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Sample records for beta-phenylethylamine produces locomotor

  1. Effects of putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and beta-phenylethylamine on cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells

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    Fusi, Eleonora; Baldi, Antonella; Cheli, Federica

    2008-01-01

    A bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and three-dimensional collagen primary bovine organoids were used to evaluate the effects of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermicline and beta-phenylethylamine on mammary epithelial cells. Each biogenic amine was diluted in several concentratio...

  2. Role of the 5-HT2A receptor in the locomotor hyperactivity produced by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens in mice

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    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Powell, Susan B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor mediates the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens and may play a role in the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Given these findings, there is a need for animal models to assess the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation. Our previous studies demonstrated that the phenylalkylamine hallucinogen and 5-HT2A/2C agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) produces dose-dependent effects on locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice, increasing activity at low to moderate doses and reducing activity at high doses. DOI did not increase locomotor activity in 5-HT2A knockout mice, indicating the effect is a consequence of 5-HT2A receptor activation. Here, we tested a series of phenylalkylamine hallucinogens in C57BL/6J mice using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM) to determine whether these compounds increase locomotor activity by activating the 5-HT2A receptor. Low doses of mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylamphetamine (DOPR), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2), and the conformationally restricted phenethylamine (4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine (TCB-2) increased locomotor activity. By contrast, the non-hallucinogenic phenylalkylamine 2,5-dimethoxy-4-tert-butylamphetamine (DOTB) did not alter locomotor activity at any dose tested (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p.). The selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 blocked the locomotor hyperactivity induced by mescaline and TCB-2. Similarly, mescaline and TCB-2 did not increase locomotor activity in 5-HT2A knockout mice. These results confirm that phenylalkylamine hallucinogens increase locomotor activity in mice and demonstrate that this effect is mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. Thus, locomotor hyperactivity in mice can be used to assess phenylalkylamines for 5-HT2A agonist activity and hallucinogen-like behavioral effects. These studies provide additional support for the link between 5-HT2A activation and

  3. Role of the 5-HT2A receptor in the locomotor hyperactivity produced by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Powell, Susan B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor mediates the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens and may play a role in the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Given these findings, there is a need for animal models to assess the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation. Our previous studies demonstrated that the phenylalkylamine hallucinogen and 5-HT2A/2C agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) produces dose-dependent effects on locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice,...

  4. Either brain-derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3 only neurotrophin-producing grafts promote locomotor recovery in untrained spinalized cats.

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    Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Fischer, Itzhak; Tom, Veronica; Houlé, John D; Lemay, Michel A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Transplants of cellular grafts expressing a combination of 2 neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) have been shown to promote and enhance locomotor recovery in untrained spinalized cats. Based on the time course of recovery and the absence of axonal growth through the transplants, we hypothesized that recovery was due to neurotrophin-mediated plasticity within the existing locomotor circuitry of the lumbar cord. Since BDNF and NT-3 have different effects on axonal sprouting and synaptic connectivity/strengthening, it becomes important to ascertain the contribution of each individual neurotrophins to recovery. Objective. We studied whether BDNF or NT-3 only producing cellular grafts would be equally effective at restoring locomotion in untrained spinal cats. Methods. Rat fibroblasts secreting one of the 2 neurotrophins were grafted into the T12 spinal transection site of adult cats. Four cats in each group (BDNF alone or NT-3 alone) were evaluated. Locomotor recovery was tested on a treadmill at 3 and 5 weeks post-transection/grafting. Results. Animals in both groups were capable of plantar weight-bearing stepping at speed up to 0.8 m/s as early as 3 weeks and locomotor capabilities were similar at 3 and 5 weeks for both types of graft. Conclusions. Even without locomotor training, either BDNF or NT-3 only producing grafts promote locomotor recovery in complete spinal animals. More clinically applicable delivery methods need to be developed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

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    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Genetic KCa3.1-deficiency produces locomotor hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral monoamine levels.

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    Kate Lykke Lambertsen

    Full Text Available The calmodulin/calcium-activated K(+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed in red and white blood cells, epithelia and endothelia, and possibly central and peripheral neurons. However, our knowledge about its contribution to neurological functions and behavior is incomplete. Here, we investigated whether genetic deficiency or pharmacological activation of KCa3.1 change behavior and cerebral monoamine levels in mice.In the open field test, KCa3.1-deficiency increased horizontal activity, as KCa3.1(-/- mice travelled longer distances (≈145% of KCa3.1(+/+ and at higher speed (≈1.5-fold of KCa3.1(+/+. Working memory in the Y-maze was reduced by KCa3.1-deficiency. Motor coordination on the rotarod and neuromuscular functions were unchanged. In KCa3.1(-/- mice, HPLC analysis revealed that turn-over rates of serotonin were reduced in frontal cortex, striatum and brain stem, while noradrenalin turn-over rates were increased in the frontal cortex. Dopamine turn-over rates were unaltered. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels were unaltered. Intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of the KCa3.1/KCa2-activator SKA-31 reduced rearing and turning behavior in KCa3.1(+/+ but not in KCa3.1(-/- mice, while 30 mg/kg SKA-31 caused strong sedation in 50% of the animals of either genotypes. KCa3.1(-/- mice were hyperactive (≈+60% in their home cage and SKA-31-administration reduced nocturnal physical activity in KCa3.1(+/+ but not in KCa3.1(-/- mice.KCa3.1-deficiency causes locomotor hyperactivity and altered monoamine levels in selected brain regions, suggesting a so far unknown functional link of KCa3.1 channels to behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in mice. The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders.

  7. Repeated MDMA administration increases MDMA-produced locomotor activity and facilitates the acquisition of MDMA self-administration: role of dopamine D2 receptor mechanisms.

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    van de Wetering, Ross; Schenk, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Repeated exposure to ±3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces sensitization to MDMA-produced hyperactivity, but the mechanisms underlying the development of this sensitized response or the relationship to the reinforcing effects of MDMA is unknown. This study determined the effect of a sensitizing regimen of MDMA exposure on the acquisition of MDMA self-administration and investigated the role of dopamine D 2 receptor mechanisms. Rats received the selective D 2 antagonist, eticlopride (0.0 or 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and MDMA (0.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) during a five-day pretreatment regimen. Two days following the final session, the locomotor activating effects of MDMA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and the latency to acquisition of MDMA self-administration were determined. Pretreatment with MDMA enhanced the locomotor activating effects of MDMA and facilitated the acquisition of MDMA self-administration. Administration of eticlopride during MDMA pretreatment completely blocked the development of sensitization to MDMA-produced hyperactivity but failed to significantly alter the facilitated acquisition of MDMA self-administration. Pretreatment with eticlopride alone facilitated the acquisition of self-administration. These data suggest that repeated MDMA exposure sensitized both the locomotor activating and reinforcing effects of MDMA. Activation of D 2 receptors during MDMA pretreatment appears critical for the development of sensitization to MDMA-produced hyperactivity. The role of D 2 receptor mechanisms in the development of sensitization to the reinforcing effects of MDMA is equivocal.

  8. Serotonin (5-HT) precursor loading with 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP) reduces locomotor activation produced by (+)-amphetamine in the rat.

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    Baumann, Michael H; Williams, Zakia; Zolkowska, Dorota; Rothman, Richard B

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests that increases in synaptic serotonin (5-HT) can reduce the stimulant properties of amphetamine-type drugs. Here we tested the hypothesis that administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), along with the peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide, would decrease locomotor effects of (+)-amphetamine. Drug treatments were administered to conscious male rats undergoing in vivo microdialysis in nucleus accumbens. During dialysis sampling, rats were housed in chambers equipped with photobeams to detect forward locomotion (i.e., ambulation) and repetitive movements (i.e., stereotypy). Extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and 5-HT were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. 5-HTP (10 & 30 mg/kg, i.p.) plus benserazide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) caused dose-related increases in 5-HT but failed to alter other parameters. (+)-Amphetamine (0.3 & 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-related increases in DA, ambulation and stereotypy. Combined administration of 5-HTP and (+)-amphetamine evoked large elevations in extracellular DA and 5-HT, but caused significantly less ambulation than (+)-amphetamine alone (~50% reduction). Our results confirm that 5-HTP can decrease hyperactivity produced by (+)-amphetamine, even in the presence of elevations in dialysate DA. The data suggest that 5-HTP and (+)-amphetamine may be useful to broadly enhance monoamine function in the clinical setting, while reducing undesirable effects of (+)-amphetamine. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. An ALS-linked mutant SOD1 produces a locomotor defect associated with aggregation and synaptic dysfunction when expressed in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jiou Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of toxic effects exerted on neurons by misfolded proteins, occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, is poorly understood. One approach to this problem is to measure effects when such proteins are expressed in heterologous neurons. We report on effects of an ALS-associated, misfolding-prone mutant human SOD1, G85R, when expressed in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Stable mutant transgenic animals, but not wild-type human SOD1 transgenics, exhibited a strong locomotor defect associated with the presence, specifically in mutant animals, of both soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of G85R protein. A whole-genome RNAi screen identified chaperones and other components whose deficiency increased aggregation and further diminished locomotion. The nature of the locomotor defect was investigated. Mutant animals were resistant to paralysis by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, while exhibiting normal sensitivity to the cholinergic agonist levamisole and normal muscle morphology. When fluorescently labeled presynaptic components were examined in the dorsal nerve cord, decreased numbers of puncta corresponding to neuromuscular junctions were observed in mutant animals and brightness was also diminished. At the EM level, mutant animals exhibited a reduced number of synaptic vesicles. Neurotoxicity in this system thus appears to be mediated by misfolded SOD1 and is exerted on synaptic vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking.

  10. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

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    Sakamoto, Noriyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Kumano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Akabayashi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity monitor. In addition, an ecological momentary assessment technique was used to record panic attacks in natural settings. Methods Sixteen patients with panic disorder were asked to wear a watch-type computer as an electronic diary for recording panic attacks for two weeks. In addition, locomotor activity was measured and recorded continuously in an accelerometer equipped in the watch-type computer. Locomotor activity data were analyzed using double cosinor analysis to calculate mesor and the amplitude and acrophase of each of the circadian rhythm and 12-hour harmonic component. Correlations between panic disorder symptoms and locomotor activity were investigated. Results There were significant positive correlations between the frequency of panic attacks and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.55) and between HAM-A scores and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.62). Conclusion Panic disorder patients with more panic attacks and more anxiety have greater objectively assessed locomotor activity, which may reflect the "restlessness" of anxiety disorders. PMID:19017383

  11. LFP Oscillations in the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region during Voluntary Locomotion

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    Brian R. Noga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6–12 Hz is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR during locomotion have not been determined. Here we record the oscillatory activity during treadmill locomotion in MLR sites effective for inducing locomotion with electrical stimulation in rats. The results show the presence of oscillatory theta rhythms in the LFPs recorded from the most effective MLR stimulus sites (at threshold ≤60 μA. Theta activity increased at the onset of locomotion, and its power was correlated with the speed of locomotion. In animals with higher thresholds (>60 μA, the correlation between locomotor speed and theta LFP oscillations was less robust. Changes in the gamma band (previously recorded in vitro in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, thought to be a part of the MLR were relatively small. Controlled locomotion was best achieved at 10–20 Hz frequencies of MLR stimulation. Our results indicate that theta and not delta or gamma band oscillation is a suitable biomarker for identifying the functional MLR sites.

  12. LFP Oscillations in the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region during Voluntary Locomotion.

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    Noga, Brian R; Sanchez, Francisco J; Villamil, Luz M; O'Toole, Christopher; Kasicki, Stefan; Olszewski, Maciej; Cabaj, Anna M; Majczyński, Henryk; Sławińska, Urszula; Jordan, Larry M

    2017-01-01

    Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined. Here we record the oscillatory activity during treadmill locomotion in MLR sites effective for inducing locomotion with electrical stimulation in rats. The results show the presence of oscillatory theta rhythms in the LFPs recorded from the most effective MLR stimulus sites (at threshold ≤60 μA). Theta activity increased at the onset of locomotion, and its power was correlated with the speed of locomotion. In animals with higher thresholds (>60 μA), the correlation between locomotor speed and theta LFP oscillations was less robust. Changes in the gamma band (previously recorded in vitro in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), thought to be a part of the MLR) were relatively small. Controlled locomotion was best achieved at 10-20 Hz frequencies of MLR stimulation. Our results indicate that theta and not delta or gamma band oscillation is a suitable biomarker for identifying the functional MLR sites.

  13. Sex difference in sensitization to the locomotor effects of mazindol in rats.

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    Zanin, M; Takahashi, R N

    1994-01-01

    Male and female rats were treated daily for 7 days with mazindol (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), an anorectic drug, and tested in the open field. Mazindol developed sensitization to its locomotor stimulatory effect in both sexes on day 7 with a nondose-dependent pattern of response. However, the locomotor activity appeared to be sex dependent, female rats being more sensitive. Following a challenge dose of mazindol (10 and 20 mg/kg) on day 10, a marked enhancement of locomotion was seen in female rats. These findings indicate that repeated administration of mazindol produces sex-dependent sensitization to its effect on locomotor behavior.

  14. Locomotor rehabilitation in a complex virtual environment.

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    Fung, J; Malouin, F; McFadyen, B J; Comeau, F; Lamontagne, A; Chapdelaine, S; Beaudoin, C; Laurendeau, D; Hughey, L; Richards, C L

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology offers a new and safe way to increase practice time and provide the varied environments and constraints needed to optimize locomotor training. Our specific objectives are (1) to create a virtual environment (VE) coupled with a self-paced treadmill for locomotor training; (2) to compare temporal and distance measurements of gait during treadmill walking while looking at different scenarios of VE; and (3) to develop a protocol optimized for the training of locomotor disorders after stroke. A motorized treadmill was mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom motion platform. VEs were created using commercial software (SoftImage) and projected on a large screen, while system control was administered through the CAREN software (Motek BV). The instantaneous treadmill speed and scene progression were servo-controlled. Preliminary results show that healthy subjects are able to have full control of their own walking speed both on the treadmill and within the virtual scene, while experiencing a strong sense of presence. A street crossing training protocol has been developed for locomotor training. It is expected that locomotor training with increasingly complex VEs will allow persons with stroke to increase progressively their locomotor capacity, as required and entrained by the VE.

  15. Locomotor adaptation to a soleus EMG-controlled antagonistic exoskeleton

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    Kinnaird, Catherine R.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to “fight” the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations. PMID:23307949

  16. Relationship between neuromuscular and perceived fatigue and locomotor performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

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    Hameau, Sophie; Zory, Raphael; Latrille, Christophe; Roche, Nicolas; Bensmail, Djamel

    2017-12-01

    Fatigue is a common problem in patients with multiple sclerosis; however, the impact of neuromuscular and perceived fatigue on locomotor performance is currently unknown in these patients. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the relationship between perceived and neuromuscular fatigue and locomotor performance in patients with multiple sclerosis; 2) to determine if neuromuscular and perceived fatigue depend on the severity of the pathology defined by the Expanded disability status scale score (EDSS). Observational study. Outpatients from a hospital rehabilitation department. Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis underwent clinical (spasticity, strength, perceived fatigue and locomotor performance) and isokinetic evaluations (peak torque of knee flexor and extensor muscles and neuromuscular fatigue of knee extensor muscles). The main outcome measures were perceived and neuromuscular fatigue and locomotor performance. Secondary outcomes were strength of the weakest limb and peak isometric torque of knee flexor and extensor muscles, spasticity, EDSS. There were no significant correlations between perceived or neuromuscular fatigue and locomotor performance. Locomotor performance was correlated with EDSS, spasticity, strength of the weakest limb and peak isometric torque of knee flexor and extensor muscles. Eighty‑three percent of the variance of the 6MWT could be explained by EDSS score, strength of the weakest limb (MRCsum), torque produced during the last five contractions of the fatigue protocol and peak isometric torque of knee flexor muscles. Patients with moderate disability (EDSS Score 4-6) had greater levels of neuromuscular fatigue than patients with mild disability (neuromuscular fatigue was found to be higher in more disabled patients, locomotor performance was correlated with strength and spasticity but not with fatigue. Nevertheless, fatigue was related to 6MWT performance since torque produced during the last five contractions of the fatigue

  17. Footwear and locomotor skill performance in preschoolers.

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    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Weimar, Wendi H; Breslin, Casey M; Shroyer, Justin F; Morera, Maria

    2011-10-01

    The effect of footwear on locomotor skill performance was examined. 12 children (4 boys, 8 girls; M age = 56.3 mo., SD = 3.3) served as participants. Participants were randomly assigned to perform the locomotor subscale of Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development in two shoe conditions (Condition 1: Stride Rite athletic shoes, and Condition 2: flip flop sandals). Children scored significantly higher when wearing athletic shoes than flip-flop sandals. This finding is relevant for motor performance and safety in physical education and movement programs.

  18. Locomotor Experience Affects Self and Emotion

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    Uchiyama, Ichiro; Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David; Frankel, Carl B.; Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. "Visual proprioception" refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls and…

  19. Passion flower extract antagonizes the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats.

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    Breivogel, Chris; Jamerson, Brenda

    2012-10-01

    Nicotine, a bioactive component of tobacco, is highly addictive. Numerous therapies have been developed or are currently under investigation for smoking cessation, and all have met with limited success and/or side effects, indicating the need for additional therapies. This study examines the ability of a commerically-available aqueous extract of Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) to ameliorate the signs of nicotine sensitization using a rat model. Rats were administered 0.4 mg/kg nicotine or vehicle once a day for four consecutive days. Nicotine adminstration produces sensitization of locomotor activity, a phenomenon implicated in the development of nicotine dependence. On the fifth day, locomotor activity of the subjects was monitored as rats from each treatment group were administered 800 mg/kg of Passiflora incarnata extract (or its vehicle) followed by a challenge dose of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. When given to rats sensitized to nicotine for 4 days, the challenge dose of nicotine increased locomotor activity by more than 2-fold over activity following nicotine challenge in rats treated with vehicle during the sensitization phase. The difference was significant from 15-40 min after nicotine administration. Rats sensitized to nicotine then treated with Passiflora incarnata extract prior to the nicotine challenge exhibited a level of locomotor activity the same as the vehicle-treated controls. Passiflora incarnata extract did antagonize the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization. Passiflora incarnata extract should be examined in future studies to evaluate its potential for treating nicotine addiction in humans.

  20. Glutamatergic mechanisms for speed control and network operation in the rodent locomotor CPG

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    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Kiehn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    in mammals have produced conflicting results regarding the necessity and role of the different ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the CPG function. Here, we use electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques in the in vitro neonatal mouse lumbar spinal cord to investigate the role of a broad...... mechanisms acting at various network levels. AMPA and kainate receptors are necessary for generating the highest locomotor frequencies. For coordination, NMDARs are more important than non-NMDARs for conveying the rhythmic signal from the network to the motor neurons during long-lasting and steady locomotor...

  1. Altered Patterns of Reflex Excitability, Balance, and Locomotion Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI and Locomotor Training.

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    Prodip K Bose

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is an important problem that complicates daily living in many individuals with SCI. While previous studies in human and animals revealed significant improvements in locomotor ability with treadmill locomotor training, it is not known to what extent locomotor training influences spasticity. In addition, it would be of considerable practical interest to know how the more ergonomically feasible cycle training compares with treadmill training as therapy to manage SCI-induced spasticity and to improve locomotor function. Our present studies were initiated to evaluate the influence of different types of locomotor training on measures of limb spasticity, gait, and reflex components that contribute to locomotion. For these studies, thirty animals received midthoracic SCI using the standard MASCIS protocol (10 g 2.5 cm weight drop. They were divided randomly into three equal groups: control (contused untrained, contused treadmill trained, and contused cycle trained. Velocity-dependent ankle torque was tested across a wide range of velocities (612 – 49 deg/sec to permit quantitation of tonic (low velocity and dynamic (high velocity contributions to lower limb spasticity. Treadmill and cycle training were started on post-injury day 8. By post-injury weeks 4 and 6, the untrained group revealed significant velocity-dependent ankle extensor spasticity, compared to pre-surgical control values. At these post-injury time points, spasticity was not observed in either of the two training groups. Instead, a significantly milder form of velocity dependent spasticity was detected at postcontusion week 8 through 12 in both treadmill and bicycle training groups at the four fastest ankle rotation velocities (350 - 612 deg/sec. Locomotor training using treadmill or bicycle also produced significant increase in the rate of recovery of limb placement measures (limb axis, base of support, and BBB and reflex rate depression, a quantitative assessment of

  2. Dopamine and the Brainstem Locomotor Networks: From Lamprey to Human

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    Dimitri Ryczko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered. It innervates the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR from basal vertebrates to mammals. This pathway was shown to increase locomotor output in lampreys, and could very well play an important role in mammals. Here, we provide a detailed account on the newly found dopaminergic pathway in lamprey, salamander, rat, monkey, and human. In lampreys and salamanders, dopamine release in the MLR is associated with the activation of reticulospinal neurons that carry the locomotor command to the spinal cord. Dopamine release in the MLR potentiates locomotor movements through a D1-receptor mechanism in lampreys. In rats, stimulation of the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited dopamine release in the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known part of the MLR. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease, a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the brainstem locomotor networks was reported. Dopaminergic fibers are also present in human pedunculopontine nucleus. We discuss the conserved locomotor role of this pathway from lamprey to mammals, and the hypothesis that this pathway could play a role in the locomotor deficits reported in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Elimination of Left-Right Reciprocal Coupling in the Adult Lamprey Spinal Cord Abolishes the Generation of Locomotor Activity

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    J. A. Messina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL, before and after spinal transections (T at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head. For experimental animals with ML spinal lesions, sensory stimulation could elicit well-coordinated locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some significant differences in the parameters of locomotor activity compared to those for normal animals. Computer models representing normal animals or experimental animals with ML spinal lesions could mimic many of the differences in locomotor activity. For experimental animals with ML and T spinal lesions, right and left rostral hemi-spinal cords, disconnected from intact caudal cord, usually produced tonic or unpatterned muscle activity. Hemi-spinal cords sometimes generated spontaneous or sensory-evoked relatively high frequency “burstlet” activity that probably is analogous to the previously described in vitro “fast rhythm”, which is thought to represent lamprey locomotor activity. However, “burstlet” activity in the present study had parameters and features that were very different than those for lamprey locomotor activity: average frequencies were ~25 Hz, but individual frequencies could be >50 Hz; burst proportions (BPs often varied with cycled time; “burstlet” activity usually was not accompanied by a rostrocaudal phase lag; and following ML spinal lesions alone, “burstlet” activity could occur in the presence or absence of swimming burst activity, suggesting the two were generated

  4. Functional organization of locomotor interneurons in the ventral lumbar spinal cord of the newborn rat.

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    Myriam Antri

    Full Text Available Although the mammalian locomotor CPG has been localized to the lumbar spinal cord, the functional-anatomical organization of flexor and extensor interneurons has not been characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flexor and extensor interneuronal networks for walking are physically segregated in the lumbar spinal cord. For this purpose, we performed optical recordings and lesion experiments from a horizontally sectioned lumbar spinal cord isolated from neonate rats. This ventral hemi spinal cord preparation produces well-organized fictive locomotion when superfused with 5-HT/NMDA. The dorsal surface of the preparation was visualized using the Ca(2+ indicator fluo-4 AM, while simultaneously monitoring motor output at ventral roots L2 and L5. Using calcium imaging, we provided a general mapping view of the interneurons that maintained a stable phase relationship with motor output. We showed that the dorsal surface of L1 segment contains a higher density of locomotor rhythmic cells than the other segments. Moreover, L1 segment lesioning induced the most important changes in the locomotor activity in comparison with lesions at the T13 or L2 segments. However, no lesions led to selective disruption of either flexor or extensor output. In addition, this study found no evidence of functional parcellation of locomotor interneurons into flexor and extensor pools at the dorsal-ventral midline of the lumbar spinal cord of the rat.

  5. The influence of locomotor rehabilitation on module quality and post-stroke hemiparetic walking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routson, Rebecca L; Clark, David J; Bowden, Mark G; Kautz, Steven A; Neptune, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the biomechanical subtasks of walking can be produced by a reduced set of co-excited muscles or modules. Individuals post-stroke often exhibit poor inter-muscular coordination characterized by poor timing and merging of modules that are normally independent in healthy individuals. However, whether locomotor therapy can influence module composition and timing and whether these improvements lead to improved walking performance is unclear. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of a locomotor rehabilitation therapy on module composition and timing and post-stroke hemiparetic walking performance. Twenty-seven post-stroke hemiparetic subjects participated in a 12-week locomotor intervention incorporating treadmill training with body weight support and manual trainers accompanied by training overground walking. Electromyography (EMG), kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected from subjects both pre- and post-therapy and from 19 age-matched healthy controls walking on an instrumented treadmill at their self-selected speed. Non-negative matrix factorization was used to identify the module composition and timing from the EMG data. Module timing and composition, and various measures of walking performance were compared pre- and post-therapy. In subjects with four modules pre- and post-therapy, locomotor training resulted in improved timing of the ankle plantarflexor module and a more extended paretic leg angle that allowed the subjects to walk faster and with more symmetrical propulsion. In addition, subjects with three modules pre-therapy increased their number of modules and improved walking performance post-therapy. Thus, locomotor training has the potential to influence module composition and timing, which can lead to improvements walking performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  7. Naps improve new walkers' locomotor problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E; Scher, Anat

    2017-10-01

    In this first study of the impact of sleep on infants' problem solving of a locomotor task, 28 newly walking infants who were within a week of having given up crawling trained to navigate a shoulder-height tunnel to reach a caregiver waiting at the end. During the transitional window between crawling and walking, infants are reluctant to return to crawling, making this task uniquely challenging. Infants were randomly assigned to either nap or stay awake during a delay between training and a later test session. For the Nap group, efficiency of problem solving improved from training to test, but there was no change for the No Nap group. These findings suggest that for newly walking infants, sleep facilitates learning to solve a novel motor problem. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. PROBLEMAS LOCOMOTORES EM FRANGOS DE CORTE - REVISÃO. / LOCOMOTOR PROBLEMS IN BROILER CHICKENS - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBIARA CORREIA DE LIMA ALMEIDA PAZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O bem estar animal é, sem dúvida, um dos pontos em que os produtores de aves devem se atentar para conseguir melhor rentabilidade e colocação no mercado externo. No entanto, é necessário ter uma ampla idéia de que alguns pontos impostos por mercados importadores, muitas vezes não tem fundamento científico e tratam-se mais de barreiras não tarifárias que de problemas de produção propriamente ditos. Dentre os vários fatores que afetam o bem estar animal pode-se destacar a incidência de problemas locomotores, principalmente em animais confinados. Estes distúrbios podem acarretar em perdas de até 6% em lotes comercias de frangos de corte, além de outras perdas não mensuráveis em linhas de abate, por fraturas e hematomas. Existem diversas metodologias para diagnosticar problemas locomotores, entretanto, a mais difundida na indústria avícola é o Gait Score, por sua facilidade de aplicação e por englobar os diferentes tipos de problemas locomotores. Sabe-se, contudo que esta metodologia é bastante subjetiva e pode inferir  em  diferentes  níveis  de  avaliação  dependendo  do método  utilizado. Os  problemas locomotores devem ser prevenidos já que depois de estabelecidos as perdas são inevitáveis.

  9. Different locomotor sensitization responses to repeated cocaine injections are associated with differential phosphorylation of GluA1 in the dorsomedial striatum of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myonghwan; Kim, Wonju; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-11-15

    Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants reflects neural adaptation, which might share a common mechanism with drug addiction. Outbred male rats show different locomotor sensitization responses to cocaine, and cocaine also produces varied addictive progress in humans. We investigated whether differences in the induction of sensitization would affect the long-term persistence of sensitized locomotor activity, and we sought to determine the molecular basis for the variability in sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that showed sensitized locomotor responses over 5 consecutive daily cocaine injections (SENS) had significantly lower initial locomotor responses to the 1st cocaine exposure than did rats that did not show locomotor sensitization (NONS). Furthermore, rats that underwent 1 month of cocaine withdrawal after 5 repeated cocaine injections also exhibited sensitized or non-sensitized locomotor responses to a challenge injection of cocaine (SENS-C or NONS-C, respectively). This variability was also related to the initial responsiveness to cocaine. We examined the level of phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioniate receptor (AMPAR) in the dorsal striatum and found that there were significant differences between the sensitized rats and the non-sensitized rats. pGluA1-Ser831 was increased in the SENS rats during the induction of locomotor sensitization, and pGluA1-Ser845 was increased in the SENS-C rats during the expression of locomotor sensitization. These phosphorylation changes were observed in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of adult rats but not in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of adults. Our findings suggest that differential phosphorylation of AMPAR might be an important mechanism that contributes to the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adult rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cocaine on norepinephrine stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and locomotor activity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosaddeghi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The function of α 1 -adrenoceptors was determined by stimulating cortical tissue slices, which were pre-labeled with [ 3 H]inositol, with norepinephrine (NE) in the presence of 8 mM LiCl. Results of in vitro studies showed that cocaine 10 μM potentiated maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by 30%. In addition, the EC 50 was decreased from 3.93 ± 0.42 to 1.91 ± 0.31 μM NE. Concentrations of 0.1-100 μM and 0.1-10 μM cocaine enhanced PI hydrolysis stimulated by 0.3 and 3 μM NE, respectively. The concentration-effect curves for NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis were shifted to the right 100-fold in the presence of 0.1 μM prazosin. Cocaine (10 μM) did not potentiate NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis in the presence of 0.1 μM prazosin. [ 3 H]Prazosin saturation and NE [ 3 H]prazosin competition binding studies using crude membrane preparations showed that 10 μM cocaine did not alter binding parameters B max , K d , Hill slope, and IC 50 . Together, these results implied that cocaine in vitro potentiated NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by blocking NE reuptake. For in vivo studies, the locomotor activity was determined after an acute or chronic injections of either cocaine or saline. Cocaine or saline-treated rats were killed after measurement of the locomotor activity, and NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis was measured. Acute administration of cocaine 3.2-42 mg/kg (i.p.) produced an inverted U shaped dose-response curve on locomotor activity. The peak increase in locomotor activity was at 32 mg/kg cocaine. A dose of 42 mg/kg cocaine produced a significant depression of maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis

  11. Interactions between modafinil and cocaine during the induction of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice: Implications for addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2013-01-01

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug effective at enhancing alertness and attention with a variety of approved and off-label applications. The mechanism of modafinil is not well understood but initial studies indicated a limited abuse potential. A number of recent publications, however, have shown that modafinil can be rewarding under certain conditions. The present study assessed the reinforcing properties of modafinil using conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice. Experiment 1 examined a high dose of modafinil (75 mg/kg) as well as its interactions with cocaine (15 mg/kg). Cocaine alone and modafinil co-administered with cocaine induced sensitization of locomotor activity; modafinil alone showed little or no locomotor sensitization. Animals given modafinil alone, cocaine alone, and modafinil plus cocaine exhibited a strong and roughly equivalent place preference. When tested for sensitization using a low challenge dose of modafinil, cross-sensitization was observed in all cocaine-pretreated mice. Experiment 2 examined a low dose of modafinil that is similar to the dose administered to humans and has been shown to produce cognitive enhancements in mice. Low dose modafinil (0.75 mg/kg) did not produce conditioned place preference or locomotor sensitization. Together, these results suggest that modafinil has the potential to produce reward, particularly in cocaine addicts, and should be used with caution. However, the typical low dose administered likely moderates these effects and may account for lack of addiction seen in humans. PMID:22963989

  12. Interactions between modafinil and cocaine during the induction of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice: implications for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J; Sage, Jennifer R; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2012-12-01

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug effective at enhancing alertness and attention with a variety of approved and off-label applications. The mechanism of modafinil is not well understood but initial studies indicated a limited abuse potential. A number of recent publications, however, have shown that modafinil can be rewarding under certain conditions. The present study assessed the reinforcing properties of modafinil using conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice. Experiment 1 examined a high dose of modafinil (75 mg/kg) as well as its interactions with cocaine (15 mg/kg). Cocaine alone and modafinil co-administered with cocaine induced sensitization of locomotor activity; modafinil alone showed little or no locomotor sensitization. Animals given modafinil alone, cocaine alone, and modafinil plus cocaine exhibited a strong and roughly equivalent place preference. When tested for sensitization using a low challenge dose of modafinil, cross-sensitization was observed in all cocaine-pretreated mice. Experiment 2 examined a low dose of modafinil that is similar to the dose administered to humans and has been shown to produce cognitive enhancements in mice. Low dose modafinil (0.75 mg/kg) did not produce conditioned place preference or locomotor sensitization. Together, these results suggest that modafinil has the potential to produce reward, particularly in cocaine addicts, and should be used with caution. However, the typical low dose administered likely moderates these effects and may account for lack of addiction seen in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  14. Remote control of respiratory neural network by spinal locomotor generators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Patrick Le Gal

    Full Text Available During exercise and locomotion, breathing rate rapidly increases to meet the suddenly enhanced oxygen demand. The extent to which direct central interactions between the spinal networks controlling locomotion and the brainstem networks controlling breathing are involved in this rhythm modulation remains unknown. Here, we show that in isolated neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations, the increase in respiratory rate observed during fictive locomotion is associated with an increase in the excitability of pre-inspiratory neurons of the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG/Pre-I. In addition, this locomotion-induced respiratory rhythm modulation is prevented both by bilateral lesion of the pFRG region and by blockade of neurokinin 1 receptors in the brainstem. Thus, our results assign pFRG/Pre-I neurons a new role as elements of a previously undescribed pathway involved in the functional interaction between respiratory and locomotor networks, an interaction that also involves a substance P-dependent modulating mechanism requiring the activation of neurokinin 1 receptors. This neurogenic mechanism may take an active part in the increased respiratory rhythmicity produced at the onset and during episodes of locomotion in mammals.

  15. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Megan L.T.; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a conditioned place preference procedure with 1.75 g/kg ethanol and 3 mg/kg caffeine. Additionally, we used B6 mice to evaluate ethanol/caffeine combinations on locomotor activity using 3 doses of ethanol (1.75, 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg) and 2 two doses of caffeine (3 and 15 mg/kg). Both ethanol and caffeine administered alone increased preference for the drug paired side, though the effect of caffeine was more modest than that of ethanol. The drug combination produced significant place preference itself, but this was not greater than that for ethanol alone. Additionally, the combination of caffeine and ethanol significantly increased locomotion compared to giving either drug alone. The effect was strongest with a stimulatory dose of ethanol (1.75 g/kg) and waned with increasing doses of ethanol. Thus, combinations of caffeine and ethanol had significant conditioned reinforcing and locomotor activating effects in mice. PMID:23872371

  16. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Tuan V.; Brownstone, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks...

  17. An Intensive Locomotor Training Paradigm Improves Neuropathic Pain following Spinal Cord Compression Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth A; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often associated with both locomotor deficits and sensory dysfunction, including debilitating neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, current conventional pharmacological, physiological, or psychological treatments provide only marginal relief for more than two-thirds of patients, highlighting the need for improved treatment options. Locomotor training is often prescribed as an adjunct therapy for peripheral neuropathic pain but is rarely used to treat central neuropathic pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-nociceptive benefits of intensive locomotor training (ILT) on neuropathic pain consequent to traumatic SCI. Using a rodent SCI model for central neuropathic pain, ILT was initiated either 5 d after injury prior to development of neuropathic pain symptoms (the "prevention" group) or delayed until pain symptoms fully developed (∼3 weeks post-injury, the "reversal" group). The training protocol consisted of 5 d/week of a ramping protocol that started with 11 m/min for 5 min and increased in speed (+1 m/min/week) and time (1-4 minutes/week) to a maximum of two 20-min sessions/d at 15 m/min by the fourth week of training. ILT prevented and reversed the development of heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as reversed developed tactile allodynia, suggesting analgesic benefits not seen with moderate levels of locomotor training. Further, the analgesic benefits of ILT persisted for several weeks once training had been stopped. The unique ability of an ILT protocol to produce robust and sustained anti-nociceptive effects, as assessed by three distinct outcome measures for below-level SCI neuropathic pain, suggests that this adjunct therapeutic approach has great promise in a comprehensive treatment strategy for SCI pain.

  18. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  19. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-04-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. In this study we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence-nonspecific learning during walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 yr,n= 20) could learn a specific sequence of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 yr,n= 8) had lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning were the same compared with those of older children (11-16 yr,n= 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task such as walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during visually guided walking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Melatonin reduces locomotor activity and circulating cortisol in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpeleta, Clara; Martínez-Alvarez, Rosa María; Delgado, María Jesús; Isorna, Esther; De Pedro, Nuria

    2010-03-01

    The present study focused on the effects of a subchronic melatonin treatment on locomotor activity and cortisol plasma levels in goldfish. We compared two different administration routes: peripheral (10 microg/g body weight) versus central (1 microg/microl) injections of melatonin for 7 or 4 days, respectively. Daily locomotor activity, including both diurnal and nocturnal activities, food anticipatory activity and circulating cortisol at 11:00 (under 24 h of food deprivation and 17 h postinjection) were significantly reduced after repeated intraperitoneal injections with melatonin for 7 days, but not after intracerebroventricular treatment. Taking in mind the anoretic effect of melatonin in this species, we investigated if such feeding reduction is directly responsible for the reduction in motor activity induced by melatonin treatment. Food restriction (50%) for 10 days did not significantly modify either daily locomotor activity or plasma cortisol levels in goldfish, indicating that the peripheral action of melatonin diminishing locomotor activity in goldfish is not a direct consequence of its anoretic action. In summary, our results indicate that, as previously described in other vertebrate species, melatonin can regulate locomotor activity and cortisol levels in goldfish, suggesting a sedative effect of this hormone in this teleost. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  2. Anatomía del Aparato Locomotor, 2010-11

    OpenAIRE

    Juanes Méndez, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: 1.Sistema Oseo. Las Articulaciones: definición, clasificaciones; 2.Esqueleto Axial; 3.Esqueleto Apendicular; 4. Organización del sistema nervioso periférico. Inervación del Aparato Locomotor; 5. Sistema muscular. II. Bibliografía y atlas Establecer la correlación morfofuncional del aparato locomotor necesaria para la deducción deficitaria derivada de las alteraciones de la dinámica osteoarticular. Esta asignatura se imparte en el primer curso del Grado en Terapia Oc...

  3. The Role of the Serotonergic System in Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi eGhosh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT, a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in various populations of brainstem neurons, plays an important role in modulating the activity of spinal networks involved in vertebrate locomotion. Following spinal cord injury (SCI there is a disruption of descending serotonergic projections to spinal motor areas, which results in a subsequent depletion in 5-HT, the dysregulation of serotonin transporters as well as the elevated expression, super-sensitivity and/or constitutive auto-activation of specific serotonin receptors. These changes in the serotonergic system can produce varying degrees of locomotor dysfunction through to paralysis. To date, various approaches targeting the different components of the serotonergic system have been employed to restore limb coordination and improve locomotor function in experimental models of SCI. These strategies have included pharmacological modulation of serotonergic receptors, through the administration of specific 5-HT receptor agonists, or by elevating the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan, which produces a global activation of all classes of 5-HT receptors. Stimulation of these receptors leads to the activation of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG below the site of injury to facilitate or improve the quality and frequency of movements, particularly when used in concert with the activation of other monoaminergic systems or coupled with electrical stimulation. Another approach has been to employ cell therapeutics to replace the loss of descending serotonergic input to the CPG, either through transplanted fetal brainstem 5-HT neurons at the site of injury that can supply 5-HT to below the level of the lesion or by other cell types to provide a substrate at the lesion for encouraging serotonergic axon regrowth across the lesion to the caudal spinal cord for restoring locomotion.

  4. The cross-sectional geometry of the hand and foot bones of the hominoidea and its relationship to locomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Damiano

    2005-12-01

    Cheiridia are valuable indicators of positional behavior, as they directly contact the substrate, but systematic comparison of the structural properties of both metacarpals and metatarsals has never been carried out. Differences in locomotor behavior among the great apes (knuckle-walking vs. quadrumanous climbing) can produce biomechanical differences that may be elucidated by the parallel study of cross-sectional characteristics of metacarpals and metatarsals. The aim of this work is to study the cross-sectional geometric properties of these bones and their correlation with locomotor behavior in large-bodied hominoids. The comparisons between bending moments of metacarpals and metatarsals of the same ray furnished interesting results. Metacarpals III and especially IV of the knuckle-walking African apes were relatively stronger than those of humans and orangutans, and metatarsal V of humans was relatively stronger than those of the great apes. Interestingly, the relative robusticity of the metacarpal IV of the quadrumanous orangutan was between that of the African apes and that of humans. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) cross-sectional dimensions of metacarpals and metatarsals are influenced by locomotor modes in great apes and humans; 2) interlimb comparisons of cross-sectional properties of metacarpals and metatarsals are good indicators of locomotor modes in great apes and humans; and 3) the results of this study are in accord with those of previous analyses of plantar pressure and morphofunctional traits of the same bones, and with behavioral studies. These results provide a data base from which it will be possible to compare the morphology of the fossils in order to gain insight into the locomotor repertoires of extinct taxa.

  5. Circadian Clock Protein Content and Daily Rhythm of Locomotor Activity Are Altered after Chronic Exposure to Lead in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Sabbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead exposure has been reported to produce many clinical features, including parkinsonism. However, its consequences on the circadian rhythms are still unknown. Here we aimed to examine the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity following lead intoxication and investigate the mechanisms by which lead may induce alterations of circadian rhythms in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with lead or sodium acetate (10 mg/kg/day, i.p. during 4 weeks. Both groups were tested in the “open field” to quantify the exploratory activity and in the rotarod to evaluate motor coordination. Then, animals were submitted to continuous 24 h recordings of locomotor activity under 14/10 Light/dark (14/10 LD cycle and in complete darkness (DD. At the end of experiments, the clock proteins BMAL1, PER1-2, and CRY1-2 were assayed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN using immunohistochemistry. We showed that lead significantly reduced the number of crossing in the open field, impaired motor coordination and altered the daily locomotor activity rhythm. When the LD cycle was advanced by 6 h, both groups adjusted their daily locomotor activity to the new LD cycle with high onset variability in lead-intoxicated rats compared to controls. Lead also led to a decrease in the number of immunoreactive cells (ir- of BMAL1, PER1, and PER2 without affecting the number of ir-CRY1 and ir-CRY2 cells in the SCN. Our data provide strong evidence that lead intoxication disturbs the rhythm of locomotor activity and alters clock proteins expression in the SCN. They contribute to the understanding of the mechanism by which lead induce circadian rhythms disturbances.

  6. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S-x; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-01-01

    Study design: This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. Setting: This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. Methods: A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25?-mm height setting in femal...

  7. What Is Being Trained? How Divergent Forms of Plasticity Compete To Shape Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huie, J Russell; Morioka, Kazuhito; Haefeli, Jenny; Ferguson, Adam R

    2017-05-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating syndrome that produces dysfunction in motor and sensory systems, manifesting as chronic paralysis, sensory changes, and pain disorders. The multi-faceted and heterogeneous nature of SCI has made effective rehabilitative strategies challenging. Work over the last 40 years has aimed to overcome these obstacles by harnessing the intrinsic plasticity of the spinal cord to improve functional locomotor recovery. Intensive training after SCI facilitates lower extremity function and has shown promise as a tool for retraining the spinal cord by engaging innate locomotor circuitry in the lumbar cord. As new training paradigms evolve, the importance of appropriate afferent input has emerged as a requirement for adaptive plasticity. The integration of kinematic, sensory, and loading force information must be closely monitored and carefully manipulated to optimize training outcomes. Inappropriate peripheral input may produce lasting maladaptive sensory and motor effects, such as central pain and spasticity. Thus, it is important to closely consider the type of afferent input the injured spinal cord receives. Here we review preclinical and clinical input parameters fostering adaptive plasticity, as well as those producing maladaptive plasticity that may undermine neurorehabilitative efforts. We differentiate between passive (hindlimb unloading [HU], limb immobilization) and active (peripheral nociception) forms of aberrant input. Furthermore, we discuss the timing of initiating exposure to afferent input after SCI for promoting functional locomotor recovery. We conclude by presenting a candidate rapid synaptic mechanism for maladaptive plasticity after SCI, offering a pharmacological target for restoring the capacity for adaptive spinal plasticity in real time.

  8. Locomotor sensitization to ethanol: Contribution of b-Endorphin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephani eDempsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders, like all drug addictions, involve a constellation of adaptive changes throughout the brain. Neural activity underlying changes in the rewarding properties of alcohol reflect changes in dopamine transmission in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways and these effects are modulated by endogenous opioids such as b-Endorphin. In order to study the role of b-Endorphin in the development of locomotor sensitization to repeated EtOH exposure, we tested transgenic mice that vary in their capacity to synthesize this peptide as a result of constitutive modification of the Pomc gene. Our results indicate that mice deficient in b-Endorphin show attenuated locomotor activation following an acute injection of EtOH (2 g/kg and, in contrast to wildtype mice, fail to demonstrate locomotor sensitization after 12 days of repeated EtOH injections. These data support the idea that b-Endorphin modulates the locomotor effects of EtOH and contributes to the neuroadaptive changes associated with chronic use.

  9. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  10. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect. To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance, we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns, food preference, locomotor activity

  11. Nature and Causes of Locomotor Disabilities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Santoshi; Talukdar, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of disability around the world is preventable. Levels of disability in many poor countries can be reduced by achieving the international development targets for economic, social and human development. In this paper, the author studied the different contributory and causative factors of locomotor disability, disease states and…

  12. Locomotor Sub-functions for Control of Assistive Wearable Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbafi, Maziar A; Seyfarth, Andre; Zhao, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated: Stance : redirecting the center of mass by exerting forces on the ground. Swing : cycling the legs between ground contacts. Balance : maintaining body posture. With these three sub-functions, one can understand, design and control legged locomotory systems with formulating them in simpler separated tasks. Coordination between locomotor sub-functions in a harmonized manner appears then as an additional problem when considering legged locomotion. However, biological locomotion shows that appropriate design and control of each sub-function simplifies coordination. It means that only limited exchange of sensory information between the different locomotor sub-function controllers is required enabling the envisioned modular architecture of the locomotion control system. In this paper, we present different studies on implementing different locomotor sub-function controllers on models, robots, and an exoskeleton in addition to demonstrating their abilities in explaining humans' control strategies.

  13. MRT of the locomotor system. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, Martin; Reiser, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The book on MRT of the locomotor system covers the following topics: relevant NMT imaging techniques, spinal cord, shoulder, elbows, wrist and fingers, hip region, knee, lower leg - ankle - foot, temporomandibular joint, skeletal muscles, bone marrow, bone and soft tissue tumors, osteoporosis, sacroiliac joint, jaw and periodontium.

  14. Effects of nutmeg consumption on the open field locomotor activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was a steady significant difference (p < 0.05) in the behaviours of line crossing and walling. There was no much significant changes (P<0.05) in the behaviours of hinding, grooming and defeacation between the Treatments and Control groups of animals. Keywords: Nutmeg, Wistar rats, Open field, Locomotor activities ...

  15. Hesperidin effects on behavior and locomotor activity of diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... after treatment of Ruta graveolens and rutin with nicotinamide/streptozotocin diabetic rats (Gispen and. Biessels, 2000). After treating with hesperidin, there was an increase in the anxiety level which improved locomotor activity and recovery time during testing in open field. The same remark was made for ...

  16. Inbreeding affects locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri Moghadam, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...

  17. Development and functional organization of spinal locomotor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole

    2011-01-01

    that have revealed the developmental and functional organization of these fundamental spinal motor networks in limbed and non-limbed animals. The comparison will highlight common principles and divergence in the organization of the spinal locomotor network structure in these different species as well...

  18. A Model of Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling in Quadrupeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori,, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion and respiration are not independent phenomena in running mammals because locomotion and respiration both rely on cyclic movements of the ribs, sternum, and associated musculature. Thus, constraints are imposed on locomotor and respiratory function by virtue of their linkage. Specifically, locomotion imposes mechanical constraints on…

  19. Locomotor training as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locomotor training as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with spinal cord injury - a case study. BM Parr, R Gamieldien, SEH Davies. Abstract. No Abstract South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 20 (3) 2008: pp. 91-92. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  20. The ventromedial hypothalamus oxytocin induces locomotor behavior regulated by estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kazumi; Murata, Takuya; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that excitation of neurons in the rat ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) induced locomotor activity. An oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) exists in the VMH and plays a role in regulating sexual behavior. However, the role of Oxtr in the VMH in locomotor activity is not clear. In this study we examined the roles of oxytocin in the VMH in running behavior, and also investigated the involvement of estrogen in this behavioral change. Microinjection of oxytocin into the VMH induced a dose-dependent increase in the running behavior in male rats. The oxytocin-induced running activity was inhibited by simultaneous injection of Oxtr-antagonist, (d(CH2)5(1), Try(Me)(2), Orn(8))-oxytocin. Oxytocin injection also induced running behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pretreatment of the OVX rats with estrogen augmented the oxytocin-induced running activity twofold, and increased the Oxtr mRNA in the VMH threefold. During the estrus cycle locomotor activity spontaneously increased in the dark period of proestrus. The Oxtr mRNA was up-regulated in the proestrus afternoon. Blockade of oxytocin neurotransmission by its antagonist before the onset of the dark period of proestrus decreased the following nocturnal locomotor activity. These findings demonstrate that Oxtr in the VMH is involved in the induction of running behavior and that estrogen facilitates this effect by means of Oxtr up-regulation, suggesting the involvement of oxytocin in the locomotor activity of proestrus female rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Locomotor inhibition in adults horses faced to stressors: a single postpartum experience may be enough!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eDurier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of postpartum handling that a newborn experiences, few studies focus on their long-term consequences. In rats, regular long separations from the mother, during the early life, led to modifications of the locomotor activity when the animal is confronted to a stressor. In horses, one component of the behavioural response to stressful situation is active locomotion. We wondered if the routine postpartum handling undergone by foals, would affect their level of reactivity or the way they express their stress, when older. One single prolonged bout of handling just after birth clearly affected later adult expression of stress reactivity. In social separation associated with novelty, handled and unhandled horses produced an equal amount of whinnies, showing a similar vocal response to stress. However, both groups differed in their locomotor response to the situations. Early-handled foals expressed less of the active forms of locomotion than the control group. Our findings highlight the need of further reflections on long-term effects of routine handlings procedures close to birth.

  2. Automated locomotor activity monitoring as a quality control assay for mass-reared tephritid flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Fanson, Benjamin G; Collins, Samuel R; Taylor, Phillip W

    2014-02-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) requires vast numbers of consistently high quality insects to be produced over long periods. Quality control (QC) procedures are critical to effective SIT, both providing quality assurance and warning of operational deficiencies. We here present a potential new QC assay for mass rearing of Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt) for SIT; locomotor activity monitoring. We investigated whether automated locomotor activity monitors (LAMs) that simply detect how often a fly passes an infrared sensor in a glass tube might provide similar insights but with much greater economy. Activity levels were generally lower for females than for males, and declined over five days in the monitor for both sexes. Female activity levels were not affected by irradiation, but males irradiated at 60 or 70 Gy had reduced activity levels compared with unirradiated controls. We also found some evidence that mild heat shock of pupae results in adults with reduced activity. LAM offers a convenient, effective and economical assay to probe such changes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Usability evaluation of a locomotor therapy device considering different strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langthaler Sonja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Usability of medical devices is one of the main determining factors in preventing use errors in treatment and strongly correlates to patient safety and quality of treatment. This thesis demonstrates the usability testing and evaluation of a prototype for locomotor therapy of infants. Therefore, based on the normative requirements of the EN 62366, a concept combined of evaluation procedures and assessing methods was created to enable extensive testing and analysis of the different aspects of usability. On the basis of gathered information weak points were identified and appropriate measures were presented to increase the usability and operating safety of the locomotor prototype. The overall outcome showed an usability value of 77.4% and an evaluation score of 6.99, which can be interpreted as “satisfactory”.

  4. Trastornos psicosomáticos en el aparato locomotor

    OpenAIRE

    Carabias Huete, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Se abordan los trastornos psicosomáticos que atañen al aparato locomotor. Se analizan los factores psicológicos que pueden hacer más vulnerables a algunos sujetos frente a otros. Se exponen también algunos estudios a este respecto, describiendo los trastornos concretos para pasar después a cómo explican los diferentes modelos teóricos estos trastornos, proponiendo algunas intervenciones que parecen eficaces

  5. Locomotor therapy with extended-release crystalline glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vasilyevich Badokin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical glucocorticoid (GC therapy for locomotor diseases is an extremely important component of a comprehensive program to treat inflammatory and, to a lesser extent, degenerative diseases. It reduces the time of hospitalization by 5—10 days in this category of patients, has a prompt and potent anti-inflammatory effect, and shows predictable efficiency. This therapy shows good tolerability and high safety and prevents serious adverse reactions to GC treatment.

  6. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  7. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.

  8. The influence of age on learning a locomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, H J A; Dietz, V

    2004-09-01

    Knowledge about locomotor task performance and learning in the elderly is important in optimizing rehabilitation strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between young and elderly subjects in the acquisition and performance of a precision locomotor task, with full and restricted vision. The subjects walked on a treadmill and had to step as low as possible over an obstacle, without touching it. They received acoustic warning and feedback signals, indicating obstacle appearance and foot clearance, respectively. Full vision was provided during the first two runs and became restricted during the third run. The number of obstacle hits and adaptations in foot clearance, leg muscle activity, range of motion of leg joints and swing phase duration were assessed. With vision, the performance improved in both groups. Restricted vision reduced the task accuracy in both the young and the elderly. However, only the young subjects regained optimal foot clearance with practice. Elderly subjects rely more on visual control when acquiring and performing a precision locomotor task. We suggest that this is due to an impaired function of proprioceptive feedback mechanisms, which can replace visual information in young subjects. In the elderly, therapeutical attention should be directed towards optimizing the use of the remaining proprioceptive inputs.

  9. Morphological correlates of locomotor performance in hatchling Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Donald B; Fitzgerald, Lee A; Snell, Howard L

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies of locomotor performance from a variety of perspectives often assumed that speed and limb length were strongly correlated. Despite support of this assumption from biomechanical models, few empirical studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between measures of locomotor capacity, such as maximum velocity, and length of the hindlimb at either the inter- or intra-specific level. We examined whether one measure of locomotor performance, maximum velocity, correlates with body size and elements of the hindlimb in hatchling marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Larger hatchlings ran faster. Removing the effects of body size revealed that relative lengths of the tibia and hindfoot correlated with size-adjusted maximum velocity. Individuals with relatively long tibia and short pes were relatively faster than individuals with short tibia and long pes. Functional morphological analyses predict that femur length should correlate with maximum velocity. However, our analyses failed to support this prediction. Because hatchling marine iguanas exploit relatively open habitats, the relationship between maximum velocity and limb morphology may be interpreted as an adaptation enhancing escape from predators.

  10. Neural plasticity and locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Keith E

    2010-12-01

    The discussion of neural plasticity and locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) focuses on 2 main themes, the issues associated with detecting neural plasticity in human beings and the issue of how to translate information from animal models, in which neural plasticity can be more readily studied, to human clinical research and application. This article discusses the importance of studying neural plasticity to better understand the effects of current rehabilitation interventions and to devise the next generation of therapies. It reviews the current spectrum of clinical, functional, anatomical, and neurophysiological assessments of patients that can be made in neurorehabilitation and the relationship between those measures and the study of neural plasticity. Then the similarities and differences between animal models and human SCI are discussed in relation to the severity of injury, the effect of locomotor training on gait recovery, the localization of neural plasticity associated with that gait recovery, and the implications for interpreting the "translatability" of animal model data to human study and clinical practice. In summary, it is concluded that the study of neural plasticity and locomotor recovery after SCI is really in its infancy but that it is critical for the advancement of the science of neurorehabilitation and "restorative neurology." Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  12. A Wider Pelvis Does Not Increase Locomotor Cost in Humans, with Implications for the Evolution of Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrener, Anna G.; Lewton, Kristi L.; Pontzer, Herman; Lieberman, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion. This trade-off, known as the obstetrical dilemma, is invoked to explain the relative difficulty of human childbirth and differences in locomotor performance between men and women. The basis for the obstetrical dilemma is a standard static biomechanical model that predicts wider pelves in females increase the metabolic cost of locomotion by decreasing the effective mechanical advantage of the hip abductor muscles for pelvic stabilization during the single-leg support phase of walking and running, requiring these muscles to produce more force. Here we experimentally test this model against a more accurate dynamic model of hip abductor mechanics in men and women. The results show that pelvic width does not predict hip abductor mechanics or locomotor cost in either women or men, and that women and men are equally efficient at both walking and running. Since a wider birth canal does not increase a woman’s locomotor cost, and because selection for successful birthing must be strong, other factors affecting maternal pelvic and fetal size should be investigated in order to help explain the prevalence of birth complications caused by a neonate too large to fit through the birth canal. PMID:25760381

  13. A wider pelvis does not increase locomotor cost in humans, with implications for the evolution of childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Warrener

    Full Text Available The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion. This trade-off, known as the obstetrical dilemma, is invoked to explain the relative difficulty of human childbirth and differences in locomotor performance between men and women. The basis for the obstetrical dilemma is a standard static biomechanical model that predicts wider pelves in females increase the metabolic cost of locomotion by decreasing the effective mechanical advantage of the hip abductor muscles for pelvic stabilization during the single-leg support phase of walking and running, requiring these muscles to produce more force. Here we experimentally test this model against a more accurate dynamic model of hip abductor mechanics in men and women. The results show that pelvic width does not predict hip abductor mechanics or locomotor cost in either women or men, and that women and men are equally efficient at both walking and running. Since a wider birth canal does not increase a woman's locomotor cost, and because selection for successful birthing must be strong, other factors affecting maternal pelvic and fetal size should be investigated in order to help explain the prevalence of birth complications caused by a neonate too large to fit through the birth canal.

  14. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  15. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tuan V; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Regenerative responses in slow- and fast-twitch muscles following moderate contusion spinal cord injury and locomotor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Arun; Liu, Min; Ye, Fan; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the rat moderate spinal cord contusion model to investigate the effects of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) on the muscle regeneration process, comparing regeneration of slow-twitch plantarflexor soleus muscle and fast-twitch dorsiflexor tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Additionally, we wanted to examine the effect of a week of locomotor training following incomplete SCI on the muscle regeneration process in these muscles and also determine if a week of similar locomotor training is sufficient to initiate muscle regeneration in control, non-injured rats. Thirty-two, adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the study. Moderate, midthoracic contusion SCIs were produced using a NYU (New York University) impactor in all rats except controls. Animals were randomly assigned to treadmill training or untrained groups. Rats in the treadmill training group were manually treadmill trained starting at 1 week after SCI, for 10 bouts (2 sessions of 20 min of actual stepping) over 5 days and control rats in the training group received similar training. Our results indicate that a muscle regenerative response was initiated only in the slow-twitch soleus muscle in the initial 2 weeks following SCI, the addition of 1 week of locomotor treadmill training led to a significant increase in soleus regenerative process. No significant regenerative process was observed in the fast-twitch TA. Increased muscle regeneration in soleus is suggested by our findings of increased expression of (1) insulin-like growth factor-1, involved in the activation of satellite cells; (2) Pax7, a marker of satellite cell activation; (3) myogenin, a muscle regulatory protein; and (4) embryonic myosin, an indicator of new muscle fiber formation. Locomotor training in control, non-injured animals did not induce similar changes towards the regenerative process.

  17. Daily rhythms of locomotor and demand-feeding activities in Schizothorax pelzami (Kessler, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ehsan; Kamrani, Ehsan; Heydarnejad, Mohammad Saeed; Safari, Omid

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the daily rhythms of locomotor and feeding activity of Khajoo, Schizothorax pelzami, a candidate species for freshwater aquaculture. Using self-feeder juvenile Khajoo were exposed to a 12/12 LD cycle to determine the rhythms of locomotor and feeding activity. The effects of feeding on locomotor and feeding activity of fish were also examined. Finally, the endogenous rhythmicity under different lighting condition tested. Fish displayed a strictly diurnal feeding and locomotor activities with 98% and 84% of the total activity occurred in the photophase, respectively. In scheduled feeding, both the L-group (fed in light) and the D-group (fed in the dark) showed a diurnal locomotor activity pattern. However, the L-group had a peak of locomotor activity near the feeding time, but the D-group had a scarce locomotor activity in the scatophase with no significant change at the mealtime. Most of the individuals display free-running rhythms when exposed to different lighting condition including, constant darkness, ultradian 45:45 min LD cycle and reversed DL photo cycle. Taken together the results of this study showed that both locomotor and feeding activity have diurnal rhythms in Khajoo S. pelzami, even fish feeding had taken place at night. Additionally, the free-running locomotor activity of the fish in the absence of external light stimuli, suggests the existence of an endogenous timing mechanism in this fish species.

  18. Sound stabilizes locomotor-respiratory coupling and reduces energy cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A natural synchronization between locomotor and respiratory systems is known to exist for various species and various forms of locomotion. This Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC is fundamental for the energy transfer between the two subsystems during long duration exercise and originates from mechanical and neurological interactions. Different methodologies have been used to compute LRC, giving rise to various and often diverging results in terms of synchronization, (de-stabilization via information, and associated energy cost. In this article, the theory of nonlinear-coupled oscillators was adopted to characterize LRC, through the model of the sine circle map, and tested it in the context of cycling. Our specific focus was the sound-induced stabilization of LRC and its associated change in energy consumption. In our experimental study, participants were instructed during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus whose rhythm corresponded to their individual preferential breathing or cycling frequencies. Results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure with auditory stimulation, accompanied by a stabilization of LRC. The sound-induced effect was asymmetrical, with a better stabilizing influence of the metronome on the locomotor system than on the respiratory system. A modification of the respiratory frequency was indeed observed when participants cycled in synchrony with the tone, leading to a transition toward more stable frequency ratios as predicted by the sine circle map. In addition to the classical mechanical and neurological origins of LRC, here we demonstrated using the sine circle map model that information plays an important modulatory role of the synchronization, and has global energetic consequences.

  19. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreton, Mercédès; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël; Rodet, Guy; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Charnet, Pierre; Collet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee’s locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…), before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence) since (i) few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii) in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48h), three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee), tetramethrin (70 ng/bee), tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee) and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee) caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee) had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field, the case

  20. Effect of ambient temperature on the thermoregulatory and locomotor stimulant effects of 4-methylmethcathinone in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    M Jerry Wright

    Full Text Available The drug 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; aka, mephedrone, MMCAT, "plant food", "bath salts" is a recent addition to the list of popular recreational psychomotor-stimulant compounds. Relatively little information about this drug is available in the scientific literature, but popular media reports have driven recent drug control actions in the UK and several US States. Online user reports of subjective similarity to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy" prompted the current investigation of the thermoregulatory and locomotor effects of 4-MMC. Male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored after subcutaneous administration of 4-MMC (1-10 mg/kg using an implantable radiotelemetry system under conditions of low (23°C and high (27°C ambient temperature. A reliable reduction of body temperature was produced by 4-MMC in Wistar rats at 23°C or 27°C with only minimal effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. Increased locomotor activity was observed after 4-MMC administration in both strains with significantly more activity produced in the Sprague-Dawley strain. The 10 mg/kg s.c. dose evoked greater increase in extracellular serotonin, compared with dopamine, in the nucleus accumbens. Follow-up studies confirmed that the degree of locomotor stimulation produced by 10 mg/kg 4-MMC was nearly identical to that produced by 1 mg/kg d-methamphetamine in each strain. Furthermore, hypothermia produced by the serotonin 1(A/7 receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT was similar in each strain. These results show that the cathinone analog 4-MMC exhibits thermoregulatory and locomotor properties that are distinct from those established for methamphetamine or MDMA in prior work, despite recent evidence of neuropharmacological similarity with MDMA.

  1. Optimizing learning of a locomotor task: amplifying errors as needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; López-Olóriz, Jorge; Jaeger, Lukas; Riener, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Research on motor learning has emphasized that errors drive motor adaptation. Thereby, several researchers have proposed robotic training strategies that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. In this study, the effect of different robotic training strategies that amplify errors on learning a complex locomotor task was investigated. The experiment was conducted with a one degree-of freedom robotic stepper (MARCOS). Subjects were requested to actively coordinate their legs in a desired gait-like pattern in order to track a Lissajous figure presented on a visual display. Learning with three different training strategies was evaluated: (i) No perturbation: the robot follows the subjects' movement without applying any perturbation, (ii) Error amplification: existing errors were amplified with repulsive forces proportional to errors, (iii) Noise disturbance: errors were evoked with a randomly-varying force disturbance. Results showed that training without perturbations was especially suitable for a subset of initially less-skilled subjects, while error amplification seemed to benefit more skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, limited transfer of learning. Random disturbing forces benefited learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because it increased attention. These results suggest that learning a locomotor task can be optimized when errors are randomly evoked or amplified based on subjects' initial skill level.

  2. Persistence of locomotor-related interlimb reflex networks during walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, E Paul; Loadman, Pamela M

    2012-04-01

    Cutaneous nerve stimulation evokes coordinated and phase-modulated reflex output widely distributed to muscles of all four limbs during walking. Accessibility to this distributed network after stroke offers insight into the pathological changes and suggests utility for therapeutic applications. Here we examined muscles in both the more (MA) and less affected (LA) legs evoked by stimulation at the ankle and wrist during walking in chronic (>6 months post CVA) stroke. Stroke and control participants walked on a treadmill with a harness support system. Reflexes were evoked with trains of electrical stimuli delivered separately to the cutaneous superficial peroneal (SP; at the ankle) and superficial radial (SR; at the wrist) nerves. Background locomotor and reflex EMG were phase-averaged across the gait cycle and analyzed off line. Locomotor background muscle activation patterns were altered bilaterally in stroke, as compared with control. Phase-dependent modulation of interlimb cutaneous reflexes was found in both stroke and control subjects with stimulation of each nerve, but responses were blunted in stroke. Reflex reversal in tibialis anterior (TA) at heel strike with SP nerve stimulation was present in both groups. Notably, SR nerve stimulation produced facilitation during the swing-to-stance transition in the TA and suppression of MG in the MA leg during stance. Interlimb cutaneous inputs may access coordinated reflex pathways in the MA limb during walking after stroke. Importantly activation in these pathways could provoke responses to counter foot drop during swing phase of walking. Additionally, our data support the perspective that there is no "unaffected" side after stroke and that caution should be used when interpreting the LA side as "control" after stroke. The presence of functionally-relevant interlimb cutaneous reflexes in the MA leg presents a substrate that may be strengthened by rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical

  3. Loss of Sphingosine Kinase Alters Life History Traits and Locomotor Function inCaenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason P; Brown, Jaylene; Hark, Brandon; Nolan, Abby; Servello, Dustin; Hrobuchak, Hannah; Staab, Trisha A

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism is important to balance the abundance of bioactive lipid molecules involved in cell signaling, neuronal function, and survival. Specifically, the sphingolipid sphingosine mediates cell death signaling, whereas its phosphorylated form, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), mediates cell survival signaling. The enzyme sphingosine kinase produces S1P, and the activity of sphingosine kinase impacts the ability of cells to survive under stress and challenges. To examine the influence of sphingolipid metabolism, particularly enzymes regulating sphingosine and S1P, in mediating aging, neuronal function and stress response, we examined life history traits, locomotor capacities and heat stress responses of young and old animals using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans . We found that C. elegans sphk-1 mutants, which lack sphingosine kinase, had shorter lifespans, reduced brood sizes, and smaller body sizes compared to wild type animals. By analyzing a panel of young and old animals with genetic mutations in the sphingolipid signaling pathway, we showed that aged sphk-1 mutants exhibited a greater decline in neuromuscular function and locomotor behavior. In addition, aged animals lacking sphk-1 were more susceptible to death induced by acute and prolonged heat exposure. On the other hand, older animals with loss of function mutations in ceramide synthase ( hyl-1 ), which converts sphingosine to ceramide, showed improved neuromuscular function and stress response with age. This phenotype was dependent on sphk-1 . Together, our data show that loss of sphingosine kinase contributes to poor animal health span, suggesting that sphingolipid signaling may be important for healthy neuronal function and animal stress response during aging.

  4. Loss of Sphingosine Kinase Alters Life History Traits and Locomotor Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolism is important to balance the abundance of bioactive lipid molecules involved in cell signaling, neuronal function, and survival. Specifically, the sphingolipid sphingosine mediates cell death signaling, whereas its phosphorylated form, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, mediates cell survival signaling. The enzyme sphingosine kinase produces S1P, and the activity of sphingosine kinase impacts the ability of cells to survive under stress and challenges. To examine the influence of sphingolipid metabolism, particularly enzymes regulating sphingosine and S1P, in mediating aging, neuronal function and stress response, we examined life history traits, locomotor capacities and heat stress responses of young and old animals using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that C. elegans sphk-1 mutants, which lack sphingosine kinase, had shorter lifespans, reduced brood sizes, and smaller body sizes compared to wild type animals. By analyzing a panel of young and old animals with genetic mutations in the sphingolipid signaling pathway, we showed that aged sphk-1 mutants exhibited a greater decline in neuromuscular function and locomotor behavior. In addition, aged animals lacking sphk-1 were more susceptible to death induced by acute and prolonged heat exposure. On the other hand, older animals with loss of function mutations in ceramide synthase (hyl-1, which converts sphingosine to ceramide, showed improved neuromuscular function and stress response with age. This phenotype was dependent on sphk-1. Together, our data show that loss of sphingosine kinase contributes to poor animal health span, suggesting that sphingolipid signaling may be important for healthy neuronal function and animal stress response during aging.

  5. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Involvement of dopamine receptors on locomotor stimulation and sensitization elicited by the interaction of ethanol and mazindol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, M S; Takahashi, R N

    1999-07-01

    We have previously observed that the combination of ethanol (EtOH) and the anorectic drug mazindol (MZ) produces more marked effects on behavior than either substance alone. In the present study we examined whether the repeated administration of the drug combination could induce sensitization to its motor activating effects in mice and, if so, whether this response could be affected by dopamine (DA) receptors antagonists. Male Swiss albino mice were treated daily for 7 days with combined EtOH+MZ (1.2 g/kg, 5.0 mg/kg IP), EtOH (1.2 g/kg IP), MZ (5.0 mg/kg IP), or control solution coadministered with the D1 dopamine antagonist SCH-23390 (0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg IP), the mixed dopamine antagonist haloperidol (0.05 or 0.075 mg/kg IP), or vehicle. After the injections on days 1, 7, and 10, mice were assessed in activity cages at different time intervals. Repeated administration of MZ resulted in an enhancement of its locomotor activating effects, behavioral sensitization. Further, the combined EtOH+MZ treatment also resulted in sensitization to its locomotor effects. Moreover, the development of MZ and EtOH+MZ sensitization was attenuated by both SCH-23390 and haloperidol. These data demonstrate that following repeated MZ or EtOH+MZ exposure mice show locomotor sensitization through DA receptor stimulation. Also, these findings suggest that a major determinant of combined anorectic-alcohol misuse may be the increased stimulating effects produced by such combination.

  7. Adaptive locomotor network activation during randomized walking speeds using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-07-20

    An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying locomotor networks has the potential to benefit the neurorehabilitation of patients with neurological locomotor deficits. However, the specific locomotor networks that mediate adaptive locomotor performance and changes in gait speed remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine patterns of cortical activation associated with the walking speeds of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 km/h on a treadmill. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was performed on a 30-year-old right-handed healthy female subject, and cerebral hemodynamic changes were observed in cortical locomotor network areas including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and sensory association cortex (SAC). The software package NIRS-statistical parametric mapping (NIRS-SPM) was utilized to analyze fNIRS data in the MATLAB environment. SPM t-statistic maps were computed at an uncorrected threshold of pglobalized locomotor network activation of the SMC, PMC, SMA, and PMC; additionally, the site with the highest cortical activation ratio shifted from the SMC to the SMA. Global locomotor network recruitment, in particular PFC activation indicated by OxyHb in our study, may indicate a response to increased cognitive-locomotor demand due to simultaneous postural maintenance and leg movement coordination.

  8. Effects of noradrenaline on locomotor rhythm-generating networks in the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O; Sillar, K T; Kjaerulff, O

    1999-01-01

    , the addition of NA to the NMDA/5-HT saline could reinstate a well-coordinated locomotor rhythm. We conclude that exogenously applied NA can elicit tonic activity or can trigger a slow, irregular and often synchronous motor pattern. When NA is applied during ongoing locomotor activity, the amine has a distinct...

  9. Locomotor problems among rural elderly population in a District of Aligarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroof, Mohd; Ahmad, Anees; Khalique, Najam; Ansari, M Athar

    2017-01-01

    Locomotor functions decline with the age along with other physiological changes. This results in deterioration of the quality of life with decreased social and economic role in the society, as well as increased dependency, for the health care and other basic services. The demographic transition resulting in increased proportion of elderly may pose a burden to the health system. To find the prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors. The study was a community-based cross-sectional study done at field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. A sample of 225 was drawn from 1018 elderly population aged 60 years and above using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained using pretested and predesigned questionnaire. Locomotor problems were assessed using the criteria used by National Sample Survey Organization. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to test relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population was 25.8%. Locomotor problems were significantly associated with age, gender, and working status whereas no significant association with literacy status and marital status was observed. The study concluded that approximately one-fourth of the elderly population suffered from locomotor problems. The sociodemographic factors related to locomotor problems needs to be addressed properly to help them lead an independent and economically productive life.

  10. Adenosine kinase inhibitors: polar 7-substitutent of pyridopyrimidine derivatives improving their locomotor selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo Zhu; Mao, Yue; Lee, Chih-Hung; Pratt, John K; Koenig, John R; Perner, Richard J; Cowart, Marlon D; Gfesser, Gregory A; McGaraughty, Steve; Chu, Katharine L; Zhu, Chang; Yu, Haixia; Kohlhaas, Kathy; Alexander, Karen M; Wismer, Carol T; Mikusa, Joseph; Jarvis, Michael F; Kowaluk, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Andrew O

    2003-09-15

    We have discovered that polar 7-substituents of pyridopyrimidine derivatives affect not only whole cell AK inhibitory potency, but also selectivity in causing locomotor side effects in vivo animal models. We have identified compound, 1o, which has potent whole cell AK inhibitory potency, analgesic activity and minimal reduction of locomotor activity.

  11. Locomotor circumvention strategies are altered by stroke: I. Obstacle clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2017-06-15

    Functional locomotion requires the ability to adapt to environmental challenges such as the presence of stationary or moving obstacles. Difficulties in obstacle circumvention often lead to restricted community ambulation in individuals with stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast obstacle circumvention strategies between post-stroke (n = 12) and healthy individuals (n = 12) performing locomotor and perceptuomotor (joystick navigation) tasks with different obstacle approaches. Participants walked and navigated with a joystick towards a central target, in a virtual environment simulating a large room, while avoiding an obstacle that either remained stationary at the pre-determined point of intersection or moved from head-on or diagonally 30° left/right. The outcome measures included dynamic clearance (DC), instantaneous distance from obstacle at crossing (IDC), number of collisions and preferred side of circumvention. These measures were compared between groups (stroke vs. healthy), obstacle parameter (stationary vs. moving head-on) and direction of approach (left/paretic vs. right/non-paretic). DC was significantly larger when circumventing a moving obstacle that approached head-on as compared to a stationary obstacle for both groups during both tasks, while not significantly different in either diagonal approach in either group. IDC was smaller in the stroke group while walking and larger in both groups during joystick navigation when avoiding moving as compared to stationary obstacle. IDC was significantly larger in the stroke group compared to controls for diagonal approaches during walking, wherein two different strategies emerged amongst individuals with stroke: circumventing to the same (V same n = 6) or opposite (V opp n = 4) side of obstacle approach. This behavior was not seen in the perceptuomotor task, wherein post-stroke participants circumvented to opposite side of the obstacle approach as seen in healthy participants. In the

  12. A Multiposture Locomotor Training Device with Force-Field Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multiposture locomotor training device (MPLTD with a closed-loop control scheme based on joint angle feedback, which is able to overcome various difficulties resulting from mechanical vibration and the weight of trainer to achieve higher accuracy trajectory. By introducing the force-field control scheme used in the closed-loop control, the device can obtain the active-constrained mode including the passive one. The MPLTD is mainly composed of three systems: posture adjusting and weight support system, lower limb exoskeleton system, and control system, of which the lower limb exoskeleton system mainly includes the indifferent equilibrium mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOF and the driving torque is calculated by the Lagrangian function. In addition, a series of experiments, the weight support and the trajectory accuracy experiment, demonstrate a good performance of mechanical structure and the closed-loop control.

  13. Immature spinal locomotor output in children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Germana Cappellini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed descriptions of gait impairments have been reported in cerebral palsy (CP, but it is still unclear how maturation of the spinal motoneuron output is affected. Spatiotemporal alpha-motoneuron activation during walking can be assessed by mapping the electromyographic activity profiles from several, simultaneously recorded muscles onto the anatomical rostrocaudal location of the motoneuron pools in the spinal cord, and by means of factor analysis of the muscle activity profiles. Here, we analysed gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of bilateral muscles with lumbosacral innervation in 35 children with CP (19 diplegic, 16 hemiplegic, 2-12 years and 33 typically developing (TD children (1-12 years. TD children showed a progressive reduction of EMG burst durations and a gradual reorganization of the spatiotemporal motoneuron output with increasing age. By contrast, children with CP showed very limited age-related changes of EMG durations and motoneuron output, as well as of limb intersegmental coordination and foot trajectory control (on both sides for diplegic children and the affected side for hemiplegic children. Factorization of the EMG signals revealed a comparable structure of the motor output in children with CP and TD children, but significantly wider temporal activation patterns in children with CP, resembling the patterns of much younger TD infants. A similar picture emerged when considering the spatiotemporal maps of alpha-motoneuron activation. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain substantially affect the maturation of the spinal locomotor output and consequently the future locomotor behaviour.

  14. Novel locomotor muscle design in extreme deep-diving whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, B P; Dillaman, R M; Kinsey, S T; McLellan, W A; Pabst, D A

    2013-05-15

    Most marine mammals are hypothesized to routinely dive within their aerobic dive limit (ADL). Mammals that regularly perform deep, long-duration dives have locomotor muscles with elevated myoglobin concentrations that are composed of predominantly large, slow-twitch (Type I) fibers with low mitochondrial volume densities (V(mt)). These features contribute to extending ADL by increasing oxygen stores and decreasing metabolic rate. Recent tagging studies, however, have challenged the view that two groups of extreme deep-diving cetaceans dive within their ADLs. Beaked whales (including Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris) routinely perform the deepest and longest average dives of any air-breathing vertebrate, and short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) perform high-speed sprints at depth. We investigated the locomotor muscle morphology and estimated total body oxygen stores of several species within these two groups of cetaceans to determine whether they (1) shared muscle design features with other deep divers and (2) performed dives within their calculated ADLs. Muscle of both cetaceans displayed high myoglobin concentrations and large fibers, as predicted, but novel fiber profiles for diving mammals. Beaked whales possessed a sprinter's fiber-type profile, composed of ~80% fast-twitch (Type II) fibers with low V(mt). Approximately one-third of the muscle fibers of short-finned pilot whales were slow-twitch, oxidative, glycolytic fibers, a rare fiber type for any mammal. The muscle morphology of beaked whales likely decreases the energetic cost of diving, while that of short-finned pilot whales supports high activity events. Calculated ADLs indicate that, at low metabolic rates, both beaked and short-finned pilot whales carry sufficient onboard oxygen to aerobically support their dives.

  15. Developing the content of a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh has an estimated 17 million adults with disabilities. A significant proportion of them are believed to have locomotor disabilities. There are over 300 non-governmental organizations providing different types of rehabilitation services to them. However, there is no locally developed and validated locomotor disability measurement scale in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotor disability scale with disability indicators suitable for adults in Bangladesh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities to generate scale items. At the second stage, cognitive interviews were conducted with 12 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities in order to refine the measurement questions and response categories. Data were analysed using the framework technique- identifying, abstracting, charting and matching themes across the interviews. For a locomotor disability scale, 70 activities (disability indicators) were identified: 37 mobility activities, 9 activities of daily living, 17 work/productivity activities and 7 leisure activities. Cognitive interviews revealed that when asking the respondents to rate their difficulty in performing the activities, instead of just mentioning the activity name, such as taking a bath or shower, a detailed description of the activity and response options were necessary to ensure consistent interpretation of the disability indicators and response options across all respondents. Identifying suitable disability indicators was the first step in developing a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh. Interviewing adults with locomotor disabilities in Bangladesh ensured that the locomotor disability scale is of relevance to them and consequently it has excellent content validity. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale.

  16. The effects of noradrenaline on locomotor rhythm generating networks in the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Sillar, Keith T.; Kjaerulff, O.

    1999-01-01

    activity of the ongoing rhythm. Moreover, NA did not obviously affect the left/right and rostrocaudal alternation of the NMDA/5-HT rhythm. The NMDA/5-HT locomotor rhythm sometimes displayed a time-dependent breakdown in coordination, ultimately resulting in tonic ventral root activity. However......, the addition of NA to the NMDA/5-HT saline could reinstate a well-coordinated locomotor rhythm. We conclude that exogenously applied NA can elicit tonic activity or can trigger a slow, irregular and often synchronous motor pattern. When NA is applied during ongoing locomotor activity, the amine has a distinct...

  17. Day or night administration of ketamine and pentobarbital differentially affect circadian rhythms of pineal melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Tatsuaki; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Koga, Motokazu; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu; Goto, Takahisa

    2012-10-01

    Surgery with general anesthesia disturbs circadian rhythms, which may lead to postoperative sleep disorders and delirium in patients. However, it is unclear how circadian rhythms are affected by different anesthetics administered at different times during the rest-activity cycle. We hypothesized that pentobarbital (an agonist at the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors) and ketamine (an antagonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) would have differential effects on circadian rhythms, and these effects would also be influenced by the time of their administration (the active versus resting phase). Rats were divided into 4 groups according to the anesthetic administered (pentobarbital or ketamine) and the timing of intraperitoneal administration (active/night phase or resting/day phase). Using online pineal microdialysis, we analyzed pineal melatonin secretion and locomotor activity rhythms in rats under a light/dark (12/12-hour) cycle for 5 days after anesthesia and microdialysis catheter implantation. The data were analyzed for rhythmicity by cosinor analysis. Ketamine administered during the resting phase produced 65- and 153-minute phase advances, respectively, in melatonin secretion and locomotor activity rhythms on the first day after anesthesia. In contrast, ketamine administered during the active phase produced 43- and 235-minute phase delays. Pentobarbital had no effect on the phase of either melatonin secretion or locomotor activity, irrespective of the timing of administration. When administered during the active phase, both anesthetics decreased the amplitude of melatonin secretion on the day after anesthesia; when administered during the resting phase, however, neither anesthetic affected the amplitude. The amplitude of locomotor activity decreased in all animals for 3 days after anesthesia. Ketamine has opposite phase-shifting effects on circadian rhythms according to the time of administration, whereas pentobarbital has no effect. Furthermore, both

  18. Anatomical location of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and its possible role in locomotion, posture, cataplexy and Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eLu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mesencephalic (or midbrain locomotor region (MLR was first described in 1966 by Shik and colleagues who demonstrated that electrical stimulation of this region induced locomotion in decerebrate (intercollicular transection cats. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT cholinergic neurons and midbrain extrapyramidal area (MEA have been suggested to form the neuroanatomical basis for the MLR, but direct evidence for the role of these structures in locomotor behavior has been lacking. Here we tested the hypothesis that the MLR is composed of non-cholinergic spinally-projecting cells in the lateral pontine tegmentum (LPT. Our results showed that putative MLR neurons medial to the PPT and MEA in rats were non-cholinergic, glutamatergic and express the orexin (hypocretin type 2 receptors. Fos mapping correlated with motor behaviors revealed that the dorsal and ventral MLR are activated, respectively, in association with locomotion and an erect posture. Consistent with these findings, chemical stimulation of the dorsal MLR produced locomotion whereas stimulation of the ventral MLR caused standing. Lesions of the MLR (dorsal and ventral regions together resulted in cataplexy and episodic immobility of gait. Finally, trans-neuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV demonstrated disynaptic input to the MLR from the substantia nigra via the MEA. These findings offer a new perspective on the neuroanatomic basis of the MLR, and suggest that MLR dysfunction may contribute to the postural and gait abnormalities in Parkinsonism.

  19. Comparative limb proportions reveal differential locomotor morphofunctions of alligatoroids and crocodyloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masaya; Kubo, Tai; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2018-03-01

    Although two major clades of crocodylians (Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea) were split during the Cretaceous period, relatively few morphological and functional differences between them have been known. In addition, interaction of multiple morphofunctional systems that differentiated their ecology has barely been assessed. In this study, we examined the limb proportions of crocodylians to infer the differences of locomotor functions between alligatoroids and crocodyloids, and tested the correlation of locomotor and feeding morphofunctions. Our analyses revealed crocodyloids including Gavialis have longer stylopodia (humerus and femur) than alligatoroids, indicating that two groups may differ in locomotor functions. Fossil evidence suggested that alligatoroids have retained short stylopodia since the early stage of their evolution. Furthermore, rostral shape, an indicator of trophic function, is correlated with limb proportions, where slender-snouted piscivorous taxa have relatively long stylopodia and short overall limbs. In combination, trophic and locomotor functions might differently delimit the ecological opportunity of alligatoroids and crocodyloids in the evolution of crocodylians.

  20. Woodlouse locomotor behavior in the assessment of clean and contaminated field sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayley, M.; Baatrup, E. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biological Sciences; Bjerregaard, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1997-11-01

    Specimens of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus were collected at four clean field sites and from a recently closed iron foundry heavily contaminated with zinc, lead, chromium, and nickel. Each of the 30 woodlice per group was housed individually and acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 d on a humid plaster of paris substrate. Thereafter, the locomotor behavior of each animal was measured for 4 h employing automated computer-aided video tracking. Linear discriminant analysis of five locomotor parameters revealed average velocity and path length as the principle components separating the polluted site and control animals. Post hoc analysis of the discriminant variable for animals from all five sites showed that the animals from the polluted site where significantly hyperactive when compared to all controls. Further, control animals collected from sites separated by several hundred kilometers were remarkably similar in their locomotor behavior. This preliminary study highlights the potential utility of quantitative analysis of animal locomotor behavior in environmental monitoring.

  1. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  2. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Chronic Pain in the Locomotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most pains from the locomotor system arise due to involuntary, chronic tensions in the muscles or other tissues. When the patient is motivated, the pain is easily cured in most of the cases by using the tools of consciousness-based medicine, primarily therapeutic touch, conversation, and coaching the patient in a positive philosophy of life. The pains are often caused by “blockages” that may cause problems other than just pain. Often it turns out that the blocked areas develop actual physical damage over time: a slipped disk in the back, articular degeneration, or osteoarthritis when the cartilage is affected, can often be explained in this way. Apparently, the exact areas where the blockage is situated cause cellular problems, disrupting cellular order. The holistic process theory of healing and the related quality of life theories state that return to the natural state of being is possible, whenever the person gets the resources needed for existential healing. The resources needed are “holding” in the dimensions of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment, and acceptance with support and processing in the dimensions of feeling, understanding, and letting go of negative attitudes and beliefs. The preconditions for holistic healing are trust and the intention for the healing to take place. Case stories of holistic treatment of patients with chronic back pain, low back pain, muscle problems, knee pain, and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are discussed with exercises relevant for patients with these conditions in the holistic clinic.

  3. Automated quantitative analysis of coordinated locomotor behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, H J; Vanwersch, R A; Wolthuis, O L

    1984-03-01

    Disturbances of motor coordination are usually difficult to quantify. Therefore, a method was developed for the automated quantitative analysis of the movements of the dyed paws of stepping rats, registered by a colour TV camera. The signals from the TV-video system were converted by an electronic interface into voltages proportional to the X- and Y-coordinates of the paws, from which a desktop computer calculated the movements of these paws in time and distance. Application 1 analysed the steps of a rat walking in a hollow rotating wheel. The results showed low variability of the walking pattern, the method was insensitive to low doses of alcohol, but was suitable to quantify overt, e.g. neurotoxic, locomotor disturbances or recovery thereof. In application 2 hurdles were placed in a similar hollow wheel and the rats were trained to step from the top of one hurdle to another. Physostigmine-induced disturbances of this acquired complex motor task could be detected at doses far below those that cause overt symptoms.

  4. [The locomotor activity of the squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, R

    1975-03-01

    The locomotor activity of Sciurus vulgaris has been observed in the field and in caged animals.Onset and cessation of activity (data from the cage only): Activity starts before sunrise and correlation with sunrise is very high (0.838≤r≤0.990). Cessation of activity normally lies before sunset, during summer late in the afternoon, in winter often already before noon. It is scatterd to a greater extent than onset of activity, correlation with sunset being 0.535≤r ≤0.798.Daily pattern: It is a bigeminus, although widely subject to seasonal variations. The afternoon peak is lacking from November till February, begins to form in March and reaches as much as 33.5% of total activity in September. The pause occurring at noon is most distinct during summer and vanishes gradually during the autumn months. Data from the field and from the cage show essentially the same pattern.Annual pattern: In the cage, activity is least during winter, increases gradually to a maximum in September followed by a sharp decrease to the winter minimum. The curve derived from the field observations shows a bimodal shape with a first peak in April and a second, more distinct one in September. A combination of the two groups of data shows three phases: December to May with irregular variations, May to September showing a conspicuous increase to maximal activity, September to December with sharp decrease to the winter minimum.

  5. Involvement of nigral oxytocin in locomotor activity: A behavioral, immunohistochemical and lesion study in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Laura; Cocco, Cristina; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Sanna, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    Oxytocin is involved in the control of different behaviors, from sexual behavior and food consumption to empathy, social and affective behaviors. An imbalance of central oxytocinergic neurotransmission has been also associated with different mental pathologies, from depression, anxiety and anorexia/bulimia to schizophrenia, autism and drug dependence. This study shows that oxytocin may also play a role in the control of locomotor activity. Accordingly, intraperitoneal oxytocin (0.5-2000μg/kg) reduced locomotor activity of adult male rats. This effect was abolished by d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist, given into the lateral ventricles at the dose of 2μg/rat, which was ineffective on locomotor activity. Oxytocin (50-200ng/site) also reduced and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2μg/site) increased locomotor activity when injected bilaterally into the substantia nigra, a key area in the control of locomotor activity. Conversely, the destruction of nigral neurons bearing oxytocin receptors by the recently characterized neurotoxin oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra, increased basal locomotor activity. Since oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra caused a marked reduction of neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (e.g., nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons) and for vesicular glutamate transporters VGluT1, VGluT2 and VGluT3 (e.g., glutamatergic neurons), but not for glutamic acid decarboxylase (e.g., GABAergic neurons), together these findings suggest that oxytocin influences locomotor activity by acting on receptors localized presynaptically in nigral glutamatergic nerve terminals (which control the activity of nigral GABAergic efferent neurons projecting to brain stem nuclei controlling locomotor activity), rather than on receptors localized in the cell bodies/dendrites of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex differences in the acute locomotor response to methamphetamine in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohia-Nwoko, Odochi; Haile, Colin N; Kosten, Therese A

    2017-06-01

    Women use methamphetamine more frequently than men and are more vulnerable to its negative psychological effects. Rodent models have been an essential tool for evaluating the sex-dependent effects of psychostimulants; however, evidence of sex differences in the behavioral responses to methamphetamine in mice is lacking. In the present study, we investigated acute methamphetamine-induced (1mg/kg and 4mg/kg) locomotor activation in female and male BALB/c mice. We also evaluated whether basal locomotor activity was associated with the methamphetamine-induced locomotor response. The results indicated that female BALB/c mice displayed enhanced methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity compared to males, while basal locomotor activity was positively correlated with methamphetamine-induced activity in males, but not females. This study is the first to show sex-dependent locomotor effects of methamphetamine in BALB/c mice. Our observations emphasize the importance of considering sex when assessing behavioral responses to methamphetamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski-Boase Laura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6, BALB/cJ (BALB, C3H/HeJ (C3H, DBA/2J (D2, FVB/NJ (FVB and 129S1/SvImJ (129 mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine.

  8. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin's impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxytocin (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking following extinction. Cocaine increased baseline locomotor activity to a greater degree in females relative to males. Oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in females, but not significantly in males. These data illustrate sex similarities in oxytocin's attenuation of cocaine seeking, but sex differences in cocaine-induced locomotor effects. While reductions in cocaine seeking cannot be attributed to a reduction in locomotor activity in males, attenuation of locomotor function cannot be entirely ruled out as an explanation for a decrease in cocaine seeking in females suggesting that oxytocin's effect on cocaine seeking may be mediated by different mechanisms in male and females. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Divergent selection on home pen locomotor activity in a chicken model: Selection program, genetic parameters and direct response on activity and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen B Kjaer

    Full Text Available General locomotor activity (GLA in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism. Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen. After initial phenotyping, the least active birds were selected for the low activity line and the most active for the high activity line, with no gene transfer between lines. In each of six generations, approximately ten sires were mated to twenty dams producing 158 to 334 offspring per line per generation. The response to selection was rapid and of a considerable magnitude. In sixth generation, the level of GLA was approximately halved in the low and doubled in the high line compared to the control (7.2, 14.9 and 28.7 recordings/h. Estimated heritability of locomotor activity in the low and high line was 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. Males, in general, were more active than females. High line birds were significantly heavier than low line birds. In fourth, fifth, and sixth generation, low as well as high line birds were lighter than control line birds. This selection experiment demonstrates variation in heritability for GLA and, as a result, genetically diverged lines have been developed. These lines can be used as models for further studies of underlying physiological, neural and molecular genetic mechanisms of spontaneous locomotor activity.

  10. Social interactions between live and artificial weakly electric fish: Electrocommunication and locomotor behavior of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris towards a mobile dummy fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Worm

    Full Text Available Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood. Here we used a mobile fish dummy that was emitting different types of electrical playback sequences to study following behavior and interaction patterns (electrical and locomotor between individuals of weakly electric fish. We confronted single individuals of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris with a mobile dummy fish designed to attract fish from a shelter and recruit them into an open area by emitting electrical playbacks of natural discharge sequences. We found that fish were reliably recruited by the mobile dummy if it emitted electrical signals and followed it largely independently of the presented playback patterns. While following the dummy, fish interacted with it spatially by displaying stereotypical motor patterns, as well as electrically, e.g. through discharge regularizations and by synchronizing their own discharge activity to the playback. However, the overall emission frequencies of the dummy were not adopted by the following fish. Instead, social signals based on different temporal patterns were emitted depending on the type of playback. In particular, double pulses were displayed in response to electrical signaling of the dummy and their expression was positively correlated with an animals' rank in the dominance hierarchy. Based on additional analysis of swimming trajectories and stereotypical locomotor behavior patterns, we conclude that the reception

  11. General and Specific Strategies Used to Facilitate Locomotor Maneuvers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Wu

    Full Text Available People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects' ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral "lane-change" maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects' ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost.

  12. Locomotor damage in rats after x-irradiation in Utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenix, P.; Norton, S.; Culver, B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in gait were found in rats after whole-body irradiation with 125 R on day 14, 15, and 16 of gestation. No effects on locomotion were detected after irradiation on day 17 with 125 R or after irradiation on day 14 with 50 R. A technique was set up for quantitative evaluation of locomotion based on a modification of other methods. Walking patterns of irradiated rats were recorded, when they were adults, by requiring them to walk up a 10 0 incline through a corridor after their feet had been dipped in ink. Rats irradiated on gestational day 14 had an in-phase, hopping gait with the sine of the angle between the hind feet and the direction of progression over 0.9. Rats irradiated on gestational days 15 and 16 had an alternating, waddling gait with wider stance and broader angle than control rats. Histologic examination of serial sections of the brains of these rats showed that the 14-day rats lacked all telencephalic commissures except for a few fibers which crossed in some rats. There was a progressive improvement in the condition of the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures up to day 17, but the corpus callosum and doral hippocampal commissure were lacking or markedly reduced in all day 17 rats. No animals showed damage to the mesencephalic posterior commissure. Since rats which used the in-phase mode of locomotion were never observed to use alternating gait, the possible causal relationship of the commissural damage to the altered locomotor patterns was considered. In view of the restricted period of damage found for the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures and the restriction of altered locomotion to damage in the same period, primary involvement of the corpus callosum and dorsal hippocampal commissure could be excluded, but a possible role for the other telencephalic commissures remained

  13. Locomotor function of forelimb protractor and retractor muscles of dogs: evidence of strut-like behavior at the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Fischbein, Timna

    2008-01-01

    situation appears to be true for the major retractor muscles of the forelimb. The m. pectoralis profundus and the m. latissimus dorsi were completely silent during the support phase of the ipsilateral limb when the dogs ran unencumbered and exhibited little or no increase in activity when the dogs carried added mass on their backs to increase any retraction torque during the support phase of constant-speed running. The most likely explanation for these observations is that the ground force reaction vector is oriented very close to the fulcrum of the forelimb such that the forelimb functions as a compliant strut at the shoulder when dogs trot at constant speed on level surfaces. Because the moments at the fulcrum of the pectoral girdle appear to be small during the support phase of a trotting step, a case can be made that it is the activity of the extrinsic appendicular muscles that produce the swing phase of the forelimb that explain the coupled phase relationship between ventilatory airflow and the locomotor cycle in trotting dogs.

  14. Locomotor training using body weight support on a treadmill improves mobility in persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesser, Barbara; Beres-Jones, Janell; Budovitch, Amy; Herlihy, Elise; Harkema, Susan

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this protocol was to investigate the potential benefits and tolerability of locomotor training using body weight support on a treadmill (LTBWST) in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Four persons with primarily spinal cord MS and severely impaired ambulation (Expanded Disability Status Scale score 7.0-7.5) were enrolled in LTBWST. Subjects completed an average of 40 training sessions over several months. Subjects showed improvement in muscle strength, spasticity, endurance, balance, walking speed, and quality of life at the end of the training sessions, and could tolerate training without fatigue or other adverse effects. LTBWST is well tolerated by persons with MS and may produce improvements in parameters related to functional mobility.

  15. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: The Rotterdam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odding, Else; Valkenburg, Hans A.; Stam, Hendrik J.; Hofman, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Locomotor disability, as defined by difficulties in activities of daily living related to lower limb function, can be the consequence of diseases and impairments of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, nervous, sensory and musculoskeletal system. We estimated the associations between specific diseases and impairments and locomotor disability, and the proportion of disability attributable to each condition, controlling for age and comorbidity. The Rotterdam Study is a prospective follow-up study among people aged 55 years and over in the general population. Locomotor disability in 1219 men and 1856 women was assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Diseases and impairments were radiological osteoarthritis, pain of the hips and knees, morning stiffness, fractures, hypertension, vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and low vision. Adjusted odds ratios, etiologic and attributable fractions were calculated for locomotor disability. The occurrence of locomotor disability can partly be ascribed to joint pain, COPD, morning stiffness, diabetes and heart failure in both men and women. In addition in women osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low vision, fractures, stroke and Parkinson's disease are significant etiologic fractions. In men with morning stiffness, joint pain, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and COPD a significant proportion of their disability is attributable to this impairment. In women this was the case for Parkinson's disease, morning stiffness, low vision, heart failure, joint pain, diabetes, radiological osteoarthritis, stroke, COPD, osteoporosis, and fractures of the lower limbs, in that order. We conclude that locomotor complaints, heart failure, COPD and diabetes mellitus contribute considerably to locomotor disability in non-institutionalized elderly people

  16. Comparison of caffeine-induced locomotor activity between adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marcelo T; Zancheta, Roberta; Paro, Ana H; Possi, Ana P M; Cruz, Fábio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2011-06-25

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant drug most consumed in the world. This drug is present in food, beverages and medicines marketed for individuals of all ages. In spite of this, caffeine effects on adolescents are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences on caffeine-induced locomotor stimulant or depressant effects in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (37-40 days old) or adult (70-74 days old) Wistar rats were tested for stimulant and depressant caffeine effects in two different experiments. The first was designed to evaluate the locomotor effect of caffeine in habituated rats. To this end, rats were previously habituated to test environment and had their locomotor activity registered following i.p. injections of vehicle or caffeine (3, 10, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg). In the second experiment adolescent or adult rats were not habituated to the test environment and their locomotor activity was registered following i.p. injections of vehicle or caffeine (30, 60 or 120 mg/kg). In both experiments caffeine-induced a biphasic effect, with stimulation in small to moderate drug doses and no effect or locomotor depression in higher caffeine doses. Moreover, caffeine-induced locomotor stimulation was higher in adolescent than adult rats. Also, locomotor depression was only revealed in adult rats non-habituated to the test environment. These results suggest that adult and adolescent respond differently to caffeine indicating the need of more studies on the effects of caffeine in animals' models of adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postcranial morphology and the locomotor habits of living and extinct carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X; Meachen, Julie A; Sakai, Stacey A

    2013-02-01

    Members of the order Carnivora display a broad range of locomotor habits, including cursorial, scansorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, aquatic, and semifossorial species from multiple families. Ecomorphological analyses from osteological measurements have been used successfully in prior studies of carnivorans and rodents to accurately infer the locomotor habits of extinct species. This study uses 20 postcranial measurements that have been shown to be effective indicators of locomotor habits in rodents and incorporates an extensive sample of over 300 individuals from more than 100 living carnivoran species. We performed statistical analyses, including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise discriminant function analysis, using a set of 16 functional indices (ratios). Our ANOVA results reveal consistent differences in postcranial skeletal morphology among locomotor groups. Cursorial species display distal elongation of the limbs, gracile limb elements, and relatively narrow humeral and femoral epicondyles. Aquatic and semiaquatic species display relatively robust, shortened femora and elongate metatarsals. Semifossorial species display relatively short, robust limbs with enlarged muscular attachment sites and elongate claws. Both semiaquatic and semifossorial species have relatively elongate olecranon process of the ulna and enlarged humeral and femoral epicondyles. Terrestrial, scansorial, and arboreal species are characterized by having primarily intermediate features, but arboreal species do show relatively elongate manual digits. Morphological indices effectively discriminate locomotor groups, with cursorial and arboreal species more accurately classified than terrestrial, scansorial, or semiaquatic species. Both within and between families, species with similar locomotor habits converge toward similar postcranial morphology despite their independent evolutionary histories. The discriminant analysis worked particularly well to correctly classify members of the

  18. Clozapine-Induced Locomotor Suppression is Mediated by 5-HT2A Receptors in the Forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOmish, Caitlin E; Lira, Alena; Hanks, James B; Gingrich, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    The need for safer, more effective therapeutics for the treatment of schizophrenia is widely acknowledged. To optimally target novel pharmacotherapies, in addition to establishing the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of antipsychotics, the pathways underlying the most severe side effects must also be elucidated. Here we investigate the role of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A), serotonin 2C (5-HT2C), and dopamine 2 receptors (D2) in mediating adverse effects associated with canonical first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs in mice. Wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice treated with haloperidol, clozapine, and risperidone were assessed for locomotor activity and catalepsy. WT mice showed a marked reduction in locomotor activity following acute administration of haloperidol and high-dose risperidone, which was most likely secondary to the severe catalepsy caused by these compounds. Clozapine also dramatically reduced locomotor activity, but in the absence of catalepsy. Interestingly, 5-HT2A KO mice were cataleptic following haloperidol and risperidone, but did not respond to clozapine's locomotor-suppressing effects. Restoration of 5-HT2A expression to cortical glutamatergic neurons re-instated the locomotor-suppressing effects of clozapine in the open field. In sum, we confirm that haloperidol and risperidone caused catalepsy in rodents, driven by strong antagonism of D2. We also demonstrate that clozapine decreases locomotor activity in a 5-HT2A-dependent manner, in the absence of catalepsy. Moreover, we show that it is the cortical population of 5-HT2A that mediate the locomotor-suppressing effects of clozapine. PMID:22871913

  19. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra...... with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex-ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex-ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding...

  20. Aging reveals a role for nigral tyrosine hydroxylase ser31 phosphorylation in locomotor activity generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Salvatore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH regulates dopamine (DA bioavailability. Its product, L-DOPA, is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD, suggesting that TH regulation influences locomotion. Site-specific phosphorylation of TH at ser31 and ser40 regulates activity. No direct evidence shows that ser40 phosphorylation is the dominating mechanism of regulating TH activity in vivo, and physiologically-relevant stimuli increase L-DOPA biosynthesis independent of ser40 phosphorylation. Significant loss of locomotor activity occurs in aging as in PD, despite less loss of striatal DA or TH in aging compared to the loss associated with symptomatic PD. However, in the substantia nigra (SN, there is equivalent loss of DA or TH in aging and at the onset of PD symptoms. Growth factors increase locomotor activity in both PD and aging models and increase DA bioavailability and ser31 TH phosphorylation in SN, suggesting that ser31 TH phosphorylation status in the SN, not striatum, regulates DA bioavailability necessary for locomotor activity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We longitudinally characterized locomotor activity in young and older Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F(1 hybrid rats (18 months apart in age at two time periods, eight months apart. The aged group served as an intact and pharmacologically-naïve source of deficient locomotor activity. Following locomotor testing, we analyzed DA tissue content, TH protein, and TH phosphorylation in striatum, SN, nucleus accumbens, and VTA. Levels of TH protein combined with ser31 phosphorylation alone reflected inherent differences in DA levels among the four regions. Measures strictly pertaining to locomotor activity initiation significantly correlated to DA content only in the SN. Nigral TH protein and ser31 phosphorylation together significantly correlated to test subject's maximum movement number, horizontal activity, and duration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these results show ser

  1. High Throughput Measurement of Locomotor Sensitization to Volatilized Cocaine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filošević

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila. We have developed a new behavioral test, FlyBong, which combines delivery of volatilized cocaine (vCOC to individually housed flies with objective quantification of their locomotor activity. There are two main advantages of FlyBong: it is high-throughput and it allows for comparisons of locomotor activity of individual flies before and after single or multiple exposures. At the population level, exposure to vCOC leads to transient and concentration-dependent increase in locomotor activity, representing sensitivity to an acute dose. A second exposure leads to further increase in locomotion, representing locomotor sensitization. We validate FlyBong by showing that locomotor sensitization at either the population or individual level is absent in the mutants for circadian genes period (per, Clock (Clk, and cycle (cyc. The locomotor sensitization that is present in timeless (tim and pigment dispersing factor (pdf mutant flies is in large part not cocaine specific, but derived from increased sensitivity to warm air. Circadian genes are not only integral part of the neural mechanism that is required for development of locomotor sensitization, but in addition, they modulate the intensity of locomotor sensitization as a function of the time of day. Motor-activating effects of cocaine are sexually dimorphic and require a functional dopaminergic transporter. FlyBong is a new and improved method for inducing and measuring locomotor

  2. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

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    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  3. Effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is associated with its metabolite clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Touinsi, Sarra; Motte, Emilie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Leduc, Lionel; Thany, Steeve H

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of thiamethoxam and clothianidin on the locomotor activity of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Because it has been proposed that thiamethoxam is metabolised to clothianidin, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the amount of clothianidin on thiamethoxam-treated cockroaches. One hour after neonicotinoid treatment, the time spent in the open-field-like apparatus significantly increased, suggesting a decrease in locomotor activity. The percentage of cockroaches displaying locomotor activity was significantly reduced 1 h after haemolymph application of 1 nmol g(-1) neonicotinoid, while no significant effect was found after topical and oral administration. However, at 24 and 48 h, all neonicotinoids were able to reduce locomotor activity, depending on their concentrations and the way they were applied. Interestingly, it was found that thiamethoxam was converted to clothianidin 1 h after application, but the amount of clothianidin did not rise proportionately to thiamethoxam, especially after oral administration. The data suggest that the effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is due in part to clothianidin action because (1) thiamethoxam levels remained persistent 48 h after application and (2) the amount of clothianidin in cockroach tissues was consistent with the toxicity of thiamethoxam. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Osteological postcranial traits in hylid anurans indicate a morphological continuum between swimming and jumping locomotor modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Mónica; Tulli, Maria J; Abdala, Virginia

    2017-03-01

    Anurans exhibit a particularly wide range of locomotor modes that result in wide variations in their skeletal structure. This article investigates the possible correlation between morphological aspects of the hylid postcranial skeleton and their different locomotor modes and habitat use. To do so, we analyzed 18 morphometric postcranial variables in 19 different anuran species representative of a variety of locomotor modes (jumper, hopper, walker, and swimmer) and habitat uses (arboreal, bush, terrestrial, and aquatic). Our results show that the evolution of the postcranial hylid skeleton cannot be explained by one single model, as for example, the girdles suggest modular evolution while the vertebral column suggests other evolutionary modules. In conjunction with data from several other studies, we were able to show a relationship between hylid morphology and habitat use; offering further evidence that the jumper/swimmer and walker/hopper locomotor modes exhibit quite similar morphological architecture. This allowed us to infer that new locomotor modalities are, in fact, generated along a morphological continuum. J. Morphol. 278:403-417, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Short-Term Genetic Selection for Adolescent Locomotor Sensitivity to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Zhang, Yanping; Mackie, Ken; Boehm, Stephen L

    2018-03-17

    Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations. Selection for locomotor sensitivity also resulted in increased anxiety-like activity in the open field. These results are the first to indicate that adolescent THC-locomotor sensitivity can be influenced via selective breeding. Development of lines with a genetic predisposition for THC-sensitivity or resistance to locomotor effects allow for investigation of risk factors, differences in consequences of THC use, identification of correlated behavioral responses, and detection of genetic targets that may contribute to heightened cannabinoid sensitivity.

  6. Locomotor circumvention strategies are altered by stroke: II. Postural Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2017-06-15

    Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right. Two stepping strategies for obstacle circumvention were identified: 1) side step: increase in step width by the foot ipsilateral to the side of circumvention; 2) cross step: decrease in step width by the foot contralateral to the side of circumvention. The side step strategy was favoured by post-stroke individuals in circumventing stationary and head-on approaching obstacles. In circumventing diagonally approaching obstacles, healthy controls generally veered opposite to obstacle approach (>60% trials), whereas the majority of post-stroke participants (7/12) veered to the same side of obstacle approach (V same ). Post-stroke participants who veered to the opposite side (V opp , 5/12) were more independent and faster ambulators who favoured the side step strategy in circumventing obstacles approaching from the paretic side and cross step strategy for obstacles approaching from the non-paretic side. V same participants generally favoured the side step strategy for both diagonal approaches. Segmental rotation amplitudes and latencies were largest in the V same group, and significantly greater in post-stroke participants than controls for all obstacle conditions. All participants initiated circumvention with the feet followed by the pelvis and thorax, demonstrating a caudal-rostral sequence of reorientation. Postural coordination strategies for obstacle circumvention

  7. Learning a locomotor task: with or without errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Schneider, Jasmin; Jaeger, Lukas; Riener, Robert

    2014-03-04

    Robotic haptic guidance is the most commonly used robotic training strategy to reduce performance errors while training. However, research on motor learning has emphasized that errors are a fundamental neural signal that drive motor adaptation. Thus, researchers have proposed robotic therapy algorithms that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. However, to date, no study has analyzed with precision which training strategy is the most appropriate to learn an especially simple task. In this study, the impact of robotic training strategies that amplify or reduce errors on muscle activation and motor learning of a simple locomotor task was investigated in twenty two healthy subjects. The experiment was conducted with the MAgnetic Resonance COmpatible Stepper (MARCOS) a special robotic device developed for investigations in the MR scanner. The robot moved the dominant leg passively and the subject was requested to actively synchronize the non-dominant leg to achieve an alternating stepping-like movement. Learning with four different training strategies that reduce or amplify errors was evaluated: (i) Haptic guidance: errors were eliminated by passively moving the limbs, (ii) No guidance: no robot disturbances were presented, (iii) Error amplification: existing errors were amplified with repulsive forces, (iv) Noise disturbance: errors were evoked intentionally with a randomly-varying force disturbance on top of the no guidance strategy. Additionally, the activation of four lower limb muscles was measured by the means of surface electromyography (EMG). Strategies that reduce or do not amplify errors limit muscle activation during training and result in poor learning gains. Adding random disturbing forces during training seems to increase attention, and therefore improve motor learning. Error amplification seems to be the most suitable strategy for initially less skilled subjects, perhaps because subjects could better detect their errors and correct them

  8. Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, Seiji; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Sekiguchi, Akira; Tateda, Satoshi; Yahata, Kenichiro; Ito, Kenta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is widely used for the clinical treatment of various human diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-energy ESWT upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and promotes angiogenesis and functional recovery in myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. Many previous reports suggested that VEGF produces a neuroprotective effect to reduce secondary neural tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether low-energy ESWT promotes VEGF expression and neuroprotection and improves locomotor recovery after SCI. Sixty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham group (laminectomy only), sham-SW group (low-energy ESWT applied after laminectomy), SCI group (SCI only), and SCI-SW group (low-energy ESWT applied after SCI). Thoracic spinal cord contusion injury was inflicted using an impactor. Low-energy ESWT was applied to the injured spinal cord 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Locomotor function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) Scale (open field locomotor score) at different time points over 42 days after SCI. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess neural tissue damage in the spinal cord. Neuronal loss was investigated by immunostaining for NeuN. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and its receptor, Flt-1, in the spinal cord were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunostaining for VEGF was performed to evaluate VEGF protein expression in the spinal cord. In both the sham and sham-SW groups, no animals showed locomotor impairment on BBB scoring. Histological analysis of H & E and NeuN stainings in the sham-SW group confirmed that no neural tissue damage was induced by the low-energy ESWT. Importantly, animals in the SCI-SW group demonstrated significantly better locomotor improvement than those in the SCI group at 7, 35, and 42 days after injury (p

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of cause–effect relationships is fundamental for the interpretation and the predictive value of biomarker responses measured at all levels of biological complexity. In the present study, the biochemical exposure biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was related...... to locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer......-dependent difference in behavioral sensitivity to minor AChE depressions. The results demonstrate that automated measurements of locomotor behavior is at least as sensitive an endpoint to organophosphate poisoning as the AChE assay. Further, the correlation between the molecular and behavioral responses in individual...

  10. Locomotor muscle fatigue does not alter oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hopker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The slow component (VO2sc that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre fatigue condition or rest for 33 minutes (control condition according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-second maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min-1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and VO2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03, the VO2sc was not significantly different between the pre fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min-1 and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min-1 condition (P = 0.50. Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48 but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01 suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the VO2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the VO2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  11. The 28-day exposure to fenpropathrin decreases locomotor activity and reduces activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzęcki, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Fenpropathrin (Fen) is a pyrethroid (Pyr) insecticide. Pyrs are used in veterinary medicine, in agriculture and for domestic purposes. As their use increases, new questions about their side effects and mode of action in non-target organisms arise. The objective of this work was to characterize dose-response relationship for in vivo motor function and memory in mice exposed to Fen for 28 days and to assess its influence on activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains. The experiment was performed using 64 female mice. Fen at the dose of 11.9mg/kg of body mass, 5.95mg/kg or 2.38mg/kg was administered ip to the mice for 28 consecutive days. Motor function and spatial working memory were tested on days 7, 14 and 28. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed and brains were used to determine activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Fen significantly decreased locomotor activity in mice receiving the highest dose at every stage of the experiment. Lower doses reduced locomotion on days 7 and 14. Fen did not produce memory impairment. A decrease in activities of SOD and GPx was recorded in mice brains. The decrease of SOD activity in mice brains results from direct inhibition of the enzyme by Fen and/or increased utilization due to excessive free radical formation in conditions of Fen-induced oxidative stress. The reduction in GPx activity is probably due to limited glutathione availability. The reduced locomotor activity is a behavioral demonstration of Fen-induced damage in the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  13. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, D. R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  14. Activity of Renshaw cells during locomotor-like rhythmic activity in the isolated spinal cord of neonatal mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Restrepo, Carlos E.; Kiehn, Ole

    2006-01-01

    % of the recorded RCs fired in-phase with the ipsilateral L2 flexor-related rhythm, whereas the rest fired in the extensor phase. Each population of RCs fired throughout the corresponding locomotor phase. All RCs received both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs during the locomotor-like rhythmic activity...

  15. Alternate pathways of body shape evolution translate into common patterns of locomotor evolution in two clades of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Philip J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2010-06-01

    Body shape has a fundamental impact on organismal function, but it is unknown how functional morphology and locomotor performance and kinematics relate across a diverse array of body shapes. We showed that although patterns of body shape evolution differed considerably between lizards of the Phrynosomatinae and Lerista, patterns of locomotor evolution coincided between clades. Specifically, we found that the phrynosomatines evolved a stocky phenotype through body widening and limb shortening, whereas Lerista evolved elongation through body lengthening and limb shortening. In both clades, relative limb length played a key role in locomotor evolution and kinematic strategies, with long-limbed species moving faster and taking longer strides. In Lerista, the body axis also influenced locomotor evolution. Similar patterns of locomotor evolution were likely due to constraints on how the body can move. However, these common patterns of locomotor evolution between the two clades resulted in different kinematic strategies and levels of performance among species because of their morphological differences. Furthermore, we found no evidence that distinct body shapes are adaptations to different substrates, as locomotor kinematics did not change on loose or solid substrates. Our findings illustrate the importance of studying kinematics to understand the mechanisms of locomotor evolution and phenotype-function relationships.

  16. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brueggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and, adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We

  17. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...

  18. Impairment of the organization of locomotor and exploratory behaviors in bile duct-ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; de Oliveira, Diogo L; Mussulini, Ben Hur M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) arises from acute or chronic liver diseases and leads to several problems, including motor impairment. Animal models of chronic liver disease have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this disease. Impairment of locomotor activity has been described in different ...

  19. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  20. Plasticity of locomotor sensorimotor interactions after peripheral and/or spinal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossignol, Serge; Barrière, Grégory; Frigon, Alain

    2008-01-01

    ) to highlight the spinal neuroplasticity necessary for adapting to sensory loss. Recent work on plastic interactions between reflex pathways that could be responsible for such plasticity, in particular changes in proprioceptive and cutaneous pathways that occur during locomotor training of spinal cats...

  1. Drugs that Target Dopamine Receptors: Changes in Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an effort at the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. This includes assessing the acute effects of drugs known...

  2. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. NeuroRecovery Network provides standardization of locomotor training for persons with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sarah A; Forrest, Gail F; VanHiel, Leslie R; Davé, Michele; D'Urso, Denise

    2012-09-01

    To illustrate the continuity of care afforded by a standardized locomotor training program across a multisite network setting within the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation NeuroRecovery Network (NRN). Single patient case study. Two geographically different hospital-based outpatient facilities. This case highlights a 25-year-old man diagnosed with C4 motor incomplete spinal cord injury with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade D. Standardized locomotor training program 5 sessions per week for 1.5 hours per session, for a total of 100 treatment sessions, with 40 sessions at 1 center and 60 at another. Ten-meter walk test and 6-minute walk test were assessed at admission and discharge across both facilities. For each of the 100 treatment sessions percent body weight support, average, and maximum treadmill speed were evaluated. Locomotor endurance, as measured by the 6-minute walk test, and overground gait speed showed consistent improvement from admission to discharge. Throughout training, the patient decreased the need for body weight support and was able to tolerate faster treadmill speeds. Data indicate that the patient continued to improve on both treatment parameters and walking function. Standardization across the NRN centers provided a mechanism for delivering consistent and reproducible locomotor training programs across 2 facilities without disrupting training or recovery progression. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Robotic-assisted locomotor training enhances ankle performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vennila; Kindig, Matthew; Mirbagheri, Mehdi

    2016-10-12

    Ankle joint control plays an important role in independent walking. This study investigated the effects of robotic-assisted locomotor training on impaired ankle joint control in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Sixteen individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury underwent 12 one-h sessions of robotic-assisted locomotor training for 4 weeks, while 16 individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury served as inactive controls. Changes in ankle control measures, torque and co-activation were evaluated during maximal voluntary contractions in dorsi- and plantar-flexion. Changes in walking performance measures using Timed Up and Go (TUG), 10-m walk (10MWT) and 6-min walk (6MWT) tests were evaluated at 2 time points: baseline and after 4 weeks. Maximal voluntary contractions torque during both dorsi- and plantar-flexion contractions improved markedly in the robotic-assisted locomotor training group compared with baseline. Furthermore, after the training, co-activation during the dorsi-flexion maximal voluntary contractions decreased in the training group compared with controls. In addition, the training group significantly improved walking mobility (TUG) and speed (10MWT) compared with baseline. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a significant linear relationship between maximal voluntary contraction torques and walking performance measures. These findings provide evidence that robotic-assisted locomotor training improves ankle joint control, which may translate into enhanced walking performance in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury.

  5. Functional organization of V2a-related locomotor circuits in the rodent spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Kiehn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    organization responsible for walking in mammals. Here, we review these experiments with a focus on the functional role of excitatory V2a interneurons in the mammalian locomotor network. With regard to these neurons and other network structures we also discuss similarities and differences between the mammalian...

  6. MRT of the locomotor system. 4. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Bewegungsapparats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, Martin [Praxisnetz Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Bonn Bad Godesberg - RheinSieg, Bonn (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian (ed.) [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2015-02-01

    The book on MRT of the locomotor system covers the following topics: relevant NMT imaging techniques, spinal cord, shoulder, elbows, wrist and fingers, hip region, knee, lower leg - ankle - foot, temporomandibular joint, skeletal muscles, bone marrow, bone and soft tissue tumors, osteoporosis, sacroiliac joint, jaw and periodontium.

  7. EphA4 defines a class of excitatory locomotor-related interneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lundfald, Line; Kiehn, Ole

    2005-01-01

    of the role of these cells in the network. One such marker is the EphA4 axon guidance receptor. EphA4-null mice display an abnormal rabbit-like hopping gait that is thought to be the result of synchronization of the normally alternating, bilateral locomotor network via aberrant crossed connections...

  8. Efficacy of Static Magnetic Field for Locomotor Activity of Experimental Osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of applying a static magnetic field (SMF for increasing bone mineral density (BMD, we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, the metabolism measuring system, and histological examination of bone tissue in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model. Thirty-six female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160–180 g were divided into three groups. The rats in the OVX-M group were exposed to SMF for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. The ovariectomized rats in the OVX-D group were not exposed to SMF as a control. The rats in the normal group received neither ovariectomy nor exposure to SMF. Twelve-week exposure to SMF in the OVX-M group inhibited the reduction in BMD that was observed in the OVX-D group. Moreover, in the OVX rats, before exposure to SMF, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After exposure of OVX rats to SMF, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the normal group. In the OVX-M group, the continuity of the trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher than the respective parameters in the OVX-D group. These results demonstrate that exposure to SMF increased the level of locomotor activity in OVX rats, thereby increasing BMD.

  9. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  10. Functional relations between locomotor performance traits in spiders and implications for evolutionary hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Phillip W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Locomotor performance in ecologically relevant activities is often linked to individual fitness. Recent controversy over evolution of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD in spiders centres on the relationship between size and locomotor capacity in males. Advantages for large males running over horizontal surfaces and small males climbing vertically have been proposed. Models have implicitly treated running and climbing as functionally distinct activities and failed to consider the possibility that they reflect common underlying capacities. Findings We examine the relationship between maximum climbing and running performance in males of three spider species. Maximum running and climbing speeds were positively related in two orb-web spiders with high SSD (Argiope keyserlingi and Nephila plumipes, indicating that for these species assays of running and climbing largely reveal the same underlying capacities. Running and climbing speeds were not related in a jumping spider with low SSD (Jacksonoides queenslandica. We found no evidence of a performance trade-off between these activities. Conclusions In the web-spiders A. keyserlingi and N. plumipes good runners were also good climbers. This indicates that climbing and running largely represent a single locomotor performance characteristic in these spiders, but this was not the case for the jumping spider J. queenslandica. There was no evidence of a trade-off between maximum running and climbing speeds in these spiders. We highlight the need to establish the relationship between apparently disparate locomotor activities when testing alternative hypotheses that yield predictions about different locomotor activities. Analysis of slopes suggests greater potential for an evolutionary response on performance in the horizontal compared to vertical context in these spiders.

  11. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  12. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinton Alessandro Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL and drug (Pramipexole—PPX groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  13. Effect of physical activity and 217-Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on rat locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasol Zeidabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays the widespread use of cell phones has increased concerns about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on human body. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of physical activity in moderating the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF emitted from cell phones on rat locomotor activity. Material and Methods: Male Albino-Wistar rats (no=70 were divided into seven groups: Short and Long- term physical activity; Control, ELF-EMF; Sham; Long-term physical activity+ELF-EMF; Short-term physical activity+ELF-EMF. Short and Long- term physical activity groups were forced to daily treadmill running (30 minutes for one week and one month, respectively. ELF-EMF group was exposed to ELF-EMF cell phone simulator for three hours during the period. Having placed in the ELF-EMF simulator device, the physical activity+ELF-EMF groups were transferred to treadmill. Locomotor activity were analyzed as distance, time and speed of movement in open field apparatus. Results: The results showed that the ELF-EMF from cell phones can significantly decrease the locomotor activity in the exposed rats. On the other hand, short and long-term physical activity significantly increased motor activity in the trained rats (P≤0.05. However, there was no significant difference between the combination groups (Physical activity+ELF-EMF and ELF group in locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results revealed that the physical activity could not prevent the decrease of locomotor activity caused by ELF-EMF from cell phone.

  14. Functional reorganization of the locomotor network in Parkinson patients with freezing of gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W Fling

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FoG is a transient inability to initiate or maintain stepping that often accompanies advanced Parkinson's disease (PD and significantly impairs mobility. The current study uses a multimodal neuroimaging approach to assess differences in the functional and structural locomotor neural network in PD patients with and without FoG and relates these findings to measures of FoG severity. Twenty-six PD patients and fifteen age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging along with self-reported and clinical assessments of FoG. After stringent movement correction, fifteen PD patients and fourteen control participants were available for analysis. We assessed functional connectivity strength between the supplementary motor area (SMA and the following locomotor hubs: 1 subthalamic nucleus (STN, 2 mesencephalic and 3 cerebellar locomotor region (MLR and CLR, respectively within each hemisphere. Additionally, we quantified structural connectivity strength between locomotor hubs and assessed relationships with metrics of FoG. FoG+ patients showed greater functional connectivity between the SMA and bilateral MLR and between the SMA and left CLR compared to both FoG- and controls. Importantly, greater functional connectivity between the SMA and MLR was positively correlated with i clinical, ii self-reported and iii objective ratings of freezing severity in FoG+, potentially reflecting a maladaptive neural compensation. The current findings demonstrate a re-organization of functional communication within the locomotor network in FoG+ patients whereby the higher-order motor cortex (SMA responsible for gait initiation communicates with the MLR and CLR to a greater extent than in FoG- patients and controls. The observed pattern of altered connectivity in FoG+ may indicate a failed attempt by the CNS to compensate for the loss of connectivity between the STN and SMA and may reflect a

  15. Adaptation of the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for use in a clinical model of spinal cord injury in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rachel B; Basso, D Michele; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Fisher, Lesley C; Mo, Xiaokui; Moore, Sarah A

    2016-08-01

    Naturally occurring acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in pet dogs provides an important clinical animal model through which to confirm and extend findings from rodent studies; however, validated quantitative outcome measures for dogs are limited. We adapted the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scale for use in a clinical dog model of acute thoracolumbar SCI. Based on observation of normal dogs, modifications were made to account for species differences in locomotion. Assessments of paw and tail position, and trunk stability were modified to produce a 19 point scale suitable for use in dogs, termed the canine BBB scale (cBBB). Pet dogs with naturally occurring acute SCI were assigned cBBB scores at 3, 10 and 30days after laminectomy. Scores assigned via the cBBB were stable across testing sessions in normal dogs but increased significantly between days 3 and 30 in SCI-affected dogs (p=0.0003). The scale was highly responsive to changes in locomotor recovery over a 30day period, with a standardized response mean of 1.34. Concurrent validity was good, with strong correlations observed between the cBBB and two other locomotor scales, the OSCIS (r=0.94; p<0.001) and the MFS (r=0.85; p<0.0001). cBBB scores inversely correlated with other assessments of recovery including mechanical sensory threshold (r=-0.68; p<0.0001) and coefficient of variation of stride length (r=-0.49; p<0.0001). These results support the use of the cBBB to assess locomotor recovery in canine clinical translational models of SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptation of the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for use in a clinical model of spinal cord injury in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rachel B.; Basso, D. Michele; da Costa, Ronaldo C.; Fisher, Lesley C.; Mo, Xiaokui; Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in pet dogs provides an important clinical animal model through which to confirm and extend findings from rodent studies; however, validated quantitative outcome measures for dogs are limited. New method We adapted the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scale for use in a clinical dog model of acute thoracolumbar SCI. Based on observation of normal dogs, modifications were made to account for species differences in locomotion. Assessments of paw and tail position, and trunk stability were modified to produce a 19 point scale suitable for use in dogs, termed the canine BBB scale (cBBB). Pet dogs with naturally occurring acute SCI were assigned cBBB scores at 3, 10 and 30 days after laminectomy. Results Scores assigned via the cBBB were stable across testing sessions in normal dogs but increased significantly between days 3 and 30 in SCI-affected dogs (p = 0.0003). The scale was highly responsive to changes in locomotor recovery over a 30 day period, with a standardized response mean of 1.34. Comparison with existing methods Concurrent validity was good, with strong correlations observed between the cBBB and two other locomotor scales, the OSCIS (r = 0.94; p < 0.001) and the MFS (r = 0.85; p < 0.0001). cBBB scores inversely correlated with other assessments of recovery including mechanical sensory threshold (r = −0.68; p < 0.0001) and coefficient of variation of stride length (r = −0.49; p < 0.0001). Conclusions These results support the use of the cBBB to assess locomotor recovery in canine clinical translational models of SCI. PMID:27155106

  17. Decrease of GSK3β phosphorylation in the rat nucleus accumbens core enhances cocaine-induced hyper-locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wha Y; Jang, Ju K; Lee, Jung W; Jang, Hyunduk; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2013-06-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is abundantly present in the brain, is known to contribute to psychomotor stimulant-induced locomotor behaviors. However, most studies have been focused in showing that GSK3β is able to attenuate psychomotor stimulants-induced hyperactivity by increasing its phosphorylation levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). So, here we examined in the opposite direction about the effects of decreased phosphorylation of GSK3β in the NAcc core on both basal and cocaine-induced locomotor activity by a bilateral microinjection into this site of an artificially synthesized peptide, S9 (0.5 or 5.0 μg/μL), which contains sequences around N-terminal serine 9 residue of GSK3β. We found that decreased levels of GSK3β phosphorylation in the NAcc core enhance cocaine-induced hyper-locomotor activity, while leaving basal locomotor activity unchanged. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that the selective decrease of GSK3β phosphorylation levels in the NAcc core may contribute positively to cocaine-induced locomotor activity, while this is not sufficient for the generation of locomotor behavior by itself without cocaine. Taken together, these findings importantly suggest that GSK3β may need other molecular targets which are co-activated (or deactivated) by psychomotor stimulants like cocaine to contribute to generation of locomotor behaviors. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Shared strategies for behavioral switching: understanding how locomotor patterns are turned on and off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Mesce

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals frequently switch from one behavior to another, often to meet the demands of their changing environment or internal state. What factors control these behavioral switches and the selection of what to do or what not to do? To address these issues, we will focus on the locomotor behaviors of two distantly related ‘worms’, the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana (clade Lophotrochozoa and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (clade Ecdysozoa. Although the neural architecture and body morphology of these organisms are quite distinct, they appear to switch between different forms of locomotion by using similar strategies of decision-making. For example, information that distinguishes between liquid and more solid environments dictates whether an animal swims or crawls. In the leech, dopamine biases locomotor neural networks so that crawling is turned on and swimming is turned off. In C. elegans, dopamine may also promote crawling, a form of locomotion that has gained new attention.

  19. Effect of Locomotor Training on Exhaustion of Leg Muscle Activity in Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Dietz, Volker; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous locomotor training on leg muscle electromyographic (EMG) exhaustion during assisted stepping movements in a patient with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). EMG exhaustion and loss of potentials starts to develop in untrained patients at ∼6 months after injury. In the trained patient examined in this study, exhaustion was also observed but occurred with a delay of several months. In contrast to an untrained patient, no more EMG exhaustion was observed in the very chronic stage. At this time (12 years after injury) a basic locomotor pattern of leg muscle activity of reduced amplitude could still be elicited, but it was resistant to exhaustion and unchanged in amplitude after 12 min of assisted stepping. It is suggested that fatigue-resistant motor units prevail at this stage and can still be activated during stepping as a result of the training.

  20. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  1. A new automated method for rat sleep deprivation with minimal confounding effects on corticosterone and locomotor activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, C.H.; Dematteis, M.; Joosten, R.N.J.M.; Eggels, L.; Sandberg, H.; Schirris, M.; Feenstra, M.G.P.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The function of sleep in physiology, behaviour and cognition has become a primary focus of neuroscience. Its study inevitably includes experimental sleep deprivation designs. However, concerns exist regarding confounds like stress, increased locomotor activity levels, and decreased motivation to

  2. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI : EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Van de Crommert, H. W. A. A.; Rijken, H.; van Kuppevelt, D. H. J. M.; Duysens, J.

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Case series. Objectives: To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Setting: Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

  3. The paraplegic Viking and the one-armed pianist--some well known persons with locomotor disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensman, R

    1983-01-01

    A review is given of persons from history, culture and science, with locomotor disability, who by different reasons have become well known. It is shown that these persons, in spite of their disabilities, have reached prominent positions.

  4. Comparative potentialities of X-ray and remote thermographic diagnosis of locomotor system diseases and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfel'd, L.G.; Ternovoj, N.K.; Samokhin, A.V.; Likhosherst, E.K.

    1988-01-01

    The advisability of applying remote infrared tomography to diagnoze locomotor system diseases and injuries is substantiated. 764 patients with different bone and tissue system diseases and injuries are examined. Thermosemiotics in the case of deforming arthrosis of knee and hip joints, inflammatory diseases of joints of various ethiologies, acute chronic osteomyelitis and its exacerbation, is described. The place of remote infrared thermography in the complecx diagnostic examination of a given contingent of patients, is determined. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Hindbrain V2a neurons in the excitation of spinal locomotor circuits during zebrafish swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukiko; Satou, Chie; Fujioka, Shunji; Shoji, Wataru; Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Higashijima, Shin-ichi

    2013-05-20

    During locomotion in vertebrates, reticulospinal neurons in the hindbrain play critical roles in providing descending excitation to the spinal cord locomotor systems. However, despite the fact that many genes that are used to classify the neuronal identities of neurons in the hindbrain have been identified, the molecular identity of the reticulospinal neurons that are critically involved in locomotor drive is not well understood. Chx10-expressing neurons (V2a neurons) are ipsilaterally projecting glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and the hindbrain. Many of the V2a neurons in the hindbrain are known to project to the spinal cord in zebrafish, making hindbrain V2a neurons a prime candidate in descending locomotor drive. We investigated the roles of hindbrain V2a neurons using optogenetic and electrophysiological approaches. The forced activation of hindbrain V2a neurons using channelrhodopsin efficiently evoked swimming, whereas the forced inactivation of them using Archearhodopsin3 or Halorhodpsin reliably stopped ongoing swimming. Electrophysiological recordings of two populations of hindbrain reticulospinal V2a neurons showed that they were active during swimming. One population of neurons, small V2a neurons in the caudal hindbrain, fired with low rhythmicity, whereas the other population of neurons, large reticulospinal V2a neurons, called MiV1 neurons, fired more rhythmically. These results indicated that hindbrain reticulospinal V2a neurons play critical roles in providing excitation to the spinal locomotor circuits during swimming by providing both tonic and phasic inputs to the circuits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of caffeine-induced locomotor activity between adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Marcelo Tadeu [UNESP; Zancheta, Roberta [UNESP; Paro, Ana H. [UNESP; Possi, Ana P. M. [UNESP; Cruz, Fabio C. [UNESP; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant drug most consumed in the world. This drug is present in food, beverages and medicines marketed for individuals of all ages. In spite of this, caffeine effects on adolescents are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences on caffeine-induced locomotor stimulant or depressant effects in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (37-40 days old) or adult (70-74 days old) Wistar rats were tested for stimulant and depressant caffeine effec...

  7. QRFP and Its Receptors Regulate Locomotor Activity and Sleep in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Audrey; Chiu, Cindy N; Mosser, Eric A; Kahn, Sohini; Spence, Rory; Prober, David A

    2016-02-10

    The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulating sleep, but few hypothalamic sleep-promoting signaling pathways have been identified. Here we demonstrate a role for the neuropeptide QRFP (also known as P518 and 26RFa) and its receptors in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate. We show that QRFP is expressed in ∼10 hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish larvae, which project to the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and spinal cord, including regions that express the two zebrafish QRFP receptor paralogs. We find that the overexpression of QRFP inhibits locomotor activity during the day, whereas mutation of qrfp or its receptors results in increased locomotor activity and decreased sleep during the day. Despite the restriction of these phenotypes to the day, the circadian clock does not regulate qrfp expression, and entrained circadian rhythms are not required for QRFP-induced rest. Instead, we find that QRFP overexpression decreases locomotor activity largely in a light-specific manner. Our results suggest that QRFP signaling plays an important role in promoting sleep and may underlie some aspects of hypothalamic sleep control. The hypothalamus is thought to play a key role in regulating sleep in vertebrate animals, but few sleep-promoting signaling pathways that function in the hypothalamus have been identified. Here we use the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, to functionally and anatomically characterize the neuropeptide QRFP. We show that QRFP is exclusively expressed in a small number of neurons in the larval zebrafish hypothalamus that project widely in the brain. We also show that QRFP overexpression reduces locomotor activity, whereas animals that lack QRFP signaling are more active and sleep less. These results suggest that QRFP signaling participates in the hypothalamic regulation of sleep. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361823-18$15.00/0.

  8. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Philippe Rybarczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the direction of a driver’s gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks towards the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street makes a turn at the corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behaviour, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the path completion, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to easily and precisely manipulate the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. Results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables i a significant smoothness of the trajectory and ii a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the 2/3 Power Law. These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the path formation seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding.

  9. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis ablation via cranial irradiation enhances morphine self-administration and locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulin, Sarah E; Mendoza, Matthew L; Richardson, Devon R; Song, Kwang H; Solberg, Timothy D; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2018-03-01

    Adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis is important for hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, but the role of new neurons in addiction-relevant learning and memory is unclear. To test the hypothesis that neurogenesis is involved in the vulnerability to morphine addiction, we ablated adult DG neurogenesis and examined morphine self-administration (MSA) and locomotor sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hippocampal-focused, image-guided X-ray irradiation (IRR) to eliminate new DG neurons or sham treatment (Sham). Six weeks later, rats underwent either MSA (Sham = 16, IRR = 15) or locomotor sensitization (Sham = 12, IRR = 12). Over 21 days of MSA, IRR rats self-administered ~70 percent more morphine than Sham rats. After 28 days of withdrawal, IRR rats pressed the active lever 40 percent more than Sham during extinction. This was not a general enhancement of learning or locomotion, as IRR and Sham groups had similar operant learning and inactive lever presses. For locomotor sensitization, both IRR and Sham rats sensitized, but IRR rats sensitized faster and to a greater extent. Furthermore, dose-response revealed that IRR rats were more sensitive at a lower dose. Importantly, these increases in locomotor activity were not apparent after acute morphine administration and were not a byproduct of irradiation or post-irradiation recovery time. Therefore, these data, along with other previously published data, indicate that reduced hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability for multiple classes of drugs. Thus, therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, Ryan T.; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-hour withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for ten minutes while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: 1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and 2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798

  11. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Yves Philippe; Mestre, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the direction of a driver's gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks toward the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street turns a corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behavior, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the completion of the path, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to manipulate in an easy and precise way the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. The results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables (i) a significant smoothness of the trajectory and (ii) a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the "2/3 Power Law." These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the formation of the path seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding.

  12. Chromosome 1 replacement increases brain orexins and antidepressive measures without increasing locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pingfu; Hu, Yufen; Vurbic, Drina; Akladious, Afaf; Strohl, Kingman P

    2014-12-01

    Decreased orexin level has been well demonstrated in patients suffering from narcolepsy, depression accompanied with suicide attempt; obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidity were also demonstrated in these diseases. As C57BL/6J (B6) mice are more "depressed" and have lower brain orexins than A/J mice, B6 mice having chromosome 1 replacement (B6A1 mice) might have restored orexin levels and less depressive behavior. We studied the behavior of 4-6 month old B6, A/J and B6A1 mice with forced swim, tail suspension, and locomotor activity tests. The animals were then sacrificed and hypothalamus and medullas dissected from brain tissue. Orexins-A and -B were determined by radioimmunoassay. Compared with A/J mice, B6 mice displayed several signs of depression, including increased immobility, increased locomotors activity, and decreased orexin A and -B levels in both the hypothalamus and medulla. Compared to B6 mice, B6A1 mice exhibited significantly higher levels of orexins-A and -B in both brain regions. B6A1 mice also exhibited antidepressive features in most of measured variables, including decreased locomotor activity, decreased immobility and increased swim in tail suspension test; compared with B6 mice, however. B6A1 mice also reversed immobility in the early phase of the swim test. In summary, B6 mice exhibited depressive attributes compared with A/J mice, including increased locomotor activity, greater immobility, and decreased brain orexins, these were largely reversed in B6A1 mice. We conclude that orexin levels modulate these B6 behaviors, likely due to expression of A/J alleles on Chromosome 1. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. NO INFLUENCE OF HYPOXIA ON COORDINATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY AND LOCOMOTOR RHYTHMS DURING ROWING AT MODERATE INTENSITY

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    Nicolas Fabre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides neuro-mechanical constraints, chemical or metabolic stimuli have also been proposed to interfere with the coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms. In the light of the conflicting data observed in the literature, this study aimed to assess whether acute hypoxia modifies the degree of coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms during rowing exercises in order to investigate competitive interactions between neuro-mechanical (movement and chemical (hypoxia respiratory drives. Nine male healthy subjects performed one submaximal 6-min rowing exercise on a rowing ergometer in both normoxia (altitude: 304 m and acute hypoxia (altitude: 2877 m. The exercise intensity was about 40 % and 35 % (for normoxia and hypoxia conditions, respectively of the individual maximal power output measured during an incremental rowing test to volitional exhaustion carried out in normoxia. Metabolic rate and minute ventilation were continuously collected throughout exercise. Locomotor movement and breathing rhythms were continuously recorded and synchronized cycle-by-cycle. The degree of coordination was expressed as a percentage of breaths starting during the same phase of the locomotor cycle. For a same and a constant metabolic rate, acute hypoxia did not influence significantly the degree of coordination (mean ± SEM, normoxia: 20.0 ± 6.2 %, hypoxia: 21.3 ± 11.1 %, p > 0.05 while ventilation and breathing frequency were significantly greater in hypoxia. Our results may suggest that during rowing exercise at a moderate metabolic load, neuro-mechanical locomotion-linked respiratory stimuli appear "stronger" than peripheral chemoreceptors- linked respiratory stimuli induced by hypoxia, in the context of our study

  14. Classification of rhythmic locomotor patterns in electromyographic signals using fuzzy sets

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    Thrasher Timothy A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Locomotor control is accomplished by a complex integration of neural mechanisms including a central pattern generator, spinal reflexes and supraspinal control centres. Patterns of muscle activation during walking exhibit an underlying structure in which groups of muscles seem to activate in united bursts. Presented here is a statistical approach for analyzing Surface Electromyography (SEMG data with the goal of classifying rhythmic "burst" patterns that are consistent with a central pattern generator model of locomotor control. Methods A fuzzy model of rhythmic locomotor patterns was optimized and evaluated using SEMG data from a convenience sample of four able-bodied individuals. As well, two subjects with pathological gait participated: one with Parkinson's Disease, and one with incomplete spinal cord injury. Subjects walked overground and on a treadmill while SEMG was recorded from major muscles of the lower extremities. The model was fit to half of the recorded data using non-linear optimization and validated against the other half of the data. The coefficient of determination, R2, was used to interpret the model's goodness of fit. Results Using four fuzzy burst patterns, the model was able to explain approximately 70-83% of the variance in muscle activation during treadmill gait and 74% during overground gait. When five burst functions were used, one function was found to be redundant. The model explained 81-83% of the variance in the Parkinsonian gait, and only 46-59% of the variance in spinal cord injured gait. Conclusions The analytical approach proposed in this article is a novel way to interpret multichannel SEMG signals by reducing the data into basic rhythmic patterns. This can help us better understand the role of rhythmic patterns in locomotor control.

  15. Slow Versus Fast Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training After Severe Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thais Amanda; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo; Westgate, Philip M; Carrico, Cheryl; Batistella, Linamara R; Sawaki, Lumy

    2017-10-01

    Robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill is a rehabilitation intervention that compels repetitive practice of gait movements. Standard treadmill speed may elicit rhythmic movements generated primarily by spinal circuits. Slower-than-standard treadmill speed may elicit discrete movements, which are more complex than rhythmic movements and involve cortical areas. Compare effects of fast (i.e., rhythmic) versus slow (i.e., discrete) robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill in subjects with chronic, severe gait deficit after stroke. Subjects (N = 18) were randomized to receive 30 sessions (5 d/wk) of either fast or slow robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill in an inpatient setting. Functional ambulation category, time up and go, 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, Berg Balance Scale, and Fugl-Meyer Assessment were administered at baseline and postintervention. The slow group had statistically significant improvement on functional ambulation category (first quartile-third quartile, P = 0.004), 6-min walk test (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 to 49.0, P = 0.040), Berg Balance Scale (95% CI = 7.4 to 14.8, P Fugl-Meyer Assessment (95% CI = 24.1 to 45.1, P Scale (95% CI = 1.5 to 10.5, P = 0.02). In initial stages of robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill after severe stroke, slow training targeting discrete movement may yield greater benefit than fast training.

  16. Opioid administration following spinal cord injury: Implications for pain and locomotor recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Woller, Sarah A.; Hook, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one-third of people with a spinal cord injury (SCI) will experience persistent neuropathic pain following injury. This pain negatively affects quality of life and is difficult to treat. Opioids are among the most effective drug treatments, and are commonly prescribed, but experimental evidence suggests that opioid treatment in the acute phase of injury can attenuate recovery of locomotor function. In fact, spinal cord injury and opioid administration share several common feature...

  17. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  18. The effect of kinesio tape on the area of knee on locomotor activity in patients after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Trčálková, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Title: The effect of kinesio tape on the area of knee on locomotor activity in patients after stroke Abstract: This bachelor thesis is focused on evaluating the effect of kinesio tape on locomotor activity in patients after stroke. The purpose of this thesis is to compare quality of stereotype of the gait of this patients before and after application of kinesio tape on the area of the knee joint. The theoretical part includes detailed information on kinesio tape, its characteristics, its effe...

  19. Shared human-chimpanzee pattern of perinatal femoral shaft morphology and its implications for the evolution of hominin locomotor adaptations.

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    Naoki Morimoto

    Full Text Available Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual's lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion.Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state.These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations.

  20. Dynamic locomotor capabilities revealed by early dinosaur trackmakers from southern Africa.

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    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new investigation of the sedimentology and ichnology of the Early Jurassic Moyeni tracksite in Lesotho, southern Africa has yielded new insights into the behavior and locomotor dynamics of early dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tracksite is an ancient point bar preserving a heterogeneous substrate of varied consistency and inclination that includes a ripple-marked riverbed, a bar slope, and a stable algal-matted bar top surface. Several basal ornithischian dinosaurs and a single theropod dinosaur crossed its surface within days or perhaps weeks of one another, but responded to substrate heterogeneity differently. Whereas the theropod trackmaker accommodated sloping and slippery surfaces by gripping the substrate with its pedal claws, the basal ornithischian trackmakers adjusted to the terrain by changing between quadrupedal and bipedal stance, wide and narrow gauge limb support (abduction range = 31 degrees , and plantigrade and digitigrade foot posture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The locomotor adjustments coincide with changes in substrate consistency along the trackway and appear to reflect 'real time' responses to a complex terrain. It is proposed that these responses foreshadow important locomotor transformations characterizing the later evolution of the two main dinosaur lineages. Ornithischians, which shifted from bipedal to quadrupedal posture at least three times in their evolutionary history, are shown to have been capable of adopting both postures early in their evolutionary history. The substrate-gripping behavior demonstrated by the early theropod, in turn, is consistent with the hypothesized function of pedal claws in bird ancestors.

  1. Music and methamphetamine: conditioned cue-induced increases in locomotor activity and dopamine release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Rubbinaccio, H Y; Morra, J T; Sell, E M; Glick, S D

    2011-03-01

    Associations between drugs of abuse and cues facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Although significant research has been done to elucidate the role that simple discriminative or discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., a tone or a light) play in addiction, less is known about complex environmental cues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of a musical conditioned stimulus by assessing locomotor activity and in vivo microdialysis. Two groups of rats were given non-contingent injections of methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) or vehicle and placed in standard conditioning chambers. During these conditioning sessions both groups were exposed to a continuous conditioned stimulus, in the form of a musical selection ("Four" by Miles Davis) played repeatedly for 90 min. After seven consecutive conditioning days subjects were given one day of rest, and subsequently tested for locomotor activity or dopamine release in the absence of drugs while the musical conditioned stimulus was continually present. The brain regions examined included the basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex. The results show that music is an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing locomotor activity after repeated association with methamphetamine. Furthermore, this musical conditioned stimulus significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. These findings support other evidence showing the importance of these brain regions in conditioned learning paradigms, and demonstrate that music is an effective conditioned stimulus warranting further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β haploinsufficiency lengthens the circadian locomotor activity period in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Joëlle; Hébert, Marc; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2013-09-15

    The mood stabiliser drug lithium has been reported to impact circadian rhythms in vertebrates. Among several putative therapeutic molecular targets, direct inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β) by lithium has been proposed to underlie its effects on circadian physiology. Here we study the effect of GSK3β haploinsufficiency on the circadian locomotor activity in mice during a free-running period in comparison to wildtype littermates (WT). Mice were housed individually to record their circadian wheel running activity and were entrained to a 12h light/12h dark cycle for 14 days and then placed under constant darkness for 14 days to allow free-running. During the free-running phase, the circadian locomotor activity period of GSK3β(+/-) was significantly lengthened (23.83±0.05h) when compared to the WT mice (23.54±0.10h; p=0.0374). No significant difference in locomotor activity was observed. Knowing that GSK3β interacts with most of the core clock components, these data suggest that GSK3β acts as a critical intrinsic regulator of the circadian clock and plays an important role in regulating its period in response to lithium treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Locomotor behavioral response of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to subacute mercury stress monitored by video tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, N M; Rao, T Gnaneshwar; Rao, J Venkateswara

    2007-01-01

    Locomotor behavior is commonly affected by contaminants, and the pattern of fish swimming is a highly organized species-specific response. In the current study, we examined the locomotor behavioral response of the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, which was exposed to a sublethal concentration (LC(5), 20 microg/L) of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) for 28 days and monitored using a computer vision system. The EthoVision video tracking system for automation of behavioral studies at regular intervals revealed abnormal locomotor behavior such as reduction in swimming speed (cm/s) and distance traveled per unit time. The effects of this metal on the gill morphology and bioaccumulation in different body parts were also investigated. High-resolution microscopy studies revealed abnormal gill morphology, with fusion of primary lamellae along with deep lesions and erosions in the secondary lamellae. The bioaccumulation concentrations in head, body, and viscera were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric technique at regular intervals. The results indicated that the accumulation of mercury was the highest in viscera followed by head and body, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 3.99, 2.18, and 1.57 and uptake rate constants (k1) of 17.91, 11.02, and 8.13, respectively. These observations indicate that alterations in fish behavior under subacute stress can provide important information useful in predicting the stress.

  4. Effects of lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-6 on cataleptic immobility and locomotor activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazovkina, Daria V; Tibeikina, Marina A; Kulikov, Alexander V; Popova, Nina K

    2011-01-10

    Catalepsy (animal hypnosis, tonic immobility) is a type of passive defensive behavior. Its exaggerated form is a syndrome of some psychopathological disorders. Numerous neurotransmitters have impact on the regulation of catalepsy. In this paper we demonstrated the involvement of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the mechanism of cataleptic immobility. Effects of exogenous IL-6 treatment (7.5 and 10μg/kg, i.p) or stimulation of endogenous IL-6 secretion with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration (50, 100 and 200μg/kg, i.p.) on catalepsy and locomotor activity were studied in adult C57BL/6 male mice. IL-6 induced catalepsy in 70% (7.5μg/kg) or 72.7% (10μg/kg) of animals with no effect on locomotor activity. LPS administration reduced distance travelled and number of rears in the open field at any dose used, however, only high doses (100 or 200μg/kg) of the toxin induced catalepsy in 50% of mice. This result indicates that IL-6 is involved in the regulation of catalepsy, this effect is specific and does not arise from inhibition of locomotor activity. The study provides a new evidence on participation of IL-6 in mechanisms of abnormal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced persistency of resting and active periods of locomotor activity in schizophrenia.

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    Wataru Sano

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia frequently exhibit behavioral abnormalities associated with its pathological symptoms. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of behavioral dynamics could contribute to objective diagnoses of schizophrenia. However, such an approach has not been fully established because of the absence of quantitative biobehavioral measures. Recently, we studied the dynamical properties of locomotor activity, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven in daily life. We discovered universal statistical laws ("behavioral organization" and their alterations in patients with major depressive disorder. In this study, we evaluated behavioral organization of schizophrenic patients (n = 19 and healthy subjects (n = 11 using locomotor activity data, acquired by actigraphy, to investigate whether the laws could provide objective and quantitative measures for a possible diagnosis and assessment of symptoms. Specifically, we evaluated the cumulative distributions of resting and active periods, defined as the periods with physical activity counts successively below and above a predefined threshold, respectively. Here we report alterations in the laws governing resting and active periods; resting periods obeyed a power-law cumulative distribution with significantly lower parameter values (power-law scaling exponents, whereas active periods followed a stretched exponential distribution with significantly lower parameter values (stretching exponents, in patients. Our findings indicate enhanced persistency of both lower and higher locomotor activity periods in patients with schizophrenia, probably reflecting schizophrenic pathophysiology.

  6. Atmospheric oxygen, giant Paleozoic insects and the evolution of aerial locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R

    1998-04-01

    Uniformitarian approaches to the evolution of terrestrial locomotor physiology and animal flight performance have generally presupposed the constancy of atmospheric composition. Recent geophysical data as well as theoretical models suggest that, to the contrary, both oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations have changed dramatically during defining periods of metazoan evolution. Hyperoxia in the late Paleozoic atmosphere may have physiologically enhanced the initial evolution of tetrapod locomotor energetics; a concurrently hyperdense atmosphere would have augmented aerodynamic force production in early flying insects. Multiple historical origins of vertebrate flight also correlate temporally with geological periods of increased oxygen concentration and atmospheric density. Arthropod as well as amphibian gigantism appear to have been facilitated by a hyperoxic Carboniferous atmosphere and were subsequently eliminated by a late Permian transition to hypoxia. For extant organisms, the transient, chronic and ontogenetic effects of exposure to hyperoxic gas mixtures are poorly understood relative to contemporary understanding of the physiology of oxygen deprivation. Experimentally, the biomechanical and physiological effects of hyperoxia on animal flight performance can be decoupled through the use of gas mixtures that vary in density and oxygen concentration. Such manipulations permit both paleophysiological simulation of ancestral locomotor performance and an analysis of maximal flight capacity in extant forms.

  7. A disparity between locomotor economy and territory-holding ability in male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Ruff, James S; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2017-07-15

    Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here, we tested for a predicted disparity between locomotor economy and competitive ability in wild-derived house mice ( Mus musculus ). We used 8 week social competition trials in semi-natural enclosures to directly measure male competitive ability through territorial control and female occupancy within territories. We also measured oxygen consumption during locomotion for each mouse using running trials in an enclosed treadmill and open-flow respirometry. Our results show that territory-holding males have higher absolute and mass-specific oxygen consumption when running (i.e. reduced locomotor economy) compared with males that do not control territories. This relationship was present both before and after 8 week competition trials in semi-natural enclosures. This disparity between physical competitive ability and economical locomotion may impose viability costs on males in species for which competition over mates is common and may constrain the evolution of behavioral and phenotypic diversity, particularly in natural settings with environmental and resource variability. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator.

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    Audrey M Mat

    Full Text Available Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs' behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C to constant warm (17.5°C water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day-light phase-and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day-dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat.

  9. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mechanisms of Left-Right Coordination in Mammalian Locomotor Pattern Generation Circuits: A Mathematical Modeling View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Rybak, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor gait in limbed animals is defined by the left-right leg coordination and locomotor speed. Coordination between left and right neural activities in the spinal cord controlling left and right legs is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs). Several CIN types have been genetically identified, including the excitatory V3 and excitatory and inhibitory V0 types. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic elimination of all V0 CINs caused switching from a normal left-right alternating activity to a left-right synchronized “hopping” pattern. Furthermore, ablation of only the inhibitory V0 CINs (V0D subtype) resulted in a lack of left-right alternation at low locomotor frequencies and retaining this alternation at high frequencies, whereas selective ablation of the excitatory V0 neurons (V0V subtype) maintained the left–right alternation at low frequencies and switched to a hopping pattern at high frequencies. To analyze these findings, we developed a simplified mathematical model of neural circuits consisting of four pacemaker neurons representing left and right, flexor and extensor rhythm-generating centers interacting via commissural pathways representing V3, V0D, and V0V CINs. The locomotor frequency was controlled by a parameter defining the excitation of neurons and commissural pathways mimicking the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate on locomotor frequency in isolated rodent spinal cord preparations. The model demonstrated a typical left-right alternating pattern under control conditions, switching to a hopping activity at any frequency after removing both V0 connections, a synchronized pattern at low frequencies with alternation at high frequencies after removing only V0D connections, and an alternating pattern at low frequencies with hopping at high frequencies after removing only V0V connections. We used bifurcation theory and fast-slow decomposition methods to analyze network behavior in the above regimes and transitions between them. The model

  11. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  12. CRFR1 in the ventromedial caudate putamen modulates acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Wang, Zhiyan; Li, Yijing; Sun, Xiaowei; Ge, Feifei; Yang, Mingda; Wang, Xinjuan; Wang, Na; Wang, Junkai; Cui, Cailian

    2017-07-15

    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces a long-lasting enhancement of locomotor activity called behavioral sensitization, which is often reinforced by stress after drug withdrawal. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain elusive. Here we explored the effects of acute stress 3 or 14 days after the cessation of chronic cocaine treatment on the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a cocaine challenge in rats and the key brain region and molecular mechanism underlying the phenomenon. A single session of forced swimming, as an acute stress (administered 2 days after the cessation of cocaine), significantly enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization 14 days after the final cocaine injection (challenge at 12 days after acute stress) but not 3 days after the cessation of cocaine (challenge at 1 day after acute stress). The result indicated that acute stress enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization after incubation for 12 days rather than 1 day after the last cocaine injection. Moreover, the enhancement in locomotor sensitization was paralleled by a selective increase in the number of the c-Fos + cells, the level of CRFR1 mRNA in the ventromedial caudate putamen (vmCPu). Furthermore, the enhancement was significantly attenuated by CRFR1 antagonist NBI-27914 into the vmCPu, implying that the up-regulation of CRFR1 in the vmCPu seems to be critical in the acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization. The findings demonstrate that the long-term effect of acute stress on the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization is partially mediated by CRFR1 in the vmCPu. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0 and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1 clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.

  14. Repeated agouti related peptide (83-132) injections inhibit cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation, but not via the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alserda, Edwin; Adan, Roger A H; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2013-11-05

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease for which many of the underlying neuronal mechanisms are yet to be unravelled. There seems to be an interaction between the melanocortin system and drugs of abuse. For instance, infusion of the melanocortin MC4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-cyclo(-Asp-His-D-2-Nal-Arg-Trp-Lys)-NH2) into the nucleus accumbens results in conditioned place avoidance, reduces the amount of lever presses for cocaine and blocks development of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. The aim of this study is to determine whether the induction of locomotor sensitisation to repeated cocaine is inhibited by the melanocortin MC4 receptor inverse agonist Agouti Related Peptide (AgRP83-132). Rats were sensitised to daily cocaine injections for 5 consecutive days and 30 min prior to every daily cocaine injection, rats received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intra nucleus accumbens injection with AgRP(83-132) or saline, to determine whether we could inhibit cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. We show that i.c.v. injections of AgRP(83-132) inhibit cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. This effect is not regulated via the nucleus accumbens, since injecting the melanocortin receptor inverse agonist AgRP(83-132) directly into the nucleus accumbens was unable to inhibit the cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. This implicates that the nucleus accumbens is an unlikely site to inhibit the induction of locomotor sensitisation via the melanocortin MC4 receptor. This is in contrast to other studies that show an effect of the melanocortin MC4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 on locomotor sensitisation when injected into the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination of the Patient’s Locomotor System Disability Evaluated in the Board of Health for Disabled

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    Rabia Terzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our goal was to evaluate patients who admitted to Board of Health for Disabled in our hospital, and evaluate the characteristics and disability rates of patients with locomotor disability. Also to examine its co-occurrence with other system disabilities, the whole body function loss rates and the distribution of these parameters according to age. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 2263 cases admitted to the Board of Health in Derince Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively analyzed between March 2012 and March 2013. Examinational findings and diagnoses of 672 (29.6% patients who took diagnosis related with locomotor system were reviewed. Results: Of the 2263 patients admitted to the board of health for disabled, 672 (29.6% had locomotor system pathology. Of these patients, 366 were males (54.4%, 306 were females (45.6% and the mean age was 49.6±26 years. The mean total body disability rates of the patients (TBDR were 69.5±28.4, while the locomotor system disability rates (LSDR was 49.43±17.1. Of the 672 patients, 379 (56.3% were assessed as severely disabled by the medical council. 554 patients (82.4% had permanent disability. LSDR was highest in individuals aged 10-19 years; lowest in the individuals aged 40-49 years. The most commonly detected locomotor system pathologies were osteoarthritis (OA, hemiplegia, cerebral palsy, joint contractures and spinal cord diseases. The highest LSDR was in the spinal cord injury patients. The most frequent comorbid diagnoses were neurogenic bladder, mental retardation, and hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the patients who admitted to the Board of Health for locomotor system disability had permanent and severe disabilities. Observing that other system disabilities are frequently concomitant with locomotor system disability is important in terms of the social support for these patients and for planning of the appropriate treatment. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 60-4

  16. Limb Bone Structural Proportions and Locomotor Behavior in A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy".

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    Christopher B Ruff

    Full Text Available While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy", 3.2 Myr that are known to be developmentally plastic, and compare them with other early hominins, modern humans, and modern chimpanzees. Cross-sectional images were obtained from micro-CT scans of the original specimens and used to derive section properties of the diaphyses, as well as superior and inferior cortical thicknesses of the femoral neck. A.L. 288-1 shows femoral/humeral diaphyseal strength proportions that are intermediate between those of modern humans and chimpanzees, indicating more mechanical loading of the forelimb than in modern humans, and by implication, a significant arboreal locomotor component. Several features of the proximal femur in A.L. 288-1 and other australopiths, including relative femoral head size, distribution of cortical bone in the femoral neck, and cross-sectional shape of the proximal shaft, support the inference of a bipedal gait pattern that differed slightly from that of modern humans, involving more lateral deviation of the body center of mass over the support limb, which would have entailed increased cost of terrestrial locomotion. There is also evidence consistent with increased muscular strength among australopiths in both the forelimb and hind limb, possibly reflecting metabolic trade-offs between muscle and brain development during hominin evolution. Together these findings imply

  17. The effects of opioid drugs on dopamine mediated locomotor activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leathern, L.L.

    1986-12-01

    Opioid drugs influence various behavioural parameters including locomotor activity in experimental animals. The interaction between the opioid and dopaminergic systems is one possible explanation for the effect of opioid drugs on locomotor activity. In this study behavioural and biochemical assays were done to investigate the interaction between the opioid and dopaminergic systems. Behavioural studies were done by measurement of locomotor activity (LA) of rats after acute or chronic pretreatment with opioid and/or dopaminergic drugs. Biochemical studies were in the form of radioligand binding assays, the effect on the number (Bmax) and affinity (K D ) of receptors was measured after chronic pretreatment with opioid and/or dopaminergic drugs. The opioid drugs used are morphine, nalbuphine and naloxone. Dopaminergic drugs used included: agonists-apomorphine and piribedil; antagonists-pimozide, haloperidol, chlorpromazine. In the acute situation increased LA was obtained with morphine and the DA agonists. A correlation between the behavioural and biochemical assays was found. Chronic pretreatment with morphine enhanced apomorphine induced LA, this supersensitivity was also measured as an increased receptor density (Bmax) of D2 receptors in the striatum. Chronic morphine pretreatment caused a decrease in morphine induced LA, while this subsensitivity was not apparent in the ligand binding assays - where no change in receptor number was observed. Chronic naloxone pretreatment enhanced morphine induced LA, as well as increased the Bmax of opioid receptors in the whole brain. It is concluded that an interaction between the opioid and dopaminergic systems does exist, and may account for the mechanism of action of the opioids

  18. A behaviorally related developmental switch in nitrergic modulation of locomotor rhythmogenesis in larval Xenopus tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Stephen P.; Combes, Denis; Scott, Nicholas W.; Simmers, John

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor control requires functional flexibility to support an animal's full behavioral repertoire. This flexibility is partly endowed by neuromodulators, allowing neural networks to generate a range of motor output configurations. In hatchling Xenopus tadpoles, before the onset of free-swimming behavior, the gaseous modulator nitric oxide (NO) inhibits locomotor output, shortening swim episodes and decreasing swim cycle frequency. While populations of nitrergic neurons are already present in the tadpole's brain stem at hatching, neurons positive for the NO-synthetic enzyme, NO synthase, subsequently appear in the spinal cord, suggesting additional as yet unidentified roles for NO during larval development. Here, we first describe the expression of locomotor behavior during the animal's change from an early sessile to a later free-swimming lifestyle and then compare the effects of NO throughout tadpole development. We identify a discrete switch in nitrergic modulation from net inhibition to overall excitation, coincident with the transition to free-swimming locomotion. Additionally, we show in isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparations of older larvae that NO's excitatory effects are manifested as an increase in the probability of spontaneous swim episode occurrence, as found previously for the neurotransmitter dopamine, but that these effects are mediated within the brain stem. Moreover, while the effects of NO and dopamine are similar, the two modulators act in parallel rather than NO operating serially by modulating dopaminergic signaling. Finally, NO's activation of neurons in the brain stem also leads to the release of NO in the spinal cord that subsequently contributes to NO's facilitation of swimming. PMID:26763775

  19. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

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    Anas Subarnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L. leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L. herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L. bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb. rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%, 0.1 (55.72%, 0.5 (60.75%, and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%, respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  20. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Tiffany S.; Richardson, Jason R.; Cooper, Keith R.; White, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25–0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3–72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. PMID:25912032

  1. Fluoxetine and aripiprazole treatment following prenatal immune activation exert longstanding effects on rat locomotor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtand, Neil M; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Grainger, Molly; Bronson, Stefanie L; McNamara, Robert K

    2012-05-15

    Studies characterizing treatment interventions in a naturalistic setting suggest that antidepressant and antipsychotic medications may be equally effective in improving clinical outcome in individuals at high risk for first-episode psychosis. Of interest, both beneficial as well as potentially adverse effects have been observed following fluoxetine treatment in a mouse prenatal immune activation model of relevance to psychosis prevention. We sought to extend those findings by examining the effects of fluoxetine, as well as the antipsychotic medication aripiprazole, in a rat prenatal immune activation model. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with poly I:C or saline on gestational day 14. Offspring of poly I:C and saline-treated dams received fluoxetine (10.0 mg/kg/d), aripiprazole (0.66 mg/kg/d), or vehicle from postnatal days 35 to 70. Locomotor responses to novelty, saline injection, and amphetamine (1 and 5 mg/kg) were determined at three months, i.e., 21 days following drug discontinuation. Both fluoxetine and aripiprazole had beneficial effects on behavioral response to amphetamine (1 mg/kg) at 3 months, ameliorating the impact of prenatal immune activation on offspring of poly I:C-treated dams. Significantly, both drugs also exerted effects in offspring of control (saline-treated) dams on locomotor response to injection. Fluoxetine and aripiprazole pretreatment of poly I:C offspring from postnatal days 35 to 70 stabilized response to amphetamine exposure persisting through 3 months of age, similar to earlier findings in mice that fluoxetine treatment following prenatal immune activation prevented altered locomotor response to amphetamine. The current data also confirm earlier findings of potential adverse behavioral effects in offspring of control dams following treatment with fluoxetine and antipsychotic medications, highlighting the potential for both therapeutic as well as safety concerns with exposure to preventive pharmacological treatments over

  2. Individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters correlate with anxiety- and depression-like behavior.

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    Jeffrey Anyan

    Full Text Available Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e.g., brain lesions, chronic stress, global gene deletion affect behavior independently of circadian system. This study investigates the relationship between individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats. The circadian phenotype of male Lewis rats was characterized by analyzing wheel running behavior under standard 12h:12h LD conditions, constant dark, constant light, and rate of re-entrainment to a phase advance. Rats were then tested on a battery of behavioral tests: activity box, restricted feeding, elevated plus maze, forced swim test, and fear conditioning. Under 12h:12h LD conditions, percent of daily activity in the light phase and variability in activity onset were associated with longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test. Variability in onset also correlated positively with anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Rate of re-entrainment correlated positively with measures of anxiety in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Lastly, we found that free running period under constant dark was associated with anxiety-like behaviors in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Our results provide a previously uncharacterized relationship between circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats and provide a basis for future examination into circadian clock

  3. Dopamine receptors modulate ethanol's locomotor-activating effects in preweanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Mlewski, Estela C.; Hansen, Cristian; Molina, Juan Carlos; Paglini, Maria Gabriela; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Near the end of the second postnatal week motor activity is increased soon after ethanol administration (2.5 g/kg) while sedation-like effects prevail when blood ethanol levels reach peak values. This time course coincides with biphasic reinforcement (appetitive and aversive) effects of ethanol determined at the same age. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that ethanol-induced activity during early development in the rat depends on the dopamine system, which is functional in modulating motor activity early in ontogeny. Experiments 1a and 1b tested ethanol-induced activity (0 or 2.5 g/kg) after a D1-like (SCH23390; 0, 0.015, 0.030 or 0.060 mg/kg) or a D2-like (sulpiride; 0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) receptor antagonist, respectively. Ethanol-induced stimulation was suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride. The dopaminergic antagonists had no effect on blood ethanol concentration (Experiments 2a and 2b). In Experiment 3, 2.5 g/kg ethanol increased dopamine concentration in striatal tissue as well as locomotor activity in infant Wistar rats. Adding to our previous results showing a reduction in ethanol induced activity by a GABA B agonist or a nonspecific opioid antagonist, the present experiments implicate both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors in ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation during early development. According to these results, the same mechanims that modulate ethanol-mediated locomotor stimulation in adult rodents seem to regulate this particular ethanol effect in the infant rat. PMID:19842128

  4. α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, Helen M; Peck, Colette; Garrity, Caitlin; Gechlik, Alex; Jenkins, Brenita C; Rajan, Akshat

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach. The aim of this study was to examine the role of α6β2 nAChRs in ethanol behaviors using a pharmacological approach. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice were treated with bPiDI 30 min prior to testing the mice for binge-like ethanol consumption in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) test, ethanol-induced motor incoordination using the balance beam, and ethanol-induced sedation using the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. Adolescent animals were chosen because they express a high amount of α6 mRNA relative to adult animals. Control studies were also performed to determine the effect of bPiDI on locomotor activity and ethanol metabolism. Female mice treated with 20 mg/kg bPiDI had reduced locomotor activity compared to saline-treated animals during the first 30 min following an acute injection. Pretreatment with the α6β2 antagonist reduced adolescent ethanol consumption but also reduced saccharin consumption. No significant effects were observed on ethanol-induced ataxia, sedation, or metabolism. This study provides evidence that α6β2 nAChRs are involved in locomotor activity as well as ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mouse shoulder morphology responds to locomotor activity and the kinematic differences of climbing and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Richmond, Brian G; Miran, Sara L

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical loads play a significant role in determining long bone shape and strength, but less work has explored how these loads influence flat bones like the scapula, which has been shown to vary with locomotor preference among primate taxa. Here, we tested the effects of voluntary running and climbing exercise in mice to examine how the mechanical loads borne from different locomotor patterns influence shoulder morphological development. Ninety-nine female wild-type mice were distributed equally among sedentary control, activity-wheel running, and vertical climbing experimental conditions. Running mice had the lowest body masses, larger intrinsic shoulder muscles, and the most pronounced differences in scapular size and shape relative to the other groups. Climbing mouse scapular morphology also differed significantly from the control individuals, but these differences were not as marked as those between the running and control mice. This might be attributable in part to greater levels of activity in the wheel-runners relative to the climbers. Additionally, climbing mice held their bodies closer to the substrate and maintained more flexed limbs and posterior hand positions compared with the kinematics of running. As a result, climbers differed significantly from both the running and control mice in developing a relatively broader infraspinous region, which is likely related to preferential recruitment of the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles to maintain flexed shoulder postures. The results of this study demonstrate that variation in activity level and type of locomotor regime over a significant portion of the life history influences muscle and bone development in the shoulder. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Center of mass motion in swimming fish: effects of speed and locomotor mode during undulatory propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Grace; Lauder, George V

    2014-08-01

    Studies of center of mass (COM) motion are fundamental to understanding the dynamics of animal movement, and have been carried out extensively for terrestrial and aerial locomotion. But despite a large amount of literature describing different body movement patterns in fishes, analyses of how the center of mass moves during undulatory propulsion are not available. These data would be valuable for understanding the dynamics of different body movement patterns and the effect of differing body shapes on locomotor force production. In the present study, we analyzed the magnitude and frequency components of COM motion in three dimensions (x: surge, y: sway, z: heave) in three fish species (eel, bluegill sunfish, and clown knifefish) swimming with four locomotor modes at three speeds using high-speed video, and used an image cross-correlation technique to estimate COM motion, thus enabling untethered and unrestrained locomotion. Anguilliform swimming by eels shows reduced COM surge oscillation magnitude relative to carangiform swimming, but not compared to knifefish using a gymnotiform locomotor style. Labriform swimming (bluegill at 0.5 body lengths/s) displays reduced COM sway oscillation relative to swimming in a carangiform style at higher speeds. Oscillation frequency of the COM in the surge direction occurs at twice the tail beat frequency for carangiform and anguilliform swimming, but at the same frequency as the tail beat for gymnotiform locomotion in clown knifefish. Scaling analysis of COM heave oscillation for terrestrial locomotion suggests that COM heave motion scales with positive allometry, and that fish have relatively low COM oscillations for their body size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Human spinal locomotor control is based on flexibly organized burst generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Constant drive provided to the human lumbar spinal cord by epidural electrical stimulation can cause local neural circuits to generate rhythmic motor outputs to lower limb muscles in people paralysed by spinal cord injury. Epidural spinal cord stimulation thus allows the study of spinal rhythm and pattern generating circuits without their configuration by volitional motor tasks or task-specific peripheral feedback. To reveal spinal locomotor control principles, we studied the repertoire of rhythmic patterns that can be generated by the functionally isolated human lumbar spinal cord, detected as electromyographic activity from the legs, and investigated basic temporal components shared across these patterns. Ten subjects with chronic, motor-complete spinal cord injury were studied. Surface electromyographic responses to lumbar spinal cord stimulation were collected from quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae in the supine position. From these data, 10-s segments of rhythmic activity present in the four muscle groups of one limb were extracted. Such samples were found in seven subjects. Physiologically adequate cycle durations and relative extension- and flexion-phase durations similar to those needed for locomotion were generated. The multi-muscle activation patterns exhibited a variety of coactivation, mixed-synergy and locomotor-like configurations. Statistical decomposition of the electromyographic data across subjects, muscles and samples of rhythmic patterns identified three common temporal components, i.e. basic or shared activation patterns. Two of these basic patterns controlled muscles to contract either synchronously or alternatingly during extension- and flexion-like phases. The third basic pattern contributed to the observed muscle activities independently from these extensor- and flexor-related basic patterns. Each bifunctional muscle group was able to express both extensor- and flexor-patterns, with variable ratios across the

  8. Clinical efficiency of roentgenopaque study of muscles in patients with disorders of locomotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yachkova, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Radiopaque studies of soft tissues in patients with disorders and diseases of locomotor system in the case of perosseous osteosynthesis were performed. To correct the diagnosis, control the soft tissue state during treatment, assess its results more than 1000 radiopaque studies of muscles were conducted. Application of the radiopaque studies of femur muscles in patients with extension contractures of knee joint permitted to specify the character of contracture, to determine the character of muscles changes in patients with immobilization and arthrogenetic contractures which depended on disease duration

  9. Predictive and Reactive Locomotor Adaptability in Healthy Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Mademli, Lida; Mersmann, Falk; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2015-12-01

    Locomotor adaptability is based on the implementation of error-feedback information from previous perturbations to predictively adapt to expected perturbations (feedforward) and to facilitate reactive responses in recurring unexpected perturbations ('savings'). The effect of aging on predictive and reactive adaptability is yet unclear. However, such understanding is fundamental for the design and application of effective interventions targeting fall prevention. We systematically searched the Web of Science, MEDLINE, Embase and Science Direct databases as well as the reference lists of the eligible articles. A study was included if it addressed an investigation of the locomotor adaptability in response to repeated mechanical movement perturbations of healthy older adults (≥60 years). The weighted average effect size (WAES) of the general adaptability (adaptive motor responses to repeated perturbations) as well as predictive (after-effects) and reactive adaptation (feedback responses to a recurring unexpected perturbation) was calculated and tested for an overall effect. A subgroup analysis was performed regarding the factor age group [i.e., young (≤35 years) vs. older adults]. Furthermore, the methodological study quality was assessed. The review process yielded 18 studies [1009 participants, 613 older adults (70 ± 4 years)], which used various kinds of locomotor tasks and perturbations. The WAES for the general locomotor adaptability was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.74, n = 11] for the older and 1.39 (95% CI 0.90-1.89, n = 10) for the young adults with a significant (p reactive (older: WAES 1.09, 95% CI 0.22-1.96, n = 5; young: WAES 1.35, 95% CI 0.60-2.09, n = 5) adaptation featuring significant (p reactive adaptation in particular remain highly effective in the elderly, showing only minor, not statistically significant age-related deficits. Consequently, interventions which use adaptation and learning paradigms including the application of the

  10. Integration of Descending Command Systems for the Generation of Context-Specific Locomotor Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda H. Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion.

  11. Effects of cortisol on aggression and locomotor activity in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Øyvind; Kotzian, Susann; Winberg, Svante

    2002-08-01

    Noninvasive administration of cortisol through the diet resulted in relatively rapid (Aggressive behavior was also inhibited by long-term cortisol treatment, but not by short-term exposure to cortisol. Cortisol treatment had no effect on locomotor activity in undisturbed fish, indicating that the behavioral effects of cortisol were mediated through interaction with other signal systems activated during the simulated territorial intrusion test. This study demonstrates for the first time that cortisol has time- and context-dependent effects on behavior in teleost fish.

  12. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  13. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin’s impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxyt...

  14. Adenylyl Cyclase 1 Is Required for Ethanol-Induced Locomotor Sensitization and Associated Increases in NMDA Receptor Phosphorylation and Function in the Dorsal Medial Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Kelly E; Oginsky, Max F; Susick, Laura L; Ramalingam, Sailesh; Ferrario, Carrie R; Conti, Alana C

    2017-11-01

    Neuroadaptive responses to chronic ethanol, such as behavioral sensitization, are associated with N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) recruitment. Ethanol enhances GluN2B-containing NMDAR function and phosphorylation (Tyr-1472) of the GluN2B-NMDAR subunit in the dorsal medial striatum (DMS) through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. Ethanol-induced phosphorylation of PKA substrates is partially mediated by calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1), which is enriched in the dorsal striatum. As such, AC1 is poised as an upstream modulator of ethanol-induced DMS neuroadaptations that promote drug responding, and thus represents a therapeutic target. Our hypothesis is that loss of AC1 activity will prevent ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and associated DMS GluN2B-NMDAR adaptations. We evaluated AC1's contribution to ethanol-evoked locomotor responses and DMS GluN2B-NMDAR phosphorylation and function using AC1 knockout (AC1KO) mice. Results were mechanistically validated with the AC1 inhibitor, NB001. Acute ethanol (2.0 g/kg) locomotor responses in AC1KO and wild-type (WT) mice pretreated with NB001 (10 mg/kg) were comparable to WT ethanol controls. However, repeated ethanol treatment (10 days, 2.5 g/kg) failed to produce sensitization in AC1KO or NB001 pretreated mice, as observed in WT ethanol controls, following challenge exposure (2.0 g/kg). Repeated exposure to ethanol in the sensitization procedure significantly increased pTyr-1472 GluN2B levels and GluN2B-containing NMDAR transmission in the DMS of WT mice. Loss of AC1 signaling impaired ethanol-induced increases in DMS pGluN2B levels and NMDAR-mediated transmission. Together, these data support a critical and specific role for AC1 in striatal signaling that mediates ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization, and identify GluN2B-containing NMDARs as an important AC1 target. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  15. Increased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sensitization, and accumbal dopamine release in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene S; Miller, Anthony D; Lester, Deranda B

    2010-01-01

    showed that M(5) receptor knockout (M (5) (-/-) ) mice are less sensitive to the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigate the role of M(5) receptors in the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on locomotor activity, locomotor sensitization, and dopamine release...... and locomotor sensitization were enhanced in M (5) (-/-) mice, while the effects of cocaine were similar in M (5) (-/-) and wild-type mice. RESULTS: Consistent with the behavioral results, amphetamine-, but not cocaine, -elicited dopamine release in nucleus accumbens was enhanced in M (5) (-/-) mice. DISCUSSION......: The different effects of amphetamine and cocaine in M (5) (-/-) mice may be due to the divergent pharmacological profile of the two drugs, where amphetamine, but not cocaine, is able to release intracellular stores of dopamine. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that amphetamine...

  16. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Locomotor activity, object exploration and space preference in children with autism and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Rafał; Pisula, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    There have been ambiguous accounts of exploration in children with intellectual disabilities with respect to the course of that exploration, and in particular the relationship between the features of explored objects and exploratory behaviour. It is unclear whether reduced exploratory activity seen with object exploration but not with locomotor activity is autism-specific or if it is also present in children with other disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to compare preschool children with autism with their peers with Down syndrome and typical development in terms of locomotor activity and object exploration and to determine whether the complexity of explored objects affects the course of exploration activity in children with autism. In total there were 27 children in the study. The experimental room was divided into three zones equipped with experimental objects providing visual stimulation of varying levels of complexity. Our results indicate that children with autism and Down syndrome differ from children with typical development in terms of some measures of object exploration (i.e. looking at objects) and time spent in the zone with the most visually complex objects.

  18. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsomedial striatum on sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pulido, R; Hernández-Briones, Z S; Tamariz-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E; Coria-Avila, G A; Manzo, J; García, L I

    2017-06-01

    Cortical motor areas are influenced not only by peripheral sensory afferents and prefrontal association areas, but also by the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum are involved in both spatial and stimulus-response learning; however, each of these areas may mediate different components of learning. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of electrolytic lesion to the DMS on the learning and performance of sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in male rats. Once the subjects had learned to perform motor tests of balance, maze navigation, ramp ascent, and sexual behaviour, they underwent electrolytic lesion to the DMS. Five days later, the tests were repeated on 2 occasions and researchers compared performance latencies for each test. Average latency values for performance on the maze and balance tests were higher after the lesion. However, the average values for the ramp test and for sexual behaviour did not differ between groups. Electrolytic lesion of the DMS modifies the performance of locomotor activity (maze test and balance), but not of sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioprotection, locomotor activity and consummatory behavior of mice administered synthetic trehalose dimycolate (S-TDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McChesney, D.G.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    The biological response modifier, S-TDM, administered in doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mouse 24 hours before a LD80/30 dose (5.6 Gy at 0.4 Gy-MLT/minute) of radiation (neutron:gamma double-bond 1) resulted in survival of 100%, 60%, 89% and 20% respectively. Because of the radioprotective efficacy of this immunomodulator, the behavioral effects of S-TDM were investigated. Locomotor activity, food intake, water consumption, and body weight were examined using female B6D2F1 mice. At doses of 100-400 ug/mouse locomotor activity decreased within 4 hours of administration and returned to control values by 2.5 days postinjection. Food and water intake were significantly depressed at doses of 100, 200, and 400 ug/mouse on the day following drug administration and recovered in 1 day. Body weight was significantly decreased in the 100 and 200 ug/mouse groups for 2 days and in the 400 ug/mouse for 3 days following injection of S-TDM. These results indicate that there is short-term reversible toxicity in mice administered S-TDM at doses of 100, 200, and 400 ug/mouse

  20. Wings versus legs in the avian bauplan: development and evolution of alternative locomotor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M; Dial, Kenneth P

    2015-02-01

    Wings have long been regarded as a hallmark of evolutionary innovation, allowing insects, birds, and bats to radiate into aerial environments. For many groups, our intuitive and colloquial perspective is that wings function for aerial activities, and legs for terrestrial, in a relatively independent manner. However, insects and birds often engage their wings and legs cooperatively. In addition, the degree of autonomy between wings and legs may be constrained by tradeoffs, between allocating resources to wings versus legs during development, or between wing versus leg investment and performance (because legs must be carried as baggage by wings during flight and vice versa). Such tradeoffs would profoundly affect the development and evolution of locomotor strategies, and many related aspects of animal ecology. Here, we provide the first evaluation of wing versus leg investment, performance and relative use, in birds-both across species, and during ontogeny in three precocial species with different ecologies. Our results suggest that tradeoffs between wing and leg modules help shape ontogenetic and evolutionary trajectories, but can be offset by recruiting modules cooperatively. These findings offer a new paradigm for exploring locomotor strategies of flying organisms and their extinct precursors, and thereby elucidating some of the most spectacular diversity in animal history. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  2. Rhythmic arm swing enhances patterned locomotor-like muscle activity in passively moved lower extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Takahiko; Ogata, Toru; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    The use of driven gait orthosis (DGO) has drawn attention in gait rehabilitation for patients after central nervous system (CNS) lesions. By imposing a passive locomotor-like kinematic pattern, the neural mechanisms responsible for locomotion can be activated as in a normal gait. To further enhance this activity, discussions on possible intervention are necessary. Given the possible functional linkages between the upper and lower limbs, we investigated in healthy subjects the degree of modification in the lower limb muscles during DGO-induced passive gait by the addition of swing movement in the upper extremity. The results clearly showed that muscle activity in the ankle dorsiflexor TA muscle was significantly enhanced when the passive locomotor-like movement was accompanied by arm swing movement. The modifications in the TA activity were not a general increase through the stride cycles, but were observed under particular phases as in normal gaits. Voluntary effort to swing the arms may have certain effects on the modification of the muscle activity. The results provide clinical implications regarding the usefulness of voluntary arm swing movement as a possible intervention in passive gait training using DGO, since ordinary gait training using DGO does not induce spontaneous arm swing movement despite its known influence on the lower limb movement. PMID:25742956

  3. S-adenosylmethionine modifies cocaine-induced DNA methylation and increases locomotor sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Alexander; Kalda, Anti

    2013-10-01

    Several studies suggest that individual variability is a critical component underlying drug addiction as not all members of a population who use addictive substance become addicted. There is evidence that the overall epigenetic status of a cell (epigenome) can be modulated by a variety of environmental factors, such as nutrients and chemicals. Based on these data, our aim was to investigate whether environmental factors like S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) via affecting epigenome could alter cocaine-induced gene expression and locomotor sensitization in mice. Our results demonstrate that repeated SAM (10 mm/kg) pretreatment significantly potentiated cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Using mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) tissue, whole-genome gene expression profiling revealed that repeated SAM treatment affected a limited number of genes, but significantly modified cocaine-induced gene expression by blunting non-specifically the cocaine response. At the gene level, we discovered that SAM modulated cocaine-induced DNA methylation by inhibiting both promoter-associated CpG-island hyper- and hypomethylation in the NAc but not in the reference tissue cerebellum. Finally, our in vitro and in vivo data show that the modulating effect of SAM is in part due to decreased methyltransferase activity via down-regulation of Dnmt3a mRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that environmental factors that affect the NAc-cell epigenome may alter the development of psychostimulant-induced addiction and this may explain, at least partly, why some individuals are more vulnerable to drug addiction.

  4. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Modulates the Locomotor and Sensitization Effects of Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Sukhanov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 has emerged as a promising target for addiction treatments because it affects dopamine transmission in the mesolimbic pathway. TAAR1 is involved in the effects of addictive drugs, such as amphetamines, cocaine and ethanol, but the impact of TAAR1 on the effects of nicotine, the psychoactive drug responsible for the development and maintenance of tobacco smoking, has not yet been studied. This study was performed to investigate the possible modulatory action of TAAR1 on the effects of nicotine on locomotor behaviors in rats and mice. Pretreatment with the TAAR1 agonist RO5263397 dose-dependently decreased nicotine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats habituated to locomotor boxes, prevented the development of nicotine sensitization and blocked hypermotility in nicotine-sensitized rats at the highest tested dose (10 mg/kg. The lack of TAAR1 failed to affect the effects of nicotine on the locomotion of mutant mice. Based on the results of the present study, TAAR1 activation attenuates the locomotion-stimulating effects of nicotine on rats. These results further support the previously proposed hypothesis that TAAR1 is a promising target for the prevention and treatment of drug addiction. Further studies aimed at analyzing the effects of TAAR1 agonists on animal models of nicotine addiction are warranted.

  5. Activation of the GABAB receptor prevents nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLobina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that activation of the GABAB receptor, either by means of orthosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, inhibited different nicotine-related behaviors, including intravenous self-administration and conditioned place preference, in rodents. The present study investigated whether the anti-nicotine effects of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and GABAB PAMs, CGP7930 and GS39783, extend to nicotine stimulant effects. To this end, CD1 mice were initially treated with baclofen (0, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., CGP7930 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., or GS39783 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., then treated with nicotine (0 and 0.05 mg/kg, s.c., and finally exposed to an automated apparatus for recording of locomotor activity. Pretreatment with doses of baclofen, CGP7930, or GS39783 that did not alter locomotor activity when given with nicotine vehicle fully prevented hyperlocomotion induced by 0.05 mg/kg nicotine. These data extend to nicotine stimulant effects the capacity of baclofen and GABAB PAMs to block the reinforcing, motivational, and rewarding properties of nicotine. These data strengthen the hypothesis that activation of the GABAB receptor may represent a potentially useful, anti-smoking therapeutic strategy.

  6. Changes in supraspinal activation patterns following robotic locomotor therapy in motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Patricia; McColl, Roderick; Querry, Ross; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James; Tansey, Keith; Williamson, Jon

    2005-12-01

    Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific rehabilitation strategy that enhances functional locomotion in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI). Supraspinal centers may play an important role in the recovery of over-ground locomotor function in patients with motor-incomplete SCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for supraspinal reorganization associated with 12 weeks of robotic BWSTT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four men with motor-incomplete SCI participated in this study. Time since onset ranged from 14 weeks to 48 months post-SCI injury. All subjects were trained with BWSTT 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. This training was preceded and followed by fMRI study of supraspinal activity during a movement task. Testing of locomotor disability included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II) and over-ground gait speed. All subjects demonstrated some degree of change in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal following BWSTT. fMRI results demonstrated greater activation in sensorimotor cortical regions (S1, S2) and cerebellar regions following BWSTT. Intensive task-specific rehabilitative training, such as robotic BWSTT, can promote supraspinal plasticity in the motor centers known to be involved in locomotion. Furthermore, improvement in over-ground locomotion is accompanied by an increased activation of the cerebellum.

  7. Mice Lacking EGR1 Have Impaired Clock Gene (BMAL1) Oscillation, Locomotor Activity, and Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Casper Schwartz; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice. In addition, we evaluated the circadian running wheel activity, telemetric locomotor activity, and core body temperature of the mice. Loss of EGR1 neither altered light-induced phase shifts at subjective night nor affected negative masking. Overall, circadian light entrainment was found in EGR1-deficient mice but they displayed a reduced locomotor activity and an altered temperature regulation compared to wild type mice. When placed in running wheels, a subpopulation of EGR1-deficient mice displayed a more disrupted activity rhythm with no measurable endogenous period length (tau). In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that the circadian clock in the SCN is disturbed in mice deficient of EGR1.

  8. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  9. Opioid administration following spinal cord injury: implications for pain and locomotor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Sarah A; Hook, Michelle A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately one-third of people with a spinal cord injury (SCI) will experience persistent neuropathic pain following injury. This pain negatively affects quality of life and is difficult to treat. Opioids are among the most effective drug treatments, and are commonly prescribed, but experimental evidence suggests that opioid treatment in the acute phase of injury can attenuate recovery of locomotor function. In fact, spinal cord injury and opioid administration share several common features (e.g. central sensitization, excitotoxicity, aberrant glial activation) that have been linked to impaired recovery of function, as well as the development of pain. Despite these effects, the interactions between opioid use and spinal cord injury have not been fully explored. A review of the literature, described here, suggests that caution is warranted when administering opioids after SCI. Opioid administration may synergistically contribute to the pathology of SCI to increase the development of pain, decrease locomotor recovery, and leave individuals at risk for infection. Considering these negative implications, it is important that guidelines are established for the use of opioids following spinal cord and other central nervous system injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sherlock Holmes and the Curious Case of the Human Locomotor Central Pattern Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Zehr, E Paul

    2018-03-14

    Evidence first described in reduced animal models over 100 years ago led to deductions about the control of locomotion through spinal locomotor central pattern generating (CPG) networks. These discoveries in nature were contemporaneous with another form of deductive reasoning found in popular culture-that of Arthur Conan Doyle's detective "Sherlock Holmes". Since the invasive methods used in reduced non-human animal preparations are not amenable to study in humans, we are left instead with deducing from other measures and observations. Using the deductive reasoning approach of Sherlock Holmes as a metaphor for framing research into human CPGs, we speculate and weigh the evidence that should be observable in humans based on knowledge from other species. This review summarizes indirect inference to assess "observable evidence" of pattern generating activity which leads to the logical deduction of CPG contributions to arm and leg activity during locomotion in humans. The question of where a CPG may be housed in the human nervous system remains incompletely resolved at this time. Ongoing understanding, elaboration and application of functioning locomotor CPGs in humans is important for gait rehabilitation strategies in those with neurological injuries.

  11. Regulation by orexin of feeding behaviour and locomotor activity in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, T; Matsuda, K; Maruyama, K; Miura, T; Uchiyama, M; Funahashi, H; Sakurai, T; Shioda, S

    2006-04-01

    Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour and the sleep-wakefulness cycle in mammals. However, in spite of a growing body of knowledge concerning orexin in mammals, the orexin system and its function have not been well studied in lower vertebrates. In the present study, we first examined the effect of feeding status on the orexin-like immunoreactivity (orexin-LI) and the expression of orexin mRNA in the goldfish brain. The number of cells showing orexin-LI in the hypothalamus of goldfish brain showed a significant increase in fasted fish and a significant decrease in glucose-injected fish. The expression level of orexin mRNA in the brains of fasted fish increased compared to that of fed fish. We also examined the effect of an i.c.v. injection of orexin or an anti-orexin serum on food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. Administration of orexin by i.c.v. injection induced a significant increase of food intake and locomotor activity, whereas i.p. injection of glucose or i.c.v. injection of anti-orexin serum decreased food consumption. These results indicate that the orexin functions as an orexigenic factor in the goldfish brain.

  12. Evidence for a Role of Orexin/Hypocretin System in Vestibular Lesion-Induced Locomotor Abnormalities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leilei; Qi, Ruirui; Wang, Junqin; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Jiluo; Cai, Yiling

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular damage can induce locomotor abnormalities in both animals and humans. Rodents with bilateral vestibular loss showed vestibular deficits syndrome such as circling, opisthotonus as well as locomotor and exploratory hyperactivity. Previous studies have investigated the changes in the dopamine system after vestibular loss, but the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. Numerous evidences indicate that the orexin system is implicated in central motor control. We hypothesized that orexin may be potentially involved in vestibular loss-induced motor disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of arsanilate- or 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced vestibular lesion (AVL or IVL) on the orexin-A (OXA) labeling in rat hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. The vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities were recorded and verified using a histamine H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). The effects of the orexin receptor type 1 antagonist SB334867 (16 μg, i.c.v.) on these behavior responses were also investigated. At 72 h post-AVL and IVL, animals exhibited vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity in the home cages. These responses were significantly alleviated by JNJ7777120 which also eliminated AVL-induced increases in exploratory behavior in an open field. The numbers of OXA-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus were significantly increased in the AVL animals at 72 h post-AVL and in the IVL animals at 24, 48, and 72 h post-IVL. SB334867 significantly attenuated the vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity at 72 h post-AVL and IVL. It also decreased exploratory behavior in the AVL animals. These results suggested that the alteration of OXA expression might contribute to locomotor abnormalities after acute vestibular lesion. The orexin receptors might be the potential therapeutic targets for vestibular disorders.

  13. The within-match patterns of locomotor efficiency during professional soccer match play: Implications for injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steve; Midgley, Adrian; Reeves, Matt; Joel, Tom; Franklin, Ed; Heyworth, Rob; Garrett, Andrew; Lovell, Ric

    2016-10-01

    The principle aim of the current study was to examine within-match patterns of locomotor efficiency in professional soccer, determined as the ratio between tri-axial accelerometer data (PlayerLoad™) and locomotor activities. Between match variability and determinants of PlayerLoad™ during match play were also assessed. A single cohort, observational study. Tri-axial accelerometer data (PlayerLoad™) was recorded during 86 competitive soccer matches in 63 English championship players (574 match observations). Accelerometer data accumulated (PlayerLoad Vector Magnitude [PLVM]) from the individual-component planes of PlayerLoad™ (anterior-posterior PlayerLoad™ [PLAP], medial-lateral PlayerLoad™ [PLML] and vertical PlayerLoad™ [PLV]), together with locomotor activity (Total Distance Covered [TDC]) were determined in 15-min segments. Locomotor efficiency was calculated using the ratio of PLVM and TDC (PlayerLoad™ per metre). The proportion of variance explaining the within-match trends in PLVM, PLAP, APML, APv, and TDC was determined owing to matches, individual players, and positional role. PLVM, PLAP, APML, APv and TDC reduced after the initial 15-min match period (p=0.001; η(2)=0.22-0.43, large effects). PL:TDC increased in the last 15min of each half (p=0.001; η(2)=0.25, large effect). The variance in PLVM during soccer match-play was explained by individual players (63.9%; p=0.001) and between-match variation (21.6%; p=0.001), but not positional role (14.1%; p=0.364). Locomotor efficiency is lower during the latter stages of each half of competitive soccer match-play, a trend synonymous with observations of increased injury incidence and fatigue in these periods. Locomotor efficiency may be a valuable metric to identify fatigue and heightened injury risk during soccer training and match-play. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Brain Stem on Axial and Hindlimb Spinal Locomotor Rhythm Generating Circuits of the Neonatal Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Jean-Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The trunk plays a pivotal role in limbed locomotion. Yet, little is known about how the brain stem controls trunk activity during walking. In this study, we assessed the spatiotemporal activity patterns of axial and hindlimb motoneurons (MNs during drug-induced fictive locomotor-like activity (LLA in an isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal mouse. We also evaluated the extent to which these activity patterns are affected by removal of brain stem. Recordings were made in the segments T7, L2, and L5 using calcium imaging from individual axial MNs in the medial motor column (MMC and hindlimb MNs in lateral motor column (LMC. The MN activities were analyzed during both the rhythmic and the tonic components of LLA, the tonic component being used as a readout of generalized increase in excitability in spinal locomotor networks. The most salient effect of brain stem removal was an increase in locomotor rhythm frequency and a concomitant reduction in burst durations in both MMC and LMC MNs. The lack of effect on the tonic component of LLA indicated specificity of action during the rhythmic component. Cooling-induced silencing of the brain stem reproduced the increase in rhythm frequency and accompanying decrease in burst durations in L2 MMC and LMC, suggesting a dependency on brain stem neuron activity. The work supports the idea that the brain stem locomotor circuits are operational already at birth and further suggests an important role in modulating trunk activity. The brain stem may influence the axial and hindlimb spinal locomotor rhythm generating circuits by extending their range of operation. This may represent a critical step of locomotor development when learning how to walk in different conditions and environments is a major endeavor.

  15. Locomotor Performance During Rehabilitation of People With Lower Limb Amputation and Prosthetic Nonuse 12 Months After Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Caroline E; Buchanan, John; Allison, Garry T

    2016-07-01

    It is recognized that multifactorial assessments are needed to evaluate balance and locomotor function in people with lower limb amputation. There is no consensus on whether a single screening tool could be used to identify future issues with locomotion or prosthetic use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different tests of locomotor performance during rehabilitation were associated with significantly greater risk of prosthetic abandonment at 12 months postdischarge. This was a retrospective cohort study. Data for descriptive variables and locomotor tests (ie, 10-Meter Walk Test [10MWT], Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUGT], Six-Minute Walk Test [6MWT], and Four Square Step Test [FSST]) were abstracted from the medical records of 201 consecutive participants with lower limb amputation. Participants were interviewed and classified as prosthetic users or nonusers at 12 months postdischarge. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze whether there were differences in locomotor performance. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to determine performance thresholds, and relative risk (RR) was calculated for nonuse. At 12 months postdischarge, 18% (n=36) of the participants had become prosthetic nonusers. Performance thresholds, area under the curve (AUC), and RR of nonuse (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were: for the 10MWT, if walking speed was ≤0.44 ms(-1) (AUC=0.743), RR of nonuse=2.76 (95% CI=1.83, 3.79; Pprosthetic nonuse. It may be implied that the 10MWT has the greatest clinical utility as a single screening tool for prosthetic nonuse, given the highest proportion of participants were able to perform this test early in rehabilitation. However, as locomotor skills improve, other tests (in particular, the 6MWT) have specific clinical utility. To fully enable implementation of these locomotor criteria for prosthetic nonuse into clinical practice, validation is warranted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  16. A prediction model for determining over ground walking speed after locomotor training in persons with motor incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Patricia; Smith, Patricia; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James M; Pacheco, Fides; Querry, Ross; Tansey, Keith

    2009-01-01

    To develop and test a clinically relevant model for predicting the recovery of over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of progressive body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective review and stepwise regression analysis of a SCI clinical outcomes data set. Outpatient SCI laboratory. Thirty individuals with a motor incomplete SCI who had participated in locomotor training with BWSTT. Eight individuals with similar diagnoses were used to prospectively test the prediction model. Over ground walking speed was assessed using the 10-m walking test. The locomotor training program consisted of 36 sessions of sequential comprehensive training comprised of robotic assisted BWSTT, followed by manual assisted BWSTT, and over ground walking. The dose of locomotor training was standardized throughout the protocol. Clinical characteristics with predictive value for walking speed were time from injury onset, the presence or absence of voluntary bowel and bladder voiding, a functional spasticity assessment, and over ground walking speed before locomotor training. The model identified that these characteristics accounted for 78.3% of the variability in the actual final over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of locomotor training. The model was successful in prospectively predicting over ground walking speed in the 8 test participants within 4.15 +/- 2.22 cm/s in their recovered walking speed. This prediction model can identify individuals who are most likely to experience success using locomotor training by determining an expected magnitude of training effect, thereby allowing individualized decisions regarding the use of this intensive approach to rehabilitation.

  17. Evidence for a role of orexin/hypocretin system in vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities in rats

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    Leilei Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular damage can induce locomotor abnormalities in both animals and humans. Rodents with bilateral vestibular loss showed vestibular deficits syndrome such as circling, opisthotonus as well as locomotor and exploratory hyperactivity. Previous studies have investigated the changes in the dopamine system after vestibular loss, but the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. Numerous evidences indicate that the orexin system is implicated in central motor control. We hypothesized that orexin may be potentially involved in vestibular loss-induced motor disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of arsanilate- or 3, 3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN-induced vestibular lesion (AVL or IVL on the orexin-A (OXA labeling in rat hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. The vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities were recorded and verified using a histamine H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120 (20 mg/kg, i.p.. The effects of the orexin receptor type 1 antagonist SB334867 (16 μg, i.c.v. on these behavior responses were also investigated. At 72 h post-AVL and IVL, animals exhibited vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity in the home cages. These responses were significantly alleviated by JNJ7777120 which also eliminated AVL-induced increases in exploratory behavior in an open field. The numbers of OXA-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus were significantly increased in the AVL animals at 72 h post-AVL and in the IVL animals at 24, 48 and 72 h post-IVL. SB334867 significantly attenuated the vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity at 72 h post-AVL and IVL. It also decreased exploratory behavior in the AVL animals. These results suggested that the alteration of OXA expression might contribute to locomotor abnormalities after acute vestibular lesion. The orexin receptors might be the potential therapeutic targets for vestibular disorders.

  18. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  19. Therapeutic effects of an anti-gravity locomotor training (AlterG) on postural balance and cerebellum structure in children with Cerebral Palsy.

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    Rasooli, A H; Birgani, P M; Azizi, Sh; Shahrokhi, A; Mirbagheri, M M

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic effects of anti-gravity locomotor treadmill (AlterG) training on postural stability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and spasticity, particularly in the lower extremity. AlterG can facilitate walking by reducing the weight of CP children by up to 80%; it can also help subjects maintain an appropriate posture during the locomotor AlterG training. Thus, we hypothesized that AlterG training, for a sufficient period of time, has a potential to produce cerebellum neuroplasticity, and consequently result in an effective permanent postural stability. AlterG training was given for 45 minutes, three times a week for two months. Postural balance was evaluated using posturography. The parameters of the Romberg based posturography were extracted to quantify the Center of Balance (CoP). The neuroplasticity of Cerebellum was evaluated using a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The evaluations were done pre- and post-training. The Fractional Anisotropy (FA) feature was used for quantifying structural changes in the cerebellum. The results showed that AlterG training resulted in an increase in average FA value of the cerebellum white matter following the training. The results of the posturography evaluations showed a consistent improvement in postural stability. These results were consistent in all subjects. Our findings indicated that the improvement in the posture was accompanied with the enhancement of the cerebellum white matter structure. The clinical implication is that AlterG training can be considered a therapeutic tool for an effective and permanent improvement of postural stability in CP children.

  20. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...... these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...

  1. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral...... these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...

  2. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  3. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  4. Impact loading and locomotor-respiratory coordination significantly influence breathing dynamics in running humans.

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    Monica A Daley

    Full Text Available Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC, phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because 'step-driven flows' (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms(-1 and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally 'preferred' and 'avoided' entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls(-1 (mean ±S.D. Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume, suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in 'preferred' phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in 'avoided' phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential

  5. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole induced locomotor plasticity responsive to antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent kindling induced by PTZ is a widely used model of epileptogenesis and AED testing. Overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms may underlie epileptogenesis and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Besides epilepsy, AEDs are widely used in treating various neuropsychiatric disorders. Mechanisms of AEDs' long term action in these disorders are poorly understood. We describe here a Drosophila systems model of PTZ induced locomotor plasticity that is responsive to AEDs. Results We empirically determined a regime in which seven days of PTZ treatment and seven days of subsequent PTZ discontinuation respectively cause a decrease and an increase in climbing speed of Drosophila adults. Concomitant treatment with NaVP and LEV, not ETH, GBP and VGB, suppressed the development of locomotor deficit at the end of chronic PTZ phase. Concomitant LEV also ameliorated locomotor alteration that develops after PTZ withdrawal. Time series of microarray expression profiles of heads of flies treated with PTZ for 12 hrs (beginning phase, two days (latent phase and seven days (behaviorally expressive phase showed only down-, not up-, regulation of genes; expression of 23, 2439 and 265 genes were downregulated, in that order. GO biological process enrichment analysis showed downregulation of transcription, neuron morphogenesis during differentiation, synaptic transmission, regulation of neurotransmitter levels, neurogenesis, axonogenesis, protein modification, axon guidance, actin filament organization etc. in the latent phase and of glutamate metabolism, cell communication etc. in the expressive phase. Proteomic interactome based analysis provided further directionality to these events. Pathway overrepresentation analysis showed enrichment of Wnt signaling and other associated pathways in genes downregulated by PTZ. Mining of available transcriptomic and proteomic data pertaining to established rodent models of epilepsy and human epileptic

  6. PREVALENCE OF LOCOMOTOR PROBLEMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LONGEVITY OF SWINE MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capeletto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Removing matrices for locomotor problems in a swine production system is among the main causes of waste. The prevalence of these problems have the effect of reducing the productive life of dies, resulting in decreased longevity of the squad. Considering the longevity of the matrix is important to maintain good herd productivity rates, this study aimed to evaluate what is the prevalence and severity of lesions on the hulls of weaned matrices, being these injuries a major cause of problems locomotores.Foram 471 females evaluated in different lines (a, B and C, in phase maternity and delivery of different orders. The standard used for evaluation of lesions in hooves followed the method provided by the company Zinpro Performance Minerals, which guides the evaluations of the injuries are made on the hulls of the hindlimbs, classifying them into type (growth and erosion of the bead, lug-soled crack white line splitting, horizontal wall crack, vertical wall crack, nail growth and growth of nail accessory and scores (0 without injury, 1-slight, 2-moderate, 3-severe .From these data was calculated per animal hull lesion index. This index is a comparison between the two members, where the highest score of each type of injury is added and this result classifies the animal in normal (result = 0, with the degree of injury (1 result from 1 to 7, degree 2 (results from 8 to 14 or grade 3 (results above 14. It has been shown that the prevalence of the problem is 99.6% of females, or only 0.4% of females had no damage to the hull; 66.9% had grade 1 injury; 32.1% degree of injury 2; and 0.6% grade 3 injury. To evaluate the age of rejection for locomotor problems, it was found that 55.6% of the sows by some change in the system were the third delivery. This work points out the existing importance in providing good management conditions, housing and nutrition for mothers, because the financial returns expected in the production system depends on the productivity

  7. FES-assisted Cycling Improves Aerobic Capacity and Locomotor Function Postcerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Vanderwerker, Catherine J; Embry, Aaron E; Newton, Jennifer H; Lee, Samuel C K; Gregory, Chris M

    2018-03-01

    After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. Eleven individuals with chronic (>6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-wk (three times per week; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention. V˙O2peak, self-selected, and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait, and pedaling symmetry, 6-min walk test (6MWT), balance, dynamic gait movements, and health status were measured at baseline and posttraining. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling significantly improved V˙O2peak (12%, P = 0.006), self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 0.05 ± 0.1 m·s, P = 0.04), Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score (12.75 ± 17.4, P = 0.04), Berg Balance Scale score (3.91 ± 4.2, P = 0.016), Dynamic Gait Index score (1.64 ± 1.4, P = 0.016), and Stroke Impact Scale participation/role domain score (12.74 ± 16.7, P = 0.027). Additionally, pedal symmetry, represented by the paretic limb contribution to pedaling (paretic pedaling ratio [PPR]) significantly improved (10.09% ± 9.0%, P = 0.016). Although step length symmetry (paretic step ratio [PSR]) did improve, these changes were not statistically significant (-0.05% ± 0.1%, P = 0.09). Exploratory correlations showed moderate association between change in SSWS and 6-min walk test (r = 0.74), and moderate/strong negative association between change in PPR and PSR. These results support FES-assisted cycling as a means to improve both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. Improvements in SSWS, balance, dynamic walking movements, and participation in familial and societal roles are important targets for rehabilitation of individuals

  8. Exploring the role of locomotor sensitization in the circadian food entrainment pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Opiol

    Full Text Available Food entrainment is the internal mechanism whereby the phase and period of circadian clock genes comes under the control of daily scheduled food availability. Food entrainment allows the body to efficiently realign the internal timing of behavioral and physiological functions such that they anticipate food intake. Food entrainment can occur with or without caloric restriction, as seen with daily schedules of restricted feeding (RF or restricted treat (RT that restrict food or treat intake to a single feeding time. However, the extent of clock gene control is more pronounced with caloric restriction, highlighting the role of energy balance in regulating clock genes. Recent studies have implicated dopamine (DA to be involved in food entrainment and caloric restriction is known to affect dopaminergic pathways to enhance locomotor activity. Since food entrainment results in the development of a distinct behavioral component, called food anticipatory activity (FAA, we examined the role of locomotor sensitization (LS in food entrainment by 1 observing whether amphetamine (AMPH sensitization results in enhanced locomotor output of FAA and 2 measuring LS of circadian and non-circadian feeding paradigms to an acute injection of AMPH (AMPH cross-sensitization. Unexpectedly, AMPH sensitization did not show enhancement of FAA. On the contrary, LS did develop with sufficient exposure to RF. LS was present after 2 weeks of RF, but not after 1, 3 or 7 days into RF. When food was returned and rats regain their original body weight at 10-15 days post-RF, LS remained present. LS did not develop to RT, nor to feedings of a non-circadian schedule, e.g. variable restricted feeding (VRF or variable RT (VRT. Further, when RF was timed to the dark period, LS was observed only when tested at night; RF timed to the light period resulted in LS that was present during day and night. Taken together our results show that LS develops with food entrainment to RF, an effect

  9. Effects of pregnancy on body temperature and locomotor performance of velvet geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Ibargüengoytía, Nora; Whiting, Martin J; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs ('selfish mother' hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness ('maternal manipulation hypothesis'), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance. We investigated whether pregnancy affects the preferred body temperatures and locomotor performance of female velvet geckos Amalosia lesueurii. We measured running speed of females during late pregnancy, and one week after they laid eggs at four temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C). Preferred body temperatures of females were measured in a cost-free thermal gradient during late pregnancy and one week after egg-laying. Females selected higher and more stable set-point temperatures when they were pregnant (mean =29.0°C, T set =27.8-30.5°C) than when they were non-pregnant (mean =26.2°C, T set =23.7-28.7°C). Pregnancy was also associated with impaired performance; females sprinted more slowly at all four test temperatures when burdened with eggs. Although females selected higher body temperatures during late pregnancy, this increase in temperature did not compensate for their impaired running performance. Hence, our results suggest that females select higher temperatures during pregnancy to speed up embryogenesis and reduce the period during which they have reduced performance. This strategy may decrease a female's probability of encountering predatory snakes that use the same microhabitats for thermoregulation. Selection of stable temperatures by pregnant

  10. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  11. Effect of experimental muscle pain on the acquisition and retention of locomotor adaptation: different motor strategies for a similar performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jason; Salomoni, Sauro Emerick; Mercier, Catherine; Tucker, Kylie J; Roy, Jean-Sebastien; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2018-01-24

    As individuals with musculoskeletal disorders often experience motor impairments, contemporary rehabilitation relies heavily on the use of motor learning principles. However, motor impairments are often associated with pain. While there is substantial evidence that muscle pain interferes with motor control, much less is known on its impact on motor learning, especially on locomotor learning. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of muscle pain on locomotor learning. Two groups (Pain and Control) of healthy participants performed a locomotor adaptation task (robotized ankle-foot orthosis perturbing ankle movements during swing) on two consecutive days. On Day 1 (acquisition), hypertonic saline was injected in the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of the Pain group participants, while Control group participants were pain-free. All participants were pain-free on Day 2 (retention). Changes in movement errors caused by the perturbation were assessed as an indicator of motor performance. Detailed analysis of kinematic and electromyographic data provided information about motor strategies. No between-group differences were observed on motor performance measured during the acquisition and retention phases. However, Pain group participants had a residual movement error later in the swing phase and smaller early TA activation than Control group participants, thereby suggesting a reduction in the use of anticipatory motor strategies to overcome the perturbation. Muscle pain did not interfere with global motor performance during locomotor adaptation. The different motor strategies used in the presence of muscle pain may reflect a diminished ability to anticipate the consequences of a perturbation.

  12. Low and High Locomotor Responsiveness to Cocaine Predicts Intravenous Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Everett, Carson V.; Nelson, Anna M.; Gulley, Joshua M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2009-01-01

    Outbred, male Sprague-Dawley rats can be classified as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively) based on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in an open-field arena. This difference reflects cocaine’s ability to inhibit the striatal dopamine transporter and predicts development of sensitization. To investigate the relationship between initial cocaine locomotor responsiveness and cocaine reward, here we first classified rats as either LCRs or HCRs in a conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus. Subsequently, we conducted cocaine conditioning trials, twice daily over four days with vehicle and cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p. or 1 mg/kg, i.v.). When cocaine was administered by the i.p. route, similar to previous findings in the open-field, LCRs and HCRs were readily classified and locomotor sensitization developed in LCRs, but not HCRs. However, cocaine CPP was not observed. In contrast, when cocaine was administered by the i.v. route, the LCR/HCR classification not only predicted sensitization, but also CPP, with only LCR rats exhibiting sensitization and cocaine conditioning. Our findings show that the initial locomotor response to cocaine can predict CPP in male Sprague-Dawley rats under conditions when place conditioning develops, and that LCRs may be more prone to develop conditioning in the context of cocaine reward. PMID:17250883

  13. Syngeneic B16F10 Melanoma Causes Cachexia and Impaired Skeletal Muscle Strength and Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Voltarelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 104 B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control. Tumor growth was monitored during a period of 28 days. Compared to Sham mice, tumor group depicts a loss of skeletal muscle, as well as significantly reduced muscle grip strength and epididymal fat mass. This data are in agreement with mild to severe catabolic host response promoted by elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Tumor implantation has also compromised general locomotor activity and decreased exploratory behavior. Likewise, muscle loss, and elevated inflammatory interleukin were associated to muscle strength loss and locomotor activity impairment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumor-driven catabolic state in response to a pro-inflammatory environment that is associated with impaired skeletal muscle strength and decreased locomotor activity in tumor-bearing mice.

  14. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  15. Estradiol facilitation of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in female rats requires activation of mGluR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Peterson, Brittni M; Meisel, Robert L; Mermelstein, Paul G

    2014-09-01

    In comparison to men, women exhibit enhanced responsiveness to the stimulating and addictive properties of cocaine. A growing body of evidence implicates the steroid hormone estradiol in mediating this sex difference, yet the mechanisms underlying estradiol enhancement of behavioral responses to cocaine in females are not known. Recently, we have found that estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) functionally couples with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to mediate the effects of estradiol on both cellular activation as well as dendritic spine plasticity in brain regions involved in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Thus, we sought to determine whether mGluR5 activation is required for the facilitative effects of estradiol on locomotor responses to cocaine. To test this hypothesis, ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were tested for locomotor activity on the first and fifth days of daily systemic injections of cocaine. For the 2 days prior to each locomotor test, animals were injected with the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP (or vehicle) and estradiol (or oil). MPEP treatment blocked the facilitative effects of estradiol on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, without affecting acute responses to cocaine or the inhibitory actions of estradiol on weight gain. Considered together, these data indicate that mGluR5 activation is critical for the actions of estradiol on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    , these pathways were distributed along the lumbar enlargement. Both lateral and ventral funiculi were sufficient to coordinate activity in the rostral and caudal regions. We conclude that the networks organizing locomotor-related activity in the spinal cord of the newborn rat are distributed....

  17. Speed dependency in α-motoneuron activity and locomotor modules in human locomotion: indirect evidence for phylogenetically conserved spinal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-03-29

    Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). Vertebrate studies have demonstrated the following two characteristics of the speed control mechanisms of the spinal CPGs: (i) rostral segment activation is indispensable for achieving high-speed locomotion; and (ii) specific combinations between spinal interneuronal modules and motoneuron (MN) pools are sequentially activated with increasing speed. Here, to investigate whether similar control mechanisms exist in humans, we examined spinal neural activity during varied-speed locomotion by mapping the distribution of MN activity in the spinal cord and extracting locomotor modules, which generate basic MN activation patterns. The MN activation patterns and the locomotor modules were analysed from multi-muscle electromyographic recordings. The reconstructed MN activity patterns were divided into the following three patterns depending on the speed of locomotion: slow walking, fast walking and running. During these three activation patterns, the proportion of the activity in rostral segments to that in caudal segments increased as locomotion speed increased. Additionally, the different MN activation patterns were generated by distinct combinations of locomotor modules. These results are consistent with the speed control mechanisms observed in vertebrates, suggesting phylogenetically conserved spinal mechanisms of neural control of locomotion. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain dopamine is critically involved in movement control, and its deficiency is the primary cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Here we report development of an animal model of acute severe dopamine deficiency by using mice lacking the dopamine transporter. In the absence of transporter-mediated recycling mechanisms, dopamine levels become entirely dependent on de novo synthesis. Acute pharmacological inhibition of dopamine synthesis in these mice induces transient elimination of striatal dopamine accompanied by the development of a striking behavioral phenotype manifested as severe akinesia, rigidity, tremor, and ptosis. This phenotype can be reversed by administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, or by nonselective dopamine agonists. Surprisingly, several amphetamine derivatives were also effective in reversing these behavioral abnormalities in a dopamine-independent manner. Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs.

  19. Organization of left-right coordination in the mammalian locomotor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lebret, James M.; Kiehn, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal circuits involved in left-right coordination are a fundamental feature of rhythmic locomotor movements. These circuits necessarily include commissural interneurons (CINs) that have axons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. The properties of CINs have been described in some detail...... cord central pattern generators (CPGs). The means by which reciprocal inhibition and integration of sensory information are maintained in swimming vertebrates is described, with similarities between the three basic populations of commissural interneurons highlighted. The subsequent section concentrates......, using whole cell patch clamp, to record from anatomically defined CINs located in the rhythm-generating region of the lumbar segments. Initial results would suggest that the firing pattern of these neurons shows a greater diversity than that previously described in swimming central pattern generators...

  20. A plea for an extension of the anatomical nomenclature: The locomotor system

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    Vladimir Musil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical nomenclature is the main tool of communication in morphology, anatomy and other medical disciplines as well as in medical education, and thus needs to be exact, flawless, elaborate and correct. The Terminologia Anatomica (TA is a thorough and extensive list of anatomical terms and their definitions, and the current standard for human anatomical terminology. Although several revisions to the TA have been made in the last 20 years, some important anatomical structures are still not included. This article is aimed at correcting and extending the anatomical nomenclature described in the TA. We gathered and presented a list of anatomical terms, with their definitions and explanations, to provoke a discussion about correcting and extending the TA. Our list comprises of 96 terms related to the locomotor system of the human body, i.e., the bones, joints, muscles and related structures.

  1. A plea for an extension of the anatomical nomenclature: The locomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Vladimir; Blankova, Alzbeta; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-11-16

    Anatomical nomenclature is the main tool of communication in morphology, anatomy and other medical disciplines as well as in medical education, and thus needs to be exact, flawless, elaborate and correct. The Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is a thorough and extensive list of anatomical terms and their definitions, and the current standard for human anatomical terminology. Although several revisions to the TA have been made in the last 20 years, some important anatomical structures are still not included. This article is aimed at correcting and extending the anatomical nomenclature described in the TA. We gathered and presented a list of anatomical terms, with their definitions and explanations, to provoke a discussion about correcting and extending the TA. Our list comprises of 96 terms related to the locomotor system of the human body, i.e., the bones, joints, muscles and related structures.

  2. Using Tests Designed to Measure Individual Sensorimotor Subsystem Perfomance to Predict Locomotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. T.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Guined, J. R.; DeDios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Gadd, N. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functions during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The way each individual's brain synthesizes the available visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is likely the basis for much of the variation. Identifying the presence of biases in each person's use of information available from these sensorimotor subsystems and relating it to their ability to adapt to a novel locomotor task will allow us to customize a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Eight tests are being used to measure sensorimotor subsystem performance. Three of these use measures of body sway to characterize balance during varying sensorimotor challenges. The effect of vision is assessed by repeating conditions with eyes open and eyes closed. Standing on foam, or on a support surface that pitches to maintain a constant ankle angle provide somatosensory challenges. Information from the vestibular system is isolated when vision is removed and the support surface is compromised, and it is challenged when the tasks are done while the head is in motion. The integration and dominance of visual information is assessed in three additional tests. The Rod & Frame Test measures the degree to which a subject's perception of the visual vertical is affected by the orientation of a tilted frame in the periphery. Locomotor visual dependence is determined by assessing how much an oscillating virtual visual world affects a treadmill-walking subject. In the third of the visual manipulation tests, subjects walk an obstacle course while wearing up-down reversing prisms. The two remaining tests include direct

  3. Lower Limb Voluntary Movement Improvement Following a Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training in Spinal Cord Injury

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    Mirbagheri Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI suffer from severe impairments in voluntary movements. Literature reports a reduction in major kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs’ joints. A body weight support treadmill training with robotic assistance has been widely used to improve lower-extremity function and locomotion in persons with SCI. Our objective was to explore the effects of 4-weeks robot-assisted locomotor training on voluntary movement of the ankle musculature in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, we aimed to characterize the therapeutic effects of Lokomat training on kinematic measures (range of motion, velocity, smoothness during a dorsiflexion movement. We hypothesized that training would improve these measures. Preliminary results show an improvement of kinematic parameters during ankle dorsiflexion voluntary movement after a 4-weeks training in the major part of our participants. Complementary investigations are in progress to confirm these results and understand underlying mechanisms associated with the recovery.

  4. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  5. Monitoring and Analyzing of Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity Based on Raspberry-Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Pasquali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which is later analyzed. The software package consists of two separate scripts: the first designed to manage the acquisition and the evolution of the experiment, the second designed to generate actograms and perform various analyses to detect periodicity in the data (e.g., Fourier power spectra, chi-squared periodograms, and Lomb–Scargle periodograms. The data acquisition hardware and the software has been previously tested during an Arctic mission with an arctic marine invertebrate.

  6. Rapid recovery and altered neurochemical dependence of locomotor central pattern generation following lumbar neonatal spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Kondratskaya, Elena; Sylte, Camilla B; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-15

    Spinal compression injury targeted to the neonatal upper lumbar spinal cord, the region of highest hindlimb locomotor rhythmogenicity, leads to an initial paralysis of the hindlimbs. Behavioural recovery is evident within a few days and approaches normal function within about 3 weeks. Fictive locomotion in the isolated injured spinal cord cannot be elicited by a neurochemical cocktail containing NMDA, dopamine and serotonin 1 day post-injury, but can 3 days post-injury as readily as in the uninjured spinal cord. Low frequency coordinated rhythmic activity can be elicited in the isolated uninjured spinal cord by NMDA + dopamine (without serotonin), but not in the isolated injured spinal cord. In both the injured and uninjured spinal cord, eliciting bona fide fictive locomotion requires the additional presence of serotonin. Following incomplete compression injury in the thoracic spinal cord of neonatal mice 1 day after birth (P1), we previously reported that virtually normal hindlimb locomotor function is recovered within about 3 weeks despite substantial permanent thoracic tissue loss. Here, we asked whether similar recovery occurs following lumbar injury that impacts more directly on the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). As in thoracic injuries, lumbar injuries caused about 90% neuronal loss at the injury site and increased serotonergic innervation below the injury. Motor recovery was slower after lumbar than thoracic injury, but virtually normal function was attained by P25 in both cases. Locomotor CPG status was tested by eliciting fictive locomotion in isolated spinal cords using a widely used neurochemical cocktail (NMDA, dopamine, serotonin). No fictive locomotion could be elicited 1 day post-injury, but could within 3 days post-injury as readily as in age-matched uninjured control spinal cords. Burst patterning and coordination were largely similar in injured and control spinal cords but there were differences. Notably, in both groups there

  7. The effect of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on locomotor activity in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, J L

    1994-07-01

    1. The present study examined the effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), flesinoxan, ipsapirone and buspirone, all agonists at the 5-HT1A receptor, on the locomotor activity of guinea-pigs. The effects of these drugs were contrasted with those of the non-selective 5-HT agonist, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl tryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and the dopamine D2 antagonist, raclopride. 2. 8-OH-DPAT, flesinoxan and 5-MeO-DMT markedly increased the locomotor activity of naive, unhabituated guinea-pigs in a dose-dependent manner. Buspirone also did so, although to a lesser extent and for a shorter time. The doses at which this effect was seen were higher than those normally employed in rats. Ipsapirone and raclopride had no significant effects on locomotor activity. 3. The locomotor activity increasing effect of 1.0 mg kg-1 8-OH-DPAT was blocked by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist (S)-UH-301 (3.0 and 10.0 mg kg-1), but not by (-)-alprenolol (15.0 mg kg-1). Ipsapirone (30.0 mg kg-1) and raclopride (3.0 mg kg-1) antagonized 8-OH-DPAT-induced locomotor activity but only to a small extent. The 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, zimelidine (10.0 mg kg-1) had no effect. 4. The effect of the 5-HT1A agonists in the guinea-pig contrasts with the effects of 8-OH-DPAT on the locomotor activity of unhabituated rats and mice tested in the same apparatus, but are similar to the effects of 8-OH-DPAT on habituated rats, which show a low baseline of activity. 5. These results support the suggestion that 5-HTIA agonists may have an intrinsic activating effect which may be masked by other effects of the drug (e.g. hypothermia, 5-HT syndrome). The rank ordering of the 5-HTIA agonists also suggests that the degree to which the drugs increase locomotor activity is related to their agonist efficacy at the postsynaptic 5-HTIA receptor.

  8. Effects of Risperidone and Paliperidone Pretreatment on Locomotor Response Following Prenatal Immune Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtand, Neil M.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul; Stanford, Kevin; Bronson, Stefanie L.; McNamara, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Limited data are available regarding pharmacological characteristics of effective interventions for psychosis prevention. Enrollment challenges in psychosis prevention trials impede screening diverse interventions for efficacy. Relevant animal models could help circumvent this barrier. We previously described prevention with risperidone of abnormal behavior following neonatal hippocampal lesion. We aimed to extend those findings evaluating risperidone and paliperidone following prenatal immune activation, a developmental model of a schizophrenia risk factor. We evaluated a later developmental time point to determine persistent effects of drug treatment. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with poly I:C or saline on gestational day 14. Offspring of poly I:C and saline treated dams received risperidone (0.45 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (0.05 mg/kg/d), or vehicle from postnatal days 35 to 70. Locomotor responses to novelty, saline injection, and amphetamine (1 and 5 mg/kg) were determined at three months, i.e., 21 days following antipsychotic discontinuation. Results Risperidone and paliperidone had persistent effects on behavioral response to amphetamine (1 mg/kg) at 3 months, ameliorating the impact of prenatal immune activation on offspring of poly I:C-treated dams. Risperidone, but not paliperidone, also exerted persistent effects in offspring of saline-treated dams on locomotor response to saline and amphetamine (5 mg/kg) injection. Conclusions Risperidone and paliperidone pretreatment of poly I:C offspring during peri-pubertal development stabilized response to amphetamine exposure persisting into early adulthood. Prenatal immune activation provides a model for evaluating effects of an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, and has potential utility for identifying pharmacological approaches to early intervention. PMID:21440257

  9. The Braincase and Endosseous Labyrinth of Plioplatecarpus peckensis (Mosasauridae, Plioplatecarpinae), With Functional Implications for Locomotor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Robin S; Maddin, Hillary C; Holmes, Robert B; Anderson, Jason S

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations of mosasaurs to the aquatic realm have been extensively studied from the perspective of modifications to the post-cranial skeleton. In recent years, imaging techniques such as computed tomography have permitted the acquisition of anatomical data from previously inaccessible sources. An exquisitely preserved specimen of the plioplatecarpine mosasaur Plioplatecarpus peckensis presents an opportunity to examine the detailed structure of the braincase, as well as the form of the otic capsule endocast. These data elaborate upon previous descriptions of the braincase of Plioplatecarpus, and provide a detailed, three dimensional reconstruction of the osseous labyrinth for the first time. The otic capsule endocasts reveal that the size of the labyrinth relative to head size is comparable to that of other squamates, suggesting that labyrinth size was not a factor in increasing sensitivity. However, all three semicircular canals are tall and strongly arced to a degree comparable to, and even exceeding, that observed in arboreal and aquatic lizards. Comparison of the sensitivity of the canals in each of the three major axes of rotation suggests Plioplatecarpus peckensis may have been most sensitive to movements in the pitch axis. Although early mosasaurs were probably anguilliform swimmers, most are thought to have been subcarangiform to thunniform locomotors with a near-rigid body form and likely decreased maneuverability. The data from the labyrinth presented here add a potential new dimension to this model of locomotion for further consideration, wherein changes in orientation, such as pitch, may have been more common locomotor behaviors than previously thought. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Locomotor-Like Leg Movements Evoked by Rhythmic Arm Movements in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; MacLellan, Michael J.; Cappellini, Germana; Poppele, Richard E.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG) activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs. PMID:24608249

  11. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto; Kenagy, G J

    2018-02-01

    We studied circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) under laboratory conditions of a 12L:12D light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Antelope ground squirrels are diurnally active and, exceptionally among ground squirrels and other closely related members of the squirrel family in general, they do not hibernate. Daily oscillations in body temperature consisted of a rise in temperature during the daytime activity phase of the circadian cycle and a decrease in temperature during the nighttime rest phase. The body temperature rhythms were robust (71% of maximal strength) with a daily range of oscillation of 4.6°C, a daytime mean of 38.7°C, and a nighttime mean of 34.1°C (24-h overall mean 36.4°C). The body temperature rhythm persisted in continuous darkness with a free-running period of 24.2h. This pattern is similar to that of hibernating species of ground squirrels but with a wave form more similar to that of non-hibernating rodents. Daily oscillations in body temperature were correlated with individual bouts of activity, but daytime temperatures were higher than nighttime temperatures even when comparing short episodes of nocturnal activity that were as intense as diurnal activity. This suggests that although muscular thermogenesis associated with locomotor activity can modify the level of body temperature, the circadian rhythm of body temperature is not simply a consequence of the circadian rhythm of activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  13. Locomotor response to novelty correlates with the number of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzemowska, Grażyna; Plucińska, Karolina; Kulikowski, Michał; Trojniar, Weronika; Wrona, Danuta

    2012-01-04

    The present study investigated whether the higher dopaminergic system activation in rats with high (HRs) rather than low (LRs) locomotor activity in response to novelty depend on the number of cells containing the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH(+)) and/or differences in the morphology of these cells. One week after the novelty test, brains from male Wistar rats (HRs and LRs) were collected and stained for TH expression (immunohistochemistry) and for morphological analysis (immunofluorescent staining). The morphology and total number of TH(+) cells was analyzed for each A9 (substantia nigra) and A10 (ventral tegmental area) group of the midbrain dopaminergic cells. We found that HRs had a higher total number of TH(+) cells in the whole midbrain dopaminergic region (A9-A10) and in the A9 group only than LRs. In particular midbrain dopaminergic groups of neurons, HR/LR differences were regionally specific: HRs had a higher total number of TH(+) cells in the A9, and in the anterior part of the A10. In contrast, the LRs had a higher number of TH(+) cells in the parabrachial pigmented nucleus (A10) and in the posterior part of the A9. There were no significant differences in the morphology of the midbrain dopamine neurons between HRs and LRs. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the total number of TH(+) neurons and the locomotor activity score in response to novelty in the whole A9-A10 region and in the particular A9 group only. The results obtained indicate that the higher behavioral activation in resting conditions correlates with the higher number rather than changes in the morphology of the midbrain dopaminergic TH(+) cells. It supports findings on the higher level of dopaminergic system activation in high responders to novelty that depends on the number of midbrain dopaminergic TH(+) neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serotonergic modulation of post-synaptic inhibition and locomotor alternating pattern in the spinal cord

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    Laurent eVinay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The central pattern generators (CPGs for locomotion, located in the lumbar spinal cord, are functional at birth in the rat. Their maturation occurs during the last few days preceding birth, a period during which the first projections from the brainstem start to reach the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. Locomotor burst activity in the mature intact spinal cord alternates between flexor and extensor motoneurons through reciprocal inhibition and between left and right sides through commisural inhibitory interneurons. By contrast, all motor bursts are in phase in the fetus. The alternating pattern disappears after neonatal spinal cord transection which suppresses supraspinal influences upon the locomotor networks. This article will review the role of serotonin (5-HT, in particular 5-HT2 receptors, in shaping the alternating pattern. For instance, pharmacological activation of these receptors restores the left-right alternation after injury. Experiments aimed at either reducing the endogenous level of serotonin in the spinal cord or blocking the activation of 5-HT2 receptors.We then describe recent evidence that the action of 5-HT2 receptors is mediated, at least in part, through a modulation of chloride homeostasis. The postsynaptic action of GABA and glycine depends on the intracellular concentration of chloride ions which is regulated by a protein in the plasma membrane, the K+-Cl− cotransporter (KCC2 extruding both K+ and Cl− ions. Absence or reduction of KCC2 expression leads to a depolarizing action of GABA and glycine and a marked reduction in the strength of postsynaptic inhibition. This latter situation is observed early during development and in several pathological conditions, such as after spinal cord injury, thereby causing spasticity and chronic pain. It was recently shown that specific activation of 5-HT2A receptors is able to up-regulate KCC2, restore endogenous inhibition and reduce spasticity.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and locomotor function after motor-sensory cortex impact injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschneider, Daniel P; Guo, Yumei; Roch, Margareth; Norman, Keith M; Scremin, Oscar U

    2011-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces transient or persistent dysfunction of gait and balance. Enhancement of cholinergic transmission has been reported to accelerate recovery of cognitive function after TBI, but the effects of this intervention on locomotor activity remain largely unexplored. The hypothesis that enhancement of cholinergic function by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) improves locomotion following TBI was tested in Sprague-Dawley male rats after a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury of the motor-sensory cortex. Locomotion was tested by time to fall on the constant speed and accelerating Rotarod, placement errors and time to cross while walking through a horizontal ladder, activity monitoring in the home cages, and rearing behavior. Assessments were performed the 1st and 2nd day and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week after TBI. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine hemisulfate (PHY) was administered continuously via osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously at the rates of 1.6-12.8 μmol/kg/day. All measures of locomotion were impaired by TBI and recovered to initial levels between 1 and 3 weeks post-TBI, with the exception of the maximum speed achievable on the accelerating Rotarod, as well as rearing in the open field. PHY improved performance in the accelerating Rotarod at 1.6 and 3.2 μmol/kg/day (AChE activity 95 and 78% of control, respectively), however, higher doses induced progressive deterioration. No effect or worsening of outcomes was observed at all PHY doses for home cage activity, rearing, and horizontal ladder walking. Potential benefits of cholinesterase inhibition on locomotor function have to be weighed against the evidence of the narrow range of useful doses.

  16. Run don't walk: locomotor performance of geckos on wet substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Ohlemacher, Jocelyn; Knight, Ashley; Niewiarowski, Peter H

    2015-08-01

    The gecko adhesive system has been under particular scrutiny for over a decade, as the field has recently attracted attention for its application to bio-inspired design. However, little is known about how the adhesive system behaves in ecologically relevant conditions. Geckos inhabit a variety of environments, many of which are characterized by high temperature, humidity and rain. The van der Waals-based gecko adhesive system should be particularly challenged by wet substrates because water can disrupt the intimate contact necessary for adhesion. While a few previous studies have focused on the clinging ability of geckos on wet substrates, we tested a dynamic performance characteristic, sprint velocity. To better understand how substrate wettability and running orientation affect locomotor performance of multiple species on wet substrates, we measured average sprint velocity of five species of gecko on substrates that were either hydrophilic or intermediately wetting and oriented either vertically or horizontally. Surprisingly, we found no indication that wet substrates impact average sprint velocity over 1 m, and rather, in some species, sprint velocity was increased on wet substrates rather than reduced. When investigating physical characteristics and behavior that may be associated with running on wet substrates, such as total number of stops, slips and wet toes at the completion of a race, we found that there may be habitat-related differences between some species. Our results show that in general, unlike clinging and walking, geckos running along wet substrates suffer no significant loss in locomotor performance over short distances. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Ontogenetic scaling of locomotor kinetics and kinematics of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Jespers, Karin J; Wilson, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    Kinematic and kinetic parameters of running gait were investigated through growth in the ostrich, from two weeks up to 10 months of age, in order to investigate the effects of increasing body size. Ontogenetic scaling relationships were compared with published scaling relationships found to exist with increasing body size between species to determine whether dynamic similarity is maintained during growth. During the study, ostrich mass (M(b)) ranged from 0.7 kg to 108.8 kg. Morphological measurements showed that lengths scaled with positive allometry during growth (hip height proportional to M(b)(0.40); foot segment length proportional to M(b)(0.40); tarsometatarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.41); tibiotarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.38); femur length proportional to M(b)(0.37)), significantly exceeding the close to geometric scaling observed between mammalian and avian species of increasing body size. Scaling of kinematic variables largely agreed with predicted scaling for increasing size and demonstrated relationships close to dynamic similarity and, as such, ontogenetic scaling of locomotor parameters was similar to that observed with increasing body mass between species. However, the ways in which these scaling trends were achieved were very different, with ontogenetic scaling of locomotor mechanics largely resulting from simple scaling of the limb segments rather than postural changes, likely to be due to developmental constraints. Small deviations from dynamic similarity of kinematic parameters and a reduction in the predicted scaling of limb stiffness (proportional to M(b)(0.59)) were found to be accounted for by the positive allometric scaling of the limb during growth.

  18. Modality-specific, multitask locomotor deficits persist despite good recovery after a traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Bradford J; Cantin, Jean-François; Swaine, Bonnie; Duchesneau, Guylaine; Doyon, Julien; Dumas, Denyse; Fait, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    To study the effects of sensory modality of simultaneous tasks during walking with and without obstacles after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Group comparison study. Gait analysis laboratory within a postacute rehabilitation facility. Volunteer sample (N=18). Persons with moderate to severe TBI (n=11) (9 men, 3 women; age, 37.56+/-13.79 y) and a comparison group (n=7) of subjects without neurologic problems matched on average for body mass index and age (4 men, 3 women; age, 39.19+/-17.35 y). Not applicable. Magnitudes and variability for walking speeds, foot clearance margins (ratio of foot clearance distance to obstacle height), and response reaction times (both direct and as a relative cost because of obstacle avoidance). The TBI group had well-recovered walking speeds and a general ability to avoid obstacles. However, these subjects did show lower trail limb toe clearances (P=.003) across all conditions. Response reaction times to the Stroop tasks were longer in general for the TBI group (P=.017), and this group showed significant increases in response reaction times for the visual modality within the more challenging obstacle avoidance task that was not observed for control subjects. A measure of multitask costs related to differences in response reaction times between obstructed and unobstructed trials also only showed increased attention costs for the visual over the auditory stimuli for the TBI group (P=.002). Mobility is a complex construct, and the present results provide preliminary findings that, even after good locomotor recovery, subjects with moderate to severe TBI show residual locomotor deficits in multitasking. Furthermore, our results suggest that sensory modality is important, and greater multitask costs occur during sensory competition (ie, visual interference).

  19. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  20. The Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory and Limb Locomotor Muscle Deoxygenation During Exercise with Resistive Inspiratory Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L A; Tecklenburg-Lund, S L; Chapman, R; Shei, R-J; Wilhite, D P; Mickleborough, T

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 min. Locomotor and respiratory muscle oxy-, deoxy-, and total-haemoglobin and myoglobin concentration was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Locomotor muscle deoxygenation changes from 80%  ˙VO2peak to heavy inspiratory loading were significantly reduced pre- to post-training from 4.3±5.6 µM to 2.7±4.7 µM. Respiratory muscle deoxygenation was also significantly reduced during the heavy inspiratory loading trial (4.6±3.5 µM to 1.9±1.5 µM) post-training. There was no significant difference in oxy-, deoxy-, or total-haemoglobin and myoglobin during any of the other loading trials, from pre- to post-training, in either group. After inspiratory muscle training, highly-trained cyclists exhibited decreased locomotor and respiratory muscle deoxygenation during exercise with heavy inspiratory loading. These data suggest that inspiratory muscle training reduces oxygen extraction by the active respiratory and limb muscles, which may reflect changes in respiratory and locomotor muscle oxygen delivery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Role of spared pathways in locomotor recovery after body-weight-supported treadmill training in contused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Murray, Marion; Lemay, Michel; Houle, John

    2011-12-01

    Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT)-related locomotor recovery has been shown in spinalized animals. Only a few animal studies have demonstrated locomotor recovery after BWSTT in an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) model, such as contusion injury. The contribution of spared descending pathways after BWSTT to behavioral recovery is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate locomotor recovery in contused rats after BWSTT, and to study the role of spared pathways in spinal plasticity after BWSTT. Forty-eight rats received a contusion, a transection, or a contusion followed at 9 weeks by a second transection injury. Half of the animals in the three injury groups were given BWSTT for up to 8 weeks. Kinematics and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test assessed behavioral improvements. Changes in Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) rate depression property, soleus muscle mass, and sprouting of primary afferent fibers were also evaluated. BWSTT-contused animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery, improved H-reflex properties, reduced muscle atrophy, and decreased sprouting of small caliber afferent fibers. BBB scores were not improved by BWSTT. Untrained contused rats that received a transection exhibited a decrease in kinematic parameters immediately after the transection; in contrast, trained contused rats did not show an immediate decrease in kinematic parameters after transection. This suggests that BWSTT with spared descending pathways leads to neuroplasticity at the lumbar spinal level that is capable of maintaining locomotor activity. Discontinuing training after the transection in the trained contused rats abolished the improved kinematics within 2 weeks and led to a reversal of the improved H-reflex response, increased muscle atrophy, and an increase in primary afferent fiber sprouting. Thus continued training may be required for maintenance of the recovery. Transected animals had no effect of BWSTT, indicating that in the absence of spared pathways this

  2. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Enríquez Denton, Manuel; Stecina, Katinka; Kirkwood, Peter A; Hultborn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2) and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs) in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves), with a slow rate (periods 9-104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD). Profound modulation, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two animals, LDPs were common, and the occurrence of the locomotor drive was gated by the Mayer wave cycle, sometimes in alternation with the respiratory drive. Other interactions between the two drives involved respiration providing leading events, including co-activation of flexors and extensors during post-inspiration or a locomotor drive gated or sometimes entrained by respiration. We conclude that the respiratory drive in hindlimb motoneurons is transmitted via elements of the locomotor central pattern generator. The rapid modulation related to Mayer waves suggests the existence of a more direct and specific descending modulatory control than has previously been demonstrated.

  3. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze

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    Carlos M. Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg. Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 g/mL but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid.

  4. The roles of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the effects of 5-MeO-DMT on locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Thomson, Kirsten; Ruiz, Erbert M; Masten, Virginia; Buell, Mahalah; Geyer, Mark A

    2006-12-01

    The hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is structurally similar to other indoleamine hallucinogens such as LSD. The present study examined the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in rats using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), which enables analyses of patterns of locomotor activity and exploration, and the prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) paradigm. A series of interaction studies using the serotonin (5-HT)(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg), the 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 (1.0 mg/kg), and the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SER-082 (0.5 mg/kg) were performed to assess the respective contributions of these receptors to the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg) in the BPM and PPI paradigms. 5-MeO-DMT decreased locomotor activity, investigatory behavior, the time spent in the center of the BPM chamber, and disrupted PPI. All of these effects were antagonized by WAY-100635 pretreatment. M100907 pretreatment failed to attenuate any of these effects, while SER-082 pretreatment only antagonized the PPI disruption produced by 5-MeO-DMT. While the prevailing view was that the activation of 5-HT(2) receptors is solely responsible for hallucinogenic drug effects, these results support a role for 5-HT(1A) receptors in the effects of the indoleamine hallucinogen 5-MeO-DMT on locomotor activity and PPI in rats.

  5. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  6. Gait quality is improved by locomotor training in individuals with SCI regardless of training approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Hoeve Nienke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While various body weight supported locomotor training (BWSLT approaches are reported in the literature for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI, none have evaluated outcomes in terms of gait quality. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in measures of gait quality associated with four different BWSLT approaches in individuals with chronic motor-incomplete SCI, and to identify how gait parameters differed from those of non-disabled (ND individuals. Methods Data were analyzed from 51 subjects with SCI who had been randomized into one of four BWSLT groups: treadmill with manual assistance (TM, treadmill with electrical stimulation (TS, overground with electrical stimulation (OG, treadmill with locomotor robot (LR. Subjects with SCI performed a 10-meter kinematic walk test before and after 12 weeks of training. Ten ND subjects performed the test under three conditions: walking at preferred speed, at speed comparable to subjects with SCI, and with a walker at comparable speed. Six kinematic gait quality parameters were calculated including: cadence, step length, stride length, symmetry index, intralimb coordination, and timing of knee extension. Results In subjects with SCI, all training approaches were associated with improvements in gait quality. After training, subjects with SCI walked at higher cadence and had longer step and stride lengths. No significant differences were found among training groups, however there was an interaction effect indicating that step and stride length improved least in the LR group. Compared to when walking at preferred speed, gait quality of ND subjects was significantly different when walking at speeds comparable to those of the subjects with SCI (both with and without a walker. Post training, gait quality measures of subjects with SCI were more similar to those of ND subjects. Conclusion BWSLT leads to improvements in gait quality (values closer to ND subjects regardless of

  7. Effect of Error Augmentation on Brain Activation and Motor Learning of a Complex Locomotor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marchal-Crespo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors—error amplification and random force disturbance—and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task. Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the experiment with a robotic stepper (MARCOS in a 1.5 T MR scanner. The task consisted in tracking a Lissajous figure presented on a display by coordinating the legs in a gait-like movement pattern. Behavioral results showed that training without perturbations enhanced motor learning in initially less skilled subjects, while error amplification benefited better-skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, hampered transfer of learning. Randomly disturbing forces induced learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because the unexpected forces increased subjects' attention. Functional MRI revealed main effects of training strategy and skill level during training. A main effect of training strategy was seen in brain regions typically associated with motor control and learning, such as, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, intraparietal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Especially, random disturbance and no perturbation lead to stronger brain activation in similar brain regions than error amplification. Skill-level related effects were observed in the IPS, in parts of the superior parietal lobe (SPL, i.e., precuneus, and temporal cortex. These neuroimaging findings

  8. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...... these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...... parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ~4-6 h prior...

  10. The effect of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory and limb locomotor muscle deoxygenation during exercise with resistive inspiratory loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Louise; Tecklenburg-Lund, S.L.; Chapman, R.; Shei, R.J.; Wilhite, D.P.; Mickleborough, T.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 mi...

  11. Interactions between modafinil and cocaine during the induction of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice: Implications for addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2012-01-01

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug effective at enhancing alertness and attention with a variety of approved and off-label applications. The mechanism of modafinil is not well understood but initial studies indicated a limited abuse potential. A number of recent publications, however, have shown that modafinil can be rewarding under certain conditions. The present study assessed the reinforcing properties of modafinil using conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice. Exp...

  12. Co-variation of depressive mood and locomotor dynamics evaluated by ecological momentary assessment in healthy humans.

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    Jinhyuk Kim

    Full Text Available Computerized ecological momentary assessment (EMA is widely accepted as a "gold standard" method for capturing momentary symptoms repeatedly experienced in daily life. Although many studies have addressed the within-individual temporal variations in momentary symptoms compared with simultaneously measured external criteria, their concurrent associations, specifically with continuous physiological measures, have not been rigorously examined. Therefore, in the present study, we first examined the variations in momentary symptoms by validating the associations among self-reported symptoms measured simultaneously (depressive mood, anxious mood, and fatigue and then investigated covariant properties between the symptoms (especially, depressive mood and local statistics of locomotor activity as the external objective criteria obtained continuously. Healthy subjects (N = 85 from three different populations (adolescents, undergraduates, and office workers wore a watch-type computer device equipped with EMA software for recording the momentary symptoms experienced by the subjects. Locomotor activity data were also continuously obtained by using an actigraph built into the device. Multilevel modeling analysis confirmed convergent associations by showing positive correlations among momentary symptoms. The increased intermittency of locomotor activity, characterized by a combination of reduced activity with occasional bursts, appeared concurrently with the worsening of depressive mood. Further, this association remained statistically unchanged across groups regardless of group differences in age, lifestyle, and occupation. These results indicate that the temporal variations in the momentary symptoms are not random but reflect the underlying changes in psychophysiological variables in daily life. In addition, our findings on the concurrent changes in depressive mood and locomotor activity may contribute to the continuous estimation of changes in depressive

  13. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

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    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  14. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity is increased by prior handling in adolescent but not adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Antoniette M.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition that is associated with increased levels of stress and a heightened propensity to initiate drug use. Neuronal development is still occurring during this transitional period, which includes the continued development of the dopamine system during the adolescent period. In the present study, the effects of pre-test handling on cocaine-induced locomotor activity were investigated among female adolescent and young adult rats upon presentation to a novel enviro...

  15. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, G.A.P.; Kummerle, A.E.; Antunes, F.; Fraga, C.A.M.; Barreiro, E.J.; Zapata-Sudo, G.; Sudo, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD 50 ) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia

  16. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G.A.P. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kummerle, A.E. [Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese de Substâncias Bioativas (LASSBio), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Antunes, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fraga, C.A.M.; Barreiro, E.J. [Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese de Substâncias Bioativas (LASSBio), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zapata-Sudo, G.; Sudo, R.T. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD{sub 50}) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia.

  17. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and locomotor activity in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus W. Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity

  18. The possible interaction of dopamine system in nucleus accumbens shell and glutamate system of prelimbic region on locomotor activity in rat

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    Hatam Ahmadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nucleus accumbens (NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems are involved in regulating of locomotor activity behaviors. This study has investigated the interaction of NAc shell dopaminergic system and prelimbic glutamatergic systems in regulating locomotor activity and related parameters. Methods: The aim of this study was the effect the drugs injection interaction in the brain of male Wistar rats on locomotor activity and related parameters, in the order of this purpose, open field apparatus that automatically recorded locomotor activity was employed. Unilateral intra-cerebral injection of drugs was done. Results: Unilateral intra-prelimbic injection of D-AP7 (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid= NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.25, 0.5 and 1μg/μl did not alter locomotor activity behaviors. However, infusion of NMDA (0.9μg/μl in this region increased locomotor activity (P<0.01, whereas decreased rearing (P<0.01 and grooming (P<0.01 which was blocked by D-AP7 (0.25μg/μl (P<0.01. Moreover, unilateral infusion of SCH23390 (dopamine D1 receptor antagonist; 0.25, 0.5 and 1μg/μl into the left NAc shell did not alter locomotor activity. However, injection of SKF38393 (dopamine D1 receptor agonist; 4μg/μl into the left NAc shell increased locomotor activity (P<0.05 which was blocked by SCH23390 (0.25μg/μl (P<0.01. Furthermore, the subthreshold dose infusion of SCH23390 (0.25μg/μl into the left NAc shell reduced the effect of intra- prelimbic NMDA on locomotor activity (P<0.01. In addition, intra-NAc shell administration of the subthreshold dose of SKF38393 (1μg/μl potentiated the middle dose (P<0.05, whereas decreased the higher dose of intra-left prelimbic NMDA response (P<0.05 on locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results suggested a modulatory effect of the NAc shell dopaminergic system on increased locomotor activity by activating glutamate system in prelimbic.

  19. Toxicity of organophosphates on morphology and locomotor behavior in brine shrimp, Artemia salina.

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    Venkateswara Rao, J; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Sridhar, V; Usman, P K

    2007-08-01

    The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides--acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos (MCP), and profenofos (PF)--was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to be the most toxic and also to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the effect of these pesticides on locomotor behavior (swimming speed) and morphologic differences were studied in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. The in vivo effect of these insecticides on acetylcholinesterase (Enzyme commission number (EC 3.1.1.7) activity was also determined in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. Maximum percent decrease in their swimming speed and significant morphologic alterations were noticed in CPP-exposed brine shrimps. The order of toxicity was CPP > PF > MCP > ACEP in all the parameters studied.

  20. Locomotor pattern fails to predict foramen magnum angle in rodents, strepsirrhine primates, and marsupials.

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    Ruth, Aidan A; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Foramen magnum position has traditionally been used as an indicator of bipedality because it has been thought to favor a more "balanced" skull position. Here, we analyzed foramen magnum angle (FMA) in relation to locomotion in three mammalian orders that include bipedal or orthograde species in addition to quadrupedal or pronograde species. In marsupials and strepsirrhine primates, we found that there is no relationship between locomotor pattern and FMA. In rodents, we found that there is a significant difference in FMA between bipedal and quadrupedal rodents. However, when these species are analyzed in the context of enlarged auditory bullae, this relationship is no longer significant. Additionally, we find a significant relationship between relative brain size and FMA in strepsirrhine primates. Taken together, these data indicate that several developmental modules of the cranium influence FMA, but that locomotion does not. We caution that basicranial evolution is a complex phenomenon that must be explored in the context of each taxon's unique evolutionary and developmental history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Corticospinal Reorganization after Locomotor Training in a Person with Motor Incomplete Paraplegia

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    Nupur Hajela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent plasticity as a result of reorganization of neural circuits is a fundamental characteristic of the central nervous system that occurs simultaneously in multiple sites. In this study, we established the effects of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the primary motor cortex region on the tibialis anterior (TA long-latency flexion reflex. Neurophysiological tests were conducted before and after robotic gait training in one person with a motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI while at rest and during robotic-assisted stepping. The TA flexion reflex was evoked following nonnociceptive sural nerve stimulation and was conditioned by TMS at 0.9 TA motor evoked potential resting threshold at conditioning-test intervals that ranged from 70 to 130 ms. Subthreshold TMS induced a significant facilitation on the TA flexion reflex before training, which was reversed to depression after training with the subject seated at rest. During stepping, corticospinal facilitation of the flexion reflex at early and midstance phases before training was replaced with depression at early and midswing followed by facilitation at late swing after training. These results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence that locomotor training reorganizes the cortical control of spinal interneuronal circuits that generate patterned motor activity, modifying spinal reflex function, in the chronic lesioned human spinal cord.

  2. CD146 deletion in the nervous system impairs appetite, locomotor activity and spatial learning in mice.

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    Tao Tu

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs are crucial effectors for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Mutations in human CAM genes are linked to brain disorders and psychological diseases, and CAM knockout mice always exhibit similar behavioral abnormalities. CD146 is a CAM of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with Neurite Outgrowth Factor and involved in neurite extension in vitro. However, little is known about its in vivo function in the nervous system. In this study, we used a murine CD146 nervous system knockout (CD146(ns-ko model. We found that the brains of some CD146(ns-ko mice were malformed with small olfactory bulbs. CD146(ns-ko mice exhibited lower body weights and smaller food intake when compared with wild type littermates. Importantly, behavior tests revealed that CD146(ns-ko mice exhibited significant decreased locomotor activity and impaired capacity for spatial learning and memory. Our results demonstrate that CD146 is important for mammalian nervous system development and proper behavior patterns.

  3. Locomotor Adaptability Task Promotes Intense and Task-Appropriate Output From the Paretic Leg During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Neptune, Richard R; Behrman, Andrea L; Kautz, Steven A

    2016-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that participants with stroke will exhibit appropriate increase in muscle activation of the paretic leg when taking a long step with the nonparetic leg compared to during steady-state walking, with a consequent increase in biomechanical output and symmetry during the stance phase of the modified gait cycle. Single-session observational study. Clinical research center in an outpatient hospital setting. Adults with chronic poststroke hemiparesis (N=15). Participants walked on an instrumented treadmill while kinetic, kinematic, and electromyogram data were recorded. Participants performed steady-state walking and a separate trial of the long-step adaptability task in which they were instructed to intermittently take a longer step with the nonparetic leg. Forward progression, propulsive force, and neuromuscular activation during walking. Participants performed the adaptability task successfully and demonstrated greater neuromuscular activation in appropriate paretic leg muscles, particularly increased activity in paretic plantarflexor muscles. Propulsion and forward progression by the paretic leg were also increased. These findings support the assertion that the nonparetic long-step task may be effective for use in poststroke locomotor rehabilitation to engage the paretic leg and promote recovery of walking. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spreadsheet software to assess locomotor disability to quantify permanent physical impairment

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    Sunderraj Ellur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Assessment of physical disability is an important duty of a plastic surgeon especially for those of us who are in an institutional practice. Aim: The Gazette of India notification gives a guideline regarding the assessment of the disability. However, the calculations as per the guidelines are time consuming. In this article, a spreadsheet program which is based on the notification is presented. The aim of this article is to design a spreadsheet program which is simple, reproducible, user friendly, less time consuming and accurate. Materials and Methods: This spreadsheet program was designed using the Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet program was designed on the basis of the guidelines in the Gazette of India Notification regarding the assessment of Locomotor Disability to Quantify Permanent Physical Impairment. Two representative examples are presented to help understand the application of this program. Results: Two spreadsheet programs, one for upper limb and another for the lower limb are presented. The representative examples show the accuracy of the program to match the results of the traditional method of calculation. Conclusion: A simple spreadsheet program can be designed to assess disability as per the Gazette of India Notification. This program is easy to use and is accurate.

  5. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

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    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:21163582

  6. Effects of Egg Incubation Methods on Locomotor Performances of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Uzair Rusli; Joseph, J.; Hock-Chark, L.; Zainudin Bachol

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different incubation methods on crawling and swimming ability of post-emergence green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings at Cherating (Kuantan, Pahang) and Chagar Hutang (Pulau Redang, Terengganu) Turtle Sanctuary were analysed during nesting season in 2009. Mean crawling speed of hatchlings incubated in styrofoam box, beach hatchery and in situ were at 0.042±0.008, 0.136±0.026 and 0.143±0.045 m/ s, respectively. Crawling performance of hatclings from styrofoam box can be improved by keeping them for at least 48 h after their emergence. For swimming performance, all types of incubation methods showed significant differences in mean power-stroke rate during their early swimming effort ranging at 93-114 strokes/ min. However, no correlation was found between morphological characteristics of hatchlings and swimming performance. The results from this study may give different perspective in evaluating hatchling production, which is in terms of hatchling morphological characteristics and their locomotor performance. (author)

  7. Triiodothyronine (T3) action on aquatic locomotor behavior during metamorphosis of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.

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    Fernández-Mongil, Marisabel; Venza, Celia J; Rivera, Amelia; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A; Burggren, Warren; Rojas, Legier V

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones--particularly triiodothyronine, T3--play a critical role in the morphological transformations comprising metamorphosis in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Traditional staging criteria for anuran larvae incompletely distinguish physiological and behavioral changes during growth. We therefore first developed a new parameter to describe larval growth, the developmental index (DI), which is simply the ratio between the tail length of the larva and its head diameter. Using the DI we were able to identify two distinct populations classifying the larvae during growth along a continuous linear scale with a cutoff value of DI at 2.8. Classification based on the DI, used in this study, proved an effective complement to existing classifications based on developmental staging into pre- or pro-metamorphic stages. Exposure to T3 in the water induced a rapid (beginning within 5 min) and significant decrease (approximately 20-40%) in locomotor activity, measured as total distance traversed and velocity. The largest decrease occurred in more developed larvae (DI or =2.8). We discuss the significance of the possible role of an apoptotic volume decrease at the level of the neuromuscular junction.

  8. New insights on equid locomotor evolution from the lumbar region of fossil horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katrina Elizabeth

    2016-04-27

    The specialization of equid limbs for cursoriality is a classic case of adaptive evolution, but the role of the axial skeleton in this famous transition is not well understood. Extant horses are extremely fast and efficient runners, which use a stiff-backed gallop with reduced bending of the lumbar region relative to other mammals. This study tests the hypothesis that stiff-backed running in horses evolved in response to evolutionary increases in body size by examining lumbar joint shape from a broad sample of fossil equids in a phylogenetic context. Lumbar joint shape scaling suggests that stability of the lumbar region does correlate with size through equid evolution. However, scaling effects were dampened in the posterior lumbar region, near the sacrum, which suggests strong selection for sagittal mobility in association with locomotor-respiratory coupling near the lumbosacral joint. I hypothesize that small-bodied fossil horses may have used a speed-dependent running gait, switching between stiff-backed and flex-backed galloping as speed increased. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Mouse short- and long-term locomotor activity analyzed by video tracking software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; McNeil, Leslie K; Freund, Gregory G

    2013-06-20

    Locomotor activity (LMA) is a simple and easily performed measurement of behavior in mice and other rodents. Improvements in video tracking software (VTS) have allowed it to be coupled to LMA testing, dramatically improving specificity and sensitivity when compared to the line crossings method with manual scoring. In addition, VTS enables high-throughput experimentation. While similar to automated video tracking used for the open field test (OFT), LMA testing is unique in that it allows mice to remain in their home cage and does not utilize the anxiogenic stimulus of bright lighting during the active phase of the light-dark cycle. Traditionally, LMA has been used for short periods of time (mins), while longer movement studies (hrs-days) have often used implanted transmitters and biotelemetry. With the option of real-time tracking, long-, like short-term LMA testing, can now be conducted using videography. Long-term LMA testing requires a specialized, but easily constructed, cage so that food and water (which is usually positioned on the cage top) does not obstruct videography. Importantly, videography and VTS allows for the quantification of parameters, such as path of mouse movement, that are difficult or unfeasible to measure with line crossing and/or biotelemetry. In sum, LMA testing coupled to VTS affords a more complete description of mouse movement and the ability to examine locomotion over an extended period of time.

  10. Lumbar Myeloid Cell Trafficking into Locomotor Networks after Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christopher N.; Norden, Diana M.; Faw, Timothy D.; Deibert, Rochelle; S.Wohleb, Eric; Sheridan, John F.; P.Godbout, Jonathan; Basso, D. Michele

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes inflammation along the neuroaxis that jeopardizes plasticity, intrinsic repair and recovery. While inflammation at the injury site is well-established, less is known within remote spinal networks. The presence of bone marrow-derived immune (myeloid) cells in these areas may further impede functional recovery. Previously, high levels of the gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) occurred within the lumbar enlargement after thoracic SCI and impeded activity-dependent recovery. Since SCI-induced MMP-9 potentially increases vascular permeability, myeloid cell infiltration may drive inflammatory toxicity in locomotor networks. Therefore, we examined neurovascular reactivity and myeloid cell infiltration in the lumbar cord after thoracic SCI. We show evidence of region-specific recruitment of myeloid cells into the lumbar but not cervical region. Myeloid infiltration occurred with concomitant increases in chemoattractants (CCL2) and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) around lumbar vasculature 24 hours and 7 days post injury. Bone marrow GFP chimeric mice established robust infiltration of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells into the lumbar gray matter 24 hours after SCI. This cell infiltration occurred when the blood-spinal cord barrier was intact, suggesting active recruitment across the endothelium. Myeloid cells persisted as ramified macrophages at 7 days post injury in parallel with increased inhibitory GAD67 labeling. Importantly, macrophage infiltration required MMP-9. PMID:27191729

  11. Locomotor activity and the expression of orexin A and orexin B in aged female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Selva L; Brown, Donald I; Eghlidi, Dominique H; Kohama, Steven G; Urbanski, Henryk F

    2017-02-01

    Reduced activity has been linked to age-associated physiological changes but the underlying root cause is unclear. The goal of the present study was to compare the orexin neuronal system of old (23-29 years) female rhesus macaques with either active or sedentary 24-hour locomotor activity patterns. Using immunohistochemistry, we counted the number of orexin A and orexin B neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area of each animal. Overall, we observed no difference in the distribution pattern or number of either orexin A or orexin B immune-positive neurons between animals in the 2 groups. Thus, reduced activity in the elderly is unlikely to stem from a loss of orexin neuronal perikarya in the lateral hypothalamic area. This, however, does not rule out the possibility that the reduced activity stems from reduced orexin neuronal projections to arousal centers of the brain, such as the locus coeruleus, or from attenuated release of orexin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assaying locomotor, learning, and memory deficits in Drosophila models of neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yousuf O; Escala, Wilfredo; Ruan, Kai; Zhai, R Grace

    2011-03-11

    Advances in genetic methods have enabled the study of genes involved in human neurodegenerative diseases using Drosophila as a model system. Most of these diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease are characterized by age-dependent deterioration in learning and memory functions and movement coordination. Here we use behavioral assays, including the negative geotaxis assay and the aversive phototaxic suppression assay (APS assay), to show that some of the behavior characteristics associated with human neurodegeneration can be recapitulated in flies. In the negative geotaxis assay, the natural tendency of flies to move against gravity when agitated is utilized to study genes or conditions that may hinder locomotor capacities. In the APS assay, the learning and memory functions are tested in positively-phototactic flies trained to associate light with aversive bitter taste and hence avoid this otherwise natural tendency to move toward light. Testing these trained flies 6 hours post-training is used to assess memory functions. Using these assays, the contribution of any genetic or environmental factors toward developing neurodegeneration can be easily studied in flies.

  13. Microgeographic variation in locomotor traits among lizards in a human-built environment

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    Colin Donihue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microgeographic variation in fitness-relevant traits may be more common than previously appreciated. The fitness of many vertebrates is directly related to their locomotor capacity, a whole-organism trait integrating behavior, morphology, and physiology. Because locomotion is inextricably related to context, I hypothesized that it might vary with habitat structure in a wide-ranging lizard, Podarcis erhardii, found in the Greek Cyclade Islands. I compared lizard populations living on human-built rock walls, a novel habitat with complex vertical structure, with nearby lizard populations that are naive to human-built infrastructure and live in flat, loose-substrate habitat. I tested for differences in morphology, behavior, and performance. Lizards from built sites were larger and had significantly (and relatively longer forelimbs and hindlimbs. The differences in hindlimb morphology were especially pronounced for distal components—the foot and longest toe. These morphologies facilitated a significant behavioral shift in jumping propensity across a rocky experimental substrate. I found no difference in maximum velocity between these populations; however, females originating from wall sites potentially accelerated faster over the rocky experimental substrate. The variation between these closely neighboring populations suggests that the lizards inhabiting walls have experienced a suite of trait changes enabling them to take advantage of the novel habitat structure created by humans.

  14. Locomotor adaptations in Plio-Pleistocene large carnivores from the Italian Peninsula: Palaeoecological implications

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    Carlo MELORO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian carnivores are rarely considered for environmental reconstructions because they are extremely adaptable and their geographic range is usually large. However, the functional morphology of carnivore long bones can be indicative of locomotor behaviour as well as adaptation to specific kind of habitats. Here, different long bone ratios belonging to a subsample of extant large carnivores are used to infer palaeoecology of a comparative sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossils belonging to Italian paleo-communities. A multivariate long bone shape space reveals similarities between extant and fossil carnivores and multiple logistic regression models suggest that specific indices (the brachial and the Mt/F can be applied to predict adaptations to grassland and tropical biomes. These functional indices exhibit also a phylogenetic signal to different degree. The brachial index is a significant predictor of adaptations to tropical biomes when phylogeny is taken into account, while Mt/F is not correlated anymore to habitat adaptations. However, the proportion of grassland-adapted carnivores in Italian paleo-communities exhibits a negative relationship with mean oxygen isotopic values, which are indicative of past climatic oscillations. As climate became more unstable during the Ice Ages, large carnivore guilds from the Italian peninsula were invaded by tropical/closed-adapted species. These species take advantage of the temperate forest cover that was more spread after 1.0 Ma than in the initial phase of the Quaternary (2.0 Ma when the climate was more arid [Current Zoology 57 (3: 269–283, 2011].

  15. The effects of variable practice on locomotor adaptation to a novel asymmetric gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, Jacob W; Hahn, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of specific practice on motor learning of predictive balance control during novel bipedal gait. This information could provide an insight into how the direction and magnitude of predictive errors during acquisition of a novel gait task influence transfer of balance control, as well as yield a practice protocol for the restoration of balance for those with locomotor impairments. This study examined the effect of a variable practice paradigm on transfer of a novel asymmetric gait pattern in able-bodied individuals. Using a split-belt treadmill, one limb was driven at a constant velocity (constant limb) and the other underwent specific changes in velocity (variable limb) during practice according to one of three prescribed practice paradigms: serial, where the variable limb velocity increased linearly; random blocked, where variable limb underwent random belt velocity changes every 20 strides; and random practice, where the variable limb underwent random step-to-step changes in velocity. Random practice showed the highest balance control variability during acquisition compared to serial and random blocked practice which demonstrated the best transfer of balance control on one transfer test. Both random and random blocked practices showed significantly less balance control variability during a second transfer test compared to serial practice. These results indicate that random blocked practice may be best for generalizability of balance control while learning a novel gait, perhaps, indicating that individuals who underwent this practice paradigm were able to find the most optimal balance control solution during practice.

  16. Locomotor behavior in mice following exposure to fission-neutron irradiation and trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, M.R.; Ledney, G.D.; Davis, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Locomotor activity, body weights, and food and water consumption were monitored in female mice for 35 d following a sublethal wound (W), burn (B), exposure to 3 Gray fission neutron radiation (R), or combination of these injuries: radiation-wound (RW) and radiation-burn (RB). Activity in groups W and RW was depressed immediately after injury, with recovery to control levels after 5 and 14 d, respectively. Mice that received radiation alone showed a biphasic response with decrements in activity on days 0-4 and 9-11. Groups B and RB exhibited depressed activity levels that differed significantly from control levels until day 17. Food intake was reduced for about 6 d in groups R, W, RW, and RB. Body weights decreased for 4 d in groups R, W, RW, and RB, but returned to control levels by the end of the experiment. Animals in group B did not show significant reduction in food intake or body weight. Water consumption was reduced for 5-6 d in groups R and RB and was increased in groups W, RW, and B. The data suggest that behavioral responses to fission-neutron radiation are exacerbated by tissue trauma

  17. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  18. Using step width to compare locomotor biomechanics between extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs and modern obligate bipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P J; Clemente, C J; Weems, R E; Graham, D F; Lamas, L P; Hutchinson, J R; Rubenson, J; Wilson, R S; Hocknull, S A; Barrett, R S; Lloyd, D G

    2017-07-01

    How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs locomoted is a subject of considerable interest, as is the manner in which it evolved on the line leading to birds. Fossil footprints provide the most direct evidence for answering these questions. In this study, step width-the mediolateral (transverse) distance between successive footfalls-was investigated with respect to speed (stride length) in non-avian theropod trackways of Late Triassic age. Comparable kinematic data were also collected for humans and 11 species of ground-dwelling birds. Permutation tests of the slope on a plot of step width against stride length showed that step width decreased continuously with increasing speed in the extinct theropods ( p < 0.001), as well as the five tallest bird species studied ( p < 0.01). Humans, by contrast, showed an abrupt decrease in step width at the walk-run transition. In the modern bipeds, these patterns reflect the use of either a discontinuous locomotor repertoire, characterized by distinct gaits (humans), or a continuous locomotor repertoire, where walking smoothly transitions into running (birds). The non-avian theropods are consequently inferred to have had a continuous locomotor repertoire, possibly including grounded running. Thus, features that characterize avian terrestrial locomotion had begun to evolve early in theropod history. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI: EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, P; Van de Crommert, H W A A; Rijken, H; van Kuppevelt, D H J M; Duysens, J

    2014-12-01

    Case series. To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Four participants with incomplete chronic SCI were included for BWS locomotor training; one AIS-C and three AIS-D (according to the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale or AIS). All were at least 5 years after injury. The SCI participants were trained three times a week for a period of 6 weeks. They improved their locomotor function in terms of higher walking speed, less BWS and less assistance needed. To investigate which treadmill speed for EMG assessment reflects the functional improvement most adequately, all participants were assessed weekly using the same two speeds (0.5 and 1.5 km h(-1), referred to as low and high speed, respectively) for 6 weeks. The change in root mean square EMG (RMS EMG) was assessed in four leg muscles; biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior. The changes in RMS EMG occurred at similar phases of the step cycle for both walking conditions, but these changes were larger when the treadmill was set at a low speed (0.5 km h(-1)). Improvement in gait is feasible with BWS treadmill training even long after injury. The EMG changes after treadmill training are more optimally expressed using a low rather than a high testing treadmill speed.

  20. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holem, Ryan R.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected

  1. Locomotor response to novelty correlates with differences in number and morphology of hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in rats.

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    Jerzemowska, Grażyna; Plucińska, Karolina; Kuśmierczak, Magda; Myślińska, Dorota; Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2014-02-01

    Individual differences in the intensity of locomotor response to a new environment (exploratory reaction) are generally used as a model to study individual vulnerability to stress and drug addiction. In the present work we studied the number, distribution and morphology of the hypothalamic cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+ cells) (immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining) in male Wistar rats divided based on high (HR), midline (MR) or low (LR) locomotor activity in response to novelty. Morphology and total number of TH+ cells were analyzed for A11-A15 dopaminergic groups. We found correlation between the total number of hypothalamic TH+ cells in the whole A11-A15 area and the locomotor activity. The differences were most pronounced in some of the hypothalamic nuclei, i.e. in the rostro-caudal extension of the A11, A12 and A14 structures, where the HR rats had a significantly higher number of TH+ cells in comparison to the MR and LR rats. Morphology analysis of TH+ cells showed HR/MR/LR differences in single cell area and perimeter and, to a lesser extent, in the other morphometric parameters such as length of the major and minor axes, or circularity factor. The results suggest that the behavioral traits which characterize the HR animals and are correlated with increased susceptibility to stress and propensity to develop drug addictions can be determined by the number, distribution, activity and perhaps the morphology of the cells in the dopaminergic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does skeletal anatomy reflect adaptation to locomotor patterns? Cortical and trabecular architecture in human and nonhuman anthropoids.

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    Shaw, Colin N; Ryan, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    Although the correspondence between habitual activity and diaphyseal cortical bone morphology has been demonstrated for the fore- and hind-limb long bones of primates, the relationship between trabecular bone architecture and locomotor behavior is less certain. If sub-articular trabecular and diaphyseal cortical bone morphology reflects locomotor patterns, this correspondence would be a valuable tool with which to interpret morphological variation in the skeletal and fossil record. To assess this relationship, high-resolution computed tomography images from both the humeral and femoral head and midshaft of 112 individuals from eight anthropoid genera (Alouatta, Homo, Macaca, Pan, Papio, Pongo, Trachypithecus, and Symphalangus) were analyzed. Within-bone (sub-articular trabeculae vs. mid-diaphysis), between-bone (forelimb vs. hind limb), and among-taxa relative distributions (femoral:humeral) were compared. Three conclusions are evident: (1) Correlations exists between humeral head sub-articular trabecular bone architecture and mid-humerus diaphyseal bone properties; this was not the case in the femur. (2) In contrast to comparisons of inter-limb diaphyseal bone robusticity, among all species femoral head trabecular bone architecture is significantly more substantial (i.e., higher values for mechanically relevant trabecular bone architectural features) than humeral head trabecular bone architecture. (3) Interspecific comparisons of femoral morphology relative to humeral morphology reveal an osteological "locomotor signal" indicative of differential use of the forelimb and hind limb within mid-diaphysis cortical bone geometry, but not within sub-articular trabecular bone architecture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Should body weight-supported treadmill training and robotic-assistive steppers for locomotor training trot back to the starting gate?

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    Dobkin, Bruce H; Duncan, Pamela W

    2012-05-01

    Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and robotic-assisted step training (RAST) have not, so far, led to better outcomes than a comparable dose of progressive over-ground training (OGT) for disabled persons with stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or cerebral palsy. The conceptual bases for these promising rehabilitation interventions had once seemed quite plausible, but the results of well-designed, randomized clinical trials have been disappointing. The authors reassess the underpinning concepts for BWSTT and RAST, which were derived from mammalian studies of treadmill-induced hind-limb stepping associated with central pattern generation after low thoracic spinal cord transection, as well as human studies of the triple crown icons of task-oriented locomotor training, massed practice, and activity-induced neuroplasticity. The authors retrospectively consider where theory and practice may have fallen short in the pilot studies that aimed to produce thoroughbred interventions. Based on these shortcomings, the authors move forward with recommendations for the future development of workhorse interventions for walking. In the absence of evidence for physical therapists to employ these strategies, however, BWSTT and RAST should not be provided routinely to disabled, vulnerable persons in place of OGT outside of a scientifically conducted efficacy trial.

  4. Elevations of endogenous kynurenic acid produce spatial working memory deficits.

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    Chess, Amy C; Simoni, Michael K; Alling, Torey E; Bucci, David J

    2007-05-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released by astrocytes and acts as a competitive antagonist of the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at high concentrations and as a noncompetitive antagonist of the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at low concentrations. The discovery of increased cortical KYNA levels in schizophrenia prompted the hypothesis that elevated KYNA concentration may underlie the working memory dysfunction observed in this population that has been attributed to altered glutamatergic and/or cholinergic transmission. The present study investigated the effect of elevated endogenous KYNA on spatial working memory function in rats. Increased KYNA levels were achieved with intraperitoneal administration of kynurenine (100 mg/kg), the precursor of KYNA synthesis. Rats were treated with either kynurenine or a vehicle solution prior to testing in a radial arm maze task at various delays. Elevations of endogenous KYNA resulted in increased errors in the radial arm maze. In separate experiments, assessment of locomotor activity in an open field and latency to retrieve food reward from one of the maze arms ruled out the possibility that deficits in the maze were attributable to altered locomotor activity or motivation to consume food. These results provide evidence that increased KYNA levels produce spatial working memory deficits and are among the first to demonstrate the influence of glia-derived molecules on cognitive function. The implications for psychopathological conditions such as schizophrenia are discussed.

  5. Blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors produces hyper-locomotion in cocaine pre-exposed rats by interactions with dopamine receptors.

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    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Jang, Ju Kyong; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2008-09-01

    It was previously reported that blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) produces hyper-locomotion in rats previously exposed to amphetamine, indicating that group II mGluRs are well positioned to modulate the expression of behavioral sensitization by amphetamine. The present study further examined the locomotor activating effects of specific blockade of these receptors after cocaine pre-exposures. First, rats were pre-exposed to seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). When challenged the next day with an injection of either saline or the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, IP), they produced hyper-locomotor activity, measured by infrared beam interruptions, to LY341495 compared to saline in a dose-dependent manner. Second, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). Three weeks later, when they were challenged with an injection of either saline or LY341495 (1.0mg/kg, IP), only rats pre-exposed to cocaine produced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 compared to saline. These effects, however, were not present when dopamine D1 (SCH23390; 5 or 10microg/kg), but not D2 (eticlopride; 10 or 50microg/kg), receptor antagonist was pre-injected, indicating that this cocaine-induced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 may be mediated in dopamine D1 receptor-dependent manner. These results suggest that group II mGluRs may be adapted to interact with dopaminergic neuronal signaling in mediating the sensitized locomotor activity produced by repeated cocaine pre-exposures.

  6. Attenuated food anticipatory activity and abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms in Rgs16 knockdown mice.

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    Naoto Hayasaka

    Full Text Available Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS are a multi-functional protein family, which functions in part as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs of G protein α-subunits to terminate G protein signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Rgs16 transcripts exhibit robust circadian rhythms both in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian light-entrainable oscillator (LEO of the hypothalamus, and in the liver. To investigate the role of RGS16 in the circadian clock in vivo, we generated two independent transgenic mouse lines using lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA targeting the Rgs16 mRNA. The knockdown mice demonstrated significantly shorter free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and reduced total activity as compared to the wild-type siblings. In addition, when feeding was restricted during the daytime, food-entrainable oscillator (FEO-driven elevated food-anticipatory activity (FAA observed prior to the scheduled feeding time was significantly attenuated in the knockdown mice. Whereas the restricted feeding phase-advanced the rhythmic expression of the Per2 clock gene in liver and thalamus in the wild-type animals, the above phase shift was not observed in the knockdown mice. This is the first in vivo demonstration that a common regulator of G protein signaling is involved in the two separate, but interactive circadian timing systems, LEO and FEO. The present study also suggests that liver and/or thalamus regulate the food-entrained circadian behavior through G protein-mediated signal transduction pathway(s.

  7. Locomotor adaptation to a powered ankle-foot orthosis depends on control method

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    Gordon Keith E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied human locomotor adaptation to powered ankle-foot orthoses with the intent of identifying differences between two different orthosis control methods. The first orthosis control method used a footswitch to provide bang-bang control (a kinematic control and the second orthosis control method used a proportional myoelectric signal from the soleus (a physiological control. Both controllers activated an artificial pneumatic muscle providing plantar flexion torque. Methods Subjects walked on a treadmill for two thirty-minute sessions spaced three days apart under either footswitch control (n = 6 or myoelectric control (n = 6. We recorded lower limb electromyography (EMG, joint kinematics, and orthosis kinetics. We compared stance phase EMG amplitudes, correlation of joint angle patterns, and mechanical work performed by the powered orthosis between the two controllers over time. Results During steady state at the end of the second session, subjects using proportional myoelectric control had much lower soleus and gastrocnemius activation than the subjects using footswitch control. The substantial decrease in triceps surae recruitment allowed the proportional myoelectric control subjects to walk with ankle kinematics close to normal and reduce negative work performed by the orthosis. The footswitch control subjects walked with substantially perturbed ankle kinematics and performed more negative work with the orthosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the choice of orthosis control method can greatly alter how humans adapt to powered orthosis assistance during walking. Specifically, proportional myoelectric control results in larger reductions in muscle activation and gait kinematics more similar to normal compared to footswitch control.

  8. Intermittent long-wavelength red light increases the period of daily locomotor activity in mice

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    Hughes Amanda M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We observed that a dim, red light-emitting diode (LED triggered by activity increased the circadian periods of lab mice compared to constant darkness. It is known that the circadian period of rats increases when vigorous wheel-running triggers full-spectrum lighting; however, spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors in mice suggests little or no response to red light. Thus, we decided to test the following hypotheses: dim red light illumination triggered by activity (LEDfb increases the circadian period of mice compared to constant dark (DD; covering the LED prevents the effect on period; and DBA2/J mice have a different response to LEDfb than C57BL6/J mice. Methods The irradiance spectra of the LEDs were determined by spectrophotometer. Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice was monitored by passive-infrared sensors and circadian period was calculated from the last 10 days under each light condition. For constant dark (DD, LEDs were switched off. For LED feedback (LEDfb, the red LED came on when the mouse was active and switched off seconds after activity stopped. For taped LED the red LED was switched on but covered with black tape. Single and multifactorial ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests were done. Results The circadian period of mice was longer under LEDfb than under DD. Blocking the light eliminated the effect. There was no difference in period change in response to LEDfb between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Conclusion An increase in mouse circadian period due to dim far-red light (1 lux at 652 nm exposure was unexpected. Since blocking the light stopped the response, sound from the sensor's electronics was not the impetus of the response. The results suggest that red light as background illumination should be avoided, and indicator diodes on passive infrared motion sensors should be switched off.

  9. Experimental hypothyroidism during pregnancy affects nociception and locomotor performance of offspring in rats.

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    Alves, I G N; da Cruz, K M L; Mota, C M D; de Santana, D S; Gaujac, D P; de Carvalho, V C B; Reis, L C; Sluka, K A; Quintans-Junior, L J; Antoniolli, A R; Desantana, J M; Badauê-Passos, D; de Santana-Filho, V J

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a crucial role in the development of several organic systems. An adequate support of maternal THs may be required to ensure a normal nociceptive function of offspring into adulthood. We investigated the impact of experimental gestational hypothyroidism (EGH) on nociceptive threshold and motor performance in the offspring at different post-natal days (PND) in both male and female rats. EGH was induced by the administration of 0.02% methimazole (MMI) in the drinking water from the ninth day of gestation until birth. The offspring from MMI-treated dams (OMTDs) or from water-treated dams (OWTDs) were assessed for thermal and mechanical nociception using the tail-flick test and von Frey filaments, respectively. Both rota-rod and grip strength were used to assess motor function. OMTD had reduced thermal (p<0.05) but not mechanical threshold at all studied ages (60 and 120 PND). Sixty-day-old OMTD presented reduced latency to the tail-flick test (p=0.01). Grip strength in 120-day-old OMTD was reduced (p<0.01). However, only male OMTD presented a lower locomotor performance on the rota-rod test when analysed on the 60th PND (p<0.01). EGH promotes hypersensitivity to noxious thermal but not mechanical stimulus. Moreover, motor force is similarly reduced in male and female OMTDs, whereas motor performance is reduced only in mature male OMTD, suggesting the presence of a protective factor in females. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  10. Locomotor adjustments for circumvention of an obstacle in the travel path.

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    Vallis, Lori Ann; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2003-10-01

    Independent living requires the navigation of a surrounding environment which is often cluttered with obstacles. When walking around an obstacle in the travel path, safe clearance requires some degree of body-segment reorientation. While body-segmental coordination strategies have been well studied for steering tasks that require moving the body in a new walking direction, it has never been established just what coordination strategies are used in different walking tasks. To address this issue, the current study was designed to investigate the timing of body segment coordination strategies and whole-body anticipatory locomotor adjustments employed when circumventing an obstacle placed in the travel path. Six healthy adults were asked to walk at their natural pace during unobstructed walking, as well as during avoidance to the right or left of a cylindrical obstacle (OBS) located in the travel path. Data analyzed were center of mass (COM) clearance from the OBS, forward velocity, step length and width, yaw angles of the head and trunk, roll angle of the trunk, and medial-lateral COM displacement. Onset of change in these variables from unobstructed walking was calculated as the time from OBS crossing. Avoidance involved two equally used strategies: lead limb close to or away from the OBS during the crossing step. Medial-lateral COM deviations were controlled by changes in step width without changes in trunk roll. There were no differences in the onset times of body segment reorientation for path deviation. These results are in contrast to previous studies on change in travel direction where the head segment initiates the body reorientation. Contrary to a steering task, circumventing an obstacle requires a different coordination for a transient change in COM trajectory with the underlying travel-direction maintained.

  11. EPOC and the energetics of brief locomotor activity in Mus domesticus.

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    Baker, E J; Gleeson, T T

    1998-02-01

    Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is normally not considered in determinations of the metabolic cost of activity. This approach overlooks an important energetic cost that an animal incurs as a result of activity. To examine the importance of EPOC, we determined how the energetic cost of locomotion was affected by activity of short duration and high intensity. Mice were run at maximum speed on a treadmill while enclosed in an open-flow respirometry system. After sprinting for 5, 15, 30, or 60 sec, each mouse was allowed to recover while remaining enclosed in the respirometry chamber. Exercise oxygen consumption (EOC), the volume of oxygen consumed during the exercise, increased linearly with sprint duration. EPOC was determined as the volume of oxygen consumed after exercise ended until rest was reached. EPOC volumes were found to be constant following 5-60 sec of activity and accounted for > or = 90% of the total metabolic cost. The average EPOC volume of all treatments was 0.76 +/- 0.456 ml O2.gm-1. The net cost of activity (Cact), which considers both EOC and EPOC, decreased as sprint duration increased and varied between 500 ml O2.g-1.km-1 for 5 sec to 30 ml O2.g-1.km-1 for 60 sec of activity. The values for Cact were 15 to 250 times higher than traditional estimates of locomotor costs. From these data, it can be concluded that (1) EPOC is not affected by short exercise durations; (2) EPOC is an important energetic consideration when exercise durations are short; and (3) the metabolic costs of brief, vigorous locomotion may be much higher than previously estimated.

  12. Locomotor-respiratory coupling in wheelchair racing athletes: a pilot study

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    Claudio ePerret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In wheelchair racing, respiratory muscles of the rib cage are concomitantly involved in non-ventilatory functions during wheelchair propulsion. However, the relationship between locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC: the ratio between push and breathing frequency, respiratory parameters and work efficiency is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LRC in wheelchair racers over different race distances. Methods: Eight trained and experienced wheelchair racers completed three time-trials over the distances of 400m, 800m and 5000m on a training roller in randomized order. During the time trials, ventilatory and gas exchange variables as well as push frequency were continu-ously registered to determine possible LRC strategies. Results: Four different coupling ratios were identified, namely 1:1; 2:1, 3:1 as well as a 1:1/2:1 alternating type, respectively. The 2:1 coupling was the most dominant type. The 1:1/2:1 alternating coupling type was found predominantly during the 400m time-trial. Longer race distances tended to result in an in-creased coupling ratio (e.g., from 1:1 towards 2:1, and an increase in coupling ratio towards a more efficient respiration was found over the 5000m distance. A significant correlation (r=0.80, p<0.05 between respiratory frequency and the respiratory equivalent for oxygen was found for the 400m and the 800m time-trials. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a higher coupling ratio indicates enhanced breathing work efficiency with a concomitant deeper and slower respiration during wheelchair racing. Thus, the selection of an appropriate LRC strategy may help to optimize wheelchair racing performance.

  13. Locomotor problems in broilers reared on new and re-used litter

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    Ibiara Correia Lima Almeida Paz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted to assess locomotor problems in broilers. Males and females broilers were used from two commercial strains reared on two different litter materials, new and re-used. In the first experiment (E1 rice husks and wood shavings were used as new litter, and in the second experiment (E2 the same litter was re-used. A batch of one-day-old chicks (2968 was reared randomly distributed in experimental pens, in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme (two genetic strains, two sexes and two litter materials. The same fodder and water were available to all birds ad libitum. Broilers locomotion problems were evaluated using the characteristics of gait score, incidence of valgus and varus, foot-pad lesions, degeneration, femoral, tibial dyschondroplasia, spondylolisthesis and breast calluses. The number of birds with high gait score was less than 30% in the two experiments. Males presented higher gait score (GS (28.46% GS 1 and 2 compared to females, 20.98%; greater incidence of angular deformities (26.62% with valgus compared to 14.71% of the female; and femoral degenerative joint lesions (70.83% in average, compared to 55.16% of the female, and the correlation between these traits varied from 0.18 to 0.87 (P<0.05. There was an increase of foot-pad lesions in re-used litter leading to poor welfare. The use of rice husks in deep litter for broiler production might be a viable alternative of wood shavings.

  14. Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of p38α Improves Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Naito, Yusuke; Tanaka, Kensuke; Yoshioka, Kento; Suzuki, Kenichi; Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Hagihara, Masahiko; Hatano, Masahiko; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2017-01-01

    One of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38α plays a crucial role in various inflammatory diseases and apoptosis of various types of cells. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological roles of p38α in spinal cord injury (SCI), using a mouse model. Lateral hemisection at T9 of the SC was performed in wild type (WT) and p38α+/- mice (p38α-/- showed embryonic lethality). p38α+/- mice showed a better functional recovery from SCI-associated paralyzed hindlimbs compared to WT mice at 7 days post-injury (dpi), which remained until 28 dpi (an end time point of monitoring the behavior). In histopathological analysis at 28 dpi, there was more axonal regeneration with remyelination on the caudal side of the lesion epicenter in p38α+/- mice than in WT mice. At 7 dpi, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lesion and expression of cytokines in the lesion were reduced in p38α+/- mice compared with WT mice. At the same time point, the number of apoptotic oligodendrocytes in the white matter at the caudal boarder of the lesion of p38α+/- mice was lower than that of WT mice. At 14 dpi, more neural and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the gray matter and white matter, respectively, were observed around the lesion epicenter of p38α+/- mice compared with the case of WT mice. At the same time point, astrocytic scar formation was less apparent in p38α+/- than in WT mice, while compaction of inflammatory immune cells associated with the wound contraction was more apparent in p38α+/- than in WT mice. Furthermore, we verified the effectiveness of oral administration of SB239063, a p38α inhibitor on the hindlimb locomotor recovery after SCI. These results suggest that p38α deeply contributes to the pathogenesis of SCI and that inhibition of p38α is a beneficial strategy to recovery from SCI. PMID:28261102

  15. Functional locomotor consequences of uneven forefeet for trot symmetry in individual riding horses.

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    Nathan Wiggers

    Full Text Available Left-right symmetrical distal limb conformation can be an important prerequisite for a successful performance, and it is often hypothesized that asymmetric or uneven feet are important enhancing factors for the development of lameness. On a population level, it has been demonstrated that uneven footed horses are retiring earlier from elite level competition, but the biomechanical consequences are not yet known. The objectives of this study were to compare the functional locomotor asymmetries of horses with uneven to those with even feet. Hoof kinetics and distal limb kinematics were collected from horses (n = 34 at trot. Dorsal hoof wall angle was used to classify horses as even or uneven (1.5° difference between forefeet respectively and individual feet as flat (55°. Functional kinetic parameters were compared between even and uneven forefeet using MANOVA followed by ANOVA. The relative influences of differences in hoof angle between the forefeet and of absolute hoof angle on functional parameters were analysed using multiple regression analysis (P<0.05. In horses with uneven feet, the side with the flatter foot showed a significantly larger maximal horizontal braking and vertical ground reaction force, a larger vertical fetlock displacement and a suppler fetlock spring. The foot with a steeper hoof angle was linearly correlated with an earlier braking-propulsion transition. The conformational differences between both forefeet were more important for loading characteristics than the individual foot conformation of each individual horse. The differences in vertical force and braking force between uneven forefeet could imply either an asymmetrical loading pattern without a pathological component or a subclinical lameness as a result of a pathological development in the steeper foot.

  16. Visuospatial tasks affect locomotor control more than nonspatial tasks in older people.

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    Menant, Jasmine C; Sturnieks, Daina L; Brodie, Matthew A D; Smith, Stuart T; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that visuospatial processing requiring working memory is particularly important for balance control during standing and stepping, and that limited spatial encoding contributes to increased interference in postural control dual tasks. However, visuospatial involvement during locomotion has not been directly determined. This study examined the effects of a visuospatial cognitive task versus a nonspatial cognitive task on gait speed, smoothness and variability in older people, while controlling for task difficulty. Thirty-six people aged ≥75 years performed three walking trials along a 20 m walkway under the following conditions: (i) an easy nonspatial task; (ii) a difficult nonspatial task; (iii) an easy visuospatial task; and (iv) a difficult visuospatial task. Gait parameters were computed from a tri-axial accelerometer attached to the sacrum. The cognitive task response times and percentage of correct answers during walking and seated trials were also computed. No significant differences in either cognitive task type error rates or response times were evident in the seated conditions, indicating equivalent task difficulty. In the walking trials, participants responded faster to the visuospatial tasks than the nonspatial tasks but at the cost of making significantly more cognitive task errors. Participants also walked slower, took shorter steps, had greater step time variability and less smooth pelvis accelerations when concurrently performing the visuospatial tasks compared with the nonspatial tasks and when performing the difficult compared with the easy cognitive tasks. Compared with nonspatial cognitive tasks, visuospatial cognitive tasks led to a slower, more variable and less smooth gait pattern. These findings suggest that visuospatial processing might share common networks with locomotor control, further supporting the hypothesis that gait changes during dual task paradigms are not simply due to limited attentional resources

  17. Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs.

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    Allen, Vivian; Bates, Karl T; Li, Zhiheng; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-05-02

    Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria. We use three-dimensional digital reconstruction to estimate body shape from skeletal dimensions for 17 archosaurs along the ancestral bird line, including the exceptionally preserved, feathered taxa Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Pengornis and Yixianornis, which represent key stages in the evolution of the avian body plan. Rather than a discrete transition from more-upright postures in the basal-most birds (Avialae) and their immediate outgroup deinonychosauria, our results support hypotheses of a gradual, stepwise acquisition of more-crouched limb postures across much of theropod evolution, although we find evidence of an accelerated change within the clade Maniraptora (birds and their closest relatives, such as deinonychosaurs). In addition, whereas reduction of the tail is widely accepted to be the primary morphological factor correlated with centre-of-mass position and, hence, evolution of hindlimb posture, we instead find that enlargement of the pectoral limb and several associated trends have a much stronger influence. Intriguingly, our support for the onset of accelerated morpho-functional trends within Maniraptora is closely correlated with the evolution of flight. Because we find that the evolution of enlarged forelimbs is strongly linked, via whole-body centre of mass, to hindlimb function during

  18. Exposição repetida à cafeína aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos Repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats

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    Ana Helena Paro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína e o femproporex são substâncias psicoestimulantes. O femproporex é muito utilizado no Brasil como anorexígeno enquanto a cafeína é amplamente consumida como constituinte regular da dieta. A administração repetida de psicoestimulantes induz sensibilização comportamental que se caracteriza pelo aumento progressivo dos seus efeitos locomotores. Pode ocorrer ainda sensibilização cruzada entre essas substâncias. Investigamos se a administração repetida de cafeína aumenta a locomoção induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos. Quarenta e oito ratos adolescentes (dia pós-natal 27 e 32 adultos (dia pós-natal 60 foram distribuídos em dois grupos que receberam injeção intra-peritoneal de 10,0 mg/kg de cafeína (CAF (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 ou salina (SAL (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 diariamente durante 10 dias. Três dias após a última injeção, cada grupo CAF ou SAL foi subdividido em dois subgrupos que receberam injeção i.p. de salina (SAL (1 mL/kg ou femproporex (FEM (2,0 mg/kg. Após as injeções, a atividade locomotora foi avaliada automaticamente em intervalos de 5 minutos durante 1 hora. Nossos resultados demonstraram que em ratos adolescentes e adultos o pré-tratamento com CAF aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pela administração aguda de FEM, sugerindo que a cafeína causa sensibilização aos efeitos locomotores desse derivado anfetamínico.Caffeine and femproporex are psychostimulants drugs widely consumed in Brazil. Behavioral sensitization is defined as an augmentation in the behavioral effect of a psychostimulant upon re-administration. Repeated administration of a psychostimulant produces behavioral sensitization to that drug and cross-sensitization to other drugs. We investigated whether repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Forty-eight adolescent (postnatal day 27 and 32 adult

  19. Anatomical and functional evidence for trace amines as unique modulators of locomotor function in the mammalian spinal cord

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    Elizabeth A Gozal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The trace amines (TAs, tryptamine, tyramine, and β-phenylethylamine, are synthesized from precursor amino acids via aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC. We explored their role in the neuromodulation of neonatal rat spinal cord motor circuits. We first showed that the spinal cord contains the substrates for TA biosynthesis (AADC and for receptor-mediated actions via trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs 1 and 4. We next examined the actions of the TAs on motor activity using the in vitro isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. Tyramine and tryptamine most consistently increased motor activity with prominent direct actions on motoneurons. In the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, all applied TAs supported expression of a locomotor-like activity (LLA that was indistinguishable from that ordinarily observed with serotonin, suggesting that the TAs act on common central pattern generating neurons. The TAs also generated distinctive complex rhythms characterized by episodic bouts of LLA. TA actions on locomotor circuits did not require interaction with descending monoaminergic projections since evoked LLA was maintained following block of all Na+-dependent monoamine transporters or the vesicular monoamine transporter. Instead, TA (tryptamine and tyramine actions depended on intracellular uptake via pentamidine-sensitive Na+-independent membrane transporters. Requirement for intracellular transport is consistent with the TAs having much slower LLA onset than serotonin and for activation of intracellular TAARs. To test for endogenous actions following biosynthesis, we increased intracellular amino acid levels with cycloheximide. LLA emerged and included distinctive TA-like episodic bouts. In summary, we provided anatomical and functional evidence of the TAs as an intrinsic spinal monoaminergic modulatory system capable of promoting recruitment of locomotor circuits independent of the descending monoamines. These actions support their known

  20. Effect of age and severity of cognitive dysfunction on spontaneous activity in pet dogs - part 1: locomotor and exploratory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, B; González-Martínez, A; Pesini, P; García-Belenguer, S; Palacio, J; Villegas, A; Suárez, M-L; Santamarina, G; Sarasa, M

    2012-11-01

    Age-related cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) has been reported in dogs and it is considered a natural model for Alzheimer's disease in humans. Changes in spontaneous activity (including locomotor and exploratory behaviour) and social responsiveness have been related to the age and cognitive status of kennel-reared Beagle dogs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age and severity of CDS on locomotor and exploratory behaviour of privately owned dogs. This is the first part of a two-part report on spontaneous activity in pet dogs. An open-field (OF) test and a curiosity test were administered at baseline and 6 months later to young (1-4 years, n=9), middle-aged (5-8 years, n=9), cognitively unimpaired aged (≥ 9 years, n=31), and cognitively impaired aged ( ≥ 9 years, n=36) animals. Classification of cognitive status was carried out using an owner-based observational questionnaire, and in the cognitively impaired group, the dogs were categorised as having either mild or severe cognitive impairment. Dogs were recorded during sessions in the testing room and the video-recordings were subsequently analysed. The severity of CDS (but not age) influenced locomotion and exploratory behaviour so that the more severe the impairment, the higher the locomotor activity and frequency of corner-directed (aimless) behaviours, and the lower the frequency of door-aimed activities. Curiosity directed toward novel stimuli exhibited an age-dependent decline although severely affected animals displayed more sniffing episodes directed towards the objects. OF activity did not change after 6 months. Testing aged pet dogs for spontaneous behaviour might help to better characterise cognitively affected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms of Kappa Opioid Receptor Potentiation of Dopamine D2 Receptor Function in Quinpirole-Induced Locomotor Sensitization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Angélica P; González, Marcela P; Meza, Rodrigo C; Noches, Verónica; Henny, Pablo; Gysling, Katia; España, Rodrigo A; Fuentealba, José A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased locomotor activity in response to the same stimulus is an index of behavioral sensitization observed in preclinical models of drug addiction and compulsive behaviors. Repeated administration of quinpirole, a D2/D3 dopamine agonist, induces locomotor sensitization. This effect is potentiated and accelerated by co-administration of U69593, a kappa opioid receptor agonist. The mechanism underlying kappa opioid receptor potentiation of quinpirole-induced locomotor sensitization remains to be elucidated. Methods Immunofluorescence anatomical studies were undertaken in mice brain slices and rat presynaptic synaptosomes to reveal kappa opioid receptor and D2R pre- and postsynaptic colocalization in the nucleus accumbens. Tonic and phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of rats repeatedly treated with U69593 and quinpirole was assessed by microdialysis and fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Results Anatomical data show that kappa opioid receptor and D2R colocalize postsynaptically in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens and the highest presynaptic colocalization occurs on the same dopamine terminals. Significantly reduced dopamine levels were observed in quinpirole, and U69593-quinpirole treated rats, explaining sensitization of D2R. Presynaptic inhibition induced by kappa opioid receptor and D2R of electrically evoked dopamine release was faster in U69593-quinpirole compared with quinpirole-repeatedly treated rats. Conclusions Pre- and postsynaptic colocalization of kappa opioid receptor and D2R supports a role for kappa opioid receptor potentiating both the D2R inhibitory autoreceptor function and the inhibitory action of D2R on efferent medium spiny neurons. Kappa opioid receptor co-activation accelerates D2R sensitization by contributing to decrease dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:28531297

  2. Improvements in bladder, bowel and sexual outcomes following task-specific locomotor training in human spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Hubscher

    Full Text Available Locomotor training (LT as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs' pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury.Prospective cohort study; pilot trial with small sample size.Eight SCI research participants who were undergoing 80 daily one-hour sessions of LT on a treadmill using body-weight support, or one-hour of LT and stand training on alternate days, as part of another research study conducted at the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, were enrolled in this pilot trial. Urodynamic assessments were performed and International Data Set questionnaire forms completed for bladder, bowel and sexual functions at pre-and post-training time points. Four usual care (non-trained; regular at-home routine research participants were also enrolled in this study and had the same assessments collected twice, at least 3 months apart.Filling cystometry documented significant increases in bladder capacity, voiding efficiency and detrusor contraction time as well as significant decreases in voiding pressure post-training relative to baseline. Questionnaires revealed a decrease in the frequency of nocturia and urinary incontinence for several research participants as well as a significant decrease in time required for defecation and a significant increase in sexual desire post-training. No significant differences were found for usual care research participants.These results suggest that an appropriate level of sensory information provided to the spinal cord, generated through task-specific stepping and/or loading, can positively

  3. Improvements in bladder, bowel and sexual outcomes following task-specific locomotor training in human spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn S.; Montgomery, Lynnette R.; Willhite, Andrea M.; Angeli, Claudia A.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Locomotor training (LT) as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs’ pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury). Study design Prospective cohort study; pilot trial with small sample size. Methods Eight SCI research participants who were undergoing 80 daily one-hour sessions of LT on a treadmill using body-weight support, or one-hour of LT and stand training on alternate days, as part of another research study conducted at the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, were enrolled in this pilot trial. Urodynamic assessments were performed and International Data Set questionnaire forms completed for bladder, bowel and sexual functions at pre-and post-training time points. Four usual care (non-trained; regular at-home routine) research participants were also enrolled in this study and had the same assessments collected twice, at least 3 months apart. Results Filling cystometry documented significant increases in bladder capacity, voiding efficiency and detrusor contraction time as well as significant decreases in voiding pressure post-training relative to baseline. Questionnaires revealed a decrease in the frequency of nocturia and urinary incontinence for several research participants as well as a significant decrease in time required for defecation and a significant increase in sexual desire post-training. No significant differences were found for usual care research participants. Conclusions These results suggest that an appropriate level of sensory information provided to the spinal cord, generated through task

  4. Gender-specific alteration of energy balance and circadian locomotor activity in the Crtc1 knockout mouse model of depression

    KAUST Repository

    Rossetti, Clara

    2017-12-06

    Obesity and depression are major public health concerns, and there is increasing evidence that they share etiological mechanisms. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) participates in neurobiological pathways involved in both mood and energy balance regulation. Crtc1 -/- mice rapidly develop a depressive-like and obese phenotype in early adulthood, and are therefore a relevant animal model to explore possible common mechanisms underlying mood disorders and obesity. Here, the obese phenotype of male and female Crtc1 -/- mice was further characterized by investigating CRTC1\\'s role in the homeostatic and hedonic regulation of food intake, as well as its influence on daily locomotor activity. Crtc1 -/- mice showed a strong gender difference in the homeostatic regulation of energy balance. Mutant males were hyperphagic and rapidly developed obesity on normal chow diet, whereas Crtc1 -/- females exhibited mild late-onset obesity without hyperphagia. Overeating of mutant males was accompanied by alterations in the expression of several orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic genes, thus confirming a key role of CRTC1 in the central regulation of food intake. No alteration in preference and conditioned response for saccharine was observed in Crtc1 -/- mice, suggesting that mutant males\\' hyperphagia was not due to an altered hedonic regulation of food intake. Intriguingly, mutant males exhibited a hyperphagic behavior only during the resting (diurnal) phase of the light cycle. This abnormal feeding behavior was associated with a higher diurnal locomotor activity indicating that the lack of CRTC1 may affect circadian rhythmicity. Collectively, these findings highlight the male-specific involvement of CRTC1 in the central control of energy balance and circadian locomotor activity.

  5. Attenuation of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats sustaining genetic or pharmacologic antagonism of ghrelin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, P Shane; Rodriguez, Juan; Schul, Destri; Hughes, Samuel; Kniffin, Tracey; Hart, Nigel; Eitan, Shoshana; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Wellman, Paul J

    2012-11-01

    Systemic infusions of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) increase dopamine levels within the nucleus accumbens and augment cocaine-stimulated locomotion and conditioned place preference in rats; observations that suggest an important role for GHR and GHR receptors (GHR-Rs) in drug reinforcement. In the present studies, we examined the development of cocaine locomotor sensitization in rats, sustaining either pharmacologic antagonism or genetic ablation of GHR-Rs. In a pharmacologic study, adult male rats were injected (i.p.) with either 0, 3 or 6 mg/kg JMV 2959 (a GHR-R1 receptor antagonist), and 20 minutes later, with either vehicle or 10 mg/kg cocaine HCl on each of 7 consecutive days. Rats pretreated with JMV 2959 showed significantly attenuated cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. In a second study, adult wild-type (WT) or mutant rats sustaining ENU-induced knockout of GHR-R [GHR-R ((-/-) )] received daily injections (i.p.) of vehicle (0.9% saline) or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine HCl for 14 successive days. GHR-R null rats treated repeatedly with cocaine showed diminished development of cocaine locomotor sensitization relative to WT rats treated with cocaine. To verify the lack of GHR-R function in the GHR-R ((-/-) ) rats, a separate feeding experiment was conducted in which WT rats, but not GHR-R ((-/-) ) rats, were noted to eat more after a systemic injection of 15 nmol GHR than after vehicle. These results suggest that GHR-R activity is required for the induction of locomotor sensitization to cocaine and complement an emerging literature implicating central GHR systems in drug reward. GHR is an orexigenic gut peptide that is transported across the blood-brain barrier and interacts with GHR-Rs located on ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.P. Silva

    Full Text Available The N-acylhydrazone (NAH analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785 and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786 were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294. The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05 or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05, respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05 or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01, respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01 or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01, respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv, providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10 increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05 or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05, respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50 following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia.

  7. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical....../technical assessments were performed during CSTw for eleven Norwegian high-level women soccer players. The activity pattern during CSTw and CM was monitored using the ZXY tracking system. No differences were observed between CSTw and CM with regards to total distance covered (10093±94 and 9674±191m), high intensity...

  8. Argon prevents the development of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine and amphetamine-induced changes in mu opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hélène N; Dhilly, Martine; Poisnel, Géraldine; Degoulet, Mickael; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Blatteau, Jean-Éric; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Lemaire, Marc; Debruyne, Danièle; Abraini, Jacques H

    2014-01-01

    Systemic administration of γ-amino-butyric acid type A (GABA-A) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists has been reported to block the development of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine. Here, we investigated whether the non-anesthetic noble gas argon, shown to possess agonistic properties at these receptors, may block the acquisition of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and mu opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were pretreated with saline solution or amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from day 1 to day 3 and then exposed, immediately after injection of amphetamine, to medicinal air or argon at 75 vol% (with the remainder being oxygen). After a 3-day period of withdrawal, rats were challenged with amphetamine on day 7. Rats pretreated with amphetamine and argon had lower locomotor activity (U = 5, P < 0.005) and mu opioid receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens (U = 0, P < 0.001) than rats pretreated with amphetamine and air. In contrast, argon had effect on locomotor and mu receptor activity neither in rats pretreated with saline and challenged with amphetamine (acute amphetamine) nor in rats pretreated and challenged with saline solution (controls). These results indicate that argon inhibits the development of both locomotor sensitization and mu opioid receptor activation induced by repeated administration of amphetamine.

  9. Optogenetic Activation of the Excitatory Neurons Expressing CaMKIIα in the Ventral Tegmental Area Upregulates the Locomotor Activity of Free Behaving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songchao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA plays an important role in motivation and motor activity of mammals. Previous studies have reported that electrical stimulations of the VTA’s neuronal projections were able to upregulate the locomotor activity of behaving rats. However, which types of neurons in the VTA that take part in the activation remain elusive. In this paper we employed optogenetic technique to selectively activate the excitatory neurons expressing CaMKIIα in the VTA region and induced a higher locomotor activity for free behaving rats. Further behavioral studies indicated that reward learning mediated in the enhancement of the rat locomotor activity. Finally the immunohistochemistry studies explored that the excitatory neurons under the optogenetic activation in VTA were partly dopaminergic that may participate as a vital role in the optogenetic activation of the locomotor activity. In total, our study provided an optogenetic approach to selectively upregulate the locomotor activity of free behaving rats, thus facilitating both neuroscience researches and neural engineering such as animal robotics in the future.

  10. Dopaminergic neuronal loss and dopamine-dependent locomotor defects in Fbxo7-deficient zebrafish.

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    Tianna Zhao

    Full Text Available Recessive mutations in the F-box only protein 7 gene (FBXO7 cause PARK15, a mendelian form of early-onset, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with severe loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, the function of the protein encoded by FBXO7, and the pathogenesis of PARK15 remain unknown. No animal models of this disease exist. Here, we report the generation of a vertebrate model of PARK15 in zebrafish. We first show that the zebrafish Fbxo7 homolog protein (zFbxo7 is expressed abundantly in the normal zebrafish brain. Next, we used two zFbxo7-specific morpholinos (targeting protein translation and mRNA splicing, respectively, to knock down the zFbxo7 expression. The injection of either of these zFbxo7-specific morpholinos in the fish embryos induced a marked decrease in the zFbxo7 protein expression, and a range of developmental defects. Furthermore, whole-mount in situ mRNA hybridization showed abnormal patterning and significant decrease in the number of diencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons, corresponding to the human nigrostriatal or ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons. Of note, the number of the dopamine transporter-expressing neurons was much more severely depleted, suggesting dopaminergic dysfunctions earlier and larger than those due to neuronal loss. Last, the zFbxo7 morphants displayed severe locomotor disturbances (bradykinesia, which were dramatically improved by the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The severity of these morphological and behavioral abnormalities correlated with the severity of zFbxo7 protein deficiency. Moreover, the effects of the co-injection of zFbxo7- and p53-specific morpholinos were similar to those obtained with zFbxo7-specific morpholinos alone, supporting further the contention that the observed phenotypes were specifically due to the knock down of zFbxo7. In conclusion, this novel vertebrate model reproduces pathologic and behavioral hallmarks of human parkinsonism (dopaminergic

  11. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance During Adaptation to Visuomotor and Somatosensory Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, David R; De Dios, Yiri E; Layne, Charles S; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2018-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges affecting balance control when readapting to Earth's gravity upon return from spaceflight. Small amounts of electrical noise applied to the vestibular system have been shown to improve balance control during standing and walking under discordant sensory conditions in healthy subjects, likely by enhancing information transfer through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that imperceptible levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) could improve short-term adaptation to a locomotor task in a novel sensory discordant environment. Healthy subjects (14 males, 10 females, age = 28.7 ± 5.3 years, height = 167.2 ± 9.6 cm, weight = 71.0 ± 12.8 kg) were tested for perceptual thresholds to sinusoidal currents applied across the mastoids. Subjects were then randomly and blindly assigned to an SVS group receiving a 0-30 Hz Gaussian white noise electrical stimulus at 50% of their perceptual threshold (stim) or a control group receiving zero stimulation during Functional Mobility Tests (FMTs), nine trials of which were done under conditions of visual discordance (wearing up/down vision reversing goggles). Time to complete the course (TCC) was used to test the effect of SVS between the two groups across the trials. Adaptation rates from the normalized TCCs were also compared utilizing exponent values of power fit trendline equations. A one-tailed independent-samples t -test indicated these adaptation rates were significantly faster in the stim group ( n = 12) than the control ( n = 12) group [ t (16.18) = 2.00, p = 0.031]. When a secondary analysis was performed comparing "responders" (subjects who showed faster adaptation rates) of the stim ( n = 7) group to the control group ( n = 12), independent-samples t -tests revealed significantly faster trial times for the last five trials with goggles in the stim group "responders" than the controls. The data

  12. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue Exendin-4 attenuates the nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, conditioned place preference as well as the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Egecioglu

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is known to regulate consummatory behavior and is released in response to nutrient ingestion. Analogues of this peptide recently emerged as novel pharmacotherapies for treatment of type II diabetes since they reduce gastric emptying, glucagon secretion as well as enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The findings that GLP-1 targets reward related areas including mesolimbic dopamine areas indicate that the physiological role of GLP-1 extends beyond food intake and glucose homeostasis control to include reward regulation. The present series of experiments was therefore designed to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex4, on established nicotine-induced effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system in mice. Specifically, we show that treatment with Ex4, at a dose with no effect per se, attenuate nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release as well as the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In accordance, Ex4 also blocks nicotine-induced expression of locomotor sensitization in mice. Given that development of nicotine addiction largely depends on the effects of nicotine on the mesolimbic dopamine system these findings indicate that the GLP-1 receptor may be a potential target for the development of novel treatment strategies for nicotine cessations in humans.

  13. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth's gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight. Eighteen astronauts performed two tests of locomotion before and after 6 months of space flight: a treadmill walking test to examine vestibular reflexive mechanisms controlling head

  14. Organization of the Mammalian Locomotor CPG: Review of Computational Model and Circuit Architectures Based on Genetically Identified Spinal Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The organization of neural circuits that form the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) and provide flexor–extensor and left–right coordination of neuronal activity remains largely unknown. However, significant progress has been made in the molecular/genetic identification of several types of spinal interneurons, including V0 (V0D and V0V subtypes), V1, V2a, V2b, V3, and Shox2, among others. The possible functional roles of these interneurons can be suggested from changes in the locomotor pattern generated in mutant mice lacking particular neuron types. Computational modeling of spinal circuits may complement these studies by bringing together data from different experimental studies and proposing the possible connectivity of these interneurons that may define rhythm generation, flexor–extensor interactions on each side of the cord, and commissural interactions between left and right circuits. This review focuses on the analysis of potential architectures of spinal circuits that can reproduce recent results and suggest common explanations for a series of experimental data on genetically identified spinal interneurons, including the consequences of their genetic ablation, and provides important insights into the organization of the spinal CPG and neural control of locomotion. PMID:26478909

  15. Caffeine-supplemented diet modulates oxidative stress markers and improves locomotor behavior in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cícera Simoni; de Cássia Gonçalves de Lima, Rita; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ogunbolude, Yetunde; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Tsopmo, Appolinaire; Lukong, Kiven Erique; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2018-02-25

    The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement. There was increase in distance travelled, velocity, frequency of rotation and turn angle (stereotypical behavior such as circling movements), and this was supported by the representative track plots of the path travelled by cockroaches in the open-field arena. In addition, caffeine supplementation markedly increased total thiol and non-protein thiol glutathione (GSH) levels in the heads of cockroaches, and this was in parallel with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and free Fe(II) content. Taking together, our results indicate that long-term caffeine supplementation may exert preventive effects against oxidative stress and support the use of N. cinerea as an efficient alternative model to assess the efficacy of food molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of thermal acclimation on thermal preference, resistance and locomotor performance of hatchling soft-shelled turtle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xian WU,Ling-Jun HU, Wei DANG, Hong-Liang LU, Wei-Guo DU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant influence of thermal acclimation on physiological and behavioral performance has been documented in many ectothermic animals, but such studies are still limited in turtle species. We acclimated hatchling soft-shelled turtles Pelodiscus sinensis under three thermal conditions (10, 20 and 30 °C for 4 weeks, and then measured selected body temperature (Tsel, critical thermal minimum (CTMin and maximum (CTMax, and locomotor performance at different body temperatures. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal preference and resistance of P. sinensis hatchlings. Hatchling turtles acclimated to 10 °C selected relatively lower body temperatures and were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 20 °C and 30 °C. The turtles’ resistance to low temperatures increased with a decreasing acclimation temperature. The thermal resistance range (i.e. the difference between CTMax and CTMin, TRR was widest in turtles acclimated to 20 °C, and narrowest in those acclimated to 10 °C. The locomotor performance of turtles was affected by both body temperature and acclimation temperature. Hatchling turtles acclimated to relatively higher temperatures swam faster than did those acclimated to lower temperatures. Accordingly, hatchling turtles acclimated to a particular temperature may not enhance the performance at that temperature. Instead, hatchlings acclimated to relatively warm temperatures have a better performance, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 718–724, 2013 ].

  17. Ovariectomy influences the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity and the photic phase shifts in the volcano mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Tapia, Cinthia; Miranda-Anaya, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the relationship between the circadian system and female reproduction has been of great interest; ovarian hormones can modify the amount and distribution of daily activity differently in rodent species. The volcano mouse Neotomodon alstoni is a species in which it is possible to study the circadian rhythm of locomotion, and it offers comparative information about the influence of ovaries on the circadian system. In this study, we used infrared crossings to compare free movement in intact and sham-operated or ovariectomized mice. We analyzed behavioral and endocrine changes related to the estrous cycle and locomotor circadian rhythm in free-running mice and photic phase shifting. Evidence shows that intact mice present a scalloped pattern of daily activity during the estrous cycle. In constant darkness, the ovariectomy reduces the total amount of activity, shortens the free-running circadian period of locomotion and increases photic phase shifts during the early subjective night. During entrainment, the ovariectomized mice increased the amplitude of total activity during the scotophase, and delay the time of activity onset. These results suggest that ovarian hormones in N. alstoni modulate the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in a species-specific manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact on locomotor skills in children. The promotion of significant Knowledge supported by the use of videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caviativa Yaneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on attentional processes and their relationship to the maturation of locomotor patterns involved in the use of some types of video games. For this reason, the aim of this study is to identify the influence of the practice of virtual reality games in attentional processes related to the jump motor pattern in children of 5 years. The research was conducted by a quantitative study design using SPSS crosstabulation longitudinal observational period with a pre-test, post-test and a control group. There are few studies on the effect of virtual reality games in the development of locomotor patterns, the study is consistent with research that finds positive effects of this type of games in learning motor activities. In this investigation it was found According to statistical chi-square can conclude that the development of motor skills SI influences meaningful learning of children, Most children engaged in meaningful learning, but they have a necessary guide or a process to follow, according to research must always be supervised by an adult sometimes do not need any supervision, in addition to the significant knowledge not articulated with educational processes guided by the teacher before the motor skills expected

  19. Dynamic clearance measure to evaluate locomotor and perceptuo-motor strategies used for obstacle circumvention in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2015-04-01

    Circumvention around an obstacle entails a dynamic interaction with the obstacle to maintain a safe clearance. We used a novel mathematical interpolation method based on the modified Shepard's method of Inverse Distance Weighting to compute dynamic clearance that reflected this interaction as well as minimal clearance. This proof-of-principle study included seven young healthy, four post-stroke and four healthy age-matched individuals. A virtual environment designed to assess obstacle circumvention was used to administer a locomotor (walking) and a perceptuo-motor (navigation with a joystick) task. In both tasks, participants were asked to navigate towards a target while avoiding collision with a moving obstacle that approached from either head-on, or 30° left or right. Among young individuals, dynamic clearance did not differ significantly between obstacle approach directions in both tasks. Post-stroke individuals maintained larger and smaller dynamic clearance during the locomotor and the perceptuo-motor task respectively as compared to age-matched controls. Dynamic clearance was larger than minimal distance from the obstacle irrespective of the group, task and obstacle approach direction. Also, in contrast to minimal distance, dynamic clearance can respond differently to different avoidance behaviors. Such a measure can be beneficial in contrasting obstacle avoidance behaviors in different populations with mobility problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel CT; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects. PMID:24596461

  1. Following Spinal Cord Injury Transected Reticulospinal Tract Axons Develop New Collateral Inputs to Spinal Interneurons in Parallel with Locomotor Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacnicte May

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reticulospinal tract (RtST descends from the reticular formation and terminates in the spinal cord. The RtST drives the initiation of locomotion and postural control. RtST axons form new contacts with propriospinal interneurons (PrINs after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI; however, it is unclear if injured or uninjured axons make these connections. We completely transected all traced RtST axons in rats using a staggered model, where a hemisection SCI at vertebra T10 is followed by a contralateral hemisection at vertebra T7. In one group of the animals, the T7 SCI was performed 2 weeks after the T10 SCI (delayed; dSTAG, and in another group, the T10 and T7 SCIs were concomitant (cSTAG. dSTAG animals had significantly more RtST-PrIN contacts in the grey matter compared to cSTAG animals (p<0.05. These results were accompanied by enhanced locomotor recovery with dSTAG animals significantly outperforming cSTAG animals (BBB test; p<0.05. This difference suggests that activity in neuronal networks below the first SCI may contribute to enhanced recovery, because dSTAG rats recovered locomotor ability before the second hemisection. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that the injured RtST forms new connections and is a key player in the recovery of locomotion post-SCI.

  2. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence but not adulthood induces anxiety-like behavior and locomotor stimulation in rats during withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for cigarette smoking. Studies have shown that adolescent smokers are more likely to become addicted, are less likely to quit, and are more prone to relapse. In the present study, we examined the affective symptoms experienced by adolescents during withdrawal from cigarette smoke exposure. Towards this goal, adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke, through an automated smoking machine, for 14 days. Then, cigarette smoke exposure was discontinued to induce spontaneous withdrawal. During the withdrawal period, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test), locomotor activity (open-field test), and learning and memory (passive-avoidance test) were evaluated. These behavioral evaluations were conducted during the first, third, seventh, and fourteenth day of withdrawal. For comparison, parallel experiments were performed in adult rats. We found that adolescent rats exposed to cigarette smoke experiences increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity during withdrawal relative to control rats. Learning and memory processes were undisturbed. On the other hand, adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke did not show any statistically significant behavioral alteration during withdrawal. These results are consistent with the notion that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the withdrawal effects of cigarette smoking. This sensitivity might be a factor why adolescent smokers have difficulty quitting and are more prone to relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bee Venom Acupuncture Reduces Interleukin-6, Increases Interleukin-10, and Induces Locomotor Recovery in a Model of Spinal Cord Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento de Souza, Raquel; Silva, Fernanda Kohn; Alves de Medeiros, Magda

    2017-06-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) initiate a series of molecular and cellular events in which inflammatory responses can lead to major neurological dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate whether bee venom (BV) acupuncture applied at acupoints ST36 (Zusanli) and GV3 (Yaoyangquan) could minimize locomotor deficits and the magnitude of neural tissue losses, and change the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after an SCI by compression. Wistar rats were subjected to an SCI model by compression in which a 2-French Fogarty embolectomy catheter was inflated in the extradural space. The effects of BV acupuncture, in which 20 μL of BV diluted in saline (0.08 mg/kg) was injected at acupoints GV3 and ST36 [BV(ST36+GV3)-SCI] was compared with BV injected at nonacupoints [BV(NP)-SCI] and with no treatment [group subjected only to SCI (CTL-SCI)]. The BV(ST36+GV3)-SCI group showed a significant improvement in the locomotor performance and a decrease of lesion size compared with the controls. BV acupuncture at the ST36 + GV3 increased the expression of interleukin-10 (anti-inflammatory) at 6 hours and reduced the expression of interleukin-6 (proinflammatory) at 24 hours after SCI compared with the controls. Our results suggest that BV acupuncture can reduce neuroinflammation and induce recovery in the SCI compression model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Adaptation of a ladder beam walking task to assess locomotor recovery in mice following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Brian J.; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Anderson, Aileen J.

    2007-01-01

    Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing. PMID:17197044

  5. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  6. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, A.; Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  7. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain-inhibiting inhomogeneous static magnetic field fails to influence locomotor activity and anxiety behavior in mice: no interference between magnetic field- and morphine-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, János; Tímár, Júlia; Gyarmati, Zsuzsanna; Fürst, Zsuzsanna; Gyires, Klára

    2009-06-30

    We wanted to demonstrate (i) in the writhing test in mice, whether there was a prolonged analgesic effect induced by an inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF) exposure; (ii) whether SMF had an effect on the analgesic effect induced by 0.5mg/kgs.c. administered morphine, on the behavioral patterns, and on the hyperlocomotion-inducing effect of morphine. A magnetic exposure system developed by the present authors was used with peak-to-peak flux densities in the 2-754mT range. The writhing test was used for the assessment of pain. An elevated plus maze and a Conducta System was used for studying the anxiogenic or anxyolitic effect in mice, and the locomotor activity, respectively. We looked for the difference in the number of writhings and in the behavioral patterns between treated (s.c. morphine and/or SMF exposure) and control animals, respectively. (i) The antinociceptive effect could be identified 10-30min following SMF exposition in the writhing test in mice. (ii) SMF failed to affect the morphine-induced antinociception, the behavioral patterns in either type of tests, and the hyperlocomotion-inducing effect of morphine. (i) The long-lasting antinociceptive effect of SMF allows experiments under conditions, when in situ application of the SMF-producing device would be technically difficult or impossible; or where it would disturb the experiments. (ii) The results of behavioral tests with freely moving mice in or in the vicinity of inhomogeneous SMFs are not affected by the SMF in the applied flux density range. (iii) Morphine in treated subjects is not interacting with the inhomogeneous SMFs in the applied flux density range.

  9. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2014-07-02

    Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.

  10. Greater ethanol-induced locomotor activation in DBA/2J versus C57BL/6J mice is not predicted by presynaptic striatal dopamine dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H Rose

    Full Text Available A large body of research has aimed to determine the neurochemical factors driving differential sensitivity to ethanol between individuals in an attempt to find predictors of ethanol abuse vulnerability. Here we find that the locomotor activating effects of ethanol are markedly greater in DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice, although it is unclear as to what neurochemical differences between strains mediate this behavior. Dopamine elevations in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen regulate locomotor behavior for most drugs, including ethanol; thus, we aimed to determine if differences in these regions predict strain differences in ethanol-induced locomotor activity. Previous studies suggest that ethanol interacts with the dopamine transporter, potentially mediating its locomotor activating effects; however, we found that ethanol had no effects on dopamine uptake in either strain. Ex vivo voltammetry allows for the determination of ethanol effects on presynaptic dopamine terminals, independent of drug-induced changes in firing rates of afferent inputs from either dopamine neurons or other neurotransmitter systems. However, differences in striatal dopamine dynamics did not predict the locomotor-activating effects of ethanol, since the inhibitory effects of ethanol on dopamine release were similar between strains. There were differences in presynaptic dopamine function between strains, with faster dopamine clearance in the caudate-putamen of DBA/2J mice; however, it is unclear how this difference relates to locomotor behavior. Because of the role of the dopamine system in reinforcement and reward learning, differences in dopamine signaling between the strains could have implications for addiction-related behaviors that extend beyond ethanol effects in the striatum.

  11. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  12. Producing Against Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypeij, Annelou

    2000-01-01

    Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison

  13. Effect of glycine site/NMDA receptor antagonist MRZ2/576 on the conditioned place preference and locomotor activity induced by morphine in mice*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-ping; Long, Zai-hao; Zheng, Ming-lan; Binsack, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glycine site/NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist MRZ2/576 on the conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor activity induced by morphine in mice. Methods: Different doses (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) of MRZ2/576 were used to evaluate the effect of MRZ2/576 on the acquisition and expression of CPP induced by morphine (5 mg/kg) in mice. In addition, we examined the locomotor activity of mice in conditioning and testing phase of CPP paradigm. ...

  14. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Allison A; Wang, Yuanyuan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Yi, Henry Y; Li, Rui; Bjeldanes, Leonard; Ye, Chuangxing; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-08-01

    Purine compounds, such as caffeine, have many health-promoting properties and have proven to be beneficial in treating a number of different conditions. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine and abundantly present in Camellia kucha, has recently become of interest as a potential therapeutic compound. In the present study, theacrine was tested using a rodent behavioral model to investigate the effects of the drug on locomotor activity. Long Evans rats were injected with theacrine (24 or 48 mg/kg, i.p.) and activity levels were measured. Results showed that the highest dose of theacrine (48 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased locomotor activity compared to control animals and activity remained elevated throughout the duration of the session. To test for the involvement of adenosine receptors underlying theacrine's motor-activating properties, rats were administered a cocktail of the adenosine A₁ agonist, N⁶-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680; 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with theacrine significantly attenuated the motor depression induced by the adenosine receptor agonists, indicating that theacrine is likely acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Next, we examined the role of DA D₁ and D₂ receptor antagonism on theacrine-induced hyperlocomotion. Both antagonists, D₁R SCH23390 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) and D₂R eticlopride (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reduced theacrine-stimulated activity indicating that this behavioral response, at least in part, is mediated by DA receptors. In order to investigate the brain region where theacrine may be acting, the drug (10 or 20 μg) was infused bilaterally into nucleus accumbens (NAc). Theacrine enhanced activity levels in a dose-dependent manner, implicating a role of the NAc in modulating theacrine's effects on locomotion. In addition, theacrine did not induce locomotor

  15. The Nicotine-Evoked Locomotor Response: A Behavioral Paradigm for Toxicity Screening in Zebrafish (Danio rerio Embryos and Eleutheroembryos Exposed to Methylmercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco X Mora-Zamorano

    Full Text Available This study is an adaptation of the nicotine-evoked locomotor response (NLR assay, which was originally utilized for phenotype-based neurotoxicity screening in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos do not exhibit spontaneous swimming until roughly 4 days post-fertilization (dpf, however, a robust swimming response can be induced as early as 36 hours post-fertilization (hpf by means of acute nicotine exposure (30-240μM. Here, the NLR was tested as a tool for early detection of locomotor phenotypes in 36, 48 and 72 hpf mutant zebrafish embryos of the non-touch-responsive maco strain; this assay successfully discriminated mutant embryos from their non-mutant siblings. Then, methylmercury (MeHg was used as a proof-of-concept neurotoxicant to test the effectiveness of the NLR assay as a screening tool in toxicology. The locomotor effects of MeHg were evaluated in 6 dpf wild type eleutheroembryos exposed to waterborne MeHg (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1μM. Afterwards, the NLR assay was tested in 48 hpf embryos subjected to the same MeHg exposure regimes. Embryos exposed to 0.01 and 0.03μM of MeHg exhibited significant increases in locomotion in both scenarios. These findings suggest that similar locomotor phenotypes observed in free swimming fish can be detected as early as 48 hpf, when locomotion is induced with nicotine.

  16. Locomotor, Heart-Rate, and Metabolic Power Characteristics of Youth Women's Field Hockey: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the locomotor, heart-rate, and metabolic power characteristics of high-level youth female field hockey matches. Method: Players from the U21 and U17 Canadian women's national teams were monitored during a 4-match test series using Global Positioning System technology. Position (forward,…

  17. Orbital bleeding in rats while under diethylether anaesthesia does not influence telemetrically determined heart rate, body temperature, locomotor and eating activity when compared with anaesthesia alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHerck, H; DeBoer, SF; Hesp, APM; VanLith, HA; Baumans, [No Value; Beynen, AC; Herck, H. van; Lith, H.A. van

    The question addressed was whether orbital bleeding in rats, while under diethylether anaesthesia, affects their locomotor activity, body core temperature, heart rate rhythm and eating pattern. Roman High Avoidance (RHA) and Roman Low Avoidance (RLA) rats were used to enhance generalization of the

  18. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  19. Supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Improves Lifespan and Locomotor Activity in Paraquat-Sensitive DJ-1βΔ93Flies, a Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Christian, Pearl K; Panchal, Komal; Guruprasad, B R; Tiwari, Anand K

    2017-09-03

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) consumed by humans and other animals because of its nutritional values and pharmacological properties. Apart from high protein contents, it also contains high levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as carotenoids, β-carotene, phycocyanin, and phycocyanobilin, indicating its possible pharmaco-therapeutic utility. In the present study using DJ-1β Δ93 flies, a Parkinson's disease model in Drosophila, we have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of spirulina and its active component C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in the improvement of lifespan and locomotor behavior. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of spirulina significantly improves the lifespan and locomotor activity of paraquat-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Furthermore, supplementation of spirulina and C-PC individually and independently reduced the cellular stress marked by deregulating the expression of heat shock protein 70 and Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling in DJ-1β Δ93 flies. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in spirulina-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies tends to indicate the involvement of antioxidant properties associated with spirulina in the modulation of stress-induced signaling and improvement in lifespan and locomotor activity in Drosophila DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Our results suggest that antioxidant boosting properties of spirulina can be used as a nutritional supplement for improving the lifespan and locomotor behavior in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Dietary Supplementation with Organoselenium Accelerates Recovery of Bladder Expression, but Does Not Improve Locomotor Function, following Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carolyn A; Singh, Ranjana; Jones, Mackenzie T; Yu, Chen-Guang; Power, Ronan F; Geddes, James W

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element required for activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase. Because of the critical role of the antioxidant system in responding to traumatic events, we hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation would enhance neuroprotection in a rodent model of spinal cord injury. Rats were maintained on either a control or selenium-enriched diet prior to, and following, injury. Dietary selenium supplementation, provided as selenized yeast added to normal rat chow, resulted in a doubling of selenium levels in the spinal cord. Dietary selenium reduced the time required for recovery of bladder function following thoracic spinal cord injury. However, this was not accompanied by improvement in locomotor function or tissue sparing.

  1. Dietary Supplementation with Organoselenium Accelerates Recovery of Bladder Expression, but Does Not Improve Locomotor Function, following Spinal Cord Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Meyer

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential element required for activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase. Because of the critical role of the antioxidant system in responding to traumatic events, we hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation would enhance neuroprotection in a rodent model of spinal cord injury. Rats were maintained on either a control or selenium-enriched diet prior to, and following, injury. Dietary selenium supplementation, provided as selenized yeast added to normal rat chow, resulted in a doubling of selenium levels in the spinal cord. Dietary selenium reduced the time required for recovery of bladder function following thoracic spinal cord injury. However, this was not accompanied by improvement in locomotor function or tissue sparing.

  2. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Denton, Manuel Enríquez; Stecina, Katinka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study...... or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves), with a slow rate (periods 9-104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD). Profound modulation......, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two...

  3. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    with exercise capacity, blood temperature (TB), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), brain perfusion (MCA Vmean), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYPmild), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate...... conditions, whereas only TB was greater in HYPmod At exhaustion, oxygen uptake and exercise capacity were reduced in HYPmod in association with lower leg blood flow, MCA Vmean and mean arterial pressure (MAP), but similar maximal heart rate and TB The attenuated brain and leg perfusion with hyperthermia......-body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow....

  4. Locomotor activity, enjoyment and perceived exertion from 7v7 football for patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Trine Kjeldgaard Tang; Madsen, Mads; Frederiksen, Jakob

    Background: The level of daily physical activity decrease with disease severity in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, inactivity is associated with greater disabilities in daily life and secondary complications. Participation in recreational football, organized as small-sided games......, on a regularly basis show benefits in the health profile and physical capacity in untrained adult men, and improves both cardiovascular and metabolic fitness. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe locomotor activities, enjoyment and perceived exertion during football training for men with Parkinson...... on a 40x40 m artificial turf football pitch with 1.5x3 m goals. After each activity perceived exertion for lower limbs and total body individually was rated on a visual analogue scale (0-10). After the whole session the participants filled out a PACES questionnaire to rate enjoyment of the session. Height...

  5. Locomotor step training with body weight support improves respiratory motor function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terson de Paleville, Daniela; McKay, William; Aslan, Sevda; Folz, Rodney; Sayenko, Dimitry; Ovechkin, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    This prospective case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent the manually assisted treadmill stepping locomotor training with body weight support (LT) can change respiratory function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Pulmonary function outcomes (forced vital capacity /FVC/, forced expiratory volume one second /FEV1/, maximum inspiratory pressure /PImax/, maximum expiratory pressure /PEmax/) and surface electromyographic (sEMG) measures of respiratory muscles activity during respiratory tasks were obtained from eight individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI before and after 62±10 (mean±SD) sessions of the LT. FVC, FEV1, PImax, PEmax, amount of overall sEMG activity and rate of motor unit recruitment were significantly increased after LT (prespiratory muscles preserved after injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance.

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    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Randers, Morten B; Brito, João; Mohr, Magni; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical/technical assessments were performed during CSTw for eleven Norwegian high-level women soccer players. The activity pattern during CSTw and CM was monitored using the ZXY tracking system. No differences were observed between CSTw and CM with regards to total distance covered (10093±94 and 9674±191m), high intensity running (1278±67 and 1193±115m) or sprinting (422±55 and 372±46m) (p>.05). During CSTw, average HR was 85±2%HRmax with 35±2% playing time >90%HRmax. Blood lactate increased (p<.05) from 1.4±0.3mM at rest to an average of 4.7±0.5mM during CSTw, with no changes during the test. Blood glucose was 5.4±0.3mM at rest and remained unaltered during CSTw. Sprint performance (2×20m) decreased (p<.05) by 3% during CSTw (8.19±0.06-8.47±0.10s). In conclusion, the locomotor activities during CSTw were comparable to that of high-level competitive match-play. The physiological demands of the CSTw were high, with no changes in heart rate, blood lactate or technical performance during the test, but a lowered sprint performance towards the end of the test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lack of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1): consequences on corticospinal tract development and on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.

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    Nait Taleb Ali, H; Morel, M P; Doulazmi, M; Scotto-Lomassese, S; Gaspar, P; Dusart, I; Bennis, M

    2014-02-26

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathways are involved in axonal growth and regeneration. The calcium-calmodulin- stimulated adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1), a regulator of cAMP levels, is strongly expressed in the corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in cerebral cortex layer V during development, but its role in the development of the corticospinal tract (CST) is unknown. Here, we analyse the organization of the CST pathway using anterograde and retrograde tracers in the barrelless (brl) mouse that carries an inactivating mutation of the AC1 gene. We show that in brl mice the general organization of the CST is normal but there is an increase in the number of axons in the ipsilateral contingent in the dorsal and ventral medial funiculi of the cervical spinal cord. The density of CSMN in layer V of the motor cortex is increased in brl compared to wild-type mice. Thus, lack of AC1 likely perturbs late phases of CSMN and CST development. Next, we examine the motor recovery after a spinal cord injury (SCI). We find that brl mice show enhanced locomotor functions as assessed by the BMS (Basso mouse scale) as early as 6h and up to 6 weeks after SCI, indicating a smaller responsiveness of brl mice to SCI. It is therefore possible that developmental effects on motor systems might decrease the locomotor effects consecutive to a SCI. This point is particularly important with regards to the use of transgenic animals for testing SCI recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Paullada-Salmerón, José A; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-05-01

    The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season). Effects of Px and season on the brain expression of gnih (sbgnih) and its receptor (sbgnihr), kisspeptins (kiss1, kiss2) and their receptors (kissr2, kissr3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) and the main brain receptor (gnrhr-II-2b) genes, plasma melatonin levels and locomotor activity rhythms were examined. Results showed that Px reduced night-time plasma melatonin levels. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a sensitivity of the Gnih system to Px in March, with a reduction in sbgnih in the mid-hindbrain, a region with bilateral connections to the pineal organ. In August, kiss2 levels increased in Px animals but not in controls. Significant differences in expression were observed for diencephalic sbgnih, sbgnihr, kissr3 and tegmental gnrh2 between seasons. Recordings of locomotor activity following surgery revealed a change from light-synchronised to free-running rhythmic behavior. Altogether, the Gnih and Kiss2 sensitivity to Px and seasonal differences observed for Gnih and its receptor, Gnrh2, and the receptor for Kiss2 (Kissr3), suggested they could be mediators involved in the relay between environment and seasonal reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. l-5-hydroxytryptophan resets the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor

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    Basu, Priyoneel; Singaravel, Muniyandi; Haldar, Chandana

    2012-03-01

    We report that l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin precursor, resets the overt circadian rhythm in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor, in a phase- and dose-dependent manner. We used wheel running to assess phase shifts in the free-running locomotor activity rhythm. Following entrainment to a 12:12 h light-dark cycle, 5-HTP (100 mg/kg in saline) was intraperitoneally administered in complete darkness at circadian time (CT)s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21, and the ensuing phase shifts in the locomotor activity rhythm were calculated. The results show that 5-HTP differentially shifts the phase of the rhythm, causing phase advances from CT 0 to CT 12 and phase delays from CT 12 to CT 21. Maximum advance phase shift was at CT 6 (1.18 ± 0.37 h) and maximum delay was at CT 18 (-2.36 ± 0.56 h). No extended dead zone is apparent. Vehicle (saline) at any CT did not evoke a significant phase shift. Investigations with different doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of 5-HTP revealed that the phase resetting effect is dose-dependent. The shape of the phase-response curve (PRC) has a strong similarity to PRCs obtained using some serotonergic agents. There was no significant increase in wheel-running activity after 5-HTP injection, ruling out behavioral arousal-dependent shifts. This suggests that this phase resetting does not completely depend on feedback of the overt rhythmic behavior on the circadian clock. A mechanistic explanation of these shifts is currently lacking.

  10. Attenuated effects of experimenter-administered heroin in adolescent vs. adult male rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, James M.; Frantz, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Early onset of heroin use during adolescence might increase chances of later drug addiction. Prior work from our laboratory suggests, however, that adolescent male rats are actually less sensitive than adults to some enduring effects of heroin self-administration. In the present study, we tested two likely correlates of sensitivity to behavioral reinforcement in rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization. Methods Adolescent (35 days old at start) and adult (79 days old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered escalating doses of heroin, increasing from 1.0 to 8.0 mg/kg (i.p.) every 12 hr, across 13 days. Somatic signs of spontaneous withdrawal were scored 12 and 24 hr after the last injection, then every 24 hr for 5 days; locomotion was recorded concurrently. Challenge injections of heroin (1 mg/kg i.p.) were given at 4 points: as the first of the escalating doses (day 1), at days 7 and 13 during the escalating regimen, and after 12 days of forced abstinence. Body mass and food intake were measured throughout experimentation. Results A heroin withdrawal syndrome was not observed among adolescents as it was among adults, including somatic signs as well as reduced locomotion, body mass, and food intake. On the other hand, heroin-induced locomotor sensitization did not differ across ages. Conclusion Reduced withdrawal is consistent with the attenuated reinforcing effects of heroin among adolescent male rats that we reported previously. Thus, it is possible that adolescent rats could reveal important neuroprotective factors for use in treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:22941050

  11. A high-fat diet rich in corn oil reduces spontaneous locomotor activity and induces insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Kin; Botta, Amy; Pither, Jason; Dai, Chuanbin; Gibson, William T; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin insensitivity in mice. Eight-week old female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either high-fat (HF) diets [40% energy corn oil (CO) or isocaloric olive oil (OO) diets] or chow (n=10/group) for 6 weeks, followed by estimation of spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and in vivo metabolic outcomes. Although lean mass and resting energy expenditure stayed similar in both OO- and CO-fed mice, only CO-fed mice demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Such depressed activity in CO-fed mice was accompanied by a lower respiratory ratio, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose disposal following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests compared to OO-fed mice. Unlike the liver, where both HF diets increased expression of fat oxidation genes like PPARs, the skeletal muscle of CO-fed mice failed to up-regulate such genes, thereby supporting the metabolic insufficiencies observed in these mice. In summary, this study demonstrates a specific contribution of n-6 PUFA-rich oils like CO to the loss of spontaneous physical activity and insulin sensitivity in mice. If these data hold true for humans, this study could provide a novel link between recent increases in dietary n-6 PUFA to sedentary behavior and the development of insulin resistance in the Western world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Femoral bone perfusion through the nutrient foramen during growth and locomotor development of western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiaohui; Nelson, Thomas J; Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S

    2018-02-20

    The nutrient artery passes through the nutrient foramen on the shaft of the femur and supplies more than half of the total blood flow to the bone. Assuming that the size of the nutrient foramen correlates with the size of the nutrient artery, an index of blood flow rate ( Q i ) can be calculated from nutrient foramen dimensions. Interspecific Q i is proportional to locomotor activity levels in adult mammals, birds and reptiles. However, no studies have yet estimated intraspecific Q i to test for the effects of growth and locomotor development on bone blood flow requirements. In this study, we used micro-CT and medical CT scanning to measure femoral dimensions and foramen radius to calculate femoral Q i during the in-pouch and post-pouch life stages of western grey kangaroos ( Macropus fuliginosus ) weighing 5.7 g to 70.5 kg and representing a 12,350-fold range in body mass. A biphasic scaling relationship between Q i and body mass was observed (breakpoint at ca. 1-5 kg body mass right before permanent pouch exit), with a steep exponent of 0.96±0.09 (95% CI) during the in-pouch life stage and a statistically independent exponent of -0.59±0.90 during the post-pouch life stage. In-pouch joeys showed Q i values that were 50-100 times higher than those of adult diprotodont marsupials of the same body mass, but gradually converged with them as post-pouch adults. Bone modelling during growth appears to be the main determinant of femoral bone blood flow during in-pouch development, whereas bone remodelling for micro-fracture repair due to locomotion gradually becomes the main determinant when kangaroos leave the pouch and become more active. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The influence of speed and size on avian terrestrial locomotor biomechanics: Predicting locomotion in extinct theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P J; Graham, D F; Lamas, L P; Hutchinson, J R; Rubenson, J; Hancock, J A; Wilson, R S; Hocknull, S A; Barrett, R S; Lloyd, D G; Clemente, C J

    2018-01-01

    How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range. Particular attention was devoted to the ground reaction force (GRF), the force that the feet exert upon the ground. Comparable data for the only other extant obligate, striding biped, humans, were also collected and studied. In birds, all kinematic and kinetic parameters examined changed continuously with increasing speed, while in humans all but one of those same parameters changed abruptly at the walk-run transition. This result supports previous studies that show birds to have a highly continuous locomotor repertoire compared to humans, where discrete 'walking' and 'running' gaits are not easily distinguished based on kinematic patterns alone. The influences of speed and body size on kinematic and kinetic factors in birds are developed into a set of predictive relationships that may be applied to extinct, non-avian theropods. The resulting predictive model is able to explain 79-93% of the observed variation in kinematics and 69-83% of the observed variation in GRFs, and also performs well in extrapolation tests. However, this study also found that the location of the whole-body centre of mass may exert an important influence on the nature of the GRF, and hence some caution is warranted, in lieu of further investigation.

  14. The influence of speed and size on avian terrestrial locomotor biomechanics: Predicting locomotion in extinct theropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Bishop

    Full Text Available How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range. Particular attention was devoted to the ground reaction force (GRF, the force that the feet exert upon the ground. Comparable data for the only other extant obligate, striding biped, humans, were also collected and studied. In birds, all kinematic and kinetic parameters examined changed continuously with increasing speed, while in humans all but one of those same parameters changed abruptly at the walk-run transition. This result supports previous studies that show birds to have a highly continuous locomotor repertoire compared to humans, where discrete 'walking' and 'running' gaits are not easily distinguished based on kinematic patterns alone. The influences of speed and body size on kinematic and kinetic factors in birds are developed into a set of predictive relationships that may be applied to extinct, non-avian theropods. The resulting predictive model is able to explain 79-93% of the observed variation in kinematics and 69-83% of the observed variation in GRFs, and also performs well in extrapolation tests. However, this study also found that the location of the whole-body centre of mass may exert an important influence on the nature of the GRF, and hence some caution is warranted, in lieu of further investigation.

  15. Effect of subacute poisoning with bifenthrin on locomotor activity, memory retention, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, B; Borzecki, A; Jodlowska-Jedrych, B

    2015-02-01

    Bifenthrin (BIF) is a pyrethroid (PYR) insecticide. The target point for PYR's toxic action are voltage sensitive sodium channels in the central nervous system (CNS). Intoxication with PYRs results in motor activity impairment and death in insects. Although PYRs are considered to be safe for mammals, there were numerous cases of pyrethroid poisoning in humans, animals and pets described. The general population is chronically exposed to PYRs via grain products, dust and indoor air. Therefore new questions arise: whether PYRs act in a dose-additive fashion in the course of subacute poisoning, are there other target organs (but brain) for BIF and if there is one common mechanism of its' toxic action in different organs. The objective of this work was to characterize the effect of BIF at the doses of 4 or 8 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 28 consecutive days on memory and motor activity, hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in mice. BIF at the doses of 8 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg of body mass was administered i.p. daily to the mice for 28 consecutive days. Motor function was measured on day 1, 7, 14 and 28 and memory retention was tested in a passive avoidance task on day 2, 7, 14 and 28. BIF significantly impaired memory retention on day 2. BIF decreased locomotor activity at every stage of the experiment in a single dose depending manner. No behavioral cumulative effect was observed. Subacute poisoning with the higher dose of BIF caused anaemia, elevated white blood cell count (WBC), elevated alanine transaminase (ALT), superoxide dismuthase (SOD), and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Lymphocyte infiltrates were visualized in the livers. subacute poisoning with BIF decreases locomotor activity in a single dose proportionate manner. BIF damages also the liver and alters blood morphology. The possible common mechanism of these effects can be oxidative stress.

  16. [Locomotor development in infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip or idiopathic clubfoot undergoing orthopedic treatment. Prospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquijo, J J; Campos, L; Torres-Gómez, A; Allende, V

    2013-10-01

    Several disorders of early childhood, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and clubfoot, requires orthopedic treatment that limits active mobility of the lower extremities for a period of time. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact on locomotor development of the orthopedic treatment in infants less than one year-old. The study included a prospective cohort of consecutive patients diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (Group A, 24 patients), and clubfoot (Group B, 32 patients) treated from January 2007 to June 2009. A third group (Group C) of 50 healthy children was used as control. The variables evaluated were: months with a brace, age to sit without support, age at the start of crawling, and age at the beginning of walking. The results obtained were analyzed. Comparisons between the three groups were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. We chose a value of P<.05 as level of statistical significance. The analysis of independent samples showed that the mean age at which the patients began to sit were similar: 6.12, 6.42 and 6.19 months, respectively (P=.249). The mean age for crawling was similar, although with a slight trend toward statistical significance: 8.84, 9.38 and 9.17 months, respectively (P=.08). The age at which they started walking was different between the three groups: 12.14, 13.21 and 12.41 months, respectively (P<.001). Orthopedic treatment of DDH and clubfoot in children less than one year-old slightly slows down the course of normal locomotor development. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  18. Neuromotor and Musculoskeletal Responses to Locomotor Training for an Individual With Chronic Motor Complete AIS-B Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Gail F; Sisto, Sue Ann; Barbeau, Hugues; Kirshblum, Steven C; Wilen, Janina; Bond, Quin; Bentson, Scott; Asselin, Pierre; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Harkema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background/objective: To determine the effects of locomotor training (LT) using body weight support (BWS), treadmill, and manual assistance on muscle activation, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition changes for an individual with motor complete spinal cord injury (AIS B), 1 year after injury. Methods: A man with chronic C6 AIS B (motor complete and sensory incomplete) spinal cord injury (SCI), 1 year after injury, completed 2 blocks of LT over a 9-month training period (35-session block followed by 8.6 weeks of no training and then a 62-session block). Results: Before training, muscle activation was minimal for any muscle examined, whereas after the 2 blocks of LT (97 sessions), hip and knee muscle activation patterns for the bilateral rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius were in phase with the kinematics. Mean EMG amplitude increased for all bilateral muscles and burst duration increased for rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles, whereas burst duration decreased for the biceps femoris after 62 LT sessions. Before LT, left biceps femoris had a pattern that reflected muscle stretch, whereas after training, muscle stretch of the left biceps femoris could not totally account for mean EMG amplitude or burst duration. After the 62 training sessions, total BMD decreased (1.54%), and regional BMD decreased (legs: 6.72%). Total weight increased, lean mass decreased (6.6%), and fat mass increased (7.4%) in the arms, whereas fat mass decreased (3.5%) and lean mass increased (4%) in the legs. Conclusions: LT can induce positive neural and body composition changes in a nonambulatory person with chronic SCI, indicating that neuromuscular plasticity can be induced by repetitive locomotor training after a motor complete SCI. PMID:19086708

  19. Locomotor sensitization to intermittent ketamine administration is associated with nucleus accumbens plasticity in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C E; Schoepfer, K J; Dossat, A M; Saland, S K; Wright, K N; Kabbaj, M

    2017-07-15

    Clinical evidence suggests superior antidepressant response over time with a repeated, intermittent ketamine treatment regimen as compared to a single infusion. However, the club drug ketamine is commonly abused. Therefore, the abuse potential of repeated ketamine injections at low doses needs to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the abuse potential of repeated exposure to either 0, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg ketamine administered once weekly for seven weeks. Locomotor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) were assayed to evaluate behavioral sensitization to the locomotor activating effects of ketamine and its rewarding properties, respectively. Our results show that while neither males nor females developed CPP, males treated with 5 mg/kg and females treated with either 2.5 or 5 mg/kg ketamine behaviorally sensitized. Furthermore, dendritic spine density was increased in the NAc of both males and females administered 5 mg/kg ketamine, an effect specific to the NAc shell (NAcSh) in males but to both the NAc core (NAcC) and NAcSh in females. Additionally, males administered 5 mg/kg ketamine displayed increased protein expression of ΔfosB, calcium calmodulin kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an effect not observed in females administered either dose of ketamine. However, males and females administered 5 mg/kg ketamine displayed increased protein expression of AMPA receptors (GluA1). Taken together, low-dose ketamine, when administered intermittently, induces behavioral sensitization at a lower dose in females than males, accompanied by an increase in spine density in the NAc and protein expression changes in pathways commonly implicated in addiction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Objective assessment of movement competence in children using wearable sensors: An instrumented version of the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Pacini Panebianco, G; Polman, R; Stagni, R

    2017-07-01

    Movement competence (MC) is defined as the development of sufficient skill to assure successful performance in different physical activities. Monitoring children MC during maturation is fundamental to detect early minor delays and define effective intervention. To this purpose, several MC assessment batteries are available. When evaluating movement strategies, with the aim of identifying specific skill components that may need improving, widespread MC assessment is limited by high time consumption for scoring and the need for trained operators to ensure reliability. This work aims to facilitate and support the assessment by designing, implementing and validating an instrumented version of the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) to quantify MC in children rapidly and objectively. 45 typically developing children, aged 6-10, performed the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest (six skills). During the tests, children wore five IMUs mounted on lower back, on ankles and on wrists. Sensor and video recordings of the tests were collected. Three expert evaluators performed the standard assessment of TGMD-2. Using theoretical and modelling approaches, algorithms were implemented to automatically score children tests based on IMUs' data. The automatic assessment, compared to the standard one, showed an agreement higher than 87% on average on the entire group for each skill and a reduction of time for scoring from 15 to 2min per participant. Results support the use of IMUs for MC assessment: this approach will allow improving the usability of MC assessment, supporting objectively evaluator decisions and reducing time requirement for the evaluation of large groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Objective measures of motor dysfunction after compression spinal cord injury in adult rats: correlations with locomotor rating scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Joerg; Wellmann, Katharina; Wirth, Felicitas; Stein, Gregor; Angelova, Srebrina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Schempf, Greta; Ankerne, Janina; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schönau, Eckhard; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey

    2011-07-01

    Precise assessment of motor deficits after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of functional recovery and testing therapeutic approaches. Here we analyzed the applicability to a rat SCI model of an objective approach, the single-frame motion analysis, created and used for functional analysis in mice. Adult female Wistar rats were subjected to graded compression of the spinal cord. Recovery of locomotion was analyzed using video recordings of beam walking and inclined ladder climbing. Three out of four parameters used in mice appeared suitable: the foot-stepping angle (FSA) and the rump-height index (RHI), measured during beam walking, and for estimating paw placement and body weight support, respectively, and the number of correct ladder steps (CLS), assessing skilled limb movements. These parameters, similar to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scores, correlated with lesion volume and showed significant differences between moderately and severely injured rats at 1-9 weeks after SCI. The beam parameters, but not CLS, correlated well with the BBB scores within ranges of poor and good locomotor abilities. FSA co-varied with RHI only in the severely impaired rats, while RHI and CLS were barely correlated. Our findings suggest that the numerical parameters estimate, as intended by design, predominantly different aspects of locomotion. The use of these objective measures combined with BBB rating provides a time- and cost-efficient opportunity for versatile and reliable functional evaluations in both severely and moderately impaired rats, combining clinical assessment with precise numerical measures.

  2. Effects of paraxanthine and caffeine on sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature in orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic narcoleptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuro, Masashi; Fujiki, Nobuhiro; Kotorii, Nozomu; Ishimaru, Yuji; Sokoloff, Pierre; Nishino, Seiji

    2010-07-01

    Caffeine, an adenosine A1 and A2a receptor antagonist, is a widely consumed stimulant and also used for the treatment of hypersomnia; however, the wake-promoting potency of caffeine is often not strong enough, and high doses may induce side effects. Caffeine is metabolized to paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline. Paraxanthine is a central nervous stimulant and exhibits higher potency at A1 and A2 receptors, but has lower toxicity and lesser anxiogenic effects than caffeine. We evaluated the wake-promoting efficacy of paraxanthine, caffeine, and a reference wake-promoting compound, modafinil, in a mice model of narcolepsy, a prototypical disease model of hypersomnia. Orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to oral administration (at ZT 2 and ZT14) of 3 doses of paraxanthine, caffeine, modafinil, or vehicle. Paraxanthine, caffeine, and modafinil significantly promoted wakefulness in both WT and narcoleptic TG mice and proportionally reduced NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. The wake-promoting potency of 100 mg/kg p.o. of paraxanthine during the light period administration roughly corresponds to that of 200 mg/kg p.o. of modafinil. The wake-promoting potency of paraxanthine is greater and longer lasting than that of the equimolar concentration of caffeine, when the drugs were administered during the light period. The wake-promotion by paraxanthine, caffeine, and modafinil are associated with an increase in locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the higher doses of caffeine and modafinil, but not paraxanthine, induced hypothermia and reduced locomotor activity, thereby confirming the lower toxicity of paraxanthine. Behavioral evaluations of anxiety levels in WT mice revealed that paraxanthine induced less anxiety than caffeine did. Because it is also reported to provide neuroprotection, paraxanthine may be a better wake-promoting agent for hypersomnia associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  4. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  5. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  6. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Bonsall

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease, and is also common in patients with traumatic brain injury, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Little is known about the neurobiology of fatigue, in part due to the lack of an approach to induce fatigue in laboratory animals. Fatigue is a common response to systemic challenge by pathogens, a response in part mediated through action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. We investigated the behavioral responses of mice to IL-1β. Female C57Bl/6J mice of 3 ages were administered IL-1β at various doses i.p. Interleukin-1β reduced locomotor activity, and sensitivity increased with age. Further experiments were conducted with middle-aged females. Centrally administered IL-1β dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity. Using doses of IL-1β that caused suppression of locomotor activity, we measured minimal signs of sickness, such as hyperthermia, pain or anhedonia (as measured with abdominal temperature probes, pre-treatment with the analgesic buprenorphine and through sucrose preference, respectively, all of which are responses commonly reported with higher doses. We found that middle-aged orexin-/- mice showed equivalent effects of IL-1β on locomotor activity as seen in wild-type controls, suggesting that orexins are not necessary for IL-1β -induced reductions in wheel-running. Given that the availability and success of therapeutic treatments for fatigue is currently limited, we examined the effectiveness of two potential clinical treatments, modafinil and methylphenidate. We found that these treatments were variably successful in restoring locomotor activity after IL-1β administration. This provides one step toward development of a satisfactory animal model of the multidimensional experience of fatigue, a model that could allow us to determine possible pathways through which inflammation induces fatigue, and could lead to novel

  7. Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in an early chronic spinal cord injury NOD-scid mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée L Salazar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in partial or complete paralysis and is characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes, axonal injury, and demyelination/dysmyelination of spared axons. Approximately 1,250,000 individuals have chronic SCI in the U.S.; therefore treatment in the chronic stages is highly clinically relevant. Human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns were prospectively isolated based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting for a CD133(+ and CD24(-/lo population from fetal brain, grown as neurospheres, and lineage restricted to generate neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. hCNS-SCns have recently been transplanted sub-acutely following spinal cord injury and found to promote improved locomotor recovery. We tested the ability of hCNS-SCns transplanted 30 days post SCI to survive, differentiate, migrate, and promote improved locomotor recovery.hCNS-SCns were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD-scid mice 30 days post spinal cord contusion injury. hCNS-SCns transplanted mice demonstrated significantly improved locomotor recovery compared to vehicle controls using open field locomotor testing and CatWalk gait analysis. Transplanted hCNS-SCns exhibited long-term engraftment, migration, limited proliferation, and differentiation predominantly to oligodendrocytes and neurons. Astrocytic differentiation was rare and mice did not exhibit mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, differentiated hCNS-SCns integrated with the host as demonstrated by co-localization of human cytoplasm with discrete staining for the paranodal marker contactin-associated protein.The results suggest that hCNS-SCns are capable of surviving, differentiating, and promoting improved locomotor recovery when transplanted into an early chronic injury microenvironment. These data suggest that hCNS-SCns transplantation has efficacy in an early chronic SCI setting and thus expands the "window of opportunity" for intervention.

  8. Cannabidiol reverses the reduction in social interaction produced by low dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel Thomas; Jongejan, Dennis; Taylor, David Alan

    2009-08-01

    While Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, a non-psychoactive constituent is cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has been implicated as a potential treatment of a number of disorders including schizophrenia and epilepsy and has been included with THC in a 1:1 combination for the treatment of conditions such as neuropathic pain. This study investigated the effect of THC and CBD, alone or in combination, on some objective behaviours of rats in the open field. Pairs of rats were injected with CBD or vehicle followed by THC or vehicle and behaviour in the open field was assessed for 10 min. In vehicle pretreated rats THC (1 mg/kg) significantly reduced social interaction between rat pairs. Treatment with CBD had no significant effect alone, but pretreatment with CBD (20 mg/kg) reversed the THC-induced decreases in social interaction. A higher dose of THC (10 mg/kg) produced no significant effect on social interaction. However, the combination of high dose CBD and high dose THC significantly reduced social interaction between rat pairs, as well as producing a significant decrease in locomotor activity. This data suggests that CBD can reverse social withdrawal induced by low dose THC, but the combination of high dose THC and CBD impairs social interaction, possibly by decreasing locomotor activity.

  9. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  10. Capacity of novelty-induced locomotor activity and the hole-board test to predict sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M Carmen; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Aguilar, Maria A; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2014-06-22

    Novelty-seeking in rodents, defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations, is considered to predict the response of animals to drugs of abuse and, thus, allow "drug-vulnerable" individuals to be identified. The main objective of this study was to assess the predictive ability of two well-known paradigms of the novelty-seeking trait - novelty-induced locomotor activity (which distinguishes High- and Low-Responder mice, depending on their motor activity) and the hole-board test (which determines High- and Low-Novelty Seeker mice depending on the number of head dips they perform) - to identify subjects that would subsequently be more sensitive to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in a population of young adult (PND 56) and adolescent (PND 35) OF1 mice of both sexes. Conditioned place preference (CPP), a useful tool for evaluating the sensitivity of individuals to the incentive properties of addictive drugs, was induced with a sub-threshold dose of cocaine (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results showed that novelty-induced motor activity had a greater predictive capacity to identify "vulnerable-drug" individuals among young-adult mice (PND 56), while the hole-board test was more effective in adolescents (PND 35). High-NR young-adults, which presented higher motor activity in the first ten minutes of the test (novelty-reactivity), were 3.9 times more likely to develop cocaine-induced CPP than Low-NR young-adults. When total activity (1h) was evaluated (novelty-habituation), only High-R (novelty-non-habituating) young-adult male and Low-R (novelty-habituating) female mice produced a high conditioning score. However, only High-Novelty Seeker male and female adolescents and Low-Novelty Seeker female young-adult animals (according to the hole-board test), acquired cocaine-induced CPP. These findings should contribute to the development of screening methods for identifying at-risk human drug users and prevention strategies for those with specific

  11. The locomotor system as seen in Brazilian medical journals: a restricted collection of papers O sistema locomotor nos periódicos médicos Brasileiros: um grupo restrito de artigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Kirankumar Patel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers recent publications on the motor system (orthopedics and movement in Brazilian journals recently admitted to the ISI-Thomson Journal of Citations Index. Two of these are still pleading for admission into PubMed which will eventually enhance their global visibility. We offer this contribution to experts on these areas who are regular readers of Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. Full free copies of all of them are available at www.scielo.br. The main areas covered are orthopedics of limb articulations, fractures, movement, posture, gait, exercise and animal modelsEsta revisão abrange publicações recentes sobre o sistema locomotor (ortopedia e movimento em periódicos brasileiros recentemente incluídos na plataforma de citações ISI-Thomson. Dois destes periódicos ainda estão pleiteando inclusão no PubMed o que aumentará sua visibilidade. Oferecemos esta contribuição para especialistas nestas áreas de interesse e que são leitores regulares da Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. Cópias integrais dos artigos citados estão disponíveis gratuitamente no site www.scielo.br. Os principais temas cobertos são ortopedia e articulações dos membros, fraturas, movimento, postura, marcha e modelos animais

  12. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  13. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-04

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  14. TRIAL: Producing Media Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWeeney, Mark G.

    TRIAL (Technique for Retrieving Information from Abstracts of Literature) is an information storage and retrieval system which can be used by school media specialists to produce indexes of non-print materials. This manual provides a step by step approach for media specialists to automate their non-print holdings. These procedures can also be…

  15. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...

  16. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    ’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  17. (PHB)-producing bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of two novel polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-producing bacteria. ... subsequently studied using phenotype microarray panels which allowed the testing of the effect of more than 90 different carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus sources as well as pH on the growth characteristics of these strains.

  18. Anxiety, memory impairment, and locomotor dysfunction caused by a mutant thyroid hormone receptor α1 can be ameliorated by T3 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Herrero, Ana Isabel; Nordström, Kristina; Manzano, Jimena; de Escobar, Gabriella Moreale; Bernal, Juan; Vennström, Björn

    2005-01-01

    The transcriptional properties of unliganded thyroid hormone receptors are thought to cause the misdevelopment during hypothyroidism of several functions essential for adult life. To specifically determine the role of unliganded thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1) in neuronal tissues, we introduced a mutation into the mouse TRα1 gene that lowers affinity to thyroid hormone (TH) 10-fold. The resulting heterozygous mice exhibit several distinct neurological abnormalities: extreme anxiety, reduced recognition memory, and locomotor dysfunction. The anxiety and memory deficiencies were relieved by treatment with high levels of TH in adulthood, an effect that correlated with a normalization of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. In contrast, a post-natal TH treatment was necessary and sufficient for ameliorating the adult locomotor dysfunction. Here, the hormone treatment normalized the otherwise delayed cerebellar development. The data thus identify two novel and distinct functions of an unliganded TRα1 during development and adulthood, respectively. PMID:16131613

  19. Structural and functional properties of a probabilistic model of neuronal connectivity in a simple locomotor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison-Hort, Robert; Soffe, Stephen R; Borisyuk, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Although, in most animals, brain connectivity varies between individuals, behaviour is often similar across a species. What fundamental structural properties are shared across individual networks that define this behaviour? We describe a probabilistic model of connectivity in the hatchling Xenopus tadpole spinal cord which, when combined with a spiking model, reliably produces rhythmic activity corresponding to swimming. The probabilistic model allows calculation of structural characteristics that reflect common network properties, independent of individual network realisations. We use the structural characteristics to study examples of neuronal dynamics, in the complete network and various sub-networks, and this allows us to explain the basis for key experimental findings, and make predictions for experiments. We also study how structural and functional features differ between detailed anatomical connectomes and those generated by our new, simpler, model (meta-model). PMID:29589828

  20. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced rein...

  1. [The influence of non-invasive electrical stimulation of the spinal cord on the locomotor function of patients presenting with movement disorders of central genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykin, M V; Yakupov, R N; Mashin, V V; Kotova, E Yu; Balykin, Yu M; Gerasimenko, Yu P

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of non-invasive (transcutaneous) electrical spinal cord stimulation on the locomotor function of the patients suffering from movement disorders. The study involved 10 patients of both sexes at the age from 32 to 70 years (including 40% of men and 60% of women) presenting with the compromised locomotor function of varying severity associated with the disturbances of cerebral blood circulation caused either by an injury to the brain and spinal cord or by stroke. The transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation was applied using different frequency regimes with the placement of the electrodes in the projection onto the region of TXI-TXII vertebrae. The active factors were bipolar electrical stimuli 0.5 ms in duration; the current strength was chosen for each patient on an individual basis taking into consideration its threshold level. Electromyograms and evoked motor responses of selected muscles, viz. m. rectus femoris, m.biceps femoris, m. tibialis anterior, and m.gastrocnemius were recorded with the use of the 'Neuro-MVP-8 eight-channel electromyography' ('Neurosoft', Russia). The data obtained give evidence that the stimulation of the spinal cord with a frequency of 1 Hz induces reflectory responses with monosynaptic and polysynaptic components in the muscles of the lower extremities, with the thresholds of these responses being significantly higher in the patients presenting with serious neurological problems. Stimulation with the frequencies of 5 and 30 Hz caused in the patients with paresis the involuntary movement of the legs the characteristics of which were similar to those of the locomotor movements. It has been demonstrated that the application of transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation leads to increased excitability of the lumbar spinal neural structures of the patients. The study has shown the possibility of regulation of the locomotor functions in the patients presenting

  2. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  3. Locomotor and Heart Rate Responses of Floaters During Small-Sided Games in Elite Soccer Players: Effect of Pitch Size and Inclusion of Goal Keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Simpson, Ben M; Cholley, Yannick; Buchheit, Martin

    2017-09-27

    To (1) compare the locomotor and heart rate responses between floaters and regular players during both small and large small sided games (SSGs) and (2) examine whether the type of game (i.e., game simulation vs possession game) affects the magnitude of the difference between floaters and regular players. Data were collected in 41 players belonging to an elite French football team during three consecutive seasons (2014-2017). 5-Hz GPS were used to collect all training data, with the Athletic Data Innovation analyser (v5.4.1.514, Sydney, Australia) used to derive total distance (m), high-speed distance (> 14.4 km.h -1 , m) and external mechanical load (MechL, a.u). All SSGs included exclusively one floater, and were divided into two main categories, according to the participation of goal-keepers (GK) (game simulation, GS) or not (possession games, PO) and then further divided into small and large (>100 m2/player) SSGs based on the area per player ratio. Locomotor activity and mechanical load performed were likely-to-most likely lower (moderate to large magnitude) in floaters compared with regular players, while differences in HR responses were unclear to possibly higher (small) in floaters. The magnitude of the difference in locomotor activity and MechL between floaters and regular players was substantially greater during GS compared with PO. Compared with regular players, floaters present decreased external load (both locomotor and MechL) despite unclear to possibly slightly higher HR responses during SSGs. Moreover, the responses of floaters compared with regular players are not consistent across different sizes of SSGs, with greater differences during GS than PO.

  4. A combined robotic and cognitive training for locomotor rehabilitation: Evidences of cerebral functional reorganization in two chronic traumatic brain injured patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, K.; Cauda, F.; D’Agata, F.; Duca, S.; Zettin, M.; Virgilio, R.; Nascimbeni, A.; Belforte, G.; Eula, G.; Gastaldi, L.; Appendino, S.; Geminiani, G.

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that automated locomotor training can improve walking capabilities in spinal cord-injured subjects but its effectiveness on brain damaged patients has not been well established. A possible explanation of the discordant results on the efficacy of robotic training in patients with cerebral lesions could be that these patients, besides stimulation of physiological motor patterns through passive leg movements, also need to train the cognitive aspects of motor control. Ind...

  5. Continuous exposure to a novel stressor based on water aversion induces abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Koyomi; Itoh, Nanako; Ohyama, Sumika; Kadota, Koji; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW) affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermore, continuous PAWW stress enhanced food intake, but decreased body weight and plasma leptin levels, indicating that sleep loss and PAWW stress altered the energy balance in these mice. The diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels was not severely affected. The body temperature rhythm was diurnal in the stressed mice, but significantly dysregulated during the dark period. Plasma catecholamines were elevated in the stressed mice. Continuous PAWW stress reduced the duration of daytime sleep, especially during the first half of the light period, and increased nighttime sleepiness. Continuous PAWW stress also simultaneously obscured sleep/wake and locomotor activity rhythms compared with control mice. These sleep architecture phenotypes under stress are similar to those of patients with insomnia. The stressed mice could be entrained to the light/dark cycle, and when they were transferred to constant darkness, they exhibited a free-running circadian rhythm with a timing of activity onset predicted by the phase of their entrained rhythms. Circadian gene expression in the liver and muscle was unaltered, indicating that the peripheral clocks in these tissues remained intact.

  6. Continuous exposure to a novel stressor based on water aversion induces abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyomi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermore, continuous PAWW stress enhanced food intake, but decreased body weight and plasma leptin levels, indicating that sleep loss and PAWW stress altered the energy balance in these mice. The diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels was not severely affected. The body temperature rhythm was diurnal in the stressed mice, but significantly dysregulated during the dark period. Plasma catecholamines were elevated in the stressed mice. Continuous PAWW stress reduced the duration of daytime sleep, especially during the first half of the light period, and increased nighttime sleepiness. Continuous PAWW stress also simultaneously obscured sleep/wake and locomotor activity rhythms compared with control mice. These sleep architecture phenotypes under stress are similar to those of patients with insomnia. The stressed mice could be entrained to the light/dark cycle, and when they were transferred to constant darkness, they exhibited a free-running circadian rhythm with a timing of activity onset predicted by the phase of their entrained rhythms. Circadian gene expression in the liver and muscle was unaltered, indicating that the peripheral clocks in these tissues remained intact.

  7. Opposite Phenotypes of Muscle Strength and Locomotor Function in Mouse Models of Partial Trisomy and Monosomy 21 for the Proximal Hspa13-App Region

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, V?ronique; Duchon, Arnaud; Romestaing, Caroline; Sahun, Ignasi; Pothion, St?phanie; Karout, Mona; Borel, Christelle; Dembele, Doulaye; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Messaddeq, Nadia; Sharp, Andrew J.; Roussel, Damien; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Dierssen, Mara; H?rault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Brault et al. The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) which causes Down syndrome (DS) is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy the complete monosomy (M21) of Hsa21 is lethal and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability locomotor deficits and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes we created...

  8. Individual differences in ethanol locomotor sensitization are associated with dopamine D1 receptor intra-cellular signaling of DARPP-32 in the nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Possa Abrahao

    Full Text Available In mice there are clear individual differences in the development of behavioral sensitization to ethanol, a progressive potentiation of its psychomotor stimulant effect. Variability in the behavioral responses to ethanol has been associated with alcohol preference. Here we investigated if the functional hyperresponsiveness of D1 receptors observed in ethanol sensitized mice leads to an increased activation of DARPP-32, a central regulatory protein in medium spiny neurons, in the nucleus accumbens - a brain region known to play a role in drug reinforcement. Swiss Webster mice received ethanol (2.2 g/kg/day or saline i.p. administrations for 21 days and were weekly evaluated regarding their locomotor activity. From those treated with ethanol, the 33% with the highest levels of locomotor activity were classified as "sensitized" and the 33% with the lowest levels as "non-sensitized". The latter presented similar locomotor levels to those of saline-treated mice. Different subgroups of mice received intra-accumbens administrations of saline and, 48 h later, SKF-38393, D1 receptor agonist 0.1 or 1 µg/side. Indeed, sensitized mice presented functional hyperresponsiveness of D1 receptors in the accumbens. Two weeks following the ethanol treatment, other subgroups received systemic saline or SKF 10 mg/kg, 20 min before the euthanasia. The nucleus accumbens were dissected for the Western Blot analyses of total DARPP-32 and phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 expression. D1 receptor activation induced higher phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 expression in sensitized mice than in non-sensitized or saline. The functionally hyperresponsiveness of D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens is associated with an increased phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 expression after D1 receptor activation. These data suggest that an enduring increase in the sensitivity of the dopamine D1 receptor intracellular pathway sensitivity represents a neurobiological correlate associated with the development of

  9. Anti-cocaine antibody and butyrylcholinesterase-derived cocaine hydrolase exert cooperative effects on cocaine pharmacokinetics and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brimijoin, Stephen; Orson, Frank; Kosten, Tom; Kinsey, Berma; Shen, Xiao Yun; White, Sarah J.; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating treatments for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase, which can reduce cocaine-stimulated locomotion and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats for many months. Here, in mice, we explored the possibility that anti-cocaine antibodies can complement the actions of CocH to reduce cocaine uptake in brain and block centrally-evoked locomotor stimulation. Direct injections of test...

  10. The clinical efficacy of the local, deep insufflation of an oxygen-ozone mixture in the prevention and treatment of infections in the locomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białoszewski, D; Kowalewski, M

    2001-01-01

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Department of the Medical Faculty No. 2 and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical Academy of Warsaw in the period from January 2000 until November 2001, 49 patients with extensive injuries to the locomotor system and septic complications after surgical procedures were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of deep ozone application. Two groups of patients were treated: posttraumatic patients at risk for primary deep infections (e.g. open fractures without skin losses) and patients with declared postoperative infections in the locomotor system. The first group involved 31 patients; the second group, 18. Results. In the first group, three patients had septic complications despite mixed treatment, including one case of osteomyelitis. In the second group, all the patients experienced much faster than normal wound healing with inhibition of septic processes. In two cases, the septic process was reactivated after 6 and 9 months respectively, and these patients are still undergoing treatment. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages resulting from the deep application of ozone in the prevention and combined treatment for septic complications in the locomotor system. Our technique of deep ozone application makes it possible to reduce the risk of posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical complications and chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support

  11. "On the Fence" versus "All in": Insights from Turtles for the Evolution of Aquatic Locomotor Specializations and Habitat Transitions in Tetrapod Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob, Richard W; Mayerl, Christopher J; Rivera, Angela R V; Rivera, Gabriel; Young, Vanessa K H

    2016-12-01

    Though ultimately descended from terrestrial amniotes, turtles have deep roots as an aquatic lineage and are quite diverse in the extent of their aquatic specializations. Many taxa can be viewed as "on the fence" between aquatic and terrestrial realms, whereas others have independently hyperspecialized and moved "all in" to aquatic habitats. Such differences in specialization are reflected strongly in the locomotor system. We have conducted several studies to evaluate the performance consequences of such variation in design, as well as the mechanisms through which specialization for aquatic locomotion is facilitated in turtles. One path to aquatic hyperspecialization has involved the evolutionary transformation of the forelimbs from rowing, tubular limbs with distal paddles into flapping, flattened flippers, as in sea turtles. Prior to the advent of any hydrodynamic advantages, the evolution of such flippers may have been enabled by a reduction in twisting loads on proximal limb bones that accompanied swimming in rowing ancestors, facilitating a shift from tubular to flattened limbs. Moreover, the control of flapping movements appears related primarily to shifts in the activity of a single forelimb muscle, the deltoid. Despite some performance advantages, flapping may entail a locomotor cost in terms of decreased locomotor stability. However, other morphological specializations among rowing species may enhance swimming stability. For example, among highly aquatic pleurodiran turtles, fusion of the pelvis to the shell appears to dramatically reduce motions of the pelvis compared to freshwater cryptodiran species. This could contribute to advantageous increases in aquatic stability among predominantly aquatic pleurodires. Thus, even within the potential constraints of a body plan in which the body is encased by a shell, turtles exhibit diverse locomotor capacities that have enabled diversification into a wide range of aquatic habitats. © The Author 2016. Published

  12. “On the Fence” versus “All in”: Insights from Turtles for the Evolution of Aquatic Locomotor Specializations and Habitat Transitions in Tetrapod Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob, Richard W.; Mayerl, Christopher J.; Rivera, Angela R. V.; Rivera, Gabriel; Young, Vanessa K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Though ultimately descended from terrestrial amniotes, turtles have deep roots as an aquatic lineage and are quite diverse in the extent of their aquatic specializations. Many taxa can be viewed as “on the fence” between aquatic and terrestrial realms, whereas others have independently hyperspecialized and moved “all in” to aquatic habitats. Such differences in specialization are reflected strongly in the locomotor system. We have conducted several studies to evaluate the performance consequences of such variation in design, as well as the mechanisms through which specialization for aquatic locomotion is facilitated in turtles. One path to aquatic hyperspecialization has involved the evolutionary transformation of the forelimbs from rowing, tubular limbs with distal paddles into flapping, flattened flippers, as in sea turtles. Prior to the advent of any hydrodynamic advantages, the evolution of such flippers may have been enabled by a reduction in twisting loads on proximal limb bones that accompanied swimming in rowing ancestors, facilitating a shift from tubular to flattened limbs. Moreover, the control of flapping movements appears related primarily to shifts in the activity of a single forelimb muscle, the deltoid. Despite some performance advantages, flapping may entail a locomotor cost in terms of decreased locomotor stability. However, other morphological specializations among rowing species may enhance swimming stability. For example, among highly aquatic pleurodiran turtles, fusion of the pelvis to the shell appears to dramatically reduce motions of the pelvis compared to freshwater cryptodiran species. This could contribute to advantageous increases in aquatic stability among predominantly aquatic pleurodires. Thus, even within the potential constraints of a body plan in which the body is encased by a shell, turtles exhibit diverse locomotor capacities that have enabled diversification into a wide range of aquatic habitats. PMID:27940619

  13. Treadmill exercise with bone marrow stromal cells transplantation potentiates recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Mi; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Chang-Ju; Ji, Eun-Sang

    2017-06-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is regarded as a promising candidate for the spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill exercise potentiate the effect of BM-SCs transplantation on the functional recovery in the SCI rats. The spinal cord contusion injury applied at the T9-T10 level using the impactor. Cultured BMSCs were transplanted into the lesion at 1 week after SCI induction. Treadmill exercise was conducted for 6 weeks. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale for locomotor function was determined. Sprouting axons in the lesion cavity were detected by immunofluorescence staining for neurofilament-200. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin-I expressions were analyzed using western blotting. BMSCs transplantation improved BBB score and increased expressions of neurofilament-200, BDNF, and synapsin-I in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise potentiated the improving effect of BMSCs transplantation on BBB score in the SCI rats. This potentiating effect of treadmill exercise could be ascribed to the enhancement of BDNF expression in the SCI rats.

  14. Effect of Locomotor Respiratory Coupling Induced by Cortical Oxygenated Hemoglobin Levels During Cycle Ergometer Exercise of Light Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanagi, Keiichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Yasufuku, Yuichi; Takai, Haruna; Kera, Takeshi; Tamaki, Akira; Iwata, Kentaro; Onishi, Hideaki

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) induced by light load cycle ergometer exercise on oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and sensorimotor cortex (SMC). The participants were 15 young healthy adults (9 men and 6 women, mean age: 23.1 ± 1.8 (SEM) years). We conducted a task in both LRC-inducing and LRC-non-inducing conditions for all participants. O2Hb was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. The LRC frequency ratio during induction was 2:1; pedaling rate, 50 rpm; and intensity of load, 30 % peak volume of oxygen uptake. The test protocol included a 3-min rest prior to exercise, steady loading motion for 10 min, and 10-min rest post exercise (a total of 23 min). In the measurement of O2Hb, we focused on the DLPFC, SMA, and SMC. The LRC frequency was significantly higher in the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). O2Hb during exercise was significantly lower in the DLPFC and SMA, under the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). The study revealed that even light load could induce LRC and that O2Hb in the DLPFC and SMA decreases during exercise via LRC induction.

  15. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (T sk ) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships with exercise capacity, blood temperature (T B ), oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ), brain perfusion (MCA V mean ), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYP mild ), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate hyperthermia; HYP mod ), and under control conditions. Both hyperthermic conditions increased T sk versus control (6.2 ± 0.2°C; P conductance (VC). Mechanistically, the falling MCA VC was coupled to reductions in PaCO 2 , whereas the plateau in leg vascular conductance was related to markedly elevated plasma [NA] and a plateau in plasma ATP These findings reveal that whole-body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D

    2010-01-07

    Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

  17. [Childhood and adolescent obesity--consequences for the locomotor system and treatment options. Musculoskeletal complications of overweight children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönau, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal complications known to be associated with being overweight or obese in childhood and adolescence in order to help the clinicians and physiotherapists in the diagnostic and management of these patients. Various musculoskeletal problems like slipped capital femoral epiphysis and Blount disease are well-known complications. More recent studies describe the effects of overweight on musculoskeletal pain and controversial influences on fracture rates. Reduced physical activity is a contributing factor in obesity, but also effects bone mineral accrual. Reduced postural stability and increased falls may be the reason for increased fracture rates. Furthermore these data show relevant changes of locomotion studied by gait analysis. Longitudinal kinematic studies may be needed to understand the entire aspect of gait development in overweight children. Obesity is still a serious health problem and has a relevant impact on the development of a child's musculoskeletal system. Obesity affects the locomotor sytem both functionally and structurally. Future studies are necessary to help us better understand the pathophysiology and development of optimal therapeutic strategies.

  18. Organophosphate pesticides induce morphological abnormalities and decrease locomotor activity and heart rate in Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Fiona L; Schmidt, Hayden; Turman, Zackery K; Hole, Natalie; Garcia, Hena; Gregg, Jonathan; Tilghman, Joseph; Fradinger, Erica A

    2014-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs), a class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are used widely in agriculture to reduce insect populations. Because of the conservation of acetylcholinesterase between invertebrates and vertebrates, OPs also can adversely affect nontarget species, such as aquatic and terrestrial animals. This study used uniform conditions to analyze the morphological and physiological effects caused by developmental exposure to 3 commonly used OPs-chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, and diazinon-on 2 aquatic vertebrate species, Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Xenopus laevis. Survival, locomotor activity, heart rate, and gross anatomical abnormalities, including kyphosis and edema, were observed over a 5-d period in response to OP concentrations ranging from 0 µM to 1000 µM. Both zebrafish and Xenopus showed decreased survival for all 3 OPs at higher concentrations. However, Xenopus showed higher mortality than zebrafish at lower chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos concentrations. Both models showed a dose-dependent decrease in heart rate and free-swimming larval activity in response to chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. In addition, kyphosis and decreased spine length were prominent in Xenopus in response to 10 µM of chlorpyrifos and 0.1 µM dichlorvos. Although diazinon induced no effects on skeletal and cardiac motor activity in either species, it did induce cardiac edemas in zebrafish. Differences in the biological actions of OPs and their differential effects in these 2 vertebrate models demonstrate the importance of using common protocols and multiple models to evaluate the ecotoxicology of OPs. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Locomotor activity of Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae exposed to volatile semiochemicals and to direct contact with the odour source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. HEIT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae es un predador polífago oportunista y cuando su menú está dominado por áfidos, es esperable un comportamiento complejo de forrajeo. Un movimiento activo, caracterizado por alta actividad locomotriz, juega un rol importante en la búsqueda de esta presa. En este trabajo se analizó el comportamiento de adultos de C. sanguinea expuestos a los semioquímicos volátiles, emitidos por sustratos de Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanaceae sanos o infestados con Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae, o simplemente puestos en contacto directo con esos sustratos. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: A hojas de pimiento infestadas con alta densidad de áfidos, B hojas de pimiento infestadas con baja densidad de áfidos, C hojas de pimiento sanas y D control. La actividad locomotriz no difirió significativamente entre los distintos tratamientos cuando C. sanguinea se expuso solamente a los volátiles. En cambio, cuando los coccinélidos se pusieron en contacto directo con los sustratos evaluados, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. Estos resultados preliminares indicarían que la sola presencia de un estímulo de olor, no sería suficiente para modular un patrón locomotor diferente en C. sanguinea.

  20. The Locomotor Capabilities Index; validity and reliability of the Swedish version in adults with lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Ingemar H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI is a validated measure of lower-limb amputees' ability to perform activities with prosthesis. We have developed the LCI Swedish version and evaluated its validity and reliability. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation to Swedish included forward/backward translations and field testing. The Swedish LCI was then administered to 144 amputees (55 women, mean age 74 (40–93 years, attending post-rehabilitation prosthetic training. Construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship between the LCI and Timed "Up-and-Go" (TUG test and between the LCI and EQ-5D health utility index in 2 subgroups of 40 and 20 amputees, respectively. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing scores in different age groups and in unilateral and bilateral amputees. Test-retest reliability (1–2 weeks was evaluated in 20 amputees (14 unilateral. Results The Swedish LCI showed good construct convergent validity, with high correlation with the TUG (r = -0.75 and the EQ-5D (r = 0.84, and discriminative validity, with significantly worse mean scores for older than younger and for bilateral than unilateral amputees (p Conclusion The Swedish version of the LCI demonstrated good validity and internal consistency in adult amputees. Test-retest reliability in a small subsample appears to be acceptable. The high ceiling effect of the LCI may imply that it would be most useful in assessing amputees with low to moderate functional abilities.

  1. Trading heat and hops for water: Dehydration effects on locomotor performance, thermal limits, and thermoregulatory behavior of a terrestrial toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodolfo C O; Andrade, Denis V

    2017-11-01

    Due to their highly permeable skin and ectothermy, terrestrial amphibians are challenged by compromises between water balance and body temperature regulation. The way in which such compromises are accommodated, under a range of temperatures and dehydration levels, impacts importantly the behavior and ecology of amphibians. Thus, using the terrestrial toad Rhinella schneideri as a model organism, the goals of this study were twofold. First, we determined how the thermal sensitivity of a centrally relevant trait-locomotion-was affected by dehydration. Secondly, we examined the effects of the same levels of dehydration on thermal preference and thermal tolerance. As dehydration becomes more severe, the optimal temperature for locomotor performance was lowered and performance breadth narrower. Similarly, dehydration was accompanied by a decrease in the thermal tolerance range. Such a decrease was caused by both an increase in the critical minimal temperature and a decrease in the thermal maximal temperature, with the latter changing more markedly. In general, our results show that the negative effects of dehydration on behavioral performance and thermal tolerance are, at least partially, counteracted by concurrent adjustments in thermal preference. We discuss some of the potential implications of this observation for the conservation of anuran amphibians.

  2. Citrus flavonoid, naringenin, increases locomotor activity and reduces diacylglycerol accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jia-Yu; Cole, Rachel M; Hamad, Essam M; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cotten, Bradley M; Powell, Kimerly A; Belury, Martha A

    2016-02-01

    Estrogen deficiency has been associated with central obesity, muscle loss and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. This study assessed naringenin accumulation in tissues and investigated the hypothesis that naringenin reverses diet-induced metabolic disturbances in obese ovariectomized mice. In study 1, we measured naringenin concentrations in plasma, liver, perigonadal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, and muscle of ovariectomized C57BL/6J female mice after 11 weeks of naringenin supplementation. Naringenin accumulated 5-12 times more in mice fed a 3% naringenin diet than in mice fed a 1% naringenin diet. In study 2, ovariectomized mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 11 weeks and half of the mice were then supplemented with 3% naringenin for another 11 weeks. Dietary naringenin suppressed weight gain, lowered hyperglycemia and decreased intra-abdominal adiposity evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Naringenin-fed mice exhibited elevated locomotor activity monitored by infrared beam breaks, maintained muscle mass and reduced muscle diacylglycerol content. Real-time PCR analysis in muscle revealed decreased mRNA level for genes involved in de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis/storage. Long-term 3% naringenin supplementation resulted in significant naringenin accumulation in plasma and tissues, associated with attenuated metabolic dysregulation and muscle loss in obese ovariectomized mice. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alterations in core body temperature, locomotor activity, and corticosterone following acute and repeated social defeat of male NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, A J; Hogg, S; Marsden, C A

    Repeated social defeat of male NMRI mice, coupled with the stress of continuously living opposite a dominant animal, induces a citalopram-reversible increase in anxiety. The experiments reported in the present paper were performed in an attempt to further validate this paradigm by studying the effects of acute and repeated social defeat on corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of core body temperature and locomotor activity, measured by telemetry. Acute social defeat induced a large (controls: 37.14+/-0.29 degrees C; subordinates: 39.79+/-0.33 degrees C) increase in core body temperature and corticosterone (controls: 30.14+/-2.70 ng/ml; subordinates: 89.62+/-9.25 ng/ml). Repeated social defeat (24 defeats) induced a chronic elevation in core body temperature across 24-h (controls: 36.62+/-0.04 degrees C; subordinates: 37.11+/-0.16 degrees C) in subordinate animals and a very large increase in corticosterone (controls: 28.60+/-1.27 ng/ml; subordinates: 441.52+/-8.86 ng/ml). These results illustrate that the chronic social defeat procedure described in this paper induces a state of chronic stress in the subordinate animals. Further studies are warranted to ascertain if the chronic hyperthermia and increases in corticosterone observed in the subordinate animals could be attenuated by chronic antidepressant treatment, thus further extending the predictive validity of this model.

  4. Comportamento locomotor de crianças e adultos jovens em ambiente doméstico simulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

    Full Text Available Observamos o comportamento locomotor de 40 crianças (de 5 a 8 anos e de 40 adultos jovens (de 19 a 28 anos frente a restrições ambientais, que percorreram dois circuitos em condições de luminosidade total e reduzida e transporte de carga (sem carga, 3% e 7% da massa corporal, andando o mais rápido possível e evitando contato com objetos. O tempo gasto na tarefa foