WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta-plus decay radioisotopes

  1. Correction of dynamic time-activity curves for gamma-camera dead time, radiotracer delivery, and radioactive decay: special considerations with ultrashort-lived radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, A.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Treves, S.

    1985-01-01

    Time-vs.-activity curves obtained by using ultrashort-lived radioisotopes often need to be corrected for the effects of gamma-camera dead time and physical decay. Count loss due to gamma-camera dead time can be monitored by using an electronic oscillator incorporated into the gamma camera. Two algorithms that use this information to correct time-activity curves are discussed. It is also shown that the effect of physical decay on a time-activity curve is dependent on the time course of delivery of the radioisotope to the organ of interest. A mathematical technique that corrects physical decay is described

  2. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  3. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, D.L.; Flood, D.J.; Lowe, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source

  4. Sickle Cell Beta-Plus Thalassemia with Subcapsular Hematoma of the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash Dahal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While splenic complications like hypersplenism, sequestration crisis, and infarction are commonly reported in sickle cell variants like sickle cell beta-plus thalassemia, splenic rupture with hematoma is rare. We present a case of a 32-year-old young male who presented with dull left upper quadrant pain who was found to have multiple subcapsular splenic lacerations and hematoma on abdominal imaging. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed sickle cell beta-plus thalassemia in the patient. There was no history of trauma, and rest of the workup for possible cause of spontaneous rupture of spleen was negative. With the patient refusing splenectomy, he was managed conservatively. Clinicians need to be aware of this rare complication of sickle cell variants.

  5. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  6. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  7. The effects of different levels of Beta Plus on growth performance, microbial flora and blood parameters of Caspian trout, Salmo caspius (Kessler, 1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Krimzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Beta plus probiotic, a mixture of Bacillius leicheniformic and Bacillius subtilis, on the growth performance and intestinal microbial flora of Caspian trout (Salmo caspius. A basal diet was formulated and supplemented with Beta plus at 0, 0.5 and 1 g kg-1, leading to three experimental diets. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to quadruple 1500 L tanks. The Caspian trout with an initial weight of 108.7 ± 1.8 g were randomly distributed in the experimental tanks. The results showed that inclusion of dietary Beta plus significantly increased the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of Caspian trout compared to those the control treatment. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was also improved significantly after probiotic administration to the experimental fish. However, the body composition and blood parameters were not influenced by the probiotic inclusion. Total count of Gram positive and negative bacteria in the intestine of the fish increased by feeding on diet contained 1 g kg-1 Beta Plus (P<0.05. In conclusion, administration of the probiotic Beta plus can improve the nutrient efficiency and growth performance of Caspian trout confirming the positive effect of a mixture of Bacillus spp.

  8. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  9. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  10. Radioisotope camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  11. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  12. Radioisotope detection with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.S.; Muller, R.A.; Tans, P.P.

    1979-12-01

    High energy mass spectrometry is a new and very sensitive technique of measuring rare radioisotopes. This paper describes the techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample and the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications

  13. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  14. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ''neutron rich'' and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail

  15. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators, the radio lanthanides: 151 Pm, 147 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho, 177 Lu, 131 I and the 32 P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the 99m Tc and the 188 Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  16. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  17. Radioisotopes production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Application of radioisotopes for both medical and industrial applications constitutes one of the most important peaceful uses of atomic energy. The striking diffusion and the exciting perspective of radioisotope for a plethora of medical and industrial applications are mainly attributable to the penetrating and ionization properties of radiation emanating from radioisotopes. The revolutionary medical applications of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of diseases are causing a rapid expansion of the nuclear medicine field. While the industrial uses of radioisotopes are not expanding as quickly, also require large amounts of radioisotopes. Production of radioisotopes is not only the first step, but also the most crucial for the success as well as sustainable growth of radioisotope applications. With the rapid growth and expanding areas of applications, the demands for isotopes have increased several folds. A number of radioisotopes of different physical half-life, energy of the particle or gamma emission, specific activity and chemistry are now regularly produced both at commercial centers as well as at selected nuclear science research institutes utilizing reactors and cyclotrons to meet the ever growing need

  18. Seven Things to Know about Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Each atomic element knows exactly how many protons and neutrons it needs at its centre (nucleus) in order to be stable (stay in its elemental form). Radioisotopes are atomic elements that do not have the correct proton to neutron ratio to remain stable. With an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons, energy is given off by the atom in an attempt to become stable. For example, a stable carbon atom has six protons and six neutrons. Whereas its unstable (and therefore radioactive) isotope carbon-14, has six protons and eight neutrons. Carbon-14 and all other unstable elements are called radioisotopes. This movement towards stability, which involves emitting energy from the atom in the form of radiation, is known as radioactive decay. This radiation can be tracked and measured, making radioisotopes very useful in industry, agriculture and medicine

  19. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  20. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  1. Visualization of Radioisotope Detectability Over Time.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Brady [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A radioactive isotope is an atom that has an unstable nucleus. The isotope can undergo radioactive decay, the process in which excessive nuclear energy is emitted from the nucleus in many different forms, such as gamma radiation, alpha particles, or beta particles. The important thing to note is that these emissions act as a signature for the isotope. Each radioisotope has a particular emission spectrum, emitting radiation at different energies and at different rates.

  2. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  3. Economical Radioisotope Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  4. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  5. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  6. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  7. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culwell, J. P.

    1963-01-01

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  8. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  9. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  10. Radioisotope clocks in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, R E.M. [Oxford Univ. (UK). Research Lab. for Archaeology

    1979-09-06

    Methods of absolute dating which use the rate of disintegration of a radioactive nucleus as the clock, are reviewed. The use of the abundant radioisotopes (/sup 40/K, Th and U) and of the rare radioisotopes (/sup 14/C, /sup 10/Be, /sup 26/Al, /sup 32/Si, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 41/Ca, /sup 53/Mn) is discussed and radiation integration techniques (fission track dating, thermoluminescence and related techniques) are considered. Specific fields of use of the various methods and their accuracy are examined.

  11. Radioisotopes in soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Soils form a thin veneer of the Earth that sustain the entire flora and fauna of the terra firma. To that extent the soil as a natural resource is very precious and needs to be managed in a sustainable manner. The fate of degradation of pesticides in soil and build-up of heavy metals in the overall biosafety scenario is also studied gainfully using radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are a very potent tool in the hands of the Soil Scientists, perhaps, the most important among the peaceful applications in service of the mankind

  12. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  13. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  14. Radioisotopic heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  15. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  16. Radio-isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamins, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    A device is claimed for interrupting an elution process in a radioisotope generator before an elution vial is entirely filled. The generator is simultaneously exposed to sterile air both in the direction of the generator column and of the elution vial

  17. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  18. Radioisotope battery for particular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Tianjian; Liang Daihua; Cai Jianhua; Dai Zhimin; Xia Huihao; Wang Jianhua; Sun Sen; Yu Guojun; Wang Xiao; Wang Dongxing; Liu Xin

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotope battery, as a new type of power source, was developed in 1960s. It is advantageous in terms of long working life, high reliability, flexibility to rugged environment, maintenance free, and high capacity rate, hence its unique applications in space, isolated terrestrial or ocean spots, deep waters, and medicine. In this paper, we analysz the primary performances and classification of radioisotope thermoelectric generator, as well as characteristic, basic principle,and structure of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), which is the most popular in application of radioisotope battery in space, undersea, terrestrial and medicine. A prospect for development and application of radioisotope battery in the 21 st century is given, too. (authors)

  19. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are: 3 H, 14 Ca, 32 P, 35 S, 38 Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198 Au, 134 Cs, 131 I, 86 Rb, 65 Zn, 59 Fe, 45 Ca, 24 Na, 22 Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  20. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:{sup 3}H, {sup 14}Ca, {sup 32}P, {sup 35}S, {sup 38}Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: {sup 198}Au, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 24}Na, {sup 22}Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs.

  1. Work Began on Contracts for Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has had a history of successful space flight missions that depended on radioisotope-fueled power systems. These Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) converted the heat generated from the decay of radioisotope material into useful electrical power. An RPS is most attractive in applications where photovoltaics are not optimal, such as deep-space applications where the solar flux is too low or extended applications on planets such as Mars where the day/night cycle, settling of dust, and life requirements limit the usefulness of photovoltaics. NASA s Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) Program is developing next-generation power-conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by the two RPS flight systems currently being developed by the Department of Energy for NASA: the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG).

  2. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  3. Radioisotope production linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.; Hansborough, L.D.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 70-MeV proton beam would open a new family of medical radioisotopes (including the important 123 I) to wide application. A 70-MeV, 500-μA linac is described, based on recent innovations in accelerator technology. It would be 27.3 m long, cost approx. $6 million, and the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable to existing cyclotrons. By operating the rf-power system to its full capability, the same accelerator is capable of producing a 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons. The technology to build such a linac is in a mature stage of developmnt, ready for use by industry

  4. NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letule, T.

    2017-01-01

    NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Supplies around 20% of the world's medical radioisotopes used. NTP is a pioneer in the introduction and growth of nuclear medicine as in South Africa. Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that involves the use of radioactive isotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nuclear medicine contributes to enhancing the lives of the society. There is a compelling need for nuclear medicine to be promoted and utilized in the rest of Africa, due to the increasing prevalence of cancer. Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease

  5. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies

  6. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  7. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies.

  8. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Production of radioisotopes using accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator produced radioisotopes find applications in many fields. Most of them are ideally suited for in-vivo studies of physiological functions. A brief review of various types of accelerators used for radioisotope production is given. The 'state of art' technology relevant to the production of radioisotopes is briefly discussed. Some of the recent advances in nuclear data measurements, target development, chemical processing and quality control are described. There appears to be a definite shift from multipurpose accelerators to dedicated machines, and greater emphasis is placed now on the production of radioisotopes with high radionuclidic purity by choosing a suitable nuclear reaction in a proper energy range. (author)

  10. Applications of radioisotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, N.

    2012-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine is many folds. They can be classified into two main groups. (a) The radioisotope tagged labeled compounds suitable for safe administration in the body for diagnosis of various diseases of vital organs such as brain, kidney, thyroid etc and for treatment known as radiotherapy (b) The sealed source of radioisotopes for utilizing the radiation emitted from the radioisotope for treatment, particularly for radiation therapy of cancer. The former application of radioisotope in the field of medicine has led to the formation of special branch of medicine termed Nuclear Medicine - the branch of medicine deals with the use of radioisotope in the from of radiopharmaceuticals for investigation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioisotopes in the form of radiolabelled compound and bio-chemicals that are pharmaceutically and radiologically safe for administration in the body for diagnosis and treatment are called radiopharmaceuticals. The radiopharmaceuticals are the results of world-wide effort to bring nuclear energy in a tangible form for diagnosis and treatment. Radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals thus constitute one of the key requirements for nuclear medicine investigation and radiotherapy. In the case of sealed radioisotope source the radiation emitted by the radioactive source is utilized for the treatment and this mode of treatment is called radiation therapy where no radioactive substance is administrated into the body. This does not form the part of nuclear medicine

  11. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  12. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  13. Administration of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  14. Radioisotope relay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakov, V.N.; Sazonov, O.L.; Taksar, I.M.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Yanushkovskij, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a radioisotope relay device containing a radiation source, a detector, an electronic relay block with a comparative threshold mechanism. The device differs from previously known ones in that, for the purpose of increasing stability and speed of action, the electronic relay block is a separate unit and contains two threshold pulse generators which are joined up, across series-connected ''and'' and ''or'' elements, with one of the inputs of the comparative threshold mechanism, whose second input is connected with a detector and whose outputs are connected with a relay element connected by feedback with the above-mentioned ''and'' elements. (author)

  15. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools

  16. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  17. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  18. The safe handling of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-12-31

    A narrative account of a minor contamination accident in a laboratory is used to demonstrate the important role of radiation protection measures in radioisotope work and the necessity of giving proper regard to such measures. It is primarily directed towards the research scientists and medical workers using radioisotopes on a relatively small scale

  19. Support housing for radioisotope generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A support housing for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features countercurrent batch flow of the eluting reagent interior of the housing. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  20. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal

    2013-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  1. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal, E-mail: rma8@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  2. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  3. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  4. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  5. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1967-01-01

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  6. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  7. Generation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek-Finda, H.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing radioisotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications is claimed. A physiological solution is used to elute a radioactive daughter isotope from a fission-produced parent isotope adsorbed on an adsorbent. The eluate containing the daughter isotope is purified with a cation-exchange material. In separate claims: the parent isotope is molybdenum-99; aluminium oxide which contains fully or partly hydrated manganese dioxide is used as the adsorbent for the parent isotope; a resin is used as the cation-exchange material; a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been neutralized is used as a resin; and a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been converted into the Na + , K + or NH 4 + form is used as a resin; an isotope generator system is also claimed

  8. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  9. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  10. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  11. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  12. Radio-isotope powered light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spottiswoode, N.L.; Ryden, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The light source described comprises a radioisotope fuel source, thermal insulation against heat loss, a biological shield against the escape of ionizing radiation and a material having a surface which attains incandescence when subject to isotope decay heat. There is then a means for transferring this heat to produce incandescence of the surface and thus emit light. A filter associated with the surface permits a relatively high transmission of visible radiation but has a relatively high reflectance in the infra red spectrum. Such light sources require the minimum of attention and servicing and are therefore suitable for use in navigational aids such as lighthouses and lighted buoys. The isotope fuel sources and thus the insulation and shielding and the incandescent material can be chosen for the use required and several sources, materials, means of housing etc. are detailed. Operation and efficiency are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  14. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S M; Kim, E H [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  16. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  17. Recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a proton irradiated tantalum target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.A.; Garcia, J.G.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Ott, M.A.; Philips, D.R.; Radzinski, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The 178m2 Hf nucleus, with its long half-life (31 y) and high-spin isomeric state (16 + ) is desired for new and exotic nuclear physics studies. The Los Alamos Radioisotope Program irradiated a kilogram of natural tantalum at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility in early 1981. After fifteen years of decay, this target was ideal for the recovery of 178m2 Hf. There was more than a millicurie of 178m2 Hf produced during this irradiation and there has been a sufficient period of time for most of the other hafnium radioisotopes to decayed away. Traditionally, separation techniques for recovering hafnium isotopes from tantalum targets employ solvent extractions with reagents that are considered hazardous. These techniques are no longer condoned because they generate a mixed-waste (radioactive and hazardous components) that can not be treated for disposal. In this paper we describe a new and unique procedure for the recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a highly radioactive, proton irradiated, tantalum target using reagents that do not contribute a hazardous waste component. (author)

  18. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  19. Radioisotope techniques in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabuddha

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

  20. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  1. The analogy research study on gamma radiation dose rate of radioisotopes 131Ba and 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Youhua; Feng Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Analogy is a inference method ,according some properties of a class of things to inferring the similar things should also have the similar properties. The analogy of same radionuclides is widely used in radioisotope logging environment impact assessment so far. This paper is to provide fFor future providing a theoretical calculation method and analogy method between different radionuclides in radioisotope logging environment impact assessment. In this paper, using the latest decay scheme, through theoretical modeling, the aim is the the establishment of 131 Ba and 131 I radioisotopes gamma radiation dose rate calculation method, and try to carry out analogy research on gamma radiation dose rate of different radioisotopes with the same activity. The results show that the analogy of different radionuclides is feasible, which provides the new method reference for carrying out such radiation environmental impact assessment in future. (authors)

  2. Radioisotope detection and dating with accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T S; Muller, R A [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1980-07-01

    The status of the new technique of high energy mass spectrometry is reviewed. This sensitive method of measuring isotope concentrations has been applied to the detection of rare radioisotopes used for age estimation. The techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample are described and then the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications is reviewed.

  3. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  4. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  5. Radioisotopes in engineering and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of radioisotope techniques in engineering and materials quality control are shown. The inventory of mercury in electrolytical cells, the transit and residence time measurements in several processes and radiotracer control are studied. The radioactive tracers in hydrologycal problems is evaluated. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. Radioisotopes point the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiochemicals as tracers in medicine is discussed, with particular reference to the choice of radioisotope to be used, its properties, quality control and its detection and measurement in tracer experiments. The development of autoradiography is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  8. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Menossi, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  9. Radioisotopes Thermal Generators and its applications; Generadores térmicos de radioisótopos y sus aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnert, C.

    2016-07-01

    An historical review of the technologies for electricity generation using the decay heat of the radioisotopes is done. The technologies to convert the heat into electricity in the RTG (Radioisotopes Thermal Generators) Systems are described. The past, todays and future applications of RTG are described, to provide electricity to equipment in spatial satellites and spacecraft, lighthouse tower and sea bouys, submarine rovers, etc. At the end the safety characteristics and international regulations for RTG are mentioned.

  10. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131 I (solution and capsule), 131 I-MIBG, 131 I-Hippuran, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-HA, and 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  11. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  12. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. Some results of radioisotope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1974-10-01

    The accumulation of radioisotopes by brucellae depends on the consistency of the feed medium on which they are grown. The uptake of P-32 is a factor of 5 to 16 greater, and that of sulfur-35 in the form of sodium sulfate is a factor of 30 to 100 greater when grown on a complex solid agar than in a bouillion solution of the same ingredients. Brucellae are readily tagged with /sup 32/P and /sup 35/S simultaneously. These tagged brucellae were used to study in vitro storage under various temperature regimes. Brucellae actively incorporate iron. The uptake of methionine and cystine tagged with sulfur-35 by brucellae was investigated. Methionine is absorbed directly for the most part by brucellae, while the sulfur-35 in sodium sulfate is primarily transformed to cystine and cysteine. The uptake of various radioisotopes can be used to type various strains of brucellae. Isotopes are used to trace the course of various diseases in animals. (SJR)

  14. Radioisotopes in Burmese agricultural research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The Burmese authorities decided to start a laboratory for the use of radioisotope techniques in agricultural r e search. The laboratory was set up at the Agricultural Research Institute at Gyogon, on the outskirts of Rangoon. Under its technical assistance program, IAEA assigned an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes for this project. Discussions were held with regional representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the best lines of research to be adopted at the laboratory in its early stages. As the most important crop in Burma is rice, a series of experiments were planned for a study of the nutrition of rice, particularly its phosphorus uptake, with special reference to comparative responses on a range of typical paddy soils. The experiments began last year and are being continued.

  15. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  16. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  17. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjian

    1987-01-01

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  19. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  20. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Meera

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30 P, by bombardment of 27 Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  1. Evidence against solar influence on nuclear decay constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pommé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that proximity to the Sun causes variation of decay constants at permille level has been tested and disproved. Repeated activity measurements of mono-radionuclide sources were performed over periods from 200 days up to four decades at 14 laboratories across the globe. Residuals from the exponential nuclear decay curves were inspected for annual oscillations. Systematic deviations from a purely exponential decay curve differ from one data set to another and are attributable to instabilities in the instrumentation and measurement conditions. The most stable activity measurements of alpha, beta-minus, electron capture, and beta-plus decaying sources set an upper limit of 0.0006% to 0.008% to the amplitude of annual oscillations in the decay rate. Oscillations in phase with Earth's orbital distance to the Sun could not be observed within a 10−6 to 10−5 range of precision. There are also no apparent modulations over periods of weeks or months. Consequently, there is no indication of a natural impediment against sub-permille accuracy in half-life determinations, renormalisation of activity to a distant reference date, application of nuclear dating for archaeology, geo- and cosmochronology, nor in establishing the SI unit becquerel and seeking international equivalence of activity standards.

  2. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  3. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  4. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  5. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.; Becker, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration close-quote s Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  8. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  9. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  10. The industrial application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the two main fields of the industrial application of radioisotopes are introduced. In the field of process controlling device and control first about the transmission and the backscattering methods is reported. Then the x-ray fluorescence method and the moisture gauging with neutrons are mentioned. Also the measuring of depth of charge. In the field of tracer investigations about all kinds of flow and intermixture measurements is reported. And investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and precise location of nonmetallic pipe lines are mentioned. (Author)

  11. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  12. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  13. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  14. Production ampersand marketing of radioisotopes: A vital market for rare earths ampersand specialty metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Isotopes that spontaneously emit alpha (α) or beta (β) particles, or gamma rays (γ), are said to be radioactive. The emission process, called open-quotes decay,close quotes is precisely what makes radioactive isotopes, known as open-quotes radioisotopes,close quotes useful in a variety of applications, including nuclear medicine, commercial sterilization, manufacturing, geophysics, agriculture, and research programs in these and various other fields. Until 1960, radioisotope production was limited to government-owned nuclear reactors and particle accelerators in universities and government laboratories, primarily because the enormous cost of building these facilities could only be supported by government budgets. During this time, a few private companies managed to secure commercial rights to exploit the production capabilities of these facilities. Today, these companies and a few government agencies still provide the basis of global commercial radioisotope supply

  15. Study of solid target preparation for developing I-124, Pd-103, Cu-64 radioisotopes based cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hong; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hee Dong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The decay characteristics of I-124, Pd-103 and Cu-64 radioisotopes produced by cyclotron have considered useful agents for diagnostic imaging or therapy. Numbers of radioisotopes used in medical applications or promised for development are produced with solid targets. The aims of developing solid targets are to obtain large quantities of radionuclides from accelerators. The scope of the study is to develop optimized target system and chemical procedures of these radioisotopes. In order to increase the availability of the radionuclides, the investigation for the design of the solid target and different procedures yielding efficient production of high specific activity will be carrying. In this work, we will present the issue of the primary target design concept.

  16. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jae Jo; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Don Soon; Choi, Byung Jong; Jang, Dong Soon; Kim, Hye Sook

    2007-06-01

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  17. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daryoko, M.; Yatim, S.; Suseno, H.; Wiratmo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na 2 , sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10 -3 μCi/cm 2 . This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO 4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  18. Aspects of radioisotopes utilization in clinical medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G.; Lima e Forti, C.A. de; Cunha, M. da C.; Souza Maciel, O. de

    1973-01-01

    A revision concerning radioisotope use in Medicine have been dow. Harmless and effeciency of radioisotopes are shown. Techniques and advantages of tracers used for brain scintiscanning, lung scintiscanning, liver scintinscanning, spleen scintiscanning, bone scintiscanning and thyroid scintiscanning are described and images of them are presented [pt

  19. Elementary concepts of the radioisotopes uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.

    2004-01-01

    Endocrinology has been one of the specialties earlier benefited for the radioisotopes uses in the diagnosis and treatment of different affections. These applications are based on the radioisotopes property of biochemical behaving as non- radioactive molecules, and at the same time, radiations emitting that can be detected by suitable means (diagnostic utility) or that have effects on biological systems (therapeutic action). (author) [es

  20. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected and compiled on radioisotopes produced and sold by Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and on services rendered by DOE facilities. Compiled data were published and distributed in the document list of DOE Radioisotope Customers with Summary of Radioisotope Shipments, FY 1986, PNL-6361, October 1987. The DOE facilities that supplied information for the compilation were Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River Plant, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. (Hanford). The data provided were reported in several different ways: (1) a list of radioisotopes and services provided by each facility; (2) a list of radioisotope customers, the supplying DOE facility, and the radioisotope or service provided to each customer; and (3) a list of the quantity and value of each radioisotope or service sold by each DOE facility. The sales information covered foreign customers, domestic private customers, and domestic DOE customers

  1. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  2. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  3. Design of radioisotope power systems facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.C.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems currently produced for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Special Applications by the Mound Laboratory at Miamisburg, Ohio, have been used in a variety of configurations by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A forecast of fugure radioisotope power systems requirements showed a need for an increased production rate beyond the capability of the existing Mound Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford Company is modifying the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to install the new Radioisotope Power Systems Facility for assembling future radioisotope power systems. The facility is currently being prepared to assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996

  4. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuiqing

    1996-12-01

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60 Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  5. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co

  6. Radioisotopes present in building materials of workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Claro, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Corrêa, J. N.; Denyak, V.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A. F. N.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, T. O.; Rocha, Z.; Schelin, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    The isotope 222Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population. The decay products of 222Rn interacting with the cells of biological tissue of lungs have very high probability to induce cancer. The present survey was focused in the evaluation of activity concentration of 222Rn and other radioisotopes related to the building materials at workplaces at Curitiba - Paraná State. For this purpose, the instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used to measure the average concentrations of 222Rn in building materials, which were also submitted to gamma spectrometry analysis for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides present in samples of sand, mortar, blue crushed stone (Gneissic rock), red crushed stone (Granite), concrete and red bricks. The main radionuclides evaluated by gamma spectrometry in building material samples were 238U/226Ra, 232Th and 40K. These measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN - CNEN). The results of the survey present the concentration values of 222Rn related to construction materials in a range from 427±40.52 Bq/m³ to 2053±90.06 Bq/m³. The results of gamma spectroscopy analysis show that specific activity values for the mentioned isotopes are similar to the results indicated by the literature. Nevertheless, the present survey is showing the need of further studies and indicates that building materials can contribute significantly to indoor concentration of 222Rn.

  7. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  8. Radioisotopic studies in renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levasseur, A.; Robillard, R.; Lemieux, R.; Dandavino, R.; Girard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopic evaluation of kidney graft function has greatly reduced the need for more invasive studies such as arteriography, retrograde pyelograpy and graft biopsy. The schedule of sequential studies beginning the day after transplant may be modified according to the patient's clinical or biochemical status. The combined use of I 131 Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc DTPA allows early detection of graft rejection and its differentiation from tubular necrosis. Scintigraphic images may have a characteristic appearance in cases of arterial, venous or urinary obstruction, urinary fistule, infarction, abcess and lymphocele. This non-invasive diagnostic study requiring only an intravenous injection is simple, rapid, accurate and may be repeated as often as necessary. (auth) [fr

  9. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRossi; Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  10. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  11. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  12. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  13. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  14. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  15. The production and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolution of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop. (author)

  16. Twenty years of Korea radioisotope association history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.

  17. Research reactor production of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    More than 70% of all radioisotopes applied in medical diagnosis and research are currently produced in research reactors. Research reactors are also an important source of certain radioisotopes, such as 60 Co, 90 Y, 137 Cs and 198 Au, which are employed in teletherapy and brachytherapy. For regular medical applications, mainly 29 radionuclides produced in research reactors are used. These are now produced on an 'industrial scale' by many leading commercial manufacturers in industrialized countries as well as by national atomic energy establishments in developing countries. Five main neutron-induced reactions have been employed for the regular production of these radionuclides, namely: (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,γ) followed by decay, and (n, fission). In addition, the Szilard-Chalmers process has been used in low- and medium-flux research reactors to enrich the specific activity of a few radionuclides (mainly 51 Cr) produced by the (n,γ) reaction. Extensive work done over the last three decades has resulted in the development of reliable and economic large-scale production methods for most of these radioisotopes and in the establishment of rigorous specifications and purity criteria for their manifold applications in medicine. A useful spectrum of other radionuclides with suitable half-lives and low to medium toxicity can be produced in research reactors, with the requisite purity and specific activity and at a reasonable cost, to be used as tracers. Thanks to the systematic work done in recent years by many radiopharmaceutical scientists, the radionuclides of several elements, such as arsenic, selenium, rhenium, ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tellurium, antimony, platinum, lead and the rare earth elements, which until recently were considered 'exotic' in the biomedical field, are now gaining attention. (author)

  18. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  19. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  20. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  2. The supply of medical radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99 Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have recently created global supply shortages. This report provides the findings and analysis of two years of extensive examination of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It puts forth a comprehensive policy approach that would help ensure long-term supply security of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities of the supply chain, including its economic structure. (authors)

  3. Radioisotope sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowich, J.; Pandian, S.; Preiss, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems involved in developing radioisotope sources and the characteristics of potentially useful radioisotopes for X-ray fluorescence analysis are presented. These include the following. The isotope must be evaluated for the physical and chemical forms available, purity, half-life, specific activity, toxicity, and cost. The radiation hazards of the source must be considered. The type and amount of radiation output of the source must be evaluated. The source construction must be planned. The source should also present an advance over those currently available in order to justify its development. Some of the isotopes, which are not in use but look very promising, are indicated, and their data are tabulated. A more or less ''perfect'' source within a given range of interest would exhibit the following characteristics. (1) Decay by an isometric transition with little or no internal conversion, (2) Have an intense gamma transition near the absorption edge of the element(s) of interest with no high energy gammas, (3) Have a sufficiently long half-life (in the order of years) for both economic and calibration reasons, (4) Have a sufficiently large cross-section for production in a reasonable amount of time. If there are competing reactions the interfering isotopes should be reasonably short-lived, or if not, be apt to be separated from the isotope chemically with a minimum of difficulty. (T.G.)

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984

  6. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupon, Michel.

    1978-09-01

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles [fr

  7. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Azuddin Ali; Abdul Rahman Mohamad Ali.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm -2 S -1 ) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 10 13 n.cm -1 S -1 ). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  8. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  9. Production of radioisotopes with BR2 facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallais, C.J.; Morel de Westfaver, A.; Heeren, L.; Baugnet, J.M.; Gandolfo, J.M.; Boeykens, W.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief account on the isotopes production evolution in the industrialized countries the irradiation devices and the types of standardized capsules used in the BR2 reactor are described as well as the thermal neutron flux. Production of most important radioisotopes like 131 Iodine, 60 Cobalt, 192 Iridium and 99 Molybdenum and their main utilizations (uses)are described. The mean specific activities and the limit of use for different radioisotopes are reported. (A.F.)

  10. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  11. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  12. Technical diagnosis of industrial plants with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of radioisotopes in technical diagnosis of industrial plants. Proceeding from the economic importance and the state of the art of radioisotope applications, the principles of tracer techniques are outlined including topical examples of application such as passage of coal through a steam generator, wear in impact crashing of coal, wear and corrosion in pipelines, testing the effective cross section of pipes, and investigations of microstructures. Limits and restrictions of applications are briefly discussed

  13. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  14. Cost-benefit aspects of radioisotope methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The cost-benefit relations in the complex application of radioisotpe techniques increased in the last years to up to 1/10 to 1/15. The most essential cause of this trend is the increase of the capacity of production processes, controlled and automatized by means of radioisotopes, and the solution of qualitatively new technological problems of a high economic relevance. A collection of statistical data about the expediture and benefit of different radioisotopes techniques is presented. (author)

  15. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  16. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel

  17. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure

  18. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  19. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F.

    1991-10-01

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  20. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  1. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Faber, K.; Klijn, N.; Lemmens, C.; Wissink, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131 I its rather short half life, for 137 Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90 Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137 Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  2. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  3. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N; Tejera, A; Bulbulian, S; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  4. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health; Produccion de radioisotopos para aplicaciones en la salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators, the radio lanthanides: {sup 151}Pm, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 161}Tb, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 131}I and the {sup 32}P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the {sup 99m}Tc and the {sup 188}Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  5. Tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, A.

    1994-09-01

    The most recent experimental results of τ physics are reviewed. The covered topics include precision measurements of semihadronic τ decay and their impact on tau branching ratio budget, the current status of the tau consistency test, a determination of Michel parameters and τ neutrino helicity, and upper limits on lepton-number violating τ decays. (orig.)

  6. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  7. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  8. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators for implanted pacemakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Bovin, A.V.; Fedorets, V.I.; Shapovalov, V.P.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of long-life lithium batteries and the problems associated with miniature radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) with service lives of 10 years or longer. On eof the main problems encountered when devising a radioisotope heat source (RHS) for an RITEG is to obtain biomedical /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ with a specific neutron yield of 3.10/sup 3/-4.10/sup 3/ (g /SUP ./ sec)/sup -1/, equivalent to metallic Pu 238, and with a content of gamma impurities sufficient to ensure a permissible exposure a permissible exposure does rate (EDR) of a mixture of neutron and gamma radiation. After carrying out the isotope exchange and purifying the initial sample of its gamma impurity elements, the authors obtain biomedical Pu 238 satisfying the indicated requirements king suitable for use in the power packs of medical devices. Taking the indicated specifications into account, the Ritm-1o and gamma radioisotope heat sources were designed, built, tested in models and under natural conditions, and then into production as radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to power the electronic circuits of implanted pacemakers. The Ritm-MT and Gemma radioisotope thermoelectric generators described are basic units, which can be used as self-contained power supplies for electronic equipment with power requirements in the micromilliwatt range.

  9. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.; Rechard, R.

    2001-01-01

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  10. Safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc. (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An (interim) report by an ad hoc expert committee to the Nuclear Safety Commission, on the safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc., was presented. For the utilization of radioisotopes, etc., there is the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injury Due to Radioisotopes, etc. with the advances in this field and the improvement in international standards, the regulations by the law have been examined. After explaining the basic ideas of the regulations, the problems and countermeasures in the current regulations are described: legal system, rationalization in permission procedures and others, inspection on RI management, the system of the persons in charge of radiation handling, RI transport, low-level radioactive wastes, consumer goods, definitions of RIs, radiation and sealed sources, regulations by group partitioning, RI facilities, system of personnel exposure registration, entrusting of inspection, etc. to private firms, and reduction in the works for permission among governmental offices. (author)

  11. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1976-12-01

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  12. Random-process excursions in radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galochkin, D.V.; Polovko, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate expressions are derived for the mathematical expectation, variance, and distribution of the durations of the excursions of the output signal from a ratemeter in a radioisotope relay instrument. The tabulated comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculation shows good agreement over the mean value and the variance of the excursion duration for T 0.2 sec as calculated and as obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with a computer using 5000 realizations. It is suggested that the results should be used in choosing the optimum parameters of radioisotope relay instruments

  13. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  14. Radioisotopic control and automation of food mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Domestic and foreign experience in application of radioisotope devices to process control in fool industry, is described. The diagrams of devices to block and account the production in systems of process monitoring and control are considered. The methods of determining chemical composition of substances are discussed, as sell as the devices used for those purposes and based on recording β-and γ-radiation absorption by substance. The methods for determining dust and smoke content in premises using radioisotope devices. Level indicators, moisture gages and densitimeters usedf ctol level humidity, density and concentration of food products in the process of production are described [ru

  15. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  16. Clinical evaluation of radioisotope examination in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukochi, H [National Konodai Hospital (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    Although many approaches are tried for the diagnoses of malignant tumor, radiological examinations act surely main parts. Among the radiological examinations, radioisotope techniques are not well evaluated instead of their usefulness in this field. The reason may depend on the complexity and difficulty in legal limitations, however, the lack of knowledge in this field is also a main reason. In this paper, the present status of the evaluation of radioisotope techniques is discussed in selected region of the body and some characteristic cases are demonstrated.

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  18. Use of radioisotopes and nuclear methods in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehber, K.

    1976-01-01

    Some kinds of using radioisotope methods and instruments for regulation and control of metallurgical processes are reviewed. Computized data processing is described as well. The efficiency of industrial application of radioisotopes is remarked

  19. Calculation correlations for radioisotope level gages with relay tracing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Pakhunkov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship was examined between the operational and instrumental parameters of radioisotope tracking level indicators. The relationships were obtained permitting to check the reliability of the tracking regime, and also of the equilibrium state of the radioisotope tracking level indicator

  20. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  1. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1992-01-01

    The study of b quarks has now reached a stage where it is useful to review what has been learned so far and also to look at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - measurement of the "B" lifetime, B 0 - B 0 mixing, and the observation of b? u transitions, as well as more mundane results on hadronic and semileptonic transitions - are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. S

  2. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    This book reviews the study of b quarks and also looks at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - including measurement of the ""B"" lifetime and observations of b -> u transitions - as well as the more mundane results of hadronic and semileptonic transitions are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. Synthesizing the experimental and theoretical information, the authors d

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  6. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  7. How to find out in radioisotope methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections entitled: tracing books by topic; radioisotope methodology cross reference structure; finding a review; journals and how to trace journal articles; abstract; theses and dissertations; research and development reports; critical reviews and information summaries; data books; dictionaries and encyclopedias; guides to the literature; whom to contact; expert advice, research in progress, institutions. (U.K.)

  8. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1988-06-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author) [pt

  9. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  10. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  11. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  12. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  13. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  14. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  15. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author) [fr

  16. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  17. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  18. Simulation of decay processes and radiation transport times in radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Toraño, E., E-mail: e.garciatorano@ciemat.es [Laboratorio de Metrología de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Peyres, V. [Laboratorio de Metrología de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bé, M.-M.; Dulieu, C.; Lépy, M.-C. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Bldg 602, PC111, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvat, F. [Facultat de Física (FQA and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    The Fortran subroutine package PENNUC, which simulates random decay pathways of radioactive nuclides, is described. The decay scheme of the active nuclide is obtained from the NUCLEIDE database, whose web application has been complemented with the option of exporting nuclear decay data (possible nuclear transitions, branching ratios, type and energy of emitted particles) in a format that is readable by the simulation subroutines. In the case of beta emitters, the initial energy of the electron or positron is sampled from the theoretical Fermi spectrum. De-excitation of the atomic electron cloud following electron capture and internal conversion is described using transition probabilities from the LLNL Evaluated Atomic Data Library and empirical or calculated energies of released X rays and Auger electrons. The time evolution of radiation showers is determined by considering the lifetimes of nuclear and atomic levels, as well as radiation propagation times. Although PENNUC is designed to operate independently, here it is used in conjunction with the electron-photon transport code PENELOPE, and both together allow the simulation of experiments with radioactive sources in complex material structures consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces. The reliability of these simulation tools is demonstrated through comparisons of simulated and measured energy spectra from radionuclides with complex multi-gamma spectra, nuclides with metastable levels in their decay pathways, nuclides with two daughters, and beta plus emitters.

  19. Study of N-13 decay on time using continuous kinetic function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vu Hoang Lam; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Nguyen Duc Thanh

    1993-01-01

    The decay function from radioisotope 13 N formed in the reaction 14 N(γ,n) 13 N was registered by high resolution gamma spectrometer in multiscanning mode with gamma energy 511 keV. The experimental data was processed by common and kinetic function method. The continuous comparison of the decay function on time permits to determinate possible deviation from purely exponential decay curve. The results were described by several decay theories. The degrees of corresponding between theories and experiment were evaluated by goodness factor. A complex type of decay was considered. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs

  20. Novel Radioisotope Applications in Industry Promoted by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to world-wide industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40:1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  1. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  2. Status on the compilation of nuclear data for medical radioisotopes produced by accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias-Cruz, D.; Okamoto, K.

    1988-10-01

    The status of data on excitation functions and thick target yields for medical radioisotopes produced by accelerators is summarized. Most of the information was extracted from the compiled data in EXFOR (EXCHANGE FORMAT) which is a common format used by the co-operating nuclear data centres in the world. The nuclear decay mode, half-life, production method, Q-value, maximum cross-section value and the energy at this maximum, are tabulated. For some commonly used reactions, the available excitation functions are plotted in graph. (author). 353 refs

  3. Radioisotopes for nuclear medicine: the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine occupies an important niche in the spectrum of medical capability. Since its initial application on a routine basis over 30 years ago its importance has continued to grow. For example, it is expected that over 430,000 Australians will have a nuclear medicine procedure in 1998. Current procedures using nuclear medicine are mainly concerned with diagnosis of oncology, cardiology and neurology. The main radioisotope used in nuclear medicine is Tc 99m, which is produced by a 'so called' Mo-Tc 99m generator. Other isotopes which currently find routine use are Ga-67, Th-201 and I-131. The selective uptakes by particular organs or structures is facilitated by the use of 'cold kits' which after the chemistry of the radioisotope many of the recent advances have been concerned with increasing the selectivity for a particular organ structure. Several of these new agents show increased selectivity using antibody a peptide recognition units

  4. Application state of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tomoyoshi

    1979-01-01

    Application of unsealed radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals has been increasing year by year with the development of nuclear medicine. As for the radioisotopes for in vivo use which are internally administered and are detected by external scanning, the consumption of Tc-99 m drugs has increased rapidly. The sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo use including 131 I, etc. amounted to four billion Yen in 1977. The consumption of the isotopes used in vitro for radioimmunoassay has made more rapid increase, and the sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use amounted to seven billion Yen in 1977. Radiopharmaceuticals have been used in 1,134 institutes all over Japan in 1978. 534 among them have applied radiopharmaceuticals to both in vivo and in vitro uses. Radioactive wastes have been increasing with the application of these unsealed radiopharmaceuticals, and their disposal method should be examined as there is a limit in their storage. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Medical radioisotope production - the Australian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian government, through its instrumentality, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), owns and operates a 10-MW Dido-class research reactor at Lucas Heights on the southern outskirts of Sydney. This is the only operating nuclear reactor in Australia. It was built in 1958 and has a maximum flux of 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. ANSTO also jointly owns and operates a 30-MeV IBA negative ion cyclotron at Camperdown in central Sydney, which began operation in 1992. ANSTO is predominantly a research organization; however, radioisotopes are commercially produced through Australian Radioisotopes (ARI), an ANSTO business entity. Seventy-four people are employed by ARI, which is a vertically integrated organization, i.e., everything from target preparation to sale of products is undertaken.

  6. Cosmogenic radioisotopes in Gebel Kamil meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Bhandari, N.; Sinha, N.; Di Martino, M.; Vivaldo, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently a small (45 m in diameter) and very young (radioisotope activity generated by cosmic rays in the meteoroids as they travel through the interplanetary space before falling on the Earth. From the 26Al activity measurement and its depth production profiles, we infer (i) that the radius of the meteoroid should be about 1 m, constraining to 30-40 ton the range of pre-atmospheric mass previously proposed and (ii) that the fragment should have been located deeply inside the meteoroid, at a depth > 0.7 m. The 44Ti activity is under the detection threshold of the apparatus; using the depth production profiles of this radioisotope and its half-life T1/2 = 59.2 y, we deduce an upper limit to the date of fall.

  7. Health problems of industrial applications of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrna, J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation hygiene problems of industrial radioisotope applications are discussed. The observance of regulations is emphasised. Radiation protection is based on the principle of preventing early radiation damage and limiting late radiation damage to an acceptable level. The basic requirement is that the cumulated dose should be as low as possible, i.e., as low as is practically feasible in considering economic and social aspects. Notices 59/72 and 65/72, Collection of Laws, rule that if the limit of 3/10 of the maximum permissible dose is likely to be reached, control zones should be defined and marked at places of work where radioisotopes are handled. The characteristics of such a control zone are listed and the measures to be taken in case of accident are outlined. (B.S.)

  8. Modern radioisotope production technologies for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, V.; Schweickert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of the accelerator production of radioisotopes for medical purposes, are, above all, the high specific activity attainable as well as the possibility of the generation of nuclei with only a few neutrons which disintegrate due to β + emission or electron capture. It is, for example, possible to diagnostically utilize the developing long-range γ quanta by means of computerized tomography. The production of I-123 at the cyclotron of Karlsruhe (nuclear reaction, target, irradiation arrangement) as well as of ultra-pure I-123 with the help of compact cyclotrons, and the plant developed for this are described in brief. As another radioisotope which can be produced with the help of the compact cyclotron, Rb-81 is mentioned, the disintegration product Kr-81m of which is used in pulmonary diagnostics. (RB) [de

  9. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  10. Development of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, H.; Kato, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1962, we have been developing methods and technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources by using the JAERI's reactors, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and providing the products to domestic users. At present, 29 nuclides and 31 products are on our list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short-lived nuclides are being produced regularly for distribution, but most of the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles and Ir-192 pellets for industrial use and Gd-153 pellet, 7 kinds of Ir-192 and Au-198 grain for medical applications are produced and distributed routinely. (author)

  11. Mathematical models and accuracy of radioisotope gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical expressions relating the variance and mean value of the intrinsic error with the parameters of one and multi-dimensional mathematical models of radioisotope gauges are given. Variance of the intrinsic error at the model's output is considered as a sum of the variances of the random error which is created in the first stages of the measuring chain and the random error of calibration procedure. The mean value of the intrinsic error (systematic error) appears always for nonlinear models. It was found that the optimal model of calibration procedure not always corresponds to the minimal value of the intrinsic error. The derived expressions are applied for the assessment of the mathematical models of some of the existing gauges (radioisotope belt weigher, XRF analyzer and coating thickness gauge). 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  12. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  13. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua

    1987-01-01

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  14. Radioisotopes in the treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    Radiation treatment of malignant growths is not, of course, a novel procedure; both radium implants and X-rays generated at medium voltages (up to 250 kV) have been used all over the world for many years. However, large scale production of radioisotopes in atomic reactors has made radiotherapy available for the first time in less developed areas of the world. Moreover, the treatment has been simplified and, in many cases, made more effective

  15. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  16. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  17. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C 14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  19. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  20. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  1. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors.

  2. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  3. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in 32 P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of 32 P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 μCi/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 μCi/ml 32 P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 μCi/ml respectivelly. (author)

  4. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Ryohei; Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  5. New Directions In Radioisotope Spectrum Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  6. Present status of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    Since 1962, the technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources has been developed by using the reactors, JRR-1, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and the products have been offered to domestic users. At present, 31 products of 29 nuclides are on the list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short lived nuclides are produced for regular distribution, but the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles for industrial use, Ir-192 pellets for the nondestructive inspection of pipelines, Gd-153 pellets for the diagnosis of born mineral and seven kinds of brachy therapy Ir-192 and Au-198 grains are produced and distributed regularly. The organic compounds labeled with H-3 and C-14 are widely used. In fiscal year 1992, 34 batches and total amount 12 TBq of processed radioisotopes and 100 batches, 1.2 PBq of radiation sources were produced as scheduled. The development of the techniques for producing the sources emitting high energy β ray used for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is in progress. The method of producing new isotopes is developed. (K.I.)

  7. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  8. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41 Ar, 79 Kr or 85 Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products, 140 La and 24 Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  9. What can radioisotopes do for man? Medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knisele, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first use of man-made radioactive isotopes for medical purposes. In 1934, the first working cyclotron at the University of California had produced small amounts of radioactive phosphorus, iodine, and sodium; but widespread applications appeared only after the second world war when nuclear reactors began making large amounts of radioisotopes, and new detectors and electronic equipment emerged for measuring the radiation that they emit. To exploit isotopes in biology and medicine, workers use the unique properties of radioactive decay, whereby energy is released in the form of nuclear particles such as electrons, or electromagnetic radiations such as gamma rays. Because the emissions can be detected with great sensitivity and measured with precision, harmlessly small quantities can be administered to delineate organs or tumors, or to measure bodily function or cellular metabolic processes. The destructive potential of the emitted energy must always be reckoned with, and the doses kept to a safe, low level. Yet this same energy can be exploited when a destructive effect is desired. (author)

  10. First ECR-Ionized Noble Gas Radioisotopes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Lettry, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The production of light noble gas radioisotopes with high ionization potentials has been hampered by modest ionization efficiencies for standard plasma ion-sources. However, the decay losses are minimal as the lingering time of light noble gases within plasma ion-sources is negligible when compared to its diffusion out of the target material. Previous singly charged ECRIS have shown a higher efficiency but also a lingering time of the order of 1 s and a total weight that prevents remote handling by the ISOLDE robot. The compact MINIMONO efficiently addressed the lingering time and weight issues. In addition, the MINIMONO maintained the high off-line ionization efficiency for light noble gases. This paper describes a standard ISOLDE target unit equipped with a MINIMONO ion-source and the first tests. The ion-source has been tested off-line and equipped with a CaO target for on-line tests. Valuable information was gained about high current (100-500 muA) transport through the ISOLDE mass separators designed for ...

  11. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  12. HAC and production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews different methods for the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds that make use of hot atom reactions. Subsequently he discusses the production of radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals; enrichment of (n,γ) products, recoil labelling and related methods (neutron reaction products, cyclotron production, excitation labelling, radiation and discharge induced labelling). The final section offers a survey of radioisotope production using accelerators. Only a selection of the various conditions used in practical RI production is considered. (Auth.)

  13. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  14. The Research and Development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfelds, E.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Prelas, M.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The project of developing radioisotope energy conversion system (RECS) involves analytical computational assisted design and modeling and also laboratory research. The computational analysis consists of selecting various geometries and materials for the main RECS container and the internally located radioisotope, computing the fluxes of the beta (-) particles and of the visible (or ultraviolet) photons produced by the beta (-) s, computing the transport of these photons to the photovoltaic cells, and computing the overall efficiency of useful conversion of the radioisotope power

  15. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  16. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  17. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  18. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  19. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1981-10-01

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  1. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  2. The Synthesis And Characterization Of Wolfram Phthalocyanine For The Target Material Of High Specific Activity Radioisotope Wolfram - 188 (188W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, Duyeh

    2000-01-01

    The application of 188 Re radioisotope separation on aluminia column through elution solution has increased significantly since the last two decades. The 188 Re radioisotope has been done fram 188 Re beta-decay through a neutron capture radiation on wolfram -186 target. In trhe column separation, high specific activity of 188 W radioisotope is required to get sufficient activity in small quality 188 W radioisotope has been carried out in this research. Wolfram-phthalocyanine compound was prepared by refluxing a mixture of wolfram trioxyde, (WO 3 ) and phthalonitrile, (C 8 H 4 N 2 ) at 250 o C for two hours. The synthesis of wolfram phthalocyanine is 70% purity yield, the product are green crystals, have a 193,0-193,8 o C melting points, and has a molecular formula C 3 2H 1 6 N8 WO 2 . The infra red spectrum of wolfram-phthalocyanine was the absorption band at 964,3 cm - 1 was due to the vibration of W=O bond of the wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine. The x-ray diffraction of the wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine was similar with molybdenum dioxy-phthalocyanine compound. This fact showed that the product was wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine

  3. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  4. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlock, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m 2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  5. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  6. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  7. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  8. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.; Laidler, R.I.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  9. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  10. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  11. Industrial measurement instruments that use radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monno, Asao

    2004-01-01

    An example of a large-scale system for controlling hot rolling, and recent developments for a gamma-ray thickness gauge for the inner-mill housing of a plate and a thickness gauge for a hot seamless tube mill are introduced. The dramatically higher speed response, versatile intelligent elements, larger data capacity and formation of a database are advantages of these instruments over conventional devices. Moreover, Fuji Electric's industrial measuring instruments that use radioisotopes are manufactured and marketed to be compatible with those of Hitachi, and we have already compiled a track record of many deliveries. (author)

  12. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  13. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  14. Radiological safety of decayed source removal facility (DSRF) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Raksha; George, Jain Reji; Pathak, B.K.

    2018-01-01

    Industrial radiography is one of the major applications of radioisotope in engineering industry for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). The equipment used for this purpose is called Industrial Radiography Exposure Device (IGRED) or radiography (RG) camera. In India, more than 1800 IGREDs including imported cameras are being used in NDT industry. These cameras are of different types and have various capacities to house different radioisotopes. Generally, 192 Ir sources are being used for NDT work. The sources are being supplied by BRIT to the users. After the useful period of the utilization of gamma intensity, the decayed source is returned to BRIT in RG camera. The decayed source is removed from the camera in the Decayed Source Removal Facility (DSRF). This facility serves the purpose of a miniature hot-cell with the capability of storing the decayed sources which are removed from the cameras. The empty camera is inspected for its mechanical functions and sent to BRIT's hot-cell for loading the new source. DSRF is situated at BRIT Vashi Complex. This paper deals with the radiological safety in the operation of DSRF for removing decayed sources from industrial radiography cameras

  15. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  16. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, G.J.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  18. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, E H [Post-graduate Medical School, Hammersmith, London (United Kingdom)

    1961-07-15

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias.

  19. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, G J; Krishnamoorthy, P N

    1960-07-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  20. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, S.; Seviour, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of "2"4Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that "2"4Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. - Highlights: • We show that neutron interrogation of food can produce many radioisotopes. • We show a strong dependance between food and certain radioisotopes. • Some isotopes are shown to have an energy dependence. • Previous claims that 24Na is the main threat is shown to only apply in special cases.

  1. Discrete radioisotopic relays of a cyclic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klempner, K.S.; Vasil'ev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A functional diagram of discrete radioisotopic relay equipment (RRP) with cyclic action was examined. An analysis of its rapid action and reliability under stationary conditions and transition regimes is presented. A structural diagram of radioisotopic relay equipment shows three radiation detectors, a pulse standardizer, an integrator and a power amplifier with a threshold cut-off device. It was established that the basic properties of the RRP - rapid action and reliability - are determined entirely by the counting rate of the average frequency of pulses from the radiation detector, n 0 and n 1 , in the 0 and 1 states (absence of current in the electromagnetic relay winding and activation of the winding of the output relay), capacities N 1 and N 2 of the dual counters, and the frequency of the transition threshold, f, of the generator. Formulas are presented which allow making engineering calculations for determining the optimum RRP parameters. High speed and reliability are shown, which are determined by the production purposes of the relay

  2. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Pinkert, J.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.Y.; Wang, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Report of Radioisotope Inspection Technical Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of unifying the method of performance test for the routine management of the performance of RI equipments, the check-up of performance at the time of purchasing the equipments or research works, the Committee has continued the investigation on the method of performance test on RI equipments. Now, the definite plans have been decided regarding the method of performance test on radioisotope monitoring instruments and the measuring instruments for RI samples, therefore they are reported hereinafter. As for the radioisotope monitoring instruments, Curie meter, area monitor, water monitor, gas monitor and hand, foot and cloth monitor were taken up, and the items of inspection, the purposes, the testing methods, the expression of measured results and their evaluation were discussed. The accuracy of measurement of absolute radio-activity is important in Curie meter, the stability of continuous monitoring is important in general monitors, and the limit of measurement is important in the hand, foot and cloth monitor. As for the measuring instruments for radioactive materials, the efficiency of counting, linearity and stability were taken up as the items of performance test, and other matters to which attention should be paid were added. These were described, dividing into well type scintillation counter and liquid scintillation counter. (Kako, I.)

  4. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey; Shah, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  5. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hercik, F.; Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  6. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  7. A set of portable radioisotopic control and measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospeev, V.V.; Sidorov, V.N.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Uleksin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems and perspectives are examined of the portable radioisotope instruments application in agriculture, building industry, engeeniring and geological survay and in melioration. Principles are given of creation a series of radioisotopic instruments based on the principle of ganging. The series described consists of radioisotopic densimeters and moisture gages of the portable type, based on the ganging principle. The instruments differ in the measuring converters and have unified information processing and power supply devices. Criteria are stated for the ganging principle estimation, in particular, estimation of the technical means' compatibility. Four different types of compatibility are distinguished: an information compatibility; a metrological compatibility; structural and operational compatibility. Description is given of the unified information processing device - the unified pulse counter of the SIP-1M type and description of a row of radioisotopic measuring converters, which provides a possibility for completing the portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-2 type, intended for measuring densities of concrets and soils in the surface layer up to 30 cm and the density range from 1000 to 2500 kg/m 3 ; portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-1 type having measuring range from 600 to 1500 kg/m 3 ; surface-depth radioisotopic densimeter of the PPGR-1 type and surface-depth radioisotopic moisture gage of the VPGR-1 type [ru

  8. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  9. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  10. Shielded radioisotope generator and method for using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclide generator for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features batch flow of eluting reagent interior of the generator in a completely shielded environment

  11. Developments in radioisotope production and labelling of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in both reactor and accelerator production of radioisotopes finding applications in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research are summarised. The priorities for the production of 48 different cyclotron radioisotopes; and for 42 reactor produced radioisotopes finding biomedical applications are identified. Each includes 5 generator systems. The rapid expansion of cyclotron based radioisotope production and automated synthesis of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals with the position-emitting radionuclides continues to gain momentum. Recent feasibility studies of the cyclotron production of 186 Re, 99m Tc and of 99 Mo are cited as examples of motivation to develop accelerator alternatives to use of nuclear reactors for medical radioisotope production. Examples of SPET and PET radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 131 I, 123 I, 124 I, 18 F, and with therapeutic radionuclides are highlighted. (author)

  12. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  13. Radioisotope production by reactors and cyclotrons in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radioisotope production in Japan and the increasing demand from various fields are generally reviewed. Future problems associated with the shortage of economical supply are also discussed. The first half of this report is devoted to general review of the increasing demand for various radioisotopes from increasing number of users. The present status and future trends of the distribution of users of specific radioisotopes and their demands are shown. The remaining half of this report reviews the production with reactors and cyclotrons. The Japanese reactors producing radioisotopes are limited to low flux (10 13 ) research reactors at JAERI. Some problems associated with the improvement of availability and with the organizational structure are discussed. As for the production with cyclotrons, available facilities and the method of production are explained in detail. For clinical use, especially for the production of short lived radioisotopes, the advantage of a small special purpose cyclotron at each medical organization is emphasized. (Aoki, K.)

  14. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  15. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A 1 and A 2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A 2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A 2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  16. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  17. Power characteristics of a Stirling radioisotope power system over the life of the mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    Stirling radioisotope power systems are presently being considered for use on long life deep space missions. Some applications that Stirling technology has been developed for in the past could control the heat input to the engine, as was the case in the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program. The combustion system could change the rate at which fuel was burned in response to the Stirling heater head temperature and the desired set point. In other cases, heat input was not controlled. An example is the solar terrestrial Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS), where the heat input was a function of solar intensity and the performance of the solar concentrator and receiver. The control system for this application would measure the Stirling heater head temperature and throttle the Stirling convertor to once again, maintain the Stirling heater head temperature at the desired set point. In both of these examples, the design was driven to be cost effective. In the Stirling radioisotope power system, the heat generated by the decay in plutonium is reduced with the half-life of the isotope, and the control system must be as simple as possible and still meet the mission requirements. The most simple control system would be one that allows the Stirling power convertor to autonomously change its operating conditions in direct response to the reduced heat input, with no intervention from the control system, merely seeking a new equilibrium point as the isotope decays. This paper presents an analysis of power system performance with this simple control system, which has no feedback and does not actively alter the operating point as the isotope decays

  18. Study on application of radiation and radioisotopes -Development of the radioisotope production facilities for the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Bok; Woo, Jong Sub; Kang, Byung Woi; Baek, Sam Tae; Jeong, Un Soo; Park, Yong Chul; Jeon, Young Keon; Chang, Chun Ik; Lee, Bong Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Development and construction of the lead hot cell for radioisotope production and related facility. 1. Fabrication and installation of the lead H/C system. 2. Development and installation of the hydraulic transfer system. 3. Development of the radiation monitoring system. 4. Fabrication and installation of the fire extinguishing system in the H/C. 5. Fabrication and installation of the fume hood. 4 tabs.,10 figs. (Author).

  19. 82Sr--82Rb radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Erdal, B.R.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved 82 Sr- 82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be greater than 10 7 . Approximately 80 percent of the 82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH 4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be greater than 10 5 , and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three 82 Sr half lives. 2 claims, no drawings

  20. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  1. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  2. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  3. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  4. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  5. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  6. Production of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, Tatsuo

    1977-01-01

    As problems in the process of production of short-lived radioisotopes for medical use and in clinical application of them, the following three items were mentioned: 1. separation and purification in a short time, 2. devices to decrease exposure dose in workers, and 3. preservation of radiochemical purity and chemical purity, and avoidance of mixture of impurities. In consideration of these problems, an outline of on-line production system of radioactive gases (from irradiation by accelerated particles to separation, purification, and administration of them), which was exploited in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, was described. Production of 13 NH 3 , the aqueous solution of 18 F, and 123 I was also given an outline. Simultaneous production method of many nuclides by means of laminated target and compounds labelled with positron emitter were also described. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  8. Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using tracers (chemical, dyes, etc.) in the investigation of complex physical phenomena has always attracted the attention of scientists and engineers. When radioactive isotopes became available it was immediately recognized that they offered an almost ideal solution to tracer selection. This book is devoted to reviewing the present status of the tracer method as such and to its applications to those branches of industry which have derived large benefits from the use of this modern technology. The main objectives of the IAEA's Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section is to help Member States in introducing to their own industries the different isotope and radiation techniques which have become available as a result of developments in the nuclear sciences. This section proposed the preparation of this guidebook, putting together various radiotracer methods and the experience obtained so far in their industrial use. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the general concept of tracers, technology and safety aspects, as well as data evaluation and interpretation. In chapter 5, therefore, general applications are discussed. In chapter 6, specialists in selected fields discuss their experience in radiotracer applications in various types of industrial activity. Most case studies are illustrated by at least one detailed example of an experiment carried out at an industrial installation. Current trends in the development of radiotracer methods are discussed in chapter 7, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint. Some possible new RTT applications in the future are also discussed here. Sealed radioactive sources are used almost as often as radioisotope tracers in industrial measurements. Annex I gives a short review of these techniques. Readers who are interested in the basic principles of radioisotope production will find the necessary information in Annex II. Annexes III, V and VI provide a demonstration of fundamental relations and properties; useful

  9. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  10. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  11. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1994-09-01

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  12. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  13. Radioisotope applications in industry and environment: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology in industry, medicine and agriculture form an important part of India's programme of using nuclear technology for societal benefits. Radioisotope production in India started on a modest scale soon after 1 MW APSARA reactor at Trombay, Mumbai became critical in 1956. The scope of activities expanded thereafter. With the commissioning of 40 MW CIRUS reactor in 1960, the setting up of modern radioisotope processing laboratories in late sixties and the production of cobalt-60 in power reactors in megacurie quantities in late seventies made India self-sufficient in radioisotope production. The radioisotope production received a major boost in 1985 with the commissioning of high flux 100 MW DHRUVA reactor, which provided opportunity to extend the range of radioisotopes available in the country both in quantity as well in specific activity. The CIRUS reactor has been shutdown in year 2010 and 1 MW APSARA reactor is presently being upgraded to 5 MW. Today, The DHRUVA reactor operating at its full capacity is being used for production of 100 different radioisotopes those are used in industry, agriculture and medicine. (author)

  14. Computerized control system for administration of the radioisotope use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago, Tsutomu; Ito, Shin; Isozumi, Yasuhito; Kurihara, Norio

    1986-01-01

    An on-line computer system for administration of the radioisotope use has been developed. This system consists of a multi-job type host computer and two sets of personal computers with identification card-readers. The personal computers are employed as terminal devices for radioisotope users. By the use of an identification card, entrance and leaving times are recorded automatically. Furthermore, an easy operation of the personal computer permits users to access to the information of their resistered radioisotopes, such as nuclides, chemical forms, updated activities, storage locations, and history of usage. A recording sheet on which those data are printed is provided from the personal computer. After the use of radioisotopes, users can record their data on the recording sheets. These records are used as the input data to this system to update the data of the used radioisotopes. Owing to the concise format of the recording sheet and various sorting programs developed in present work, this system enables us to grasp the exact flow of the radioisotopes from purchase to disposal. Out-put data from high-speed kanji printer can provide many important books which are legally requested to be kept for administration of the radioisotope use. (author)

  15. Future radioisotope power needs for missions to the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Underwood, M.L.; Nesmith, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA and DOE plan a cooperative team effort with industry, government laboratories and universities to develop a near term, low cost, low power (100 watt electric class), low mass (<10 kg), advanced radioisotope space power source (ARPS) and in the process reduce the plutonium-related costs as well. The near term is focused on developing an advanced energy converter to use with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The GPHS was developed and used for the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Advanced energy converter technologies are needed as a more efficient replacement for the existing thermoelectric converters so that the space radioisotope power source mass and cost can be reduced. a more advanced technology space radioisotope power system program is also planned that addresses a longer-term need. Twenty first century robotic scientific information missions to the outer planets and beyond are planned to be accomplished with microspacecraft which may demand safe, even more compact, lower-power, lower-mass radioisotope power sources than those which can be achieved as a result of the near term efforts. The longer-term program focuses not only on converter technology but also on lower power, more compact radioisotope heat source technology and smaller, lower mass radioisotope heater units for second generation microspacecraft. This more ambitious, longer time-horizon focus necessarily occurs at this time on the technology R and D level rather than at the system technology level

  16. Production and application of radioisotopes - a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolutions of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop

  17. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  18. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  19. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  20. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yishu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2000-10-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, {gamma}-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, {sup 90}Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  1. The use of radioisotopes in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-04-15

    Some of the more important isotope applications, especially those which are or can be profitably introduced in the developing countries, are reviewed. The use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture, and hydrology is discussed

  2. Economic Contributions of Radioisotope Production Reactor in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ji Hee; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Whan

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotopes (RIs) have been used extensively in the fields of industrial, the agricultural, and the medical applications. Especially the deficiency of radioisotopes such as Mo-99 and I-131 in the medical applications recently is becoming the main issue in our society. Radioisotope with the characteristics of public goods in some aspects is mainly playing as the intermediate inputs or goods in the process of the industrial production, with being expected to produce the economic benefits by creating the new demand in the market or enlarging the value added for the related goods and services. In this study, the contribution effects for Korean economy by the construction and operation of the reactor for radioisotope production would be evaluated the effects produced by the activities such as a RI supplies into domestic industry, the RI exports, the neutron transmutation doping services called NTD, and the exports of RI production reactors

  3. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2000-01-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  4. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  5. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  6. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  7. Evaluation of processing methods for static radioisotope scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, J.A.

    1976-12-01

    Radioisotope scanning in the field of nuclear medicine provides a method for the mapping of a radioactive drug in the human body to produce maps (images) which prove useful in detecting abnormalities in vital organs. At best, radioisotope scanning methods produce images with poor counting statistics. One solution to improving the body scan images is using dedicated small computers with appropriate software to process the scan data. Eleven methods for processing image data are compared

  8. The brain, a choice subject for radioisotopic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1996-01-01

    Progresses realized in the use of radioisotopes and in tomographic imaging techniques have permitted to access to the visualization of the human body functions. The application of this radioisotopic functional imaging (or emission tomography functional imaging) has been particularly fruitful in the study of brain functioning. This method is the only exploratory method for the biochemical aspects of the cerebral functioning and is used both by the physiologist and the therapist. (J.S.)

  9. Some problems in critical use of nuclear decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Yasushi

    1975-01-01

    A great variety of radionuclides are utilized at present and they have been increasing steadly in number with the development of science and technology. Therefore, the parameters such as their decay patterns, half lives, kinds of radioactive ray, ratio of energy emission, coefficients of internal conversion, fluorescence yields, etc. should be grasped for RI utilization. This report gives the outline of the present status and some problems for arranging nuclear decay data from the viewpoint of utilizing radioisotopes. The compilation and evaluation of nuclear decay data prevailing at present are summarized in ''Table of Isotopes'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', but some gaps are found between them. Conspicuous gaps are recognized in such data as half life, γ-ray intensity, radiation energy, coefficient of internal conversion, etc. Some problems are also found in the data of fluorescence yield,

  10. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA's Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE

  11. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Mandell, S.

    1974-01-01

    The eleventh edition of the AEC radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1974 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USAEC facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. The information is divided into four sections. Section I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Each customer has been designated a number according to its alphabetical position which provides a means of cross-referencing in the following sections. The isotopes purchased are listed after the address of the customer and the laboratory supplying each isotope is indicated by a letter set off by parentheses. Section II is an alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and again divided into the domestic and foreign categories. This section provides a quick idea of the amount of companies purchasing a particular isotope. If more information is needed, the reader can locate the customer by number and determine the laboratory supplying the isotope. The third section is an alphabetical list of states and countries, also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Section IV summarizes the FY 1974 radioisotope shipment activities of USAEC laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the Domestic, Foreign, and Project (AEC facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided. (U.S.)

  12. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Han, H.S.; Park, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  13. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  15. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Berridge, M.; Maziere, B.; Crouzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the preparation of radioisotopes for biochemical and physiological studies and the principal methods for their incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, while pointing out the problems encountered with their use and considering their medical interest in the following areas: distribution and flow of fluids, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Inorganic and organic radiopharmaceuticals presently in use and most probable to be used in the future are reviewed. It is anticipated that three types of products labelled with 15 O, 13 N, 11 C and 18 F will be developed in the future. The first type includes products which trace general phenomena such as fluid movement or metabolism of sugars, fats and proteins. The compromise between physiological accuracy and imaging technology is discussed in relation to the use of 11 C and 18 F. The second type of product is one to measure more specific parameters such as those of molecular transport kinetics, membrane permeability, cellular pH and receptor-ligand interactions, again with particular reference to 11 C and 18 F. The third type of product discussed is that intended for pharmacology studies, particular reference being made to 68 Ga, 82 Rb. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  17. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  18. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  19. Application of radioisotopes in plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiraj, G.; Pavani, Lalitha; Allimuthu, Elangovan; Yadav, Ranjeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    There are concerns that continuous uses of pesticides have negative impacts on the environment and it also results in development of resistance against pesticides in many insect species. Radioactive exposure improves quality and productivity of agricultural products along with insect, pest and disease management. They are helpful in study of optimum utilization of insecticides and pesticides in cultivated crops without harmful effects to plants and other living organisms. The control of plant virus diseases is one of the greatest problems of our day. Aphids feeding on plants containing 32 P become radioactive and retain the label for some weeks which helps in monitoring their movement. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) proposed by Knipling in 1955, relies on application of ionizing radiation as a means to effectively sterilize male insects without affecting their ability to function in the field and successfully mate with wild female insects. This technique involves release of large numbers of sterile male insects of the target species in the field crop. With relevance to plant pathogens, radioisotopes are used to measure the spread of the plant diseases. (author)

  20. Current status of radio-isotopes utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India)

    1974-08-01

    Utilization of radioisotopes were reviewed briefly in a categorized manner. In plant biochemistry, long lived radioactive carbon ,/sup 14/C, was applied to clarify such metabolic processes as photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis, etc., while radioactive oxygen ,/sup 18/O, was used to study the O/sub 2/ generation mechanism. Radioactive phosphorus ,/sup 32/P, was used to detect the amount, grain size of phosphatic fertilizer as well as the time and depth for better utilization. Radioactive sulphur ,/sup 35/S, and nitrogen ,/sup 15/N, could be of use in studies of protein metabolism in plants. Radioactive tracers of other minerals such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mo, B, and Co were also used to detect their specific role in plants. Use of radioactive isotopes in protein synthesis and transfer of genetic information was described. Radioactive iodine ,/sup 131/I, binding capacity of milk proteins, and radio trace studies in the iodine turn over in the use of radioactive iodine were summarized.

  1. Radioisotope detection with tandem electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, H E; Elmore, D; Ferraro, R [Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Nuclear Structure Research Lab.; Beukens, R P; Chang, K H; Kilius, L R; Lee, H W; Litherland, A E [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Purser, K H [General Ionex Corp., Newburyport, MA (USA)

    1980-01-01

    An MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Rochester has been employed since May 1977 to detect /sup 14/C in terrestrial samples, /sup 36/Cl in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples and /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al in samples produced by reactor and accelerator irradiation. The sample sizes ranged from about 10 to less than 1 mg and the ratio of the radioisotope to the stable isotopes approached one part in 10/sup 16/ for /sup 14/C and /sup 36/Cl and one part in 10/sup 14/ for /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al. /sup 14/C has been measured in a number of samples of geological and archaelogical interest. /sup 36/Cl has been measured in various groundwater samples as well as samples at Antarctic meteorites and ice. Dedicated systems for /sup 14/C dating and geological measurements based on the tandem electrostatic accelerator principle are presently under construction for laboratories in the U.S.A., U.K. and Canada.

  2. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s

  3. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  4. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  5. Professor de Hevesy traces radioisotope history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Professor George de Hevesy, who was a pioneer in the field of radioactive tracers, prepared this paper for the IAEA symposium on Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, held at Salzburg in October 1964. Professor de Hevesy was born in Budapest in 1885. He studied in Budapest, Berlin and Freiburg, and spent some years at Zurich when Einstein was there. In 1911 he went to Manchester to work with Rutherford and there witnessed some of the greatest discoveries in the history of physics. At the end of 1912 he visited the Vienna Institute for Radium Research, where he worked with Paneth, and in 1913 applied the method of labelled lead for the first time. After the first world war, he worked at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen; since 1943, his chief activities have been in Sweden. In 1923, with Coster, he discovered the element hafnium. He made notable discoveries on the mobility of ions, and isotope separation, and his work on radioisotope tracers, which has had important biological applications, won him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1943

  6. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho

    1994-01-01

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  7. Radioisotopes investigations of copper ore dressing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryka, L.; Furman, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes radioisotope applications in the copper industry, mainly for the examination of comminution, classification, and flotation processes for selected physical parameters. Measurements were performed by a mobile laboratory containing the electronics for experiment control and data recording and processing using special computer software. This system makes it possible to determine measurements in an industrial environment. The data acquisition system provides 24 spectrometric channels, consisting of scintillation probes, high-voltage (HV) power supplies, and pulse-height analyzers, as well as an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter interfaced to the IBM personal computer. The sampling time is fully programmable and interrupt based and can vary from 1 ms to hours and may be set separately for each channel. The milli-second sampling time technique has been applied to high-resolution flow velocity measurements. On the other hand, longer sampling time enables the system to be left unattended for days to monitor, for example, copper ore concentration or efficiency of the flotation process

  8. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a 63 Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 microCi provided a power of ∼0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications

  9. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  10. Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    decay is half-life, the time required for the matter to exhibit half of its activity. Radiation can be categorized as either non - ionizing or... ionizing radiation . Radiation that does not have enough energy to displace electrons is referred to as “ non - ionizing radiation .” Examples of this kind of...and/or the environment to ionizing radiation , without dispersal of the radioactive material, that could cause debilitating injury to people exposed

  11. History of occupational exposure to natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.

    1993-01-01

    From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  13. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  14. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Doi, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Eiji; Kawakami, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14 C, 3 H, 125 I and 35 S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  15. Opportunities for Decay Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes Using Ultra-low-background Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Moran, James J.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary We present results from a scoping study whose intent was to define challenge measurements to be pursued on the Ultra-Sensitive Nuclear Measurements Initiative. Potential challenge measurements using new radiation detection technology in the shallow underground laboratory that would have substantial impact in environmental science were the focus of this study.

  16. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  17. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  18. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Natsuki; Ikeda, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Satoru

    1989-01-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99m TcO 4 - into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author)

  19. Utilization of radioisotopes in medical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yasuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The establishment and advance of nuclear medicine was briefly described here and the present situations and recent topics on clinical nuclear medicine were summarized as well as its prospects for the future. A labeling method to monitor dynamic changes of living substances using radioisotope (RI) was established by Hevesy using radionuclides. The radiotracing method has been applied to chemical field. The numbers of yearly application in 1982, 1987, 1992 and 1997 were reported in respects of in vivo assays (scintigram, SPECT, PET), the treatments with unsealed RI, PET and in vitro examination (RIA, IRMA). The data show that the application of in vivo examination greatly increased for the last 5 years. Bone scintigram was most frequent (26.9%) followed by myocardial scintigram (19.6%). On the other hand, application of in vitro radioassay is gradually decreasing now after the peak in 1992 (241,000 cases per day). The determination of blood concentrations of various tumor markers such as CEA, CA19-9, CA15-3 ar3, etc. became able using radioimmunodetection (RID). Positron emission computed tomography (PET) is valuable for detection of malignant tumor especially for postoperative recurrence or metastasis, evaluation of myocardial viability and identification of epileptic focus. PET using {sup 15}O labeled H{sub 2}O is thought useful for the study on higher functions of human brain such as language, thinking, and prognostic evaluation of damages in the brain. Nuclear medicinal examination, which has been used for diagnosis would be utilized for designing of clinical therapy and evaluation of its effects and prognosis. (M.N.)

  20. International codes concerning the security of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Explained is the title subject with international and Japanese official argument or publications and actions, where the security is defined as protection of sealed and unsealed radioisotopes (RI) from malicious acts. IAEA worked out the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in 2004 based on its preceding argument and with the turning point of the terrorism 3.11 (2001), and Nuclear Security Recommendations on radioactive material and associated facilities (2011), for whose prerequisite, Security of radioactive sources: implementing guide (2009) and Security in the transport of radioactive material (2008) had been drawn up. The Code of Conduct indicates the security system to regulate the sealed sources that each nation has to build up through legislation, setup of regulatory agency, registration of the sources, provision of concerned facilities with radiation protection, etc. For attaining this purpose, IAEA defined Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (2005, 2012), Categorization of radioactive sources (2005) and Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-VALUES) (2006). For updating the related matters, IAEA holds international conferences somewhere in the world every year. The Nuclear Security Recommendations indicate the nation's responsibility of building up and maintaining the security system above with well-balanced measures between the safe and secure use of RI without the invalid inhibition of their usage. Japan government worked out the concept essential for ensuring the nuclear security in Sep. 2011, in which for RI, defined were the risk and benefit in use and security, and securing role of the present legal systems concerning the safety handling and objective RI involved in their registration system. Securing measures of RI in such usage as medical and industrial aids must be of advanced usefulness and safety in harmony with activities of other countries. (T.T)

  1. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.

    2011-01-01

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  2. Evaluation of IAEA Clearance Concept for Low-level Radioactive Waste from a Radioisotope Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Kinno, Ikuo; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The clearance of solid low-level radioactive laboratory waste (LLRW) after decay-in-storage (DIS) obtained from a research institute and thoroughly separated using the separation and classification protocols presented in this study was evaluated. The radioisotope (RI) content of incinerated LLRW from the specified RI research group (group A); the RI content of LLRW obtained in fiscal year 2000, which contained radionuclides with half-lives of less than 164 d (LLRW2); and the RI content of the LLRW reported in group A's disposal records were compared. The LLRW2 and LLRW of group A were incinerated after 2 y of decay-in-storage and immediately after storage, respectively. The highest ratio of the RI of incinerated LLRW to the value in the disposal records was 2.52 for ⁵¹Cr. The radioactivities of radionuclides in both the LLRW2 and LLRW for ³⁵S, ⁴⁵Ca, ⁵¹Cr, ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ³³P, and ⁹⁹mTc and the incinerated ash after 1 y later of decay-in-storage were below the clearance level defined by the RS-G-1.7 of the International Basic Safety Standard without contamination by ³H and ¹⁴C. These remains contained very small amounts of some long-half-life radionuclides of natural origin after 7 y of decay-in-storage. This LLRW separation protocol was effective for the separation of ³H and ¹⁴C. LLRW2 after 2 years of DIS and its incinerated ash after one year later of DIS were below the clearance level for radioactivity and radioactivity concentration.

  3. Radioisotope research and development at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout its fifty year history, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted research and development in the production, isolation, purification, and application of radioactive isotopes. Initially this work supported the weapons development mission of the Laboratory. Over the years the work has evolved to support basic and applied research in many diverse fields, including nuclear medicine, biomedical studies, materials science, environmental research and the physical sciences. In the early 1970s people in the Medical Radioisotope Research Program began irradiating targets at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to investigate the production and recovery of medically important radioisotopes. Since then spallation production using the high intensity beam at LAMPF has become a significant source of many important radioisotopes. Los Alamos posesses other facilities with isotope production capabilities. Examples are the Omega West Reactor (OWR) and the Van de Graaf Ion Beam Facility (IBF). Historically these facilities have had limited availability for radioisotope production, but recent developments portend a significant radioisotope production mission in the future

  4. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor `HANARO`, development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using `HANARO`. The results of developed process are as follows: (1) I-131 dry distillation method. (2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources (3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure (4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in `HANARO`, target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in `HANARO` and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor 'HANARO', development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using 'HANARO'. The results of developed process are as follows: 1) I-131 dry distillation method. 2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources 3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure 4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in 'HANARO', target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  7. Radioisotopic synoviorthesis. Overall performance in our centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hernandez, D.M.; Castillo Berrio, C.; Nogueiras Alonso, J.; Rivas Dominguez, O.; Serena Puig, A.; Martinez Bernardez, S.; Loira Bamio, F.; Campos Villarino, L.; Guitian Iglesias, R.; Lopez Lopez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: assessing the use of Radioisotopic Synoviorthesis (RS) in our hospital; its therapeutic efficacy, complication rate and patient satisfaction with this procedure. Materials and methods: retrospective search of the RS performed in our center from 2005 to 2012. Review of medical records (written and electronic items). Patient satisfaction survey by phone. Method: rheumatologist prescription. Informed consent. Pregnancy test if appropriate. Intra-articular administration of 185 MBq of 90 Yttrium-colloidal and 40 mg of triamcinolone. Compressive bandage and relative rest during 48 hours. Control image at 72 hours p.i.. (Bremsstrahlung). Treatment response assessed by: pain and/or joint effusion recurrence or not, its magnitude and frequency; need for fluid drainage; infiltrations and amount of analgesics for clinical control. Initial date of response and duration thereof. Results: 42 cases were reviewed in total (Knee RS), excluding 13: 5 contraindication (Baker cyst), 1 by insufficient joint fluid, 1 performed with 186Renio, by meniscus rupture in 1 and in 5 by insufficient monitoring. Of the 29 cases finally analyzed, 25 had good response at the initial evaluation (2 months). The following-up at 18 months was only possible in 26 patients; of them just 18 persisted with positive outcome. In 4 cases there were never improved. There were slight migration to regional nodes in three patients, but without regional swelling nor other adverse effects. There were no cases of radio-necrosis or transient increase of synovitis. Overall assessment of the procedure by the patients was satisfactory in most cases. Conclusion: the RS in synovitis associated with chronic inflammatory arthropathy of diverse etiology produces very good short-term therapeutic results in most patients and in a lesser, but significant, percentage of cases a durable response even at two years post treatment. In some patients it could be a definitive solution. The RS is

  8. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  9. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da; Lemos, O.F.; Britto, J.L.O. de; Osso, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Braghirolli, A.M.S.; Chamma, D.F.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Weinreich, R.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author) [pt

  10. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes in works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The limit of the concentration of radioisotopes in the goods contaminated by these isotopes which are not required to be sealed in containers defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency is 1/10,000 of the value A 2 under the notification determining the details of technical standards concerning the transport of radioisotopes or the goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises. The application for the permission of transporting the goods which are highly difficult to be sealed in containers shall list names and addresses, the kinds, quantities, shapes and properties of the transported goods contaminated by radioisotopes, etc. The radiation dose rate of transported goods and vehicles under the regulation is 200 milli-rem an hour on the surfaces of these goods, vehicles and containers, and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from their surfaces. The permissible exposure dose of the persons engaging in transport is 1.5 rem a year. Dangerous goods, signs, and the application for the approval of special measures are specified, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  11. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG'S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG'S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria

  12. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours

  13. Determination of the radiological impact of radioisotope waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) controls the uses of radioisotopes and the management of wastes resulting from radioisotope use through licences. In most cases, wastes generated through the use of radioisotopes are required by licence condition to be sent to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for storage but if the amounts of radioisotope are very small, have a low activity or a very short half-life, the radioisotope is permitted to be released to regular waste management systems. The AECB commissioned this study to determine the doses to individuals working in municipal waste management systems and to populations of cities where small amounts of radioisotopes are disposed of through the municipal waste managment systems. The Hamilton-Burlington area surrounding Hamilton Harbour was selected as the study area. The pathways and dosimetry models were put into a computer spread sheet, to give the model flexibility so that it could be easily modified to model other cities. Within the occupational critical group, the maximum doses were calculated for the Hamilton sewage treatment plant aeration worker at 1.2E-6 Sv/a. If this individual were also a member of the critical group in the general population, the maximum dose would be 2.0E-6 Sv/a. Individual doses to the critical group within the general population were calculated as 7.7E-7 Sv/a for adults and 6.8E-8 Sv/a for infants. These compare to AECB regulatory limits of 5.0E-2 Sv/a per person for atomic radiation workers and 5.0E-3 Sv/a per person for the general public. The collective population dose for the study area was 1.37E-1 person-Sv/a or an average dose of 2.6E-7 Sv/a per person for the 525,000 population

  14. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  15. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, G.B.; Lazor, C.J.

    1976-10-01

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author) [es

  16. Facilities for the production and processing of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotopes which are used in South Africa are produced in the nuclear reactor SAFARI 1 of the AEB and the CSIR cyclotron in Pretoria or are being imported from various overseas manufactures. The safe and efficient production and use of radioisotopes is possible when being handled by sufficiently trained personnel using special designed equipment and facilities. The Isotope Production Centre is situated next to the reactor and waste treatment buildings. New production facilities shielded with lead and equipped with remote handling equipment are being erected and will be commissioned early during 1980 [af

  17. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethes, Gyoergy

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls. (V.N.)

  18. Radioisotope application to studies of copper electrolytic refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ts, U.; Lange, Kh.; Gajdel', B.

    1976-01-01

    Silver and selenium behaviour was studied using sup(110m)Ag and 75 Se radioisotopes in the copper electrolysis process. sup(110m)Ag and 75 Se distribution in the electrorefining products was also studied. It was found that Ag/Se mass ratio affected greatly the silver content in the copper cathode. It was found that the tracer technique made it possible to determine 0,1gSe/tCu and 1gAg/t Cu simultaneously and accurately with small material and time expenses. Using sup(110m)Ag radioisotope, the reduction in electrolyte silver content dependent on time may be determined quickly and accurately

  19. Activities of the IAEA on the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalnov, A V [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Research and Lab.

    1976-06-01

    The program of the IAEA related to the use of radioisotopes and radiation is concentrated in the Department of Research and Isotopes, which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, the Life Sciences Division, and the Division of Research and Laboratories. The following matters are described: hydrology of water systems using stable isotopes, research on CPXE (charged-particle X-ray emission), Regional Cooperative Agreements, Nuclear Methods in Environmental Research, and guidance to developing countries in the medical applications of radioisotopes.

  20. Radiation surveillance procedure during veterinary application of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA

  1. Stantardization problems in radioisotopic techniques for measuring rock density and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubin, O.V.; Pavlov, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the main technical characteristics is given of radioisotope densimeters and hydrometers taken as a base for the State Standard design for field radioisotope instruments for measuring density and moisture of the soil and rocks

  2. SYMPOSIUM: Rare decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-04-15

    Late last year, a symposium entitled 'Rare Decays' attracted 115 participants to a hotel in Vancouver, Canada. These participants were particle physicists interested in checking conventional selection rules to look for clues of possible new behaviour outside today's accepted 'Standard Model'. For physicists, 'rare decays' include processes that have so far not been seen, explicitly forbidden by the rules of the Standard Model, or processes highly suppressed because the decay is dominated by an easier route, or includes processes resulting from multiple transitions.

  3. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  4. Axigluon decays of toponium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Chiral-colour model predicts the existence of axigluons which is an octet of massive axial-vector gauge bosons. In this respect toponium decays into axigluons and gluons are of interest. The following toponium decays are considered: θ → Ag, θ → AAg, θ → ggg → AAg. The width of toponium S-state decays is calculated under various possible values of axigluon mass

  5. Decay of 143La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Dousson, S.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1976-01-01

    The decay of 143 La has been investigated. Sources have been obtained from 2 isotope separators (ISERE, OSIRIS). 12 gamma rays, with the most intense at 620keV representing only 1.4% of decay, have been attributed to the 143 La decay. A level scheme has been found and compared with the one deduced from (d,p) and (n,γ) reactions on 142 Ce [fr

  6. Limitations of Poisson statistics in describing radioactive decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna M

    2015-12-01

    The assumption that nuclear decays are governed by Poisson statistics is an approximation. This approximation becomes unjustified when data acquisition times longer than or even comparable with the half-lives of the radioisotope in the sample are considered. In this work, the limits of the Poisson-statistics approximation are investigated. The formalism for the statistics of radioactive decay based on binomial distribution is derived. The theoretical factor describing the deviation of variance of the number of decays predicated by the Poisson distribution from the true variance is defined and investigated for several commonly used radiotracers such as (18)F, (15)O, (82)Rb, (13)N, (99m)Tc, (123)I, and (201)Tl. The variance of the number of decays estimated using the Poisson distribution is significantly different than the true variance for a 5-minute observation time of (11)C, (15)O, (13)N, and (82)Rb. Durations of nuclear medicine studies often are relatively long; they may be even a few times longer than the half-lives of some short-lived radiotracers. Our study shows that in such situations the Poisson statistics is unsuitable and should not be applied to describe the statistics of the number of decays in radioactive samples. However, the above statement does not directly apply to counting statistics at the level of event detection. Low sensitivities of detectors which are used in imaging studies make the Poisson approximation near perfect. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decontamination of medical radioisotopes from hard surfaces using peelable polymer-based decontamination agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, Amanda E.; Walter, Ken J.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Medical radioisotopes used to treat and diagnose patients often contaminate surfaces in patient treatment rooms. They are typically short-lived and decay within a matter of days or weeks. However, down time in a medical facility related to radioisotope contamination is costly and can impact patient care. Most liquid or solid spills can be contained and disposed in radioactive wastes fairly completely and quickly; however residual contamination may remain on the contacted surface. Although liquid decontamination agents can be used to address the issue of residual contamination, they often require multiple applications with attendant scrubbing and wiping. Liquid decontamination can also produce large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. To look at reducing radioactive waste volumes, research was conducted on the efficacy of three low-volume peel able decontamination agents. Testing was performed on hard surfaces, such as vinyl composition floor tiles and stainless steel, which are found in many hospitals, research laboratories, and universities. The tiles were contaminated with the medical use isotopes of 99m Tc, Tl-201, and I-131 and subsequently decontaminated with one of the three decontamination agents. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained for each of three different peel able decontamination agent formulations. Quantitative data included environmental temperature and relative humidity, application thickness, dry time, contact time, and decontamination efficacy of the agents on the tested surfaces. Qualitative factors included ease of application and pee lability, as well as sag resistance and odor of each agent. Initial studies showed that under standard conditions there were reproducible differences in the decontamination efficacies among the three different decontamination formulations. (author)

  8. Intergrated approach to quality control procedures of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohani Mohamad

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of the quality control procedures for radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals have been discussed. The paper high lighted those procedures that are important in ensuring the efficacy of the product. It also gives a general idea of the various procedures that are actually carried out by the Quality Control Section. (A.J.)

  9. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J.; Carty, J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  10. Preparation of an annual report for a consolidated radioisotope licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A consolidated radioisotope licence is a single license issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to an institution having many users of radioactive materials. The licence is issued when the institution has fulfilled the requirements set by the AECB and has implemented policies and procedures which will ensure the maintenance of an effective radiation safety program. The consolidated licence is retained only if the results of AECB inspections are satisfactory -- or remedial action is taken promptly -- and if the institution reports regularly about the status of its radiation safety program. One aspect of this reporting procedure is an annual report. This guide describes the information that the AECB requires in the annual report. The guide applies primarily to universities and research institutions where a wide variety of radioisotope uses take place. The guide does not affect most other institutions or facilities, either because the nature and extent of their operations with radioactive materials do not lend themselves to consolidated licensing or because they are not licensed by the Radioisotopes and Transportation Division. (For example, this guide does not apply to reactors, to accelerators, or to waste management or uranium mining or refining facilities.) The information in the annual report should be specific to the consolidated radioisotope licence. Incidents, staff exposures, and waste associated with accelerators, research reactors, and waste management facilities should be excluded from this report unless they affected activities under the consolidated licence

  11. Clinical evaluation of Proscillaridin-A with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.D.A.; Cordovil, I.L.; Rocha, A.F.G.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty patients with cardiac insufficiency were evaluated under the use of Proscillaridin-A. The analysis was based on classic clinical parameters and 11 patients through the circulation time with the radioisotopic technique. The results obtained are analysed and discussed about the absence of side effects, considering as well the therapeutic use of the drug [pt

  12. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  13. Optimization of periodical interrogation of transducers of radioisotope measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, A.S.; Kaznakov, V.P.; Korolev, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain methods are examined of optimizing periodic interrogation of sensors connected in a definite sequence to device for data processing in a system for controlling production processes. It is shown that in designing multiinput radioisotope measurement systems with a centralized data processing, the choice of the method of organizing periodic interrogation should be made with account for the conditions existing in each specific case

  14. Application of radiation and radioisotopes in life science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation and Radioisotopes have been played an important role in the wide range of life science, from the field study, such as fertilizer or pesticide development or production of new species, to gene engineering researches. Many mutants through radiation have been provided to the market and the usage of radioactive tracers was an effective tool to study plant physiology. It has been granted that the contribution of radioisotopes has been accelerated the development of the gene engineering technology, which is now overwhelming all the other usages of radiation or radioisotopes. However, because of the difficulty to get social acceptance for gene modified plants, the orientation of the life science is now changing towards, so called ''post genome era''. Therefore, from the point of radiation or radioisotope usage, new application methods are needed to develop new type of researches. We present how (1) neutron activation analysis, (2) neutron radiography and (3) positron emission tomography are promising to study living plant physiology. Some of these techniques are not necessarily new methods but with a little modification, they show new aspects of plant activity. (author)

  15. Historical sketch of the discovery, production, and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.

    1975-01-01

    The Joliot-Curies made the first artificial radioisotope ( 30 P) by bombarding aluminum with alpha particles. The development of the cyclotron and other high-energy particle accelerators in the early 1930's led to the production of numerous radioisotopes in measurable quantities. By the beginning of the 1950's, with the abundant neutron fluxes available at the U. S. Atomic Commission reactors, radioisotopes of many species really became abundant. Naturally occurring radioactive lead had been used very sparingly as tracers as far back as 1918 in determining chemical solubility and in 1923 in plant uptake from lead solutions. Now many new uses were developed and tested as tracers in medical diagnosis, agricultural, and industrial chemical and metallurigical processes. Many therapeutic applications were tested. The industrial labs developed thickness and level gauges for control of various manufacturing processes. Cobalt gamma-ray irradiators were developed for medical therapy and have also been used for sterilization of surgical instruments and materials, for food preservation, and for initiation of certain chemical reactions. The most significant development in the 1960's was the rapidly increasing role of private industry in taking over the development, production, sales, as well as research, into new methods of production and applications of radioisotopes

  16. A radioisotope production cyclotron designed to minimize dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlavik, F.F.; Moritz, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a radioisotope production cyclotron which has been designed to minimize the dose to personnel during operation and maintenance. The design incorporates lessons learned from the operation of a CP42 cyclotron and has resulted in a reduction of the dose by a factor of more than 10. (author)

  17. High radio-isotope uptakes in patients with hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, J.; Kalk, W.J.; Ganda, C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1982-12-04

    Hypothyroidism is usually associated with a low radio-isotope uptake by the thyriod gland. We report 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism and with borderline high or overtly increased technetium-99m pertechnetate and/or iodine-131 uptakes.

  18. Present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Tian

    1986-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in China started almost thirty years ago. At present there are 20 units producing more than 700 radioisotope products. This report outlines the present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in some major areas. Remarkable achievements have been made in agriculture using nuclear technology. More than 70 new varieties or strains of cultivated plants have been bred by inducing mutation through irradiation. A new variety of silkworm bred by irradiation has unique characteristics such as high and stable yield. Application of radioisotopes in medical research and clinical practice began in 1956 and radionuclides have been progressively used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The most common radionuclide used in therapy is iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. Isotope-tracer technique and activation analysis play an important role in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. Isotope methods in China have been used in many industrial branches, such as textile, plastic and printing, but not very widely now. The nation has produced more than 2,000 sets of nuclear radiation measuring instruments, which become important parts of industrial automation control. The radiation processing research started in the end of 1950's. Food irradiation research has been going on in a good cooperation of different branches. Now China is planning to set up some plants to produce gamma irradiated disposal syringes and other medical devices. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Standardization and improvement of safety for radioisotope equipped instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo

    1980-01-01

    The safety for radioisotope-equipped instruments is considered. The one is the safety for the source assembly. The radioisotopes employed for radioisotope-equipped instruments are sealed sources which are used in the state of being contained in the enclosures. Many of the enclosures are provided with shutter mechanism for the purpose of emitting radiation only during the period required. If the possible troubles that might lead to the accidents are sampled out of the results of field operation of radiation instruments, and the safety measures for source enclosures are considered in connection with these troubles, it is no exaggeration to say that the safety for source enclosures has been maintained by preventing the critical accidents by the management of users and the cooperation of manufactures though there were the chance for investigating the safety in the common field and the establishment of JIS Z 4614 standard. Another consideration is concerned with the measures to improve the safety. No accident in the past never guarantees no accident in the future. Accumulation of experience is most effective for those measures, and the more experiences the better. It may be most effective that the manufacturers disclose their experiences each other from the wide outlook overcoming the barrier of trade secret. Fortunately, such consciousness has risen since a few years ago, and the investigation group is doing the works in the Japan Radioisotope Association. On the other hand, the reasonable revision of the radiation injury prevention law is desired. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Radioisotope-enzymes and cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyen, T. van

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is a pathological sign, when the abnormal cells appear in certain human tissues or organs. These cells can reproduce beyond the control of normal biological protection mechanism. Because they reproduce very fast, the metabolic process is accelerated, which causes the extreme need for more energy, substrate and catalyzing enzymes. Based on these needs, we can control the metabolic process by: Stopping supplying the energy. Stopping supplying the substrate and the materials to build up the cell's structure. Stopping operating catalysis by breaking out the enzyme's structure. Destroying the tumor cell by extra agents such as radiations and chemicals. All of these methods have been studied for a long time, which costs too much money, time and labor. Although we succeeded in some ways, the results are still not satisfactory. There are many reasons for this situation but the main one is the lack of information to understand all the processes taking place in the cell and our body. However, as far as we studied, we would like to propose the method to break the structure of the enzyme by nuclear decay process. (author)

  1. Status and prospects on radioisotope production in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H. S.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Hong, Y. D.; Park, K. B.

    2002-01-01

    In Korea, radioisotopes has been produced using small-sized research reactors (TRIGA Mark II, III) from 1961 to 1995. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) completed the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) in 1995 and a radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) in 1997. Medical and industrial radionuclides such as 131 I, 99m Tc, 166 Ho, 192 Ir and 60 Co, are routinely produced utilizing HANARO. Several hundreds kilo curies of these nuclides were supplied to domestic users in 2001. The Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH) first installed a cyclotron (MC-50) for neutron therapy and RI production in 1984. At present, the cyclotron routinely produced radionuclides such as 201 TI, 67 Ga, 123 I and 18 F. Also, it is capable of producing several radionuclides, including 111 In, 51 Cr, 124 I, 54 Mn, 22 Na, etc. Baby cyclotrons were installed in Seoul National University Hospital, Sam sung Medical Center and Asan Medical Center. The main purpose of the introduction of baby cyclotrons was to produce short-lived positron emitters such as 18 F, 15 O and 11 C for PET. Radioisotope production facilities were imported and installed as subsidiaries of cyclotron. In Korea, more than 60 kinds of radioisotopes are currently used in the field of their applications and most of them are imported form foreign vendors. For the quality assurance of final products such as radiopharmaceuticals and industrial sources, facilities for production should be installed and maintained in accordance with regulation rules and also the production system should be operated under quality management system. Since 1992 the Korean government has been encouraging Mid and Long Term Nuclear R and D Programs to enhance capability in nuclear technology development. In order to actively promote the utilization, research and development of technology applying radiation and RI, the Korean government established 'a comprehensive promotion plan for utilization, research and development

  2. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  3. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  4. B decays to baryons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We note that two-body decays to baryons are suppressed relative to three- and four-body decays. In most of these analyses, the invariant baryon–antibaryon mass shows an enhancement near the threshold. We propose a phenomenological interpretation of this quite common feature of hadronization to baryons.

  5. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  6. Aspects of B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B 0 s →J/ψφ and B 0 →J/ψK S,L decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B 0 - anti B 0 mixing phase. (orig.)

  7. Radioisotope programme in India: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major discoveries of the 20th century is the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This distinctive discovery in human history transformed atoms of one element to another. Until then, chemical reactions used to be concerned only with changes occurring outside the nucleus. The field of nuclear science came into existence with discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, radioactivity emitted by Uranium salt by Henri Becquerel in 1896 and pioneering work carried out by Madame Curie and Pierre Curie. India's atomic energy programme was envisaged, founded and developed by the great visionary Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha. Since then Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of Government of India has been engaged in developing technologies for use of radiation in all possible fields for the benefit of society. The most common sources of radiation are radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors either by utilizing available excess neutrons for activation of stable elements or by separating useful fission products from the spent fuel. In India, the production of radioisotopes started with the commissioning of APSARA reactor in 1956. Initially, APSARA was operated at low power, and radioisotopes could be produced only on a small scale. All these operations had to be called out with remote handling or in the safe glove boxes keeping in view the radiation levels associated with the samples. In due course, the reactor reached full power and remotely operated processing equipment required for handling the radioisotopes were set up. Isotopes such as Iodine-131, Phosphorous-32, Gold-198 and Sodium-24 were produced and extracted in purified form in small quantities. These were given to KEM Hospital and Bombay Hospital at Mumbai, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute and Safdarjung Hospital in Delhi, mainly for exploratory experiments

  8. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  9. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  10. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Schenter, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  11. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schenter, R.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  12. Decay of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.

    1985-01-01

    The pionic and non-mesonic decays of hypernuclei are discussed. In the first part, various decay processes which could be useful to obtain information of hypernuclear structure are discussed. The experimental data concerning the pionic and non-mesonic decays are discussed in the second part. As the experimental data, there are only few lifetime data and some crude data on the non-mesonic to π decay ratio. In the third and the fourth parts, some theoretical analyses are made on the pionic and the nonmesonic decays. DDHF calculation was performed for Λ and N systems by using Skyrme type ΛN and NN effective interactions. A suppression factor of the order of 10 -3 for A nearly equal 100 was obtained. (Aoki, K.)

  13. Rare Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Rare loop-induced decays are sensitive to New Physics in many Standard Model extensions. In this paper we discuss the reconstruction of the radiative penguin decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0} \\gamma, B^0_s \\to \\phi \\gamma , B^0_d \\to \\omega \\gamma, \\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\gamma$, the electroweak penguin decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0} \\mu^+ \\mu^-, B^+_u \\to K^+ \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, the gluonic penguin decays $B^0_d \\to \\phi K^0_S, B^0_s \\to \\phi \\phi$, and the decay $B^0_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ at LHCb. The selection criteria, evaluated efficiencies, expected annual yields and $B/S$ estimates are presented.

  14. Reducing Error Bars through the Intercalibration of Radioisotopic and Astrochronologic Time Scales for the Cenomanian/Turonian Boundary Interval, Western Interior Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, S. R.; Siewert, S. E.; Singer, B. S.; Sageman, B. B.; Condon, D. J.; Obradovich, J. D.; Jicha, B.; Sawyer, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    We develop a new intercalibrated astrochronologic and radioisotopic time scale for the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) boundary interval near the GSSP in Colorado, where orbitally-influenced rhythmic strata host bentonites that contain sanidine and zircon suitable for 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating. This provides a rare opportunity to directly intercalibrate two independent radioisotopic chronometers against an astrochronologic age model. We present paired 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages from four bentonites spanning the Vascoceras diartianum to Pseudaspidoceras flexuosum biozones, utilizing both newly collected material and legacy sanidine samples of Obradovich (1993). Full 2σ uncertainties (decay constant, standard age, analytical sources) for the 40Ar/39Ar ages, using a weighted mean of 33-103 concordant age determinations and an age of 28.201 Ma for Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs), range from ±0.15 to 0.19 Ma, with ages from 93.67 to 94.43 Ma. The traditional FCs age of 28.02 Ma yields ages from 93.04 to 93.78 Ma with full uncertainties of ±1.58 Ma. Using the ET535 tracer, single zircon CA-TIMS 206Pb/238U ages determined from each bentonite record a range of ages (up to 2.1 Ma), however, in three of the four bentonites the youngest single crystal ages are statistically indistinguishable from the 40Ar/39Ar ages calculated relative to 28.201 Ma FCs, supporting this calibration. Using the new radioisotopic data and published astrochronology (Sageman et al., 2006) we develop an integrated C/T boundary time scale using a Bayesian statistical approach that builds upon the strength of each geochronologic method. Whereas the radioisotopic data provide an age with a well-defined uncertainty for each bentonite, the orbital time scale yields a more highly resolved estimate of the duration between stratigraphic horizons, including the radioisotopically dated beds. The Bayesian algorithm yields a C/T time scale that is statistically compatible with the astrochronologic and radioisotopic data

  15. Comparison of the production of medical radioisotopes on reactor and cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.; Vuksanovic, Lj.; Dobrijevic, R.; Karanfilov, E.

    1997-01-01

    The production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medical applications can be performed either on nuclear reactor or on cyclotron. According to the nuclear reactions applied the radioisotopes of different physical characteristics can be produced. In the paper a comparison of the radioisotopes production given. Compared are the main steps in the production: choice of the nuclear reaction, targetry, irradiation and radiochemical separations performed on the irradiated target to isolate the desired radioisotope. The main characteristics of the produced radioisotopes are given and discussed. (author)

  16. Study on the status of radiation/radioisotope utilization during the last 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Park, Tae Jin; Kuk, Il Hiun

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study is derivation of important indices for establishing government policy to promote radiation and radioisotope utilization and for setting up effective strategy o develop related industries, on the basis of utilization data, and deduction of economic scale induced by using radiation and radioisotope, through the analysis of economic contribution by multi-variate model. Uses of radiation and radioisotopes are increasing annually in Korea, and the effect of utilization to economy and industry is continuously enlarged in accordance with technology development and expansion of radiation and radioisotope uses. Indices related to radiation nd radioisotope uses, which are useful for the promotion of utilization and establishment of development strategy, have to be derived and updated every year. Important indices related to radiation and radioisotope utilization are derived through the study. The indices are useful for planning establishing, and revising policies to promote radiation and radioisotope utilization, and re furthermore valuable for public acceptance nuclear energy

  17. Charm Decays at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of several studies of charmed mesons and baryons at BABAR are presented. First, searches for the rare decays D 0 → l + l - are presented and new upper limits on these processes are established. Second, a measurement of the branching fraction of the isospin-violating hadronic decay D* s (2112) + → D s + π 0 relative to the radiative decay D* s (2112) + → D s + γ is made. Third, the decays of D* sJ (2317) + and D sJ (2460) + mesons are studied and ratios of branching fractions are measured. Fourth, Cabibbo-suppressed decays of the Λ c + are examined and their branching fractions measured relative to Cabibbo-allowed modes. Fifth, the Χ c 0 is studied through its decays to Χ - π + and (Omega) - K + ; in addition to measuring the ratio of branching fractions for Χ c 0 produced from the c(bar c) continuum, the uncorrected momentum spectrum is measured, providing clear confirmation of Χ c 0 production in B decays

  18. Iconic decay in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S; Robinson, Benjamin M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2011-09-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0-1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia.

  19. Status report on developing I-124, Pd-103, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64 radioisotopes at KIRAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. K.; Han, S. J.; Oh, T. H.; Kim, K. K.; Park, H.; Lee, J. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The decay characteristics of their radioisotopes such as I-124, Pd-103, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64 radionuclides produced by cyclotron have considered useful agents for diagnostic imaging or therapy. In order to increase the availability of the radionuclides, the investigation for the high capacity target design and simple procedures yielding high activities is being carried. Therefore, KIRAMS will lead researchers in nuclear medicine to access the feasibility of reliable production for enough quantities of several research radioisotopes using (p,xn) reactions. The quality and yield of products are evaluated theoretically from the excitation functions as a function of proton energies, target thickness, bombarding time, and growth time. Radionuclidic impurities are determined by gamma-spectrometer with high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and the yields are read by ion chamber. Multi-millicuries of radioisotope I-124 (23% positron emission, half-life 4.2 days) is produced by 125-TeO2(p,2n)124-I reaction at the incident proton energy of 22 MeV. The production of carrier-free Pd-103 by the 103Rh(p,n)103Pd reaction with the 18 MeV proton beam. The electroplating method of Rh to Cu plate and recovery of rhodium from irradiated target fragments will be discussed. The thermal stability of Rh films on Cu plate will be tested for the mass production by increasing beam current up to 220uA with high-current cyclotron. For Cu-64, Tc-94m and Br-76 radionuclides, the target preparation and separating techniques are under developing. Our research project emphasis is in the development of routine methods for the production of Pd-103 radionuclide for brachytherapy seed and PET radionuclides, which include I-124, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64. In addition to the production of these radionuclides, we are developing novel radiopharmaceuticals utilizing these isotopes for both imaging and therapy.

  20. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounalli, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Radio-isotopes required in medicine (nuclear medicine, neurology, cardiology, orthopedics) need a deep reflection and a scientific analysis of the problems related to the human health. The utilisation of radioisotopes in other fields such as chemistry, agriculture, industry, safety, earth sciences and environmental physics is also of great importance. In pharmaceutical companies, radioisotopes used in a laboratory of imaging for small animal to check the efficiency of drugs in vivo is touched upon in this presentation. Radioisotopes are also needed for different activities in platform dedicated to the training of radio pharmacist and radio biologist. The availability of radioisotopes in a research center such as the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (NCNST) will improve the activity of existing skills and serve the country's development in the field of biomedical research. Tunisia has two projects of cyclotrons facilities: the first one is in the private sector and the second one is proposed by the NCNST. The realization of these projects requires a period of time estimated to two years for the feasibility study and two years more for constitution. In the meantime, it is necessary to establish a master's degree in radio-pharmacy / radio-biology to provide skills that may activate cyclotron facilities. One last test phase lasts 6 months to a year. The work within a cyclotron facility requires a rigorous and a lot of discipline (a little bit military) ordered by the risk of the isotope radioactive half-life and its radiation activity. Thus, it is necessary to provide to the staff, various training required for the functioning of the cyclotron. It is useful to insist on the importance of scientist's team which is going to put on the cyclotron and which consists of: radio-pharmacists, radio physicists experts in radiation protection, and engineer's operators of cyclotrons. It is useful to attract the attention that the specialties in the field of the

  1. Tracer experiment by using radioisotope in surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.S.; Kim, K.C.; Chun, I.Y.; Jung, S.H.; Lee, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. 1. Objective An expansion of industrial activities and urbanization result in still increasing amount of pollutants discharged into surface water. Discharged pollutants in surface water have harmful effects on the ecology of a river system and human beings. Pollutants discharged into surface water is transported and dispersed under conditions characteristic to particular natural water receiver. Radiotracer method is a useful tool for monitoring the pollutant dispersion and description of mixing process taking place in natural streams. A tracer experiment using radioisotope was carried out to investigate the characteristics of a pollutant transport and a determination of the diffusion coefficients in a river system. 2. Methods The upper area of the Keum river was selected for the tracer experiment, which is located in a mid west of Korea. The measurements of the velocity and bathymetry before a tracer experiment were performed to select the sampling lines for a detection of the radioisotope. The radioisotope was instantaneously injected into a flow as a point source by an underwater glass-vial crusher. The detection was made with 60 2inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors at 3 transverse lines at a downstream position. The multi-channel data acquisition systems were used to collect and process the signals transmitted from the detectors. Two-dimensional numerical models were used to simulate the hydraulic parameters and the concentration distributions of the radioisotope injected into the river. 3. Results and Conclusion The calculated results such as velocity and concentrations were compared with the measured ones. The dispersion characteristics of the radioisotope were analyzed according to a variation of the flow rate, water level and diffusion coefficients. Also, the diffusion coefficients were calculated by using the measured concentrations and the coefficients obtained from the field experiment were compared with the ones

  2. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  3. SYMPOSIUM: Rare decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Late last year, a symposium entitled 'Rare Decays' attracted 115 participants to a hotel in Vancouver, Canada. These participants were particle physicists interested in checking conventional selection rules to look for clues of possible new behaviour outside today's accepted 'Standard Model'. For physicists, 'rare decays' include processes that have so far not been seen, explicitly forbidden by the rules of the Standard Model, or processes highly suppressed because the decay is dominated by an easier route, or includes processes resulting from multiple transitions

  4. Indigenous development of TBq levels of "1"7"7Lu radioisotope production at RPhD for nuclear medicine applications - a successful venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K.V.; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Lutetium-177 ("1"7"7Lu) has emerged as a potential radionuclide during last decade for the development of radionuclide therapy owing to its favorable nuclear decay characteristics (T_1_/_2=6.65 d, E_β_(_m_a_x) = 0.497 MeV, E_γ = 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%)). The long half-life of this promising radioisotope offering distinct logistical advantage and feasibility of its large-scale production in medium flux Dhruva research reactor contributed to its success story

  5. Teleportation via decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    therefore normally plays a negative role in quantum information processing [1]. ... of a decay be used in a fruitful way for quantum information process- ing? ..... The model independent portions of the analysis of communication through a noisy.

  6. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... T K RANA, C BHATTACHARYA, S KUNDU, ... of various direct 3α decay mechanisms of the Hoyle state. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. ... FMD predicts a compact triangle shape and LEFT predicts a bent arm chain structure,.

  7. RARE KAON DECAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  9. Cavities/Tooth Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milk, ice cream, honey, sugar, soda, dried fruit, cake, cookies, hard candy and mints, dry cereal, and ... teeth can wear down and gums may recede, making teeth more vulnerable to root decay. Older adults ...

  10. Inflaton decay in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yanagida, T.T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for the Early Universe

    2007-06-15

    We discuss inflaton decay in supergravity, taking account of the gravitational effects. It is shown that, if the inflaton has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, it generically couples to any matter fields that appear in the superpotential at the tree level, and to any gauge sectors through anomalies in the supergravity. Through these processes, the inflaton generically decays into the supersymmetry breaking sector, producing many gravitinos. The inflaton also directly decays into a pair of the gravitinos. We derive constraints on both inflation models and supersymmetry breaking scenarios for avoiding overproduction of the gravitinos. Furthermore, the inflaton naturally decays into the visible sector via the top Yukawa coupling and SU(3){sub C} gauge interactions. (orig.)

  11. Inflaton decay in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F.; Yanagida, T.T.; Tokyo Univ.

    2007-06-01

    We discuss inflaton decay in supergravity, taking account of the gravitational effects. It is shown that, if the inflaton has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, it generically couples to any matter fields that appear in the superpotential at the tree level, and to any gauge sectors through anomalies in the supergravity. Through these processes, the inflaton generically decays into the supersymmetry breaking sector, producing many gravitinos. The inflaton also directly decays into a pair of the gravitinos. We derive constraints on both inflation models and supersymmetry breaking scenarios for avoiding overproduction of the gravitinos. Furthermore, the inflaton naturally decays into the visible sector via the top Yukawa coupling and SU(3) C gauge interactions. (orig.)

  12. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  13. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  14. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  15. Safety management of radioisotopes and others in educational institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in the fields of research in various educational institutions. While considerable progress has been seen in the safety management of RI utilization, such accidents as the loss of radioisotopes and radioactive contamination occurred. Under the situation, the safety management of RIs and others in RI-using facilities provided by the law has been examined by the ad hoc committee. A report by the committee is described as follows: need for a RI safety management organization, defining the responsibility of the chief technicians handling radiation, need for the practices of using RIs, etc. in education and traininng, planned RI-handling facilities, cautions for the loss of RIs and the contamination, centralization in RI safety management, improvement of remuneration for the chief technicians handling radiation, occasional restudy on the safety management of RIs, etc. (J.P.N.)

  16. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J.; Carty, J.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 and RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, Ti-44, Fe-52, Gd-148, and Hg-194. The authors will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes will be described

  17. Production of radioisotopes within a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, E.; Tartari, A.; Frignani, M.; Molinari, V.; Mostacci, D.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M. . E-mail address of corresponding author: domiziano.mostacci@mail.ing.unibo.it

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, research conducted in the US and in Italy has demonstrated production of radioisotopes in Plasma Focus (PF) devices, and particularly, on what could be termed 'endogenous' production, to wit, production within the plasma itself, as opposed to irradiation of targets. This technique relies on the formation of localized small plasma zones characterized by very high densities and fairly high temperatures. The conditions prevailing in these zones lead to high nuclear reaction rates, as pointed out in previous work by several authors. Further investigation of the cross sections involved has proven necessary to model the phenomena involved. In this paper, the present status of research in this field is reviewed, both with regards to cross section models and to experimental production of radioisotopes. Possible outcomes and further development are discussed. (author)

  18. Present status of application of radiation and radioisotopes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Anwar

    1984-01-01

    Bangladesh has proceeded with the atomic energy programme in three phases: (1) research and development using radiation and radioisotopes and application of the results, (2) building the infrastructure in nuclear technology and (3) production of electricity from nuclear sources and development of associated facilities. It has entered the second phase of the programme. The following main areas of research and application were referred to: agriculture, food preservation, medical sterilization and radiation biology, medicine, non-destructive testing, isotope hydrology, elemental analysis, particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods, radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence (RIXFA) methods, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) methods, molecular absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, health physics, and future programme with research reactor. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    This brochure is intended to present the state-of -the-art in techniques for gamma scanning and neutron backscattering for troubleshooting inspection of columns, vessels, pipes, and tanks in many industrial processing sectors. It aims to provide not only an extensive description of what can be achieved by the application of radioisotope sealed sources but also sound experience-based guidance on all aspects of designing, carrying out and interpreting the results of industrial applications. Though it is written primarily for radioisotope practitioners, the brochure is also intended to function as an ambassador for the technology by promoting its benefits to governments, to the general public and to industrial end-users

  20. When are fume-cupboards necessary in hospital radioisotope laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, J L [Singleton Hospital, Swansea (UK)

    1976-06-01

    Suggestions are made for procedures likely to require the provision of efficient fume-cupboards in hospital radioisotope laboratories. All such departments undertaking in vivo radioisotope procedures will require a supply of sterile materials, but only some of these will also require a fume-cupboard, since the use of a relatively inexpensive aseptic cabinet, without air flow and exhaust system, may suffice for such procedures as the labelling of blood cells or plasma. Efficient fume-cupboards may be required in hospital laboratories that are routinely concerned with the elution of generators of isotopes such as /sup 99/Tcsup(m) and /sup 113/Insup(m), the sterilization of radiopharmaceuticals (e.g. technetium-sulphur colloid) requiring the use of a pressure cooker, and the storage and handling of therapeutic quantities of /sup 131/I. Copious general ventilation of isotope rooms may be preferable to the too frequent incorporation of unnecessary fume-cupboards.

  1. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Horwitz, E Philip [Naperville, IL

    2009-10-06

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  2. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  3. A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave transponder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin, S; Lal, A

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a 63 Ni radioisotope-powered pulse transponder that has a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the frequency transmission frequency selector. Because the frequency is determined by a SAW device, narrowband detection with an identical SAW device enables the possibility for a long-distance RF-link. The SAW transponders can be buried deep into structural constructs such as steel and concrete, where changing batteries or harvesting vibration or EM energy is not a reliable option. RF-released power to radioisotope- released power amplification is 10 8 , even when regulatory safe amounts of 63 Ni are used. Here we have achieved an 800 µW pulse (315 MHz, 10 µs pause) across a 50 Ω load every 3 min, using a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source

  4. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  5. Aspects of B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-03-04

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} and B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S,L} decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B{sup 0}- anti B{sup 0} mixing phase. (orig.)

  6. Tau decays into kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkemeier, M.; Mirkes, E.

    1995-04-01

    Predictions for semi-leptonic decay rates of the τ lepton into two meson final states and three meson final states are derived. The hadronic matrix elements are expressed in terms of form factors, which can be predicted by chiral Lagrangians supplemented by informations about all possible low-lying resonances in the different channels. Isospin symmetry relations among the different final states are carefully taken into account. The calculated brancing ratios are compared with measured decay rates where data are available

  7. Iconic Decay in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the info...

  8. Annihilation decays of bottomonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Antony Prakash; Bhat, Manjunath; D'Souza, Praveen P.; Vijaya Kumar, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    The bound state of a bottom quark b and its anti quark b-bar known as bottomonium was first seen in the spectrum of μμ"- pairs produced in 400 GeV proton-nucleus collisions at Fermilab. It was discovered as spin triplet states ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S) by E288 collaboration at Fermilab. We have calculated annihilation decay widths of bottomonium states. The calculated decay widths are presented

  9. Rare psi decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.

    1986-01-01

    Slightly more than ten years have passed since the psi was discovered, yet the study of psi decays continues to be an active and fruitful area of research. One reason for such longevity is that each successive experiment has increased their sensitivity over previous experiments either by improving detection efficiency or by increasing statistics. This has allowed the observation and, in some cases, detailed studies of rare psi decays. Branching ratios of ≅10-/sup 4/ are now routinely studied, while certain decay channels are beginning to show interesting effects at the 10-/sup 5/ level. Future experiments at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) have the potential for increasing sensitivities by one or two orders of magnitude, thus enabling many interesting studies impossible with current data samples. The author first examines the extent to which psi decays can be used to study electroweak phenomena. The remainder of this work is devoted to the more traditional task of using the psi to study quarks, gluons, and the properties of the strong interaction. Of particular interest is the study of radioactive psi decays, where a number of new particles have been discovered. Recent results regarding two of these particles, the θ(1700) and iota(1450), are discussed, as well as a study of the quark content of the eta and eta' using decays of the psi to vector-pseudoscalar final states

  10. Decays of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos could be well-suited for probing neutrino decay, since decay may be observed even for very small decay rates or coupling constants. We will introduce an effective operator framework for the combined description of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations for supernova neutrinos, which can especially take into account two properties: one is the radially symmetric neutrino flux, allowing a decay product to be re-directed towards the observer even if the parent neutrino had a different original direction of propagation. The other is decoherence because of the long baselines for coherently produced neutrinos. We will demonstrate how to use this effective theory to calculate the time-dependent fluxes at the detector. In addition, we will show the implications of a Majoron-like decay model. As a result, we will demonstrate that for certain parameter values one may observe some effects which could also mimic signals similar to the ones expected from supernova models, making it in general harder to separate neutrino and supernova properties

  11. Rare and forbidden decays

    CERN Document Server

    Trampetic, Josip

    2002-01-01

    In these lectures I first cover radiative and semileptonic B decays, including the QCD corrections for the quark subprocesses. The exclusive modes and the evaluation of the hadronic matrix elements, i.e. the relevant hadronic form factors, are the second step. Small effects due to the long-distance, spectator contributions, etc. are discussed next. The second section we started with non-leptonic decays, typically $B \\to \\pi\\pi, K\\pi, \\rho\\pi,...$ We describe in more detail our prediction for decays dominated by the $b\\to s \\eta_c$ transition. Reports on the most recent experimental results are given at the end of each subsection. In the second part of the lectures I discuss decays forbidden by the Lorentz and gauge invariance, and due to the violation of the angular moment conservation, generally called the Standard Model-forbiden decays. However, the non-commutative QED and/or non-commutative Standard Model (NCSM), developed in a series of works in the last few years allow some of those decay modes. These ar...

  12. Analysis of status of radiation/radioisotopes utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Kon Wuk

    2017-01-01

    The use of radiation and radioisotopes in Korea has been increasing each year, and its impact on economy and industry is expected to be increasing progressively following the development of industrial technology and the expansion of their usage. To establish and supporting policies for industries using radiation and radioisotopes, it is necessary to check the status of related industries accurately, as well as to gather data required to establish plans for industrial development by studying both revenues and economic scale (contributing to revenue). o analyze the status of utilization, surveys were carried out on 6,621 organizations engaged in nuclear operations handling radiation and radioisotopes pursuant to the Nuclear Safety Act as of end 2014, on 33,471 medical institutions using radiation generators for medical and diagnostic purposes pursuant to the Medical Service Act, and on 2,218 organizations using radiation generators for animal diagnostics pursuant to the Veterinary License Act. he overall status of the domestic radiation market including the number of user organizations, that of employees, and the size of distributions (imports, productions, and exports) with which the scale of domestic radiation market can be judged showed a growth trend compared to the previous year, though the number of employees for radiation operation in industrial sector, research sector, education sector, military sector, and power plants (nuclear power plants) and the size of imports was reduced somewhat. t is expected that data acquired through periodic surveys on the status of utilization would be utilized practically in establishing governmental policies related to the promotion of usage of radiation and radioisotopes, and also be utilized widely in cultivating and developing the industry efficiently to invigorate the related industries

  13. Analysis of status of radiation/radioisotopes utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Kon Wuk [Business Innovation Office, Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The use of radiation and radioisotopes in Korea has been increasing each year, and its impact on economy and industry is expected to be increasing progressively following the development of industrial technology and the expansion of their usage. To establish and supporting policies for industries using radiation and radioisotopes, it is necessary to check the status of related industries accurately, as well as to gather data required to establish plans for industrial development by studying both revenues and economic scale (contributing to revenue). o analyze the status of utilization, surveys were carried out on 6,621 organizations engaged in nuclear operations handling radiation and radioisotopes pursuant to the Nuclear Safety Act as of end 2014, on 33,471 medical institutions using radiation generators for medical and diagnostic purposes pursuant to the Medical Service Act, and on 2,218 organizations using radiation generators for animal diagnostics pursuant to the Veterinary License Act. he overall status of the domestic radiation market including the number of user organizations, that of employees, and the size of distributions (imports, productions, and exports) with which the scale of domestic radiation market can be judged showed a growth trend compared to the previous year, though the number of employees for radiation operation in industrial sector, research sector, education sector, military sector, and power plants (nuclear power plants) and the size of imports was reduced somewhat. t is expected that data acquired through periodic surveys on the status of utilization would be utilized practically in establishing governmental policies related to the promotion of usage of radiation and radioisotopes, and also be utilized widely in cultivating and developing the industry efficiently to invigorate the related industries.

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ''Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238 Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process

  15. Radioisotopes leakage of Fukushima may hit marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qing; Liu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    So many radioisotopes were released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan. Although the isotopes will be vastly diluted and the contamination is unlikely to cause immediate harm to marine organisms, but long-lived isotopes are expected to accumulate in the food chain and may cause problems such as increased mortality in fish and marine-mammal populations. Viewpoints and recommendations for radioactivity pollution survey to the marine ecosystem by experts were reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  16. Prospective production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in divisions of IPPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, G.O.

    2001-01-01

    The first reason to commence the work on production of radioisotope production in IPPE, was the requirement of Russia medicine for original generators of technetium. The essential extension of their production in conditions of Moscow city has met the declaiming of the Moscow urban authorities. The important moment was that, in IPPE were objective possibilities to deployment the production of radioisotope production. Nowadays, nomenclature of the radioisotopes which have been produced in IPPE, constitutes 29 positions. The profile of production of radioisotope production was generated also. Restricted possibilities of the ray base, from one side, and the needs(requirement) of domestic medicine with other, in main have spotted this profile. The raw isotopes constitute a minority - on sales volumes ∼ 20 % (in main abroad), the defining part is constituted the form ready for the use by ∼ 80 % (in main in Russia). All 'know-how' is conditionally possible to divide into 3 categories: Base. It is technologies provided with an operating production sector, guaranteeing stable on quality production having a rather wide seller's market; Perspective. It is those technologies, in which the main stages of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT are fulfilled with positive result, but the working sites yet are not generated, and on the market are delivered only some samples of production. Are guessed RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT on perfecting the technology; Preparative. The technology, on which there are no regular orders, is not required of an individual working site. Sometimes it is rather precision operations, bound with usage of unique raw material, with a very stiff price of production. (authors)

  17. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  18. Occupational radioprotection in the cyclotron laboratory radioisotope production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Teixeira, M.V.; Santos, I.H.T.; Pujol Filho, S.V.

    1990-07-01

    The Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is operated mainly for radioisotope production, neutron production studies and irradiation damage analysis. The risks associated to the activities developed in these laboratories are exposition to beta, neutron and gama radiation and contamination. The radioprotection program adapted are presented briefly and the results of the air and surface contamination analysis, liquid efluents and dose equivalent of the workers in 1988 are shown. (author) [pt

  19. Radioisotope tracer study in an aniline production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Yelgoankar, V.N.; Mendhekar, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer study was carried out in an aniline production reactor to investigate the cause of poor heat transfer from tube side to shell side in an aniline production (ANPO) reactor. The results of the study indicated that more than 50% of the shell volume was reduced due to deposition of the process material (i.e. fouling) on the shell walls and may be the cause of poor heat transfer in the reactor. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  20. Application of radioisotopes in oil, gas and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    The fundaments and the methodology of the principal radioisotope techniques used in the construction and operation of oil-pipes are described. These techniques deal with gamma radiography of weids, scraper tracking, leak localization in underground pipes and interface detection. The practical use of the mathematical formulas deduced during the theoretical treatment of each method is illustrated through several examples of application. A proceeding for the design of an interface detector based on gamma ray attenuation is presented [pt

  1. Radioisotopes and fungicide research- present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatrath, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The developments in pesticides and radioisotopes fields were so near to each other that at a very early stage in this history, both became linked together and their usefulness was recognised for faster development. The purpose of this communication is to illustrate the present status these techniques in fungicide research by drawing suitable examples and also to bring out the directions in which future research will be going with the aid of these tools. 72 refs

  2. Radioisotopic diagnosis in pediatrics. Radioizotopnaya diagnostika v pediatrii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubovskij, G A

    1983-01-01

    The material concerning the possibilities of modern radiodiagnostic methods in the practice of pediatric cardiology, pulmonology, uronephrology, gastroentorology, osteology, endocrinology and perinatology is presented. The data on techniques for production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation loads on child and personnel and the rules of radiation safety are given. The value and the place of radioisotopic diagnosis in the complex of clinicoroentgenologic and instrumental investigations in pediatrics are based.

  3. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  4. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources

  5. Evaluation of radiophoby phenomenon among patients undergoing radioisotope therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, M.; Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the radiophoby symptoms among 81 patients with different type hyperthyroidism undergoing 1-131 (450-600 MBq) treatment. The state anxiety as well as the trait anxiety levels using Spielberger's scale have been evaluated. Its values were 1 - 6 points (average 3) and 3 - 7 points (average 6) respectively for state anxiety and trait one. These results indicated that radioisotope therapy causes increase of patient's anxiety level. (author)

  6. Charged particle radioisotope production at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1992-05-01

    A variable energy isochronous cyclotron (CV-28) was installed in 1974 at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, with the purpose, among others, of irradiating suitable targets to produce radioisotopes for medical diagnostic studies. This papers is an overview of the work done in the last two decades and reports the present status on the production of iodine-123 and gallium-67. (author)

  7. Application of radioisotope techniques in analysis of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is tabulated of the use of radioisotope techniques, giving the detected pollutant and the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. The most frequently used principle is the substoichiometric variant of isotope dilution which may be divided into the method of isotope dilution and the radio-reagent method. Both methods are described and examples are given of the determination of pollutants. (J.P.)

  8. Static and dynamic scintigraphy in radioisotope cardiology diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.; Zolna, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Pasyk, S.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the applications of scintigraphy in cardiac diagnosis is given. The principle of operation of the gamma-camera and of the scintigraphic system, the handling of data and the so-called gated scintigraphy are discussed. Characteristics of some radioisotopes applied in nuclear cardiology are given. The most frequent clinical states are discussed in which isotope diagnostics may be useful. Attention is drawn to the advantages of nuclear cardiology methods over conventional diagnostics. (author)

  9. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  10. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel

  11. Radioisotope requirements and usage in the radiopharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used extensively in many different productive and beneficial human endeavors. Amersham International, a U.K.-based company originating in the British Scientific Civil Service during World War II, has been actively involved in many of these activities for more than 50 yr. Today they are one of the world's largest suppliers of radioactive compounds and scaled radiation sources for use in industrial quality and safety assurance, life science research, and medicine. This paper outlines one of these applications: the use of radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive nuclides and labeled compounds that have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of (human) disease. They are manufactured via highly controlled processes and have gone through regulatory scrutiny and approval far in excess of other radioisotopes used in other applications. Radiopharmaceuticals can be conveniently split into two categories. One type is simply an active analog that mimics the physiological behavior of its inactive counterpart in the body. The other involves an actual pharmacological compound that exhibits the desired physiological behavior, which is then labeled with a radionuclide suitable for either imaging or the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose as appropriate but which plays no part in the mechanism of action of the drug. The latter type, which is the more common of the two, can be supplied either as an active compounded product or as a open-quotes cold kit,close quotes which is then labeled with the appropriate radiopharmaceutical-grade radionuclide to yield the final product

  12. Operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjin; Jung, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    At the RIPF at HANARO, Radioisotopes for industrial and medical purpose are produced and research and development for various radioisotopes are carried out. Major products include Ir-192 for NDT, I-131 for treatment and diagnosis of thyroid cancer, Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator for imaging diagnosis of cancer. Production of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical is being increased every year. Due to world-wide unstableness in the supply of Mo-99, a technology to produce (n,γ)Mo-99 generator at HANARO had been developed as a short term countermeasure. It will be available by the end of 2012. As a long term countermeasure, we are trying to build a new fully dedicated isotope reactor that will produce Fission Mo-99. At present, utilization of RIPF at HANARO is being increased. However when the construction of a new dedicated isotope reactor is completed in 2016, the role of the existing facility and new facility should be established accordingly so that none of the facilities are idling. In the near future, when the prospect of a utilization plan is completed, we expect an opportunity to present the result. (author)

  13. Finding of region of interest in radioisotope scintigraphy's images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazs, A.; Lubans, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is about some problems, which arise, when physicians try to make diagnosis, using information from pictures, which are obtained at radioisotope scintigraphy. The algorithm of obtaining pictures' sets (called GFR) is described in this paper. The possible mistakes in diagnosis are also described. One reason of the mistakes is wrong detection the investigated organ's location. The new method is suggested for detection of organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images' sets. Using of dynamic curves of pixels' intensities is suggested for solving of this problem. It is shown, why using of maximums of such curves is impossible for finding of the investigated organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images sets. The using of integral expression is suggested to solve the problem. The suggested method allows finding and selecting of investigated organ's location in image's sequences (correction is not available in the existing methods). The results of using this method are present. The method can work fully automatically or with manual setting of threshold. (authors)

  14. Hydrological model for the transport of radioisotope in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoboah, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes has gained grounds in Ghana as a result of the numerous benefits that could be derived from it. In Ghana, radioisotope materials are used for various purposes in a number of institutions. However, improper disposal of the waste poses threat to the environment. To evaluate the environmental impact of radioisotope pollution, mathematical models play a major role in predicting the pollution level in any medium. This study is concerned with the hydrological model for the transport of radioactive material in the river. The model was composed by employing partial differential equations, describing relevant physical processes evolution (water level, velocities and dissolved substances concentrations) that occurs in water bodies. The mass conservation and momentum laws, state equation and state transport equations are equation system basis. The explicit central difference scheme in space and a forward difference method in time were used for the evaluation of the generalized transport equation, the Advection-Dispersion Equation. A Matlab code was developed to predict the concentration of the radioactive contaminant at any particular time along the river and in a reservoir. The model was able to simulate accurately the various levels of radionuclide concentration changes in the flowing rivers as the flows are augmented by tributary inflows. (au)

  15. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by radioisotope injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Schwarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of trace elements is subject to certain mechanisms of homeostatic regulation. The supply status of the trace elements, iron, copper, zinc and manganese has definite effects on their respective extent of intestinal absorption, retention and intestinal excretion. Experimental studies show that there is an increase in intestinal absorption and retention, and a decrease in turnover rate and endogenous excretion of these trace elements in response to deficient dietary intake. On the basis of these results, three models are discussed for the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of situations of trace element deficiency: (1) Determination of the intestinal absorption of an orally administered radioisotope dose by measuring the activity of blood; (2) Determination of the retention of a parenterally administered dose in blood or plasma; and (3) Determination of the endogenous faecal excretion of a parenterally administered dose. The advantages and disadvantages of these models are discussed. Determination of the endogenous secretion of the trace element after intravenous injection of its radioisotope may be considered as the simplest and most informative method. (author)

  16. A comparative study of different contaminant radioisotopes in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    An order was established between the various radioisotopes, in order to compare which of them are a major problem concerning the contamination they originate in the materials using during their process, transportation and protection, consequently a sampling of contaminated materials was realized. These materials were submitted to a decontamination process with different reagents (acids, bases and organic and inorganic salts) varying their concentration through dilution with water. Besides for the same kind of reagent two processes were used, one with turbulence in the reagent through mechanical stirring, and the other static maintaining similar volumes of liquid in the two processes as well as a similar material, form and size of the object during the processes, detection of radiation in the samples were realized through a Geiger-Muller detector in similar periods of time, establishing this way a parallel system of comparison which allowed us to observe gains in the necessary period of time for reaching the same grade of decontamination in the two processes, it was concluded that it is very difficult to reach an order of comparison in the contamination because the periods of treatment vary as a function of the chemical compound containing the radioisotope(s). Besides we can reduce considerably the period of time in a stirring process and predict this necessary period of time for reaching the determined decontamination, provided that there are not permanent contaminations. (author)

  17. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  18. Radioisotope measurement system; Sistema de medicion de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina).Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    2007-07-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [Spanish] Un sistema de instrumentacion instalado en el L.M.R. (Centro Atomico Ezeiza de la CNEA) mide en amplio rango la actividad del decaimiento nuclear de radioisotopos. Permite caracterizar una amplia gama de radioistopos de variados niveles de actividad. Tanto el hardware de medicion como el software de operacion han sido desarrollados y construidos en el Dept. Instrumentacion y Control. El trabajo esboza la conformacion del sistema y su concepto de operacion, describe caracteristicas de disenio, construccion y del tratamiento del error, comenta resultados de ensayos y provee recomendaciones de uso. Pruebas de medicion realizadas empleando diversos nucleidos comprobaron que el sistema funciona en forma satisfactoria y su operacion es amigable. (autor)

  19. Neutron decay, semileptonic hyperon decay and the Cabibbo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The decay rates and formfactor ratios of neutron decay and semileptonic hyperon decays are compared in the framework of the Cabibbo model. The results indicate SU(3) symmetry breaking. The Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V us determined from these decays is in good agreement with the value determined from K→πeν decays, and with unitarity of the KM-matrix. (orig.)

  20. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes - which cannot be effectively stored - can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo-99 producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. The full study offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the Mo-99/Tc-99m supply chain. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo-99 or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo-99 and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market. (authors)

  1. Treatment of Radioactive Waste Generated from the Production of Molybdenum-99 Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    The 99 Mo is produced as the parent radionuclide for 99m Tc radioisotope which is used as medical radiodiagnostic for certain disease. In Indonesia 99 Mo is produced by irradiating target of high enriched U in the reactor. The characteristics of radioactive waste from the production of 99 Mo depend on the U enrichment of the target and the irradiation time. The characteristic of the radioactive waste can be directly determined by laboratory analysis or by ORIGEN 2 code. Producing 99 Mo from high enriched uranium target will produce radioactive waste containing 235 U, 238 U and fission product, while from low enriched uranium target will produce radioactive waste containing large amount of 239 Pu. Plutonium-239 is a long half life actinide that need to be separated from the fission product due to a different treatment is required. The fission product, after it is allowed to decay then needs to be categorized as low or medium level waste, while 239 Pu are categorized as transuranic waste. The disposal of low and medium level waste are stored in near surface disposal, while the disposal of transuranic waste is stored in a geologic formation. (author)

  2. Present status of research on Re-186 radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutalib, A [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium shows a close chemical similarity to technetium and is suitable for radiotherapy because the {beta}-emitting radionuclides {sup 186}Re (t{sub 1/2} 90 h, E{sub {beta}} = 1.1 MeV, E{sub {gamma}} = 137 keV) and {sup 188}Re (t{sub 1/2} = 17 h, E{sub {beta}} = 2.1 MeV). The {gamma}-emission associated with decay of {sup 186}Re is also useful in scintigraphy. The research on {sup 186}Re radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center has been carried out since April 1997. Interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) led us to the development of labeling antibodies with rhenium isotopes. Although there are several methods for coupling radiometal to antibody, we prefer an indirect labeling method in which a bifunctional chelating agent is used for coupling of {sup 186}Re to monoclonal antibodies. In this report we outline the study on the preparation of {sup 186}Re DMSA-TFP as precursor for labeling with monoclonal antibody. (author)

  3. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes - which cannot be effectively stored - can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo-99 producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. The full study offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the Mo-99/Tc-99m supply chain. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo-99 or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo-99 and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market. (authors)

  4. Correction factors for {gamma}-ray relative intensities in the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Chasteler, R.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Laymon, C.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Weller, H.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Moore, E.F. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Bybee, C.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Drake, J.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Tilley, D.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Vavrina, G. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Wallace, P.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-16

    We present here strong evidence that recently published values for the relative intensities of {gamma}-ray lines in the {sup 66}Ga({beta}{sup +}+EC){sup 66}Zn decay are incorrect at the higher energies ({proportional_to}30% too low at 4.8 MeV). In particular, we find that our current results are consistent with a set of correction factors which were first suggested 20 years ago, but have gone largely ignored until now. Our validation of these little known correction factors will have bearing on experiments which use the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope to extrapolate absolute detector efficiencies to higher energies. In particular, we discuss the conclusions of a recent D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment which will be strongly affected by our current results. The astrophysical S-factor data derived from this D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment are now seen to be systematically too low by {proportional_to}30%. (orig.).

  5. A Review of the Production of ''Special'' Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, L.G. Jr.

    1963-01-01

    Six useful characteristics of radioisotopes and advantages which may be taken of them are cited briefly, with examples. The Information Sheet announcing this Seminar listed four advantages of short-lived over long-lived isotopes. Two other reasons why owners of small research reactors should concern themselves with short half- life isotopes are economy and particular suitability for production, the latter being due to the pronounced effect of half-life on the net rate of production. Besides short half-life, type and energy of emitted radiation should be of concern to producers of isotopes. Nine advantages of a nuclear reactor over a particle accelerator for radioisotope production are outlined. Following this general orientation, a survey of unusual or less frequently used production techniques is presented. These include: (n, p) reactions and secondary reactions such as (t, n) and (t, p) induced by thermal neutrons, various techniques for obtaining useful fluxes of fast neutrons with which to effect other reactions, recoil techniques including classic Szilard-Chalmers reactions, use of charged wires to collect short-lived daughters of gaseous parents, parent-daughter milking system, parasitic irradiations, possible use of ''knocked- on'' protons or deuterons (from the moderator) as a means of effecting reactions such as (p,n), (d,n), etc. and the possible use of circulating ''loops'' in reactors with which to utilize the radiation from ultra-short-lived radioisotopes such as Ag 110 , In 114 , 116 , Dy 155m , etc. Although not a production technique, the possibility of using certain stable isotopes (e. g. of silver) as tracers which can be readily detected via subsequent activation is mentioned. Production figures for Brookhaven's ''special'' radioisotopes are cited to show differences in long- and short-term fluctuations among these isotopes, which are also compared as a class to those in heavier demand supplied by Oak Ridge. Present production methods of all

  6. CP violation in B decay

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.

  7. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  9. Therapy with high LET Radioisotopes: Can sufficient levels of attractive Auger and alpha emitters be produced to make their use practical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stabin, M.; Brill, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of localized energy deposition within a very small volume, cellular targeted therapy with high linear energy transfer (LET) Auger-electron and alpha-particle emitting radioisotopes is of great interest. While the energy deposition from alpha particles usually encompasses several cell diameters, the dose from Auger electrons is confined to a single cell. Two major challenges for broader use of Alpha and Auger emitters are the efficient and cost effective routine production of sufficient levels of these radioisotopes, and the availability of targeting molecules to which the radioisotopes can be attached for cellular delivery of sufficient levels of activity for effective therapy. Examples of several Alpha-and Auger-emitting radioisotopes of current interest are presented. Alpha- and Auger electron-emitting radioisotopes can be produced in accelerators (A) and nuclear reactors (R), and several alpha emitter congeners (i.e. thorium-229) can be obtained from uranium decay products. The challenge for reactor production, is the availability and exploitation of methods - other then the usual radiative (n,γ) production route which will provide no-carrier-added (nca) or the high specific activity radioisotopes of interest. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes High LET radioisotopes of current interest which are in the initial stages of development and/or which demonstrate practical use in clinical trials include several alpha-emitters, in particular bismuth-213 - and also the actinium-225 parent - astatine-211 and bismuth-212. Extensive experimental studies have been reported with Auger iododeoxyuridine (IdUR) radiolabeled with the iodine-125 emitter-labeled. However, development of production

  10. Sigma beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure beta decays of the sigma particle. Sigmas produced by stopping a K - beam in a liquid hydrogen target decayed in the following reactions: Kp → Σπ; Σ → Neν. The electron and pion were detected by wire spark chambers in a magnetic spectrometer and by plastic scintillators, and were differentiated by a threshold gas Cherenkov counter. The neutron was detected by liquid scintillation counters. The data (n = 3) shell electrons or the highly excited electrons decay first. Instead, it is suggested that when there are two to five electrons in highly excited states immediately after a heavy ion--atom collision the first transitions to occur will be among highly excited Rydberg states in a cascade down to the 4s, 4p, and 3d-subshells. If one of the long lived states becomes occupied by electrons promoted during the collision or by electrons falling from higher levels, it will not decay until after the valence shell decays. LMM rates calculated to test the methods used are compared to previous works. The mixing coefficients are given in terms of the states 4s4p, 45sp+-, and 5s5p. The applicability of Cooper, Fano, and Prats' discussion of the energies and transition rates of doubly excited states is considered

  11. Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The medical and biological applications of radioisotopes depend on two basically different types of measurements, those on living subjects in vivo and those on samples in vitro. The International Atomic Energy Agency has in the past held several meetings on in vivo measurement techniques, notably whole-body counting and radioisotope scanning. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the first Symposium the Agency has organized to discuss the various aspects of techniques for sample measurement in vitro. The range of these sample measurement techniques is very wide. The sample may weigh a few milligrams or several hundred grams, and may be in the gaseous, liquid or solid state. Its radioactive content may consist of a single, known radioisotope or several unknown ones. The concentration of radioactivity may be low, medium or high. The measurements may be made manually or automatically and any one of the many radiation detectors now available may be used. The 53 papers presented at the Symposium illustrate the great variety of methods now in use for radioactive- sample measurements. The first topic discussed is gamma-ray spectrometry, which finds an increasing number of applications in sample measurements. Other sections of the Proceedings deal with: the use of computers in gamma-ray spectrometry and multiple tracer techniques; recent developments in activation analysis where both gamma-ray spectrometry and computing techniques are applied; thin-layer and paper radio chromatographic techniques for use with low energy beta-ray emitters; various aspects of liquid scintillation counting techniques in the measurement of alpha- and beta-ray emitters, including chemical and colour quenching; autoradiographic techniques; calibration of equipment; and standardization of radioisotopes. Finally, some applications of solid-state detectors are presented; this section may be regarded as a preview of important future developments. The meeting was attended by 203 participants

  12. SIDA - System for importation distribution and acquisition of radioisotope - User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The SIDA manual (system for importation, distribution and acquisition of radioisotopes) is presented. The SIDA is a system of consult and update to control importation and distribution of radioisotopes in the country. It allows to accompany processes from importation requirement to distribution of radioisotopes, executing the accountancy of I-125, which is distributed for several interprises. The system was developed in CLIPPER87 using DBASE III PLUS data base management. (M.C.K.)

  13. Radioisotopic methods for quality control of works and studies while constructing foundations and underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinov, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    The data on the use of radioisotope methods of quality control of various kinds of construction works when building foundations and underground constructions and when carrying out scientific research, are presented. Devices and equipment are described, their block diagrams are presented. The experience in using radioisotope devices to control the quality of construction works, is presented. The problems of economic effectivenes of works using radioisotope devices are solved

  14. Hygienic efficiency of radioisotope instruments application in motor-car industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, M.I.; Lev, M.Ya.; Liberman, A.N.; Chictov, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    At the Moscow Automobile Works named after I.A. Likhachev, an analysis was made of the hygienic and technologic-economic benefits from use of radioisotope instruments. Radioisotopic sources of radiation are used for research and measuring purposes in various automatic control and monitoring systems, and in evaluating the effectiveness of cleaning facilities. The application of radioisotopic instruments contributes to achieving the maximum possible efficiency of the equipment, to the improvement of working conditions, and to the prevention of environmental pollution

  15. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  16. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  17. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  18. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  19. Weak interactions: muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, A.M.; Sirlin, A.

    1975-01-01

    The traditional theory of the dominant mode of muon decay is presented, a survey of the experiments which have measured the observable features of the decay is given, and those things which can be learned about the parameters and nature of the theory from the experimental results are indicated. The following aspects of the theory of muon decay are presented first: general four-fermion theory, two-component theory of the neutrino, V--A theory, two-component and V--A theories vs general four-fermion theory, intermediate-boson hypothesis, radiative corrections, radiative corrections in the intermediate-boson theory, and endpoint singularities and corrections of order α 2 . Experiments on muon lifetime, isotropic electron spectrum, total asymmetry and energy dependence of asymmetry of electrons from polarized muons, and electron polarization are described, and a summary of experimental results is given. 7 figures, 2 tables, 109 references

  20. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  1. Do protons decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, P.J.

    1984-09-01

    The experimental status of proton decay is reviewed after the Leipzig International conference, July 1984. A brief comparative description of the currently active experiments is given. From the overall samples of contained events it can be concluded that the experiments are working well and broadly agree with each other. The candidates for proton decay from each experiment are examined. Although several experiments report candidates at a higher rate than expected from background calculations, the validity of these calculations is still open to doubt. (author)

  2. 103Pd decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyavenko, V.S.; Borozenets, G.P.; Vishnevskij, I.N.; Zheltonozhskij, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    103 Pd decay in different chemical states has been investigated. The change of the partial half-life period equal to 0.67±0.15% has been detected. The γ-spectrum has been measured to a high precision. The new data have been obtained on population probabilities of 103 Rh excited states and the total energy of decay for 103 Pd has been determined to a high precision (543.0±0.8). The values of log ft have been determined

  3. Decay of 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Love, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    Relative intensities for K x-rays and gamma rays emanating from 99 Mo in equilibrium with its 99 Tc* daughter have been measured using several Ge photon detectors. Combining these intensities with an evaluated set of electron-conversion coefficients has provided a set of absolute intensities for the observed gamma rays. The absolute intensity for the dominant 140.5-keV gamma ray in 99 Tc was determined to be 90.7 +- 0.6/100 99 Mo disintegrations for 99 Mo decay in equilibrium with decay of the 99 Tc* daughter

  4. Supersymmetry in Z' decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcella, G.

    2014-01-01

    I study the phenomenology of new heavy neutral gauge bosons Z', predicted by Grand Unification Theories-driven U(1)' gauge groups and by the sequential standard model. BSM (Beyond Standard Model) decays into supersymmetric final states are accounted for, besides the SM (Standard Model) modes usually investigated. I give an estimate of the number of supersymmetric events in Z' decays possibly expected at LHC, as well as of the product of the Z' cross section times the branching fraction into electron and muon pairs. (author)

  5. An overview of computer models for pollutant transfer through the atmosphere, with special consideration for radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanovic, M.; Djukanovic, J.; Davidovic, M.; Cekerevac, D.; Stankovic, S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern society is intrinsically connected with usage and production of radioisotopes, both for military and civilian applications. During the march of 2007, there were 443 active nuclear plants, unknown quantity of nuclear weapons and a huge number of industrial, medical and other facilities that possess and use radioisotopes for various purposes. With the widespread usage of radioisotopes, there comes a danger of accidental or planed release into the biosphere. This paper gives an overview of the models that can be used for prognosis or reconstruction of radioisotope transfer through the atmosphere in case of accidental or planned release [sr

  6. Personal reflections on the highlights and changes in radiation and radioisotope measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Lee, Kyoung O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the recent changes that the authors have perceived in the use of radiation and radioisotope measurement applications. The first change is that due to the increased use of Monte Carlo simulation which has occurred from a normal evolutionary process. This is due in large part to the increased accuracy that is being obtained by the use of detector response functions (DRFs) and the simultaneous increased computational efficiency that has become available with these DRFs, the availability of a greatly improved weight windows variance reduction method, and the availability of inexpensive computer clusters. This first change is a happy one. The other change that is occurring is in response to recent terrorist activities. That change is the replacement or major change in the use of long-lived radioisotopes in radioisotope measurement and other radioisotope source applications. In general this can be done by improving the security of these radioisotope sources or by replacing them altogether by using machine sources of radiation. In either case one would like to preclude altogether or at least minimize the possibility of terrorists being able to obtain radioisotopes and use them for clandestine purposes. - Highlights: • Recent changes in radioisotope measurement applications. • Improvements in Monte Carlo simulation for treating radioisotope measurement applications. • Replacement of radioisotope sources with machine sources of radiation.

  7. Production of Radioisotopes in Pakistan Research Reactor: Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, A.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programs. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. The availability of short-lived radionuclides from radionuclide generators provides an inexpensive and convenient alternative to in-house radioisotope production facilities such as cyclotrons and reactors. The reactor offers large volume for irradiation, simultaneous irradiation of several samples, economy of production and possibility to produce a wide variety of radioisotopes. The accelerator-produced isotopes relatively constitute a smaller percentage of total use. (author)

  8. Chromatographic generator systems for the actinides and natural decay series elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, D.R.; Horwitz, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes chromatographic radionuclide generator systems for the production of actinides and natural decay series elements. The generator systems begin with alpha emitting parent radioisotopes with half-lives (T 1/2 ) of greater than one year and produce alpha or beta emitting radioisotopes with half-lives of hours to days. Chromatographic systems were chosen to minimize radiolytic damage to chromatographic supports, preserve the parent activity for repeated use, provide high purity daughter radionuclide tracers, and to minimize or eliminate the need for evaporation of solutions of the parent or daughter nuclides. Useful secondary separations involving the daughters of the initial parent radionuclide are also described. Separation systems for 210 Bi, 210 Po, 211 Pb, 212 Pb, 223 Ra, 224 Ra, 225 Ra, 225 Ac, 227 Th, 228 Th, 231 Th, 234 Th, and 239 Np are outlined in detail. (orig.)

  9. Analytical solution to the diffusion, sorption and decay chain equation in a saturated porous medium between two reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Juan; Maximov, Serguei; Escarela-Perez, Rafael; López-García, Irvin; Moranchel, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion and distribution coefficients are important parameters in the design of barrier systems used in radioactive repositories. These coefficients can be determined using a two-reservoir configuration, where a saturated porous medium is allocated between two reservoirs filled by stagnant water. One of the reservoirs contains a high concentration of radioisotopes. The goal of this work is to obtain an analytical solution for the concentration of all radioisotopes in the decay chain of a two-reservoir configuration. The analytical solution must be obtained by taking into account the diffusion and sorption processes. Concepts such as overvalued concentration, diffusion and decay factors are employed to this end. It is analytically proven that a factor of the solution is identical for all chains (considering a time scaling factor), if certain parameters do not change. In addition, it is proven that the concentration sensitivity, due to the distribution coefficient variation, depends of the porous medium thickness, which is practically insensitive for small porous medium thicknesses. The analytical solution for the radioisotope concentration is compared with experimental and numerical results available in literature. - Highlights: • Saturated porous media allocated between two reservoirs. • Analytical solution of the isotope transport equation. • Transport considers diffusion, sorption and decay chain

  10. Measuring Uranium Decay Rates for Advancement of Nuclear Forensics and Geochronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons-Davis, Tashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Radioisotopic dating techniques are highly valuable tools for understanding the history of physical and chemical processes in materials related to planetary sciences and nuclear forensics, and rely on accurate knowledge of decay constants and their uncertainties. The decay constants of U-238 and U-235 are particularly important to Earth science, and often the measured values with lowest reported uncertainties are applied, although they have not been independently verified with similar precision. New direct measurements of the decay constants of U-238, Th-234, U-235, and U-234 were completed, using a range of analytical approaches. An overarching goal of the project was to ensure the quality of results, including metrological traceability to facilitate implementation across diverse disciplines. This report presents preliminary results of these experiments, as a few final measurements and calculations are still in progress.

  11. Radioisotope devices at Novo-Krivorozhskij-ore-enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitskij, V.Ya.; Kucher, V.G.; Ministerstvo Chernoj Metallurgii Ukrainskoj SSR, Dnepropetrovsk, Bazovaya Opytno-Konstruktorskaya Izotopnaya lab.)

    1975-01-01

    Use of the ''Ferrite'' analyzers, AZhR and PAZh-1 and the GR-7 gamma relay in different engineering areas of the Novo-Krivorozh ore-enrichment plant is evaluated. The ''Ferrite'' radioisotopic analyzer was designed for rapid roentgeno-radiometric determination of the total iron and iron group element contents in powdered samples of ores and products of their treatment. From the density of the flux of the characteristic radiation it is possible to determine quantitatively the content of the element of interest in the analyzed material. The radioisotpic analyzer AZhR-1 is distinguished by its high efficiency in the analysis for total iron on products of processing of iron ore raw materials. The use of this apparatus allows complete replacement of the chemical method for rapid analysis of concentrates by the roentgeno-radiometric method, which decreases the total analytical work on determination of total iron and speeds up output of information on concentrate quality. The radioisotopic gamma analyzer PAZh-1 is designed for automatic and either continuous or discrete measurement of the total iron content in iron ore materials ground to 50 mm, carried on a conveyor, without selection or preparation of the samples for analysis. The analyzer operates on the principle of measuring the average frequency of impingement on a detector of gamma quanta back-scattered by the analyzed material. This frequency is determined by the percentage content of total iron in the material. The apparatus operates continuously. The mean square deviation of the apparatus values from chemical data is 0.93% Fesub(total). Use of the apparatus greatly increases the operativeness of the control and decreases the laboriousness of raw material sampling in an engineering stream. The radioisotopic data units GR-7 are designed for control of the level of materials in hoppers for recovery and burning of agglomerates. Use of this apparatus showed its great advantage over data units of other types

  12. Utilization of radioisotopes in France, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    France is one of the countries having used radioisotopes very early. The first research reactor went critical in 1948, and has been used right from the start mainly to produce the radioisotopes for research and medicine. The growth in production was extremely fast, and the net receipts (excluding tax) amounted to F.52.3 million during 1974, of which F.20.9 million from export. The increase as compared with 1973 is 33%. The research and production facilities, which are concerned with medical applications, are in full expansion, Finally, the increasing use of trans-uranic elements, particularly of Pu-238 pacemakers, is noted. The uses of Cm-244 and Cf-252 are also growing. The problem at user level that undoubtedly requires the greatest attention is the regulations. The regulations on radioelements in France are reviewed in details on the following matters; poisonous substances, radioactive transport, waste, license for using artificial radioactive substances, etc. As the conclusion, the extremely ripid growth in the use of radioisotopes - mainly artificial ones - brought about the problems of adaptation with respect to the control and training regulations. One of the problems is obviously due to the fact that the personnel using such substances does not possess the specialization, training and managerial staff which marks the nuclear industry proper. It is therefore of prime significance to give unfailing attention to this use which is becoming the matter of major importance in France. The stress now placed on everything that concerns radiation has the great interest of forcing renewed awareness, thereby avoiding the degradation that the routine might bring. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. A method for performance assessment of medical radioisotope equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, T.; Slavtchev, Ath.; Nedeltchev, M.; Kjurktchiev, T.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of tests and procedures exist for the performance assessment of radioisotope diagnostic equipment. The complex performance index which has been introduced to date is based on an heuristic approach. The present work tries to interconnect algorithmically the most important factors as the influence of the measurement geometry, the statistic peculiarities for lower activities and the information loss at high count rates. All this is reflected in a criterion which integrates the spatial resolution, the effective detector's field of vision, the radionuclide's sensitivity, the background count rate and the effective dead-time of the system under investigation. (Auth.)

  14. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  15. THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES IN ON-STREAM ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, James W.

    1963-09-15

    A wide variety of radioisotope techniques is presently in use for on- stream measurements. Among these are gages to measure thickness, density, viscosity, dilution, volume, velocity, and level. A few unique combinations of the above techniques are also detailed--a mass-flow gage, a beryllium-in-air monitor, and a double thickness/double density gage. Several available on-stream techniques utilizing neutrons, which have not been fully exploited, are discussed, including neutron inelastic scattering, neutron thermalization, neutron capture, and neutron activation. (auth)

  16. Application of radioisotopes in the field of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive review has been made to discuss the role of various radionuclides of lanthanide series elements in the field of nuclear medicine. The role of several pharmaceuticals labeled with radiolanthanides and used for investigative purposes like measurement of cerebral blood flow, bone density measurement, bone marrow imaging, etc., have been described. The role of lanthanide radionuclides in radiation synovectomy, radioimmunotherapy, etc., have also been discussed. Methods of preparation of some representative radiopharmaceuticals like 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-HYP, have been presented. An outline on the production of carrier free radioisotopes of lanthanide series elements has been given. (author)

  17. Application of radioisotope tracing technique in the agricultural machinery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Wang Chengzhi; Hao Xinliang; An Yilu; Li Jinghui; Cui Zaijiu; Liu Dashen; Zhang Peng

    1988-10-01

    The radioisotope tracing technique with 60 Co and 3 H radionuclides was used in the process of shelling, clearing and drying when agricultural machines were utilized. The velocity distribution and travelling time of cereal from inlet to the outlet in the axial-flow threshing cylinder were measured. The dropping and moving velocity on the reciprocating sieve were determined. The effect of heating-drying on the wet cereal which were mixed with dry cereal was studied. The experimental data obtained is useful for improving the functions of shelling, clearing and drying machines as well as the reduction of energy consumption

  18. REVISS / MAYAK: A new partnership in radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, N.; Chikshov, A.I.; Malykh, Y.A.

    1997-01-01

    REVISS Services (UK) Limited, the joint venture company formed between Amersham International plc, Production Association MAYAK and Techsnabexport brings together the scientific, manufacturing, marketing and distribution skills and facilities which enable REVISS to be not just a major supplier of radioisotopes and other associated products and services, but the supplier with the largest product range. The paper describes the history and the development of MAYAK and reviews its manufacturing facilities and capabilities and also how MAYAK has moved from being a secret military organisation to become a major and successful commercial organisation

  19. Career opportunities in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganstern, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The application of radiation and radioisotopes is finally coming into its own after a long and hesitant gestation period. Overshadowed since the inception of the ''Nuclear Age'' by nuclear power generation, this area nevertheless provides real and challenging opportunities involving many different technical specialties and professional skills. Career opportunities are becoming available in those areas involving the use of radioactive isotopes in research, medicine, and industrial process control, and the employment of large radiation outputs, from either accelerator or isotopes, for industrial process applications

  20. Potentialities of radioisotope aniocardiography in diagnosis of acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, G.A.; Mikaelyan, R.S.; Dumpe, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    On the base of the examination of 40 patients with acquired heart diseases and 5 people without heart diseases for control determined are the most charactreristic signs of the acquired heart disease of visual observation on RPP transit (albumin of human serum labelled by sup(99m)Tc) through the heart cavities and magistral vessels. It is shown that there is a close connection between central and intracardial hemodynamics which permjts to judge on the cardiac output on the base of mean circulation time (MCT). Radioisotopic angiocardiography permits to find redistribution of lung blood flow in patients with acquired heart diseases, which can serve as indirect index of long hypertension