesisof T2DM.

  3. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.;

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...

  4. Hox genes and study of Hox genes in crustacean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lin; CHEN Zhijuan; XU Mingyu; LIN Shengguo; WANG Lu

    2004-01-01

    Homeobox genes have been discovered in many species. These genes are known to play a major role in specifying regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of animals from a wide range of phyla.The products of the homeotic genes are a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in metazoans. Crustacean, presenting a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa, has been shown to possess a single set of homologous Hox genes like insect. The ancestral crustacean Hox gene complex comprised ten genes: eight homologous to the hometic Hox genes and two related to nonhomeotic genes presented within the insect Hox complexes. The crustacean in particular exhibits an abundant diversity segment specialization and tagmosis. This morphological diversity relates to the Hox genes. In crustacean body plan, different Hox genes control different segments and tagmosis.

  5. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database

  6. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database

  7. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated.

  8. Introns in higher plant genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The intron is an important component of eukaryotic gene. Extensive studies have been conducted to get a better understanding of its structure and function. This paper presents a brief review of the structure and function of introns in higher plant genes. It is shown that higher plant introns possess structural properties shared by all eukaryotic introns, however, they also exhibit a striking degree of diversity. The process of intron splicing in higher plant genes involves interaction between multiple cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, such as 5′ splicing site, 3′ splicing site and many protein factors. The process of intron splicing is an important level at which gene expression is regulated. Especially alternative splicing of intron can regulate time and space of gene expression. In addition, some introns in higher plant genes also regulate gene expression by affecting the pattern of gene expression, enhancing the level of gene expression and driving the gene expression.

  9. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging for cardiac gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inubushi, Masayuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    In the field of cardiac gene therapy, angiogenic gene therapy has been most extensively investigated. The first clinical trial of cardiac angiogenic gene therapy was reported in 1998, and at the peak, more than 20 clinical trial protocols were under evaluation. However, most trials have ceased owing to the lack of decisive proof of therapeutic effects and the potential risks of viral vectors. In order to further advance cardiac angiogenic gene therapy, remaining open issues need to be resolved: there needs to be improvement of gene transfer methods, regulation of gene expression, development of much safer vectors and optimisation of therapeutic genes. For these purposes, imaging of gene expression in living organisms is of great importance. In radionuclide reporter gene imaging, ''reporter genes'' transferred into cell nuclei encode for a protein that retains a complementary ''reporter probe'' of a positron or single-photon emitter; thus expression of the reporter genes can be imaged with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography. Accordingly, in the setting of gene therapy, the location, magnitude and duration of the therapeutic gene co-expression with the reporter genes can be monitored non-invasively. In the near future, gene therapy may evolve into combination therapy with stem/progenitor cell transplantation, so-called cell-based gene therapy or gene-modified cell therapy. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging is now expected to contribute in providing evidence on the usefulness of this novel therapeutic approach, as well as in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neovascularisation and safety issues relevant to further progress in conventional gene therapy. (orig.)

  10. A review on microcephaly genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to summarize the recent findings regarding microcephaly genes. We have discussed the molecular genetics studies of microcephaly genes including a comprehensive appraisal of the seven mapped loci (MCPH1–MCPH7, their corresponding genes and protein products of the genes, their likely role in normal brain development and the details of the mutations reported in these genes.

  11. Gene therapy: progress and predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Mary; Thrasher, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The first clinical gene delivery, which involved insertion of a marker gene into lymphocytes from cancer patients, was published 25 years ago. In this review, we describe progress since then in gene therapy. Patients with some inherited single-gene defects can now be treated with their own bone marrow stem cells that have been engineered with a viral vector carrying the missing gene. Patients with inherited retinopathies and haemophilia B can also be treated by local or systemic injection of ...

  12. Gene decay in archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. J. van Passel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene-dense chromosomes of archaea and bacteria were long thought to be devoid of pseudogenes, but with the massive increase in available genome sequences, whole genome comparisons between closely related species have identified mutations that have rendered numerous genes inactive. Comparative analyses of sequenced archaeal genomes revealed numerous pseudogenes, which can constitute up to 8.6% of the annotated coding sequences in some genomes. The largest proportion of pseudogenes is created by gene truncations, followed by frameshift mutations. Within archaeal genomes, large numbers of pseudogenes contain more than one inactivating mutation, suggesting that pseudogenes are deleted from the genome more slowly in archaea than in bacteria. Although archaea seem to retain pseudogenes longer than do bacteria, most archaeal genomes have unique repertoires of pseudogenes.

  13. Correlating Expression Data with Gene Function Using Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Qi; DENG,Yong; WANG,Chuan; SHI,Tie-Liu; LI,Yi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is perhaps one of the most widely used tools for microarray data analysis. Proposed roles for genes of unknown function are inferred from clusters of genes similarity expressed across many biological conditions.However, whether function annotation by similarity metrics is reliable or not and to what extent the similarity in gene expression patterns is useful for annotation of gene functions, has not been evaluated. This paper made a comprehensive research on the correlation between the similarity of expression data and of gene functions using Gene Ontology. It has been found that although the similarity in expression patterns and the similarity in gene functions are significantly dependent on each other, this association is rather weak. In addition, among the three categories of Gene Ontology, the similarity of expression data is more useful for cellular component annotation than for biological process and molecular function. The results presented are interesting for the gene functions prediction research area.

  14. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  15. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  16. Vertebrate gene predictions and the problem of large genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Li, ShengTing; Zhang, Yong;

    2003-01-01

    To find unknown protein-coding genes, annotation pipelines use a combination of ab initio gene prediction and similarity to experimentally confirmed genes or proteins. Here, we show that although the ab initio predictions have an intrinsically high false-positive rate, they also have a consistently...... low false-negative rate. The incorporation of similarity information is meant to reduce the false-positive rate, but in doing so it increases the false-negative rate. The crucial variable is gene size (including introns)--genes of the most extreme sizes, especially very large genes, are most likely to...

  17. Suicide genes or p53 gene and p53 target genes as targets for cancer gene therapy by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has some disadvantages due to the severe side-effect on the normal tissues at a curative dose of ionizing radiation (IR). Similarly, as a new developing approach, gene therapy also has some disadvantages, such as lack of specificity for tumors, limited expression of therapeutic gene, potential biological risk. To certain extent, above problems would be solved by the suicide genes or p53 gene and its target genes therapies targeted by ionizing radiation. This strategy not only makes up the disadvantage from radiotherapy or gene therapy alone, but also promotes success rate on the base of lower dose. By present, there have been several vectors measuring up to be reaching clinical trials. This review focused on the development of the cancer gene therapy through suicide genes or p53 and its target genes mediated by IR. (authors)

  18. GENES BEHIND SMOKE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmos Soós

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Smoke can break dormancy and promote seed germination of many plant species. We investigated changes in the gene expression changes after imbibition of light-sensitive Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dilute smoke water compared to water control samples kept in dark or continuous light. Although no difference was detected in the smoke water vs. water control samples germinated in light, smoke water treatment resulted in the differential display of several expressed sequence tags (ESTs when compared to water control samples kept in dark. The most pronounced fragments isolated correspond to known genes with functions related to cell wall expansion, abscisic acid regulation, regulation of translation, the cell division cycle, carbohydrate metabolism and desiccation tolerance. These data clearly indicate that the smoke water, which stimulates germination of light-sensitive Grand Rapids lettuce seeds in the dark, rapidly affects genes that are essential for cell division, cell wall expansion and mobilization and utilization of nutrients for the resumption of embryo growth. Although the master genes remained unknown, our hope is that the using of maize microarray will reveal the whole molecular background of smoke action.

  19. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  20. Old genes experience stronger translational selection than young genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongyan; Ma, Lina; Wang, Guangyu; Li, Mengwei; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-09-15

    Selection on synonymous codon usage for translation efficiency and/or accuracy has been identified as a widespread mechanism in many living organisms. However, it remains unknown whether translational selection associates closely with gene age and acts differentially on genes with different evolutionary ages. To address this issue, here we investigate the strength of translational selection acting on different aged genes in human. Our results show that old genes present stronger translational selection than young genes, demonstrating that translational selection correlates positively with gene age. We further explore the difference of translational selection in duplicates vs. singletons and in housekeeping vs. tissue-specific genes. We find that translational selection acts comparably in old singletons and old duplicates and stronger translational selection in old genes is contributed primarily by housekeeping genes. For young genes, contrastingly, singletons experience stronger translational selection than duplicates, presumably due to redundant function of duplicated genes during their early evolutionary stage. Taken together, our results indicate that translational selection acting on a gene would not be constant during all stages of evolution, associating closely with gene age. PMID:27259662

  1. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannenfelser Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs, researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our

  2. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery.

  3. Genes contributing to prion pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V;

    2008-01-01

    incubation times, indicating that the conversion reaction may be influenced by other gene products. To identify genes that contribute to prion pathogenesis, we analysed incubation times of prions in mice in which the gene product was inactivated, knocked out or overexpressed. We tested 20 candidate genes...... show that many genes previously implicated in prion replication have no discernible effect on the pathogenesis of prion disease. While most genes tested did not significantly affect survival times, ablation of the amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (App) or interleukin-1 receptor, type I (Il1r1...

  4. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Entrez Gene (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene) is NCBI's database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene includes records from genomes that have been completely sequenced, that have an active research community to contribute gene-specific information or that are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content of Entrez Gene represents the result of both curation and automated integration of data from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), from collaborating model organism databases and from other databases within NCBI. Records in Entrez Gene are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, map location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is provided via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programing utilities (E-Utilities), and for bulk transfer by ftp. PMID:17148475

  5. Tumor-specific gene expression patterns with gene expression profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaogang; LI Yingxin; LI Jiangeng; GONG Daoxiong; WANG Jinlian

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of 14 common tumors and their counterpart normal tissues were analyzed with machine learning methods to address the problem of selection of tumor-specific genes and analysis of their differential expressions in tumor tissues. First, a variation of the Relief algorithm, "RFE_Relief algorithm" was proposed to learn the relations between genes and tissue types. Then, a support vector machine was employed to find the gene subset with the best classification performance for distinguishing cancerous tissues and their counterparts. After tissue-specific genes were removed, cross validation experiments were employed to demonstrate the common deregulated expressions of the selected gene in tumor tissues. The results indicate the existence of a specific expression fingerprint of these genes that is shared in different tumor tissues, and the hallmarks of the expression patterns of these genes in cancerous tissues are summarized at the end of this paper.

  6. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  7. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  8. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odelta dos Santos

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  9. Dominance from the perspective of gene-gene and gene-chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladki, Arkadiusz; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we used genetic interaction (GI) and gene-chemical interaction (GCI) data to compare mutations with different dominance phenotypes. Our analysis focused primarily on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where haploinsufficient genes (HI; genes with dominant loss-of-function mutations) were found to be participating in gene expression processes, namely, the translation and regulation of gene transcription. Non-ribosomal HI genes (mainly regulators of gene transcription) were found to have more GIs and GCIs than haplosufficient (HS) genes. Several properties seem to lead to the enrichment of interactions, most notably, the following: importance, pleiotropy, gene expression level and gene expression variation. Importantly, after these properties were appropriately considered in the analysis, the correlation between dominance and GI/GCI degrees was still observed. Strikingly, for the GCIs of heterozygous strains, haploinsufficiency was the only property significantly correlated with the number of GCIs. We found ribosomal HI genes to be depleted in GIs/GCIs. This finding can be explained by their high variation in gene expression under different genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. We observed the same distributions of GIs among non-ribosomal HI, ribosomal HI and HS genes in three other species: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. One potentially interesting exception was the lack of significant differences in the degree of GIs between non-ribosomal HI and HS genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PMID:26613610

  10. Dominance from the perspective of gene-gene and gene-chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladki, Arkadiusz; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we used genetic interaction (GI) and gene-chemical interaction (GCI) data to compare mutations with different dominance phenotypes. Our analysis focused primarily on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where haploinsufficient genes (HI; genes with dominant loss-of-function mutations) were found to be participating in gene expression processes, namely, the translation and regulation of gene transcription. Non-ribosomal HI genes (mainly regulators of gene transcription) were found to have more GIs and GCIs than haplosufficient (HS) genes. Several properties seem to lead to the enrichment of interactions, most notably, the following: importance, pleiotropy, gene expression level and gene expression variation. Importantly, after these properties were appropriately considered in the analysis, the correlation between dominance and GI/GCI degrees was still observed. Strikingly, for the GCIs of heterozygous strains, haploinsufficiency was the only property significantly correlated with the number of GCIs. We found ribosomal HI genes to be depleted in GIs/GCIs. This finding can be explained by their high variation in gene expression under different genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. We observed the same distributions of GIs among non-ribosomal HI, ribosomal HI and HS genes in three other species: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. One potentially interesting exception was the lack of significant differences in the degree of GIs between non-ribosomal HI and HS genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  11. Gene doping in modern sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREK SAWCZUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The subject of this paper is gene doping, which should be understood as "he non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance". The authors of this work, based on the review of literature and previous research, make an attempt at wider characterization of gene doping and the discussion of related potential threats.Methods: This is a comprehensive survey of literature on the latest applications of molecular biology in medicine. The analysis involves a dozen scientific databases examined in order to find genes used in gene therapy and potentially useful in gene doping. Results: The obtained results enable better recognition of gene doping and indicate genes used in medicine that could be used in gene doping. This paper describes potential effects of their use and associated risk, and predicts the possible developments of gene doping in the future. Conclusion: Gene doping is undoubtedly a part of modern sport. Although WADA included gene doping on the list of banned methods as early as 2004, as previously stated above, it has not managed to develop efficient methods of detection.

  12. On atavisms and atavistic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, J M; Ruiz, C

    1985-01-01

    The authors propose the term atavistic to designate a gene producing an ancestral phenotype (atavism). Several examples are presented, and the possible origin of atavistic genes, as well as their pathological implications discussed. PMID:3879145

  13. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters September 26, 2011 Genes that Influence Blood Pressure In one of the ... 16 previously unknown variations. Six were found in genes already suspected of regulating blood pressure. The remaining ...

  14. Genes and human brain evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Geschwind, Daniel H.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Several genes were duplicated during human evolution. It seems that one such duplication gave rise to a gene that may have helped to make human brains bigger and more adaptable than those of our ancestors.

  15. Gene Testing for Hereditary Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAQ NATIONAL ATAXIA FOUNDATION FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT... Gene Testing for Hereditary Ataxia This fact sheet provides an overview of gene testing for ataxia. It also addresses commonly asked ...

  16. Gene therapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-tai; Guo Xue-gang; Pan Bo-rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction We have reviewed the gene therapy in gastrointestinal diseases[1]. Gastric cancer is common in China[2~20] ,and its early diagnosis andtreatment are still difficult up to now[13~36]. The expression of anexogenous gene introduced by gene therapy into patients with gliomascan be monitored non- invasively by positron- emission tomography[4]. In recent years, gene study in cancer is a hotspot, and great progress hasbeen achieved[33~41].

  17. Human housekeeping genes are compact

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Eli; Erez Y. Levanon

    2003-01-01

    We identify a set of 575 human genes that are expressed in all conditions tested in a publicly available database of microarray results. Based on this common occurrence, the set is expected to be rich in "housekeeping" genes, showing constitutive expression in all tissues. We compare selected aspects of their genomic structure with a set of background genes. We find that the introns, untranslated regions and coding sequences of the housekeeping genes are shorter, indicating a selection for co...

  18. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Alcoceba, R. (Rubén); B. Sangro; Prieto, J.

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/pro-drug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition, gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy. These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reac...

  19. Genes y especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sáez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de secuenciar y manipular los genes sigue abriendo fronteras en el estudio de las especies y la especiación. En tiempos recientes particularmente en dos direcciones. Por un lado, la secuenciación del gen COI (y otros en miles de muestras de forma sistemática y masiva, el llamado "DNA barcoding", está revelando una gran cantidad de biodiversidad, en buena medida previamente no sospechada y correspondiente a especies crípticas (morfológicamente irreconocibles. En segundo lugar, el estudio de los genes responsables de los cambios morfológicos nos está haciendo volver a dar una creciente importancia a la selección como motor de la especiación y de la evolución, incluso en presencia de dosis importantes de flujo génico.

  20. Gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions of childhood asthma: a multifactor dimension reduction approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on asthma is well documented in literature, but a systematic analysis on the interaction between various genetic and environmental factors is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study comprised of seventh-grade children from 14 Taiwanese communities. A total of 235 asthmatic cases and 1,310 non-asthmatic controls were selected for DNA collection and genotyping. We examined the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions between 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidative, inflammatory and obesity-related genes, and childhood asthma. Environmental exposures and disease status were obtained from parental questionnaires. The model-free and non-parametrical multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was used for the analysis. A three-way gene-gene interaction was elucidated between the gene coding glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1, the gene coding interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL4Ra and the gene coding insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2 on the risk of lifetime asthma. The testing-balanced accuracy on asthma was 57.83% with a cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10. The interaction of preterm birth and indoor dampness had the highest training-balanced accuracy at 59.09%. Indoor dampness also interacted with many genes, including IL13, beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. We also used likelihood ratio tests for interaction and chi-square tests to validate our results and all tests showed statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study suggest that GSTP1, INSIG2 and IL4Ra may influence the lifetime asthma susceptibility through gene-gene interactions in schoolchildren. Home dampness combined with each one of the genes STAT6, IL13 and ADRB2 could raise the asthma risk.

  1. Gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ponder, Katherine P.; Haskins, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are due to deficiencies in activities of lysosomal enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans. Some attempts at gene therapy for MPS in animal models have involved intravenous injection of vectors derived from an adeno-associated virus (AAV), adenovirus, retrovirus or a plasmid, which primarily results in expression in liver and secretion of the relevant enzyme into blood. Most vectors can correct disease in liver and spleen, although correction in other organs includ...

  2. Engineering prokaryotic gene circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Michalodimitrakis, Konstantinos; Isalan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Engineering of synthetic gene circuits is a rapidly growing discipline, currently dominated by prokaryotic transcription networks, which can be easily rearranged or rewired to give different output behaviours. In this review, we examine both a rational and a combinatorial design of such networks and discuss progress on using in vitro evolution techniques to obtain functional systems. Moving beyond pure transcription networks, more and more networks are being implemented at the level of RNA, t...

  3. Gene Porter Bridwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Gene Porter Bridwell served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from January 6, 1994 until February 3, 1996, when he retired from NASA after thirty-four years service. Bridwell, a Marshall employee since 1962, had been Marshall's Space Shuttle Projects Office Director and Space Station Redesign Team deputy manager. Under Bridwell, Marshall worked to develop its role as a Center of Excellence for propulsion and for providing access to space.

  4. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.

  5. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene

  6. Ascidian gene-expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    William R Jeffery

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of gene-expression profiling, a large number of genes can now be investigated simultaneously during critical stages of development. This approach will be particularly informative in studies of ascidians, basal chordates whose genomes and embryology are uniquely suited for mapping developmental gene networks.

  7. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin;

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  8. Decationized polyplexes for gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novo, L.; Mastrobattista, E.; Nostrum, van C.F.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Hennink, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy has received much attention in the field of drug delivery. Synthetic, nonviral gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention as vectors for gene therapy mainly due to a favorable immunogenicity profile and ease of manufacturing as compared to viral vectors. The great majority o

  9. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  10. Gene therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene therapy for thyroid cancer include immunotherapy, suicide gene therapy, tumor suppressor replacement, 131I therapy by sodium/iodide symporter and antisense therapy and so on. Gene therapy has wide perspectives, but there are many problems need to be solved for clinical application

  11. nanosheets for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  12. Extracting gene-gene interactions through curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranajit; Mitra, Sushmita; Murthy, C A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a simple and novel curve fitting approach for generating simple gene regulatory subnetworks from time series gene expression data. Microarray experiments simultaneously generate massive data sets and help immensely in the large-scale study of gene expression patterns. Initial biclustering reduces the search space in the high-dimensional microarray data. The least-squares error between fitting of gene pairs is minimized to extract a set of gene-gene interactions, involving transcriptional regulation of genes. The higher error values are eliminated to retain only the strong interacting gene pairs in the resultant gene regulatory subnetwork. Next the algorithm is extended to a generalized framework to enhance its capability. The methodology takes care of the higher-order dependencies involving multiple genes co-regulating a single gene, while eliminating the need for user-defined parameters. It has been applied to the time-series Yeast data, and the experimental results biologically validated using standard databases and literature. PMID:22997274

  13. Identification of Significant Association and Gene-Gene Interaction of GABA Receptor Subunit Genes in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, D Q; Whitehead, P. L.; Menold, M M; Martin, E. R.; Ashley-Koch, A. E.; Mei, H; Ritchie, M. D.; Delong, G R; Abramson, R.K.; Wright, H. H.; Cuccaro, M. L.; Hussman, J. P.; Gilbert, J.R.; Pericak-Vance, M A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a significant genetic component. Existing research suggests that multiple genes contribute to autism and that epigenetic effects or gene-gene interactions are likely contributors to autism risk. However, these effects have not yet been identified. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has been implicated in autism etiology. Fourteen known autosomal GABA receptor subunit genes were studied...

  14. Gene Network Biological Validity Based on Gene-Gene Interaction Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gómez-Vela; Norberto Díaz-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gene networks have become one of the most useful tools for modeling biological processes. Many inference gene network algorithms have been developed as techniques for extracting knowledge from gene expression data. Ensuring the reliability of the inferred gene relationships is a crucial task in any study in order to prove that the algorithms used are precise. Usually, this validation process can be carried out using prior biological knowledge. The metabolic pathways stored in...

  15. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruben Hernandez-Alcoceba; Bruno Sangro; Jesus Prieto

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition,gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy.These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reached clinical phases. We present a review on the basis and the actual status of gene therapy approaches applied to liver cancer.

  16. Gene finding in novel genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korf Ian

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational gene prediction continues to be an important problem, especially for genomes with little experimental data. Results I introduce the SNAP gene finder which has been designed to be easily adaptable to a variety of genomes. In novel genomes without an appropriate gene finder, I demonstrate that employing a foreign gene finder can produce highly inaccurate results, and that the most compatible parameters may not come from the nearest phylogenetic neighbor. I find that foreign gene finders are more usefully employed to bootstrap parameter estimation and that the resulting parameters can be highly accurate. Conclusion Since gene prediction is sensitive to species-specific parameters, every genome needs a dedicated gene finder.

  17. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Hugh M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Results Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-coupled chemoreceptor genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified approximately 1300 genes and 400 pseudogenes in the 19 largest gene families, most of which fall into larger superfamilies. In the related species C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified most or all genes in each of the 19 families. For most families, C. elegans has the largest number of genes and C. briggsae the smallest number, suggesting changes in the importance of chemoperception among the species. Protein trees reveal family-specific and species-specific patterns of gene duplication and gene loss. The frequency of strict orthologs varies among the families, from just over 50% in two families to less than 5% in three families. Several families include large species-specific expansions, mostly in C. elegans and C. remanei. Conclusion Chemoreceptor gene families in Caenorhabditis species are large and evolutionarily dynamic as a result of gene duplication and gene loss. These dynamics shape the chemoreceptor gene complements in Caenorhabditis species and define the receptor space available for chemosensory responses. To explain these patterns, we propose the gray pawn hypothesis: individual genes are of little significance, but the aggregate of a large number of diverse genes is required to cover a large phenotype space.

  18. Genes and Disease: Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show details National Center for ... Willi syndrome. PDF version of this page (220K) Gene sequence Genome view see gene locations Entrez Gene ...

  19. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  20. Genes and species

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, Alberto G.

    2009-01-01

    La posibilidad de secuenciar y manipular los genes sigue abriendo fronteras en el estudio de las especies y la especiación. En tiempos recientes particularmente en dos direcciones. Por un lado, la secuenciación del gen COI (y otros) en miles de muestras de forma sistemática y masiva, el llamado "DNA barcoding", está revelando una gran cantidad de biodiversidad, en buena medida previamente no sospechada y correspondiente a especies crípticas (morfológicamente irreconocibles). En segundo lug...

  1. Computation in gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, Asa; Siegelmann, Hava T.

    2004-03-01

    Genetic regulatory networks have the complex task of controlling all aspects of life. Using a model of gene expression by piecewise linear differential equations we show that this process can be considered as a process of computation. This is demonstrated by showing that this model can simulate memory bounded Turing machines. The simulation is robust with respect to perturbations of the system, an important property for both analog computers and biological systems. Robustness is achieved using a condition that ensures that the model equations, that are generally chaotic, follow a predictable dynamics.

  2. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder. The ...... the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes....

  3. The GeneMANIA prediction server: biological network integration for gene prioritization and predicting gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde-Farley, David; Donaldson, Sylva L; Comes, Ovi; Zuberi, Khalid; Badrawi, Rashad; Chao, Pauline; Franz, Max; Grouios, Chris; Kazi, Farzana; Lopes, Christian Tannus; Maitland, Anson; Mostafavi, Sara; Montojo, Jason; Shao, Quentin; Wright, George; Bader, Gary D; Morris, Quaid

    2010-07-01

    GeneMANIA (http://www.genemania.org) is a flexible, user-friendly web interface for generating hypotheses about gene function, analyzing gene lists and prioritizing genes for functional assays. Given a query list, GeneMANIA extends the list with functionally similar genes that it identifies using available genomics and proteomics data. GeneMANIA also reports weights that indicate the predictive value of each selected data set for the query. Six organisms are currently supported (Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and hundreds of data sets have been collected from GEO, BioGRID, Pathway Commons and I2D, as well as organism-specific functional genomics data sets. Users can select arbitrary subsets of the data sets associated with an organism to perform their analyses and can upload their own data sets to analyze. The GeneMANIA algorithm performs as well or better than other gene function prediction methods on yeast and mouse benchmarks. The high accuracy of the GeneMANIA prediction algorithm, an intuitive user interface and large database make GeneMANIA a useful tool for any biologist. PMID:20576703

  4. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata;

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gene...... expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles...... for these components, we observed that the residual expression levels (in 'functional genomic mRNA' profiling) correlated strongly with copy number. DNA copy number correlated positively with expression levels for 99% of all abundantly expressed human genes, indicating global gene dosage sensitivity. By applying...

  5. PROAPOPTOTIC FUNCTION OF FHIT GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhe-fu; HAN De-min; ZHANG Luo; ZHANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis between cell loss and growth. Fragile in maintaining the homeostasis between cell loss and growth. Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene found recently was studied in a deep going way; it becomes the focus as a result of its roleof ep going way; it becomes the focus as a result of its roleof anti-tumor in human various type of tissue. Due to the high efficiency of FHIT gene benefiting the anti-tumor, it is proposed gh efficiency of FHIT gene benefiting the anti-tumor, it is proposed as a candidate of tumor suppressor gene though there are several opposite opinions.several opposite opinions. We stress the summary of some properties of FHIT gene on proapoptosis according to the published data which showed gene on proapoptosis according to the published data which showed the stronger proapoptotic function of FHIT gene; the apoptosis induced by FHIT depends on the expression level and status of ene; the apoptosis induced by FHIT depends on the expression level and status of FHIT; and FHIT gene can alternate the cell cycling properties and reduce the tumorigenic potential; the apoptotic process e can alternate the cell cycling properties and reduce the tumorigenic potential; the apoptotic process induced by FHIT has no relation to p53 gene. In a ward, in consideration of its multiple functions against malignancies, FHIT in consideration of its multiple functions against malignancies, FHIT gene deserves attention and exploration as a selective target for searching the mechanism of tumorigenesis and clinical et for searching the mechanism of tumorigenesis and clinical therapeutic applications in further.le histidine triad (FHIT) gene; Apoptosis; Tumorigenesis; Tumor suppressor gene deserves attention and exploration as a selective target for searching the mechanism of tumorigenesis and clinical therapeutic applications in further.

  6. Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer by Triangulating Gene Expression, Gene Location, and Survival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouam, Sigrid; Miller, Lance D; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Driver genes are directly responsible for oncogenesis and identifying them is essential in order to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer. However, it is difficult to delineate them from the larger pool of genes that are deregulated in cancer (ie, passenger genes). In order to address this problem, we developed an approach called TRIAngulating Gene Expression (TRIAGE through clinico-genomic intersects). Here, we present a refinement of this approach incorporating a new scoring methodology to identify putative driver genes that are deregulated in cancer. TRIAGE triangulates – or integrates – three levels of information: gene expression, gene location, and patient survival. First, TRIAGE identifies regions of deregulated expression (ie, expression footprints) by deriving a newly established measure called the Local Singular Value Decomposition (LSVD) score for each locus. Driver genes are then distinguished from passenger genes using dual survival analyses. Incorporating measurements of gene expression and weighting them according to the LSVD weight of each tumor, these analyses are performed using the genes located in significant expression footprints. Here, we first use simulated data to characterize the newly established LSVD score. We then present the results of our application of this refined version of TRIAGE to gene expression data from five cancer types. This refined version of TRIAGE not only allowed us to identify known prominent driver genes, such as MMP1, IL8, and COL1A2, but it also led us to identify several novel ones. These results illustrate that TRIAGE complements existing tools, allows for the identification of genes that drive cancer and could perhaps elucidate potential future targets of novel anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25949096

  7. Genes of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2003-10-01

    According to developmental genetics theories, aging is a genetically programmed and controlled continuum of development and maturation. Being dynamic and malleable processes, development and aging are controlled not only by genes but also by environmental and epigenetic influences that predominate in the second half of life. Genetic mutations affect many phenotypes in flies, worms, rodents, and humans which share several diseases or their equivalents, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious disorders as well as their susceptibility to them. Life span and stress resistance are closely linked. Oxidative stress actually constitutes a defined hypothesis of aging in that macromolecule oxidative damage accumulates with age and tends to be associated with life expectancy. DNA methylation, a force in the regulation of gene expression, is also one of the biomarkers of genetic damage. The mitotic clock of aging is marked, if not guided, by telomeres, essential genetic elements stabilizing natural chromosomic ends. The dream of humans to live longer, healthy lives is being tested by attempts to modify longevity in animal models, frequently by dietary manipulation. The quest continues to understand the mechanisms of healthy aging, one of the most compelling areas of research in the 21st century. PMID:14577056

  8. Tetraspanin genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2012-07-01

    Tetraspanins represent a four-transmembrane protein superfamily with a conserved structure and amino acid residues that are present in mammals, insects, fungi and plants. Tetraspanins interact with each other or with other membrane proteins to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that play important roles in development, pathogenesis and immune responses via facilitating cell-cell adhesion and fusion, ligand binding and intracellular trafficking. Here, we emphasize evolutionary aspects within the plant kingdom based on genomic sequence information. A phylogenetic tree based on 155 tetraspanin genes of 11 plant species revealed ancient and fast evolving clades. Tetraspanins were only present in multicellular plants, were often duplicated in the plant genomes and predicted by the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph for gene expression analysis to be either functionally redundant or divergent. Tetraspanins contain a large extracellular loop with conserved cysteines that provide the binding sites for the interactions. The Arabidopsis thaliana TETRASPANIN1/TORNADO2/EKEKO has a function in leaf and root patterning and TETRASPANIN3 was identified in the plasmodesmatal proteome, suggesting a role in cell-cell communication during plant development.

  9. Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophides, George K; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Birney, Ewan; Blandin, Stephanie; Blass, Claudia; Brey, Paul T; Collins, Frank H; Danielli, Alberto; Dimopoulos, George; Hetru, Charles; Hoa, Ngo T; Hoffmann, Jules A; Kanzok, Stefan M; Letunic, Ivica; Levashina, Elena A; Loukeris, Thanasis G; Lycett, Gareth; Meister, Stephan; Michel, Kristin; Moita, Luis F; Müller, Hans-Michael; Osta, Mike A; Paskewitz, Susan M; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Troxler, Laurent; Vernick, Kenneth D; Vlachou, Dina; Volz, Jennifer; von Mering, Christian; Xu, Jiannong; Zheng, Liangbiao; Bork, Peer; Kafatos, Fotis C

    2002-10-01

    We have identified 242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity and have detected marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems show a marked deficit of orthologs and excessive gene expansions, possibly reflecting selection pressures from different pathogens encountered in these insects' very different life-styles. In contrast, the multifunctional Toll signal transduction pathway is substantially conserved, presumably because of counterselection for developmental stability. Representative expression profiles confirm that sequence diversification is accompanied by specific responses to different immune challenges. Alternative RNA splicing may also contribute to expansion of the immune repertoire. PMID:12364793

  10. Gene-targeting pharmaceuticals for single-gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Arthur L; Meng, Linyan

    2016-04-15

    The concept of orphan drugs for treatment of orphan genetic diseases is perceived enthusiastically at present, and this is leading to research investment on the part of governments, disease-specific foundations and industry. This review attempts to survey the potential to use traditional pharmaceuticals as opposed to biopharmaceuticals to treat single-gene disorders. The available strategies include the use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to alter splicing or knock-down expression of a transcript, siRNAs to knock-down gene expression and drugs for nonsense mutation read-through. There is an approved drug for biallelic knock-down of the APOB gene as treatment for familial hypercholesterolemia. Both ASOs and siRNAs are being explored to knock-down the transthyretin gene to prevent the related form of amyloidosis. The use of ASOs to alter gene-splicing to treat spinal muscular atrophy is in phase 3 clinical trials. Work is progressing on the use of ASOs to activate the normally silent paternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene in neurons as a treatment for Angelman syndrome. A gene-activation or gene-specific ramp-up strategy would be generally helpful if such could be developed. There is exciting theoretical potential for converting biopharmaceutical strategies such gene correction and CRISPR-Cas9 editing to a synthetic pharmaceutical approach. PMID:26628634

  11. Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Marja L; Loos, Bruno G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in ...

  12. Hormones, genes, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    With assays of hormone-sensitive behaviors, it is possible to demonstrate both direct and indirect actions of genes on mammalian social behaviors. Direct effects of estrogen receptor gene expression and progesterone receptor gene expression figure prominently in well analyzed neuroendocrine mechanisms for sex behavior, operating through a neural circuit that has been delineated. Indirect effects, notably the consequences of sexual differentiation, display complex d...

  13. Gene set analysis for GWAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We discuss the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics in the context of gene set analysis and review corresponding null and alternative hypotheses. Especially, we show that, when enhancing the impact of highly significant genes in the calculation of the test statistic...... parameter and the genesis and distribution of the gene-level statistics, and illustrate the effects of differential weighting in a real-life example....

  14. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Si-Xue; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Zhong, Ying-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC...

  15. Testing for gene-gene interaction with AMMI models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhdadi, Amina; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that many common diseases are influenced by multiple genes and their interactions. There is currently a strong interest in testing for association between combinations of these genes and disease, in particular because genes that affect the risk of disease only in the presence of another genetic variant may not be detected in marginal analysis. In this paper we propose the use of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models to detect and to quantify gene-gene interaction effects for a quantitative trait. The objective of the present research is to demonstrate the practical advantages of these models to describe complex interaction between two unlinked loci. Although gene-gene interactions have often been defined as a deviance from additive genetic effects, the residual term has generally not been appropriately treated. The AMMI models allow for the analysis of a two way factorial data structure and combine the analysis of variance of the two main genotype effects with a principal component analysis of the residual multiplicative interaction. The AMMI models for gene-gene interaction presented here allow for the testing of non additivity between the two loci, and also describe how their interaction structure fits the existing non-additivity. Moreover, these models can be used to identify the specific two genotypes combinations that contribute to the significant gene-gene interaction. We describe the use of the biplot to display the structure of the interaction and evaluate the performance of the AMMI and the special cases of the AMMI previously described by Tukey and Mandel with simulated data sets. Our simulated study showed that the AMMI model is as powerful as general linear models when the interaction is not modeled in the presence of marginal effects. However, in the presence of pure epitasis, i.e. in the absence of marginal effects, the AMMI method was not found to be superior to other tested regression methods.

  16. A genetic ensemble approach for gene-gene interaction identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joshua WK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has now become clear that gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions are ubiquitous and fundamental mechanisms for the development of complex diseases. Though a considerable effort has been put into developing statistical models and algorithmic strategies for identifying such interactions, the accurate identification of those genetic interactions has been proven to be very challenging. Methods In this paper, we propose a new approach for identifying such gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying complex diseases. This is a hybrid algorithm and it combines genetic algorithm (GA and an ensemble of classifiers (called genetic ensemble. Using this approach, the original problem of SNP interaction identification is converted into a data mining problem of combinatorial feature selection. By collecting various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP subsets as well as environmental factors generated in multiple GA runs, patterns of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can be extracted using a simple combinatorial ranking method. Also considered in this study is the idea of combining identification results obtained from multiple algorithms. A novel formula based on pairwise double fault is designed to quantify the degree of complementarity. Conclusions Our simulation study demonstrates that the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm has comparable identification power to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and is slightly better than Polymorphism Interaction Analysis (PIA, which are the two most popular methods for gene-gene interaction identification. More importantly, the identification results generated by using our genetic ensemble algorithm are highly complementary to those obtained by PIA and MDR. Experimental results from our simulation studies and real world data application also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm, as well as the potential benefits of

  17. ERGDB: Estrogen Responsive Genes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Suisheng; Han, Hao; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2004-01-01

    ERGDB is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to genes responsive to estrogen. Genes included in ERGDB are those whose expression levels are experimentally proven to be either up-regulated or down-regulated by estrogen. Genes included are identified based on publications from the PubMed database and each record has been manually examined, evaluated and selected for inclusion by biologists. ERGDB aims to be a unified gateway to store, search, retrieve and update information about estrogen responsive genes. Each record contains links to relevant databases, such as GenBank, LocusLink, Refseq, PubMed and ATCC. The unique feature of ERGDB is that it contains information on the dependence of gene reactions on experimental conditions. In addition to basic information about the genes, information for each record includes gene functional description, experimental methods used, tissue or cell type, gene reaction, estrogen exposure time and the summary of putative estrogen response elements if the gene's promoter sequence was available. Through a web interface at http://sdmc.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/ergdb/ cgi-bin/explore.pl users can either browse or query ERGDB. Access is free for academic and non-profit users. PMID:14681475

  18. Gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Stephen B; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly accessible technologies for typing genetic variation, studies of gene-environment (G×E) interactions have proliferated in psychological research. Among the aims of such studies are testing developmental hypotheses and models of the etiology of behavioral disorders, defining boundaries of genetic and environmental influences, and identifying individuals most susceptible to risk exposures or most amenable to preventive and therapeutic interventions. This research also coincides with the emergence of unanticipated difficulties in detecting genetic variants of direct association with behavioral traits and disorders, which may be obscured if genetic effects are expressed only in predisposing environments. In this essay we consider these and other rationales for positing G×E interactions, review conceptual models meant to inform G×E interpretations from a psychological perspective, discuss points of common critique to which G×E research is vulnerable, and address the role of the environment in G×E interactions.

  19. Angiogenin gene polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli Wang; Dongsheng Fan; Yingshuang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we se-quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mel itus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy pa-tients) and 268 healthy controls. Al subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistical y significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.

  20. Are TMEM genes potential candidate genes for panic disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NO, Gregersen; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hedemand, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms in two transmembrane genes (TMEM98 and TMEM132E) in panic disorder (PD) patients and control individuals from the Faroe Islands, Denmark and Germany. The genes encode single-pass membrane proteins and are located within chromosome 17q11.2-q12...

  1. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART I. GENE DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-01-01

    Safe and effective gene delivery is a prerequisite for successful gene therapy. In the early age of human gene therapy, setbacks due to problematic gene delivery vehicles plagued the exciting therapeutic outcome. However, gene delivery technologies rapidly evolved ever since. With the advancement of gene delivery techniques, gene therapy clinical trials surged during the past decade. As the first gene therapy product has obtained regulatory approval and reached clinic, human gene therapy fina...

  2. Classifying genes to the correct Gene Ontology Slim term in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using neighbouring genes with classification learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsoulis Costas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that gene location and surrounding genes influence the functionality of genes in the eukaryotic genome. Knowing the Gene Ontology Slim terms associated with a gene gives us insight into a gene's functionality by informing us how its gene product behaves in a cellular context using three different ontologies: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. In this study, we analyzed if we could classify a gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to its correct Gene Ontology Slim term using information about its location in the genome and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes using classification learning. Results We performed experiments to establish that the MultiBoostAB algorithm using the J48 classifier could correctly classify Gene Ontology Slim terms of a gene given information regarding the gene's location and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes for training. Different neighbourhood sizes were examined to determine how many nearest neighbours should be included around each gene to provide better classification rules. Our results show that by just incorporating neighbour information from each gene's two-nearest neighbours, the percentage of correctly classified genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term for each ontology reaches over 80% with high accuracy (reflected in F-measures over 0.80 of the classification rules produced. Conclusions We confirmed that in classifying genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term, the inclusion of neighbour information from those genes is beneficial. Knowing the location of a gene and the Gene Ontology Slim information from neighbouring genes gives us insight into that gene's functionality. This benefit is seen by just including information from a gene's two-nearest neighbouring genes.

  3. Erg gene: a human gene related to the ets oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.P.; Rao, V.N.; Papas, T.S.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have isolated a cDNA clone representing the complete coding sequence of a human gene named erg, related to the ets oncogene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this cDNA (4.6 kilobases long) revealed that this gene encodes a 363-residue protein whose predicted amino acid sequence showed a homology of approx. = 40% and 70% to two domains corresponding to the 5' and 3' regions of v-ets oncogene, respectively. A 3.2- to 3.6-kilobase and approx. = 5-kilobase transcript of the erg gene, which differ in size from those of the previously described Hu-ets 1 and Hu-ets 2 genes, were observed in different cells. These results suggest that the erg gene is a member of the ets oncogen family.

  4. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-Hsi; FIOCCHI, CLAUDIO; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ripke, Stephan; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Rebert, Nancy; Duerr, Richard H.; Achkar, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified at least 133 ulcerative colitis (UC) associated loci. The role of genetic factors in clinical practice is not clearly defined. The relevance of genetic variants to disease pathogenesis is still uncertain because of not characterized gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. We examined the predictive value of combining the 133 UC risk loci with genetic interactions in an ongoing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) GWAS. The Wellcome Trust...

  5. Evidence Based Selection of Housekeeping Genes

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, Hendrik J.M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Eveline S. J. M. de Bont; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Gerbens, Frans; Kamps, Willem A.; Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; van der Zee, Ate G.J.; te Meerman, Gerard J.; ter Elst, Arja

    2007-01-01

    For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes (reference or internal control genes) is required. It is known that commonly used housekeeping genes (e.g. ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, and B2M) vary considerably under different experimental conditions and therefore their use for normalization is limited. We performed a meta-analysis of 13,629 human gene array samples in order to identify the most stable expressed genes. Here we show n...

  6. Advancement and prospects of tumor gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Liu, He; Zhang, Zhen-Zhu; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in tumor therapy. In past decades, significant progress has been achieved. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. Several therapeutic strategies have evolved, including gene-based (tumor suppressor genes, suicide genes, antiangiogenic genes, cytokine and oxidative stress-based genes) and RNA-based (antisense oligonucleotides and RNA inter...

  7. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  8. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  9. Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Laine; B.G. Loos; W. Crielaard

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polym

  10. FunGeneClusterS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites of fungi are receiving an increasing amount of interest due to their prolific bioactivities and the fact that fungal biosynthesis of secondary metabolites often occurs from co-regulated and co-located gene clusters. This makes the gene clusters attractive for synthetic biology...

  11. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  12. Multifunctional nanorods for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Aliasger K.; Searson, Peter C.; Leong, Kam W.

    2003-10-01

    The goal of gene therapy is to introduce foreign genes into somatic cells to supplement defective genes or provide additional biological functions, and can be achieved using either viral or synthetic non-viral delivery systems. Compared with viral vectors, synthetic gene-delivery systems, such as liposomes and polymers, offer several advantages including ease of production and reduced risk of cytotoxicity and immunogenicity, but their use has been limited by the relatively low transfection efficiency. This problem mainly stems from the difficulty in controlling their properties at the nanoscale. Synthetic inorganic gene carriers have received limited attention in the gene-therapy community, the only notable example being gold nanoparticles with surface-immobilized DNA applied to intradermal genetic immunization by particle bombardment. Here we present a non-viral gene-delivery system based on multisegment bimetallic nanorods that can simultaneously bind compacted DNA plasmids and targeting ligands in a spatially defined manner. This approach allows precise control of composition, size and multifunctionality of the gene-delivery system. Transfection experiments performed in vitro and in vivo provide promising results that suggest potential in genetic vaccination applications.

  13. Gene electrotransfer in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation is increasingly being used for delivery of chemotherapy to tumors. Likewise, gene delivery by electroporation is rapidly gaining momentum for both vaccination purposes and for delivery of genes coding for other therapeutic molecules, such as chronic diseases or cancer. This chapte...

  14. Phytochrome-regulated Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter H. Quail

    2007-01-01

    Identification of all genes involved in the phytochrome (phy)-mediated responses of plants to their light environment is an important goal in providing an overall understanding of light-regulated growth and development. This article highlights and integrates the central findings of two recent comprehensive studies in Arabidopsis that have identified the genome-wide set of phy-regulated genes that respond rapidly to red-light signals upon first exposure of dark-grown seedlings, and have tested the functional relevance to normal seedling photomorphogenesis of an initial subset of these genes. The data: (a) reveal considerable complexity in the channeling of the light signals through the different phy-family members (phyA to phyE) to responsive genes; (b) identify a diversity of transcription-factor-encoding genes as major early, if not primary, targets of phy signaling, and, therefore, as potentially important regulators in the transcriptional-network hierarchy; and (c) identify auxin-related genes as the dominant class among rapidly-regulated, hormone-related genes. However, reverse-genetic functional profiling of a selected subset of these genes reveals that only a limited fraction are necessary for optimal phy-induced seedling deetiolation.

  15. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  16. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder;

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...... known genes and 157 ESTs were found to be highly relevant for CRC. The alteration of known genes was confirmed in >70% of the cases by array analysis of 25 single samples. Two-way hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis clustered normal tissue together with Dukes' A, clustered Dukes' B with Dukes...

  17. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa....... Not is a homeobox containing gene that regulates the formation of the notochord in chordates, while Cdx (caudal) is a ParaHox gene involved in the formation of posterior tissues of various animal phyla. The T. transversa homolog, TtrNot, is expressed in the ectoderm from the beginning of gastrulation until...... formation. TtrNot expression is absent in unfertilized eggs, in embryos prior to gastrulation, and in settled individuals during and after metamorphosis. Comparison with the expression patterns of Not genes in other metazoan phyla suggests an ancestral role for this gene in gastrulation and germ layer...

  18. Delivery systems for gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of DNA was unraveled by Watson and Crick in 1953, and two decades later Arber, Nathans and Smith discovered DNA restriction enzymes, which led to the rapid growth in the field of recombinant DNA technology. From expressing cloned genes in bacteria to expressing foreign DNA in transgenic animals, DNA is now slated to be used as a therapeutic agent to replace defective genes in patients suffering from genetic disorders or to kill tumor cells in cancer patients. Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives that were unthinkable two decades ago. Progress in molecular biology and especially, molecular medicine is now changing the basics of clinical medicine. A variety of viral and non-viral possibilities are available for basic and clinical research. This review summarizes the delivery routes and methods for gene transfer used in gene therapy.

  19. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  20. GeneMANIA Prediction Server 2013 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Zuberi, Khalid; Franz, Max; Rodriguez, Harold; Montojo, Jason; Lopes, Christian Tannus; Bader, Gary D.; Morris, Quaid

    2013-01-01

    GeneMANIA (http://www.genemania.org) is a flexible user-friendly web interface for generating hypotheses about gene function, analyzing gene lists and prioritizing genes for functional assays. Given a query gene list, GeneMANIA extends the list with functionally similar genes that it identifies using available genomics and proteomics data. GeneMANIA also reports weights that indicate the predictive value of each selected data set for the query. GeneMANIA can also be used in a function predict...

  1. Gene expression profiling: can we identify the right target genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Loyd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling allows the simultaneous monitoring of the transcriptional behaviour of thousands of genes, which may potentially be involved in disease development. Several studies have been performed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, which aim to define genetic links to the disease in an attempt to improve the current understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disease and target pathways for intervention. Expression profiling has shown a clear difference in gene expression between IPF and normal lung tissue, and has identified a wide range of candidate genes, including those known to encode for proteins involved in extracellular matrix formation and degradation, growth factors and chemokines. Recently, familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts have been examined in an attempt to detect specific genetic mutations associated with IPF. To date, these studies have identified families in which IPF is associated with mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C, or with mutations in genes encoding components of telomerase. Although rare and clearly not responsible for the disease in all individuals, the nature of these mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the potential for gene expression profiling in helping to advance the current understanding of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712

  3. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  4. Genes, Economics, and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H; Frey, Bruno S

    2012-11-01

    We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being.

  5. Genes and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, C

    2004-12-01

    The way people think about equality as a value will influence how they think genetic interventions should be regulated. In this paper the author uses the taxonomy of equality put forth by Derek Parfit and applies this to the issue of genetic interventions. It is argued that telic egalitarianism is untenable and that deontic egalitarianism collapses into prioritarianism. The priority view maintains that it is morally more important to benefit the people who are worse off. Once this precision has been given to the concerns egalitarians have, a number of diverse issues must be considered before determining what the just regulation of genetic interventions would be. Consideration must be given to the current situation of the least advantaged, the fiscal realities behind genetic interventions, the budget constraints on other social programmes egalitarians believe should receive scarce public funds, and the interconnected nature of genetic information. These considerations might lead egalitarians to abandon what they take to be the obvious policy recommendations for them to endorse regarding the regulation of gene therapies and enhancements. PMID:15574450

  6. Genes, Economics, and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H; Frey, Bruno S

    2012-11-01

    We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being. PMID:24349601

  7. Gene Electrotransfer: A Mechanistic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosazza, Christelle; Meglic, Sasa Haberl; Zumbusch, Andreas; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is a powerful method of DNA delivery offering several medical applications, among the most promising of which are DNA vaccination and gene therapy for cancer treatment. Electroporation entails the application of electric fields to cells which then experience a local and transient change of membrane permeability. Although gene electrotransfer has been extensively studied in in vitro and in vivo environments, the mechanisms by which DNA enters and navigates through cells are not fully understood. Here we present a comprehensive review of the body of knowledge concerning gene electrotransfer that has been accumulated over the last three decades. For that purpose, after briefly reviewing the medical applications that gene electrotransfer can provide, we outline membrane electropermeabilization, a key process for the delivery of DNA and smaller molecules. Since gene electrotransfer is a multipart process, we proceed our review in describing step by step our current understanding, with particular emphasis on DNA internalization and intracellular trafficking. Finally, we turn our attention to in vivo testing and methodology for gene electrotransfer. PMID:27029943

  8. Genes: an Open Access Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peter W. Young

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Genes have been in the scientific vocabulary for a hundred years. The term "gene" was proposed by the Danish plant scientist Wilhelm Johannsen in the first decade of the 20th century. For Johannsen, the gene remained an abstract concept, "free of any hypothesis" [1], but others were already pointing to chromosomes as the likely location of genes. The science of genetics was born at that time, and genes were rapidly connected with mutations, with patterns of inheritance, with development, with quantitative traits, with evolution and with biochemical pathways. All this was achieved without knowledge of the physical nature of genes, but this changed in mid-century with the discoveries of molecular biology. DNA was revealed as the genetic material, and the mechanisms were elucidated by which the information was encoded, and propagated, and linked to the phenotype. However, the concept of a "gene" did not become clearer. Quite the reverse, as the units of mutation, of recombination, of inheritance, of expression, of regulation, etc. did not necessarily coincide. [...

  9. Linking Genes to Cardiovascular Diseases: Gene Action and Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-12-01

    A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases. Current technologies can identify candidate genes variously involved in diverse normal/abnormal morphomechanical phenotypes, and offer insights into multiple genetic factors implicated in complex cardiovascular syndromes. The expression profiles of thousands of genes are regularly ascertained under diverse conditions. Global analyses of gene expression levels are useful for cataloging genes and correlated phenotypes, and for elucidating the role of genes in maladies. Comparative expression of gene networks coupled to complex disorders can contribute insights as to how "modifier genes" influence the expressed phenotypes. Increasingly, a more comprehensive and detailed systematic understanding of genetic abnormalities underlying, for example, various genetic cardiomyopathies is emerging. Implementing genomic findings in cardiology practice may well lead directly to better diagnosing and therapeutics. There is currently evolving a strong appreciation for the value of studying gene anomalies, and doing so in a non-disjointed, cohesive manner. However, it is challenging for many-practitioners and investigators-to comprehend, interpret, and utilize the clinically increasingly accessible and affordable cardiovascular genomics studies. This survey addresses the need for fundamental understanding in this vital area.

  10. GeneNet: a database on structure and functional organisation of gene networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ananko, E A; Podkolodny, N. L.; Stepanenko, I. L.; Ignatieva, E. V.; Podkolodnaya, O. A.; Kolchanov, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The GeneNet database is designed for accumulation of information on gene networks. Original technology applied in GeneNet enables description of not only a gene network structure and functional relationships between components, but also metabolic and signal transduction pathways. Specialised software, GeneNet Viewer, automatically displays the graphical diagram of gene networks described in the database. Current release 3.0 of GeneNet database contains descriptions of 25 gene networks, 945 pr...

  11. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160528.html Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity Differences in 'genetic ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Hispanic American Health Recent Health ...

  12. Personalized Medicine: Matching Treatments to Your Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Personalized Medicine Matching Treatments to Your Genes You’re one of a kind. It’s not ... personalized medicine begins with the unique set of genes you inherited from your parents. Genes are stretches ...

  13. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > The Basics ... such as treating health problems. What Is a Gene? To understand how genes work, let's review some ...

  14. Gene Therapy for Diseases and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mentor Submit Your Press Release Donate Home ASGCT Gene Therapy for Diseases Gene Therapy has made important ... Among the most notable advancements are the following: Gene Therapy for Genetic Disorders Severe Combined Immune Deficiency ( ...

  15. The Ensembl gene annotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aken, Bronwen L; Ayling, Sarah; Barrell, Daniel; Clarke, Laura; Curwen, Valery; Fairley, Susan; Fernandez Banet, Julio; Billis, Konstantinos; García Girón, Carlos; Hourlier, Thibaut; Howe, Kevin; Kähäri, Andreas; Kokocinski, Felix; Martin, Fergal J; Murphy, Daniel N; Nag, Rishi; Ruffier, Magali; Schuster, Michael; Tang, Y Amy; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk; White, Simon; Zadissa, Amonida; Flicek, Paul; Searle, Stephen M J

    2016-01-01

    The Ensembl gene annotation system has been used to annotate over 70 different vertebrate species across a wide range of genome projects. Furthermore, it generates the automatic alignment-based annotation for the human and mouse GENCODE gene sets. The system is based on the alignment of biological sequences, including cDNAs, proteins and RNA-seq reads, to the target genome in order to construct candidate transcript models. Careful assessment and filtering of these candidate transcripts ultimately leads to the final gene set, which is made available on the Ensembl website. Here, we describe the annotation process in detail.Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org/index.html. PMID:27337980

  16. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin;

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies....... For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce...

  17. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2009-08-01

    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  18. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  19. Parsimonious selection of useful genes in microarray gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    González Navarro, Félix Fernando; Belanche Muñoz, Luis Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Machine Learning methods have of late made significant efforts to solving multidisciplinary problems in the field of cancer classification in microarray gene expression data. These tasks are characterized by a large number of features and a few observations, making the modeling a non-trivial undertaking. In this work we apply entropic filter methods for gene selection, in combination with several off-the-shelf classifiers. The introduction of bootstrap resampling techniques permits the achiev...

  20. Integrating Gene Ontology and Blast to predict gene functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-gang; MO Zhi-hong

    2007-01-01

    A GoBlast system was built to predict gene function by integrating Blast search and Gene Ontology (GO) annotations together. The operation system was based on Debian Linux 3.1, with Apache as the web server and Mysql database as the data storage system. FASTA files with GO annotations were taken as the sequence source for blast alignment, which were formatted by wu-formatdb program. The GoBlast system includes three Bioperl modules in Perl: a data input module, a data process module and a data output module. A GoBlast query starts with an amino acid or nucleotide sequence. It ends with an output in an html page, presenting high scoring gene products which are of a high homology to the queried sequence and listing associated GO terms beside respective gene poducts. A simple click on a GO term leads to the detailed explanation of the specific gene function. This avails gene function prediction by Blast. GoBlast can be a very useful tool for functional genome research and is available for free at http://bioq.org/goblast.

  1. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...

  2. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily.

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, V; Hänni, C; Coll, J.; F. Catzeflis; Stéhelin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear receptor genes represent a large family of genes encoding receptors for various hydrophobic ligands such as steroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid and thyroid hormones. This family also contains genes encoding putative receptors for unknown ligands. Nuclear receptor gene products are composed of several domains important for transcriptional activation, DNA binding (C domain), hormone binding and dimerization (E domain). It is not known whether these genes have evolved through gene duplica...

  3. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of ...

  4. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  5. The evolution of resistance gene in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Haiyan; LIU Xuemin; LI Lijun; LIU Li

    2007-01-01

    Resistance genes enable plants to fight against plant pathogens. Plant resistance genes (R gene) are organized complexly in genome. Some resistance gene sequence data enable an insight into R gene structure and gene evolution. Some sites like Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) are of specific interest since homologous recombination can happen. Crossing over, transposon insertion and excision and mutation can produce new specificity. Three models explaining R gene evolution were discussed. More information needed for dissection of R gene evolution though some step can be inferred from genetic and sequence analysis.

  6. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  7. Gene discovery in Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Burgos Nelia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the most relevant vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone of South America. Since its genome has not yet been studied, sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs is one of the most powerful tools for efficiently identifying large numbers of expressed genes in this insect vector. Results In this work, we generated 826 ESTs, resulting in an increase of 47% in the number of ESTs available for T. infestans. These ESTs were assembled in 471 unique sequences, 151 of which represent 136 new genes for the Reduviidae family. Conclusions Among the putative new genes for the Reduviidae family, we identified and described an interesting subset of genes involved in development and reproduction, which constitute potential targets for insecticide development.

  8. Gene therapy in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2006-08-01

    Lung transplantation is effective life-saving therapy for the treatment of a variety of end-stage lung diseases. However, the application of lung transplantation is hindered by multiple factors such as the shortage of organ donors, early graft failure and chronic graft dysfunction. These problems are related to various lung injuries before and after transplantation including donor brain-death-related lung injury, ischemia, reperfusion and immune-mediated injuries. Gene transfection presents a potential molecular therapeutic solution to modify the transplanted organ such that it is better able to deal with these obstacles. In fact, in many ways lung transplantation is an ideal situation for gene therapy in that: 1) the targeted injuries are predictable (e.g. IR injury), 2) only transient gene expression is needed in many instances, 3) the immunosuppressive regimen necessary to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ attenuates vector-induced inflammation and the immune response to the vectors or the transgene products, and thus effectively augments and prolongs gene expression; 4) the anatomical structure of the lung enables trans-airway access and local gene delivery - as well as re-transfection. A number of issues need to be considered to develop a strategy of gene delivery in lung transplantation: administration route (intra-airway, trans-vascular, intravenous, intramuscular), timing (donor in-vivo, ex-vivo organ transfection or recipient), vector selection and gene selection. Based on our work and the work of others, over the last decade, we present the state of art of in gene therapy in lung transplantation and exciting future directions in the field. PMID:16918334

  9. Shuffling Yeast Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bilke, Sven

    2000-01-01

    A new method to sort gene expression patterns into functional groups is presented. The method is based on a sorting algorithm using a non-local similarity score, which takes all other patterns in the dataset into account. The method is therefore very robust with respect to noise. Using the expression data for yeast, we extract information about functional groups. Without prior knowledge of parameters the cell cycle regulated genes in yeast can be identified. Furthermore a second, independent ...

  10. Gene mutations in hepatocellular adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raft, Marie B; Jørgensen, Ernö N; Vainer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the TCF1 gene and morphologically has marked steatosis. β-catenin activating HCA has increased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and is associated with possible malignant transformation. Inflammatory HCA is characterized by an oncogene-induced inflammation due....... This review offers an overview of the reported gene mutations associated with hepatocellular adenomas together with a discussion of the diagnostic and prognostic value....

  11. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  12. Gemini surfactants as gene carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Piskorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants are a new class of amphiphilic compounds built from two classic surfactant moieties bound together by a special spacer group. These compounds appear to be excellent for creating complexes with DNA and are effective in mediating transfection. Thanks to their construction, DNA carrier molecules built from gemini surfactants are able to deliver genes to cells of almost any DNA molecule size, unattainable when using viral gene delivery systems. Moreover, they are much safer for living organisms.

  13. Gene therapy in clinical medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Selkirk, S

    2004-01-01

    Although the field of gene therapy has experienced significant setbacks and limited success, it is one of the most promising and active research fields in medicine. Interest in this therapeutic modality is based on the potential for treatment and cure of some of the most malignant and devastating diseases affecting humans. Over the next decade, the relevance of gene therapy to medical practices will increase and it will become important for physicians to understand the basic principles and st...

  14. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular ti...

  15. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  16. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja L. Laine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in the IL1, IL6, IL10, vitamin D receptor, and CD14 genes may be associated with CP in certain populations. However, carriage rates of the rare (-allele of any polymorphism varied considerably among studies and most of the studies appeared under-powered and did not correct for other risk factors. Larger cohorts, well-defined phenotypes, control for other risk factors, and analysis of multiple genes and polymorphisms within the same pathway are needed to get a more comprehensive insight into the contribution of gene polymorphisms in CP.

  17. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  18. Immunoglobulin genes of the turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The availability of reptile genomes for the use of the scientific community is an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of immunoglobulin genes. The genome of Chrysemys picta bellii and Pelodiscus sinensis is the first one that has been reported for turtles. The scanning for immunoglobulin genes resulted in the presence of a complex locus for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH). This IGH locus in both turtles contains genes for 13 isotypes in C. picta bellii and 17 in P. sinensis. These correspond with one immunoglobulin M, one immunoglobulin D, several immunoglobulins Y (six in C. picta bellii and eight in P. sinensis), and several immunoglobulins that are similar to immunoglobulin D2 (five in C. picta belli and seven in P. sinensis) that was previously described in Eublepharis macularius. It is worthy to note that IGHD2 are placed in an inverted transcriptional orientation and present sequences for two immunoglobulin domains that are similar to bird IgA domains. Furthermore, its phylogenetic analysis allows us to consider about the presence of IGHA gene in a primitive reptile, so we would be dealing with the memory of the gene that originated from the bird IGHA. In summary, we provide a clear picture of the immunoglobulins present in a turtle, whose analysis supports the idea that turtles emerged from the evolutionary line from the differentiation of birds and the presence of the IGHA gene present in a common ancestor.

  19. Origin and evolution of new genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; YANG Shuang; PENG Lixin; CHEN Hong; WANG Wen

    2004-01-01

    Organisms have variable genome sizes andcontain different numbers of genes. This difference demonstrates that new gene origination is a fundamental process in evolutionary biology. Though the study of the origination of new genes dated back more than half a century ago, it is not until the 1990s when the first young genejingwei was found that empirical investigation of the molecular mechanisms of origination of new genes became possible. In the recent years,several young genes were identified and the studies on these genes have greatly enriched the knowledge of this field. Yet more details in a general picture of new genes origination are to be clarified. We have developed a systematic approach to searching for young genes at the genomic level, in the hope to summarize a general pattern of the origination and evolution of new genes, such as the rate of new gene appearance, impact of new genes on their host genomes, etc.

  20. Development of Low Phytate Rice by RNAi Mediated Seed-Specific Silencing of Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase Gene (IPK1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nusrat; Paul, Soumitra; Gayen, Dipak; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (InsP6) is considered to be the major source of phosphorus and inositol phosphates in most cereal grains. However, InsP6 is not utilized efficiently by monogastric animals due to lack of phytase enzyme. Furthermore, due to its ability to chelate mineral cations, phytic acid is considered to be an antinutrient that renders these minerals unavailable for absorption. In view of these facts, reducing the phytic acid content in cereal grains is a desired goal for the genetic improvemen...

  1. Noninvasive tracking of gene transcript and neuroprotection after gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J; Chen, Y I; Liu, C H; Chen, P-C; Prentice, H; Wu, J-Y; Liu, P K

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy holds exceptional potential for translational medicine by improving the products of defective genes in diseases and/or providing necessary biologics from endogenous sources during recovery processes. However, validating methods for the delivery, distribution and expression of the exogenous genes from such therapy can generally not be applicable to monitor effects over the long term because they are invasive. We report here that human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) complimentary DNA (cDNA) encoded in self-complementary adeno-associated virus-type 2 adeno-associated virus, as delivered through eye drops at multiple time points after cerebral ischemia using bilateral carotid occlusion for 60 min (BCAO-60) led to significant reduction in mortality rates, cerebral atrophy and neurological deficits in C57black6 mice. Most importantly, we validated hG-CSF cDNA expression using translatable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in living brains. This noninvasive approach for monitoring exogenous gene expression in the brains has potential for great impact in the area of experimental gene therapy in animal models of heart attack, stroke, Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disorder and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the translation of such techniques to emergency medicine. PMID:26207935

  2. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  3. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy.

  4. Characterizing gene-gene interactions in a statistical epistasis network of twelve candidate genes for obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rishika; Hu, Ting; Moore, Jason H.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent findings have reemphasized the importance of epistasis, or gene-gene interactions, as a contributing factor to the unexplained heritability of obesity. Network-based methods such as statistical epistasis networks (SEN), present an intuitive framework to address the computational challenge of studying pairwise interactions between thousands of genetic variants. In this study, we aimed to analyze pairwise interactions that are associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) between SNPs...

  5. A gene sets approach for identifying prognostic gene signatures for outcome prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Yong Sung; Kim Seon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is a promising approach to better estimate patient prognosis; however, there are still unresolved problems, including little overlap among similarly developed gene sets and poor performance of a developed gene set in other datasets. Results We applied a gene sets approach to develop a prognostic gene set from multiple gene expression datasets. By analyzing 12 independent breast cancer gene expression datasets comprising 1,756 tissues with 2,411 pr...

  6. How Gene Patents May Inhibit Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.

  7. Analysis of Duplicate Genes in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.M. Cai; K.J. Van; M.Y. Kim; S.H. Lee

    2007-01-01

    @@ Gene duplication is a major determinant of the size and gene complement of eukaryotic genomes (Lockton and Gaut, 2005). There are a number of different ways in which duplicate genes can arise (Sankoff, 2001), but the most spectacular method of gene duplication may be whole genome duplication via polyploidization.

  8. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric;

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  9. The KCNE genes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a candidate gene study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Haundrup, Ole; Andersen, Paal S;

    2011-01-01

    The gene family KCNE1-5, which encode modulating β-subunits of several repolarising K+-ion channels, has been associated with genetic cardiac diseases such as long QT syndrome, atrial fibrillation and Brugada syndrome. The minK peptide, encoded by KCNE1, is attached to the Z-disc of the sarcomere...... as well as the T-tubules of the sarcolemma. It has been suggested that minK forms part of an "electro-mechanical feed-back" which links cardiomyocyte stretching to changes in ion channel function. We examined whether mutations in KCNE genes were associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a...

  10. Gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle after gene electrotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Zibert, John R; Gissel, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene transfer by electroporation (DNA electrotransfer) to muscle results in high level long term transgenic expression, showing great promise for treatment of e.g. protein deficiency syndromes. However little is known about the effects of DNA electrotransfer on muscle fibres. We have...... investigated by microarray analysis, and descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate the effects of 1) electroporation, 2) DNA injection, and 3) time after treatment. The biological significance of the results was assessed by gene annotation and supervised cluster analysis.Generally, electroporation...

  11. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  12. FINDING GENERIFS VIA GENE ONTOLOGY ANNOTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhiyong; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    A Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) is a concise phrase describing a function of a gene in the Entrez Gene database. Applying techniques from the area of natural language processing known as automatic summarization, it is possible to link the Entrez Gene database, the Gene Ontology, and the biomedical literature. A system was implemented that automatically suggests a sentence from a PubMed/MEDLINE abstract as a candidate GeneRIF by exploiting a gene’s GO annotations along with location f...

  13. Molecular Studies on Preproinsulin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin plays an important role in maintaining the blood glucose level of the body. The β-cells of pancreas produce insulin in the form of precursor that is preproinsulin. The gene of preproinsulin provides an interesting system for addressing question related to molecular evolution. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate and sequence the chromosomal genes coding for unique protein products. Although preproinsulin of various organism has been isolated and cloned, but there is no report from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis that is our major livestock. The genomic DNA of buffalo was isolated using Laura-Lee-Boodram method. The part of preproinsulin gene (596bp and 520bp using BPPI-UPS and bpiful_F as forward and BC1-C as reverse primer was amplified. Cloning of amplified fragments of gene were performed in pCR 2.1 vector. Positive clones were screened on the basis of blue white selection. The band obtained on 596bp and 520bp after colony PCR confirmed the successful cloning of preproinsulin gene in pCR 2.1 vector.

  14. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  15. Clock Genes in Glia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Castañeda, Donají

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are periodic patterns in biological processes that allow the organisms to anticipate changes in the environment. These rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in vertebrates. At a molecular level, circadian rhythms are regulated by the so-called clock genes, which oscillate in a periodic manner. The protein products of clock genes are transcription factors that control their own and other genes’ transcription, collectively known as “clock-controlled genes.” Several brain regions other than the SCN express circadian rhythms of clock genes, including the amygdala, the olfactory bulb, the retina, and the cerebellum. Glia cells in these structures are expected to participate in rhythmicity. However, only certain types of glia cells may be called “glial clocks,” since they express PER-based circadian oscillators, which depend of the SCN for their synchronization. This contribution summarizes the current information about clock genes in glia cells, their plausible role as oscillators and their medical implications. PMID:27666286

  16. Advancement and prospects of tumor gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Qing-Tao Wang; He Liu; Zhen-Zhu Zhang; Wen-Lin Huang

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in tumor therapy. In past decades, significant progress has been achieved. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. Several therapeutic strategies have evolved, including gene-based (tumor suppressor genes, suicide genes, antiangiogenic genes, cytokine and oxidative stress-based genes) and RNA-based (antisense oligonucieotides and RNA interference) approaches. In addition, immune response-based strategies (dendritic cell- and T cell-based therapy) are also under investigation in tumor gene therapy. This review highlights the progress and recent developments in gene delivery systems, therapeutic strategies, and possible clinical directions for gene therapy.

  17. Genes Contributing to the Development of Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors (i.e., variations in specific genes) account for a substantial portion of the risk for alcoholism. However, identifying those genes and the specific variations involved is challenging. Researchers have used both case–control and family studies to identify genes related to alcoholism risk. In addition, different strategies such as candidate gene analyses and genome-wide association studies have been used. The strongest effects have been found for specific variants of genes that...

  18. Switching on the Lights for Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Winkeler; Miguel Sena-Esteves; Paulis, Leonie E.M.; Hongfeng Li; Yannic Waerzeggers; Benedikt Rückriem; Uwe Himmelreich; Markus Klein; Parisa Monfared; Rueger, Maria A.; Michael Heneka; Stefan Vollmar; Mathias Hoehn; Cornel Fraefel; Rudolf Graf

    2007-01-01

    Strategies for non-invasive and quantitative imaging of gene expression in vivo have been developed over the past decade. Non-invasive assessment of the dynamics of gene regulation is of interest for the detection of endogenous disease-specific biological alterations (e.g., signal transduction) and for monitoring the induction and regulation of therapeutic genes (e.g., gene therapy). To demonstrate that non-invasive imaging of regulated expression of any type of gene after in vivo transductio...

  19. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  20. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan,; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2006-01-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear E...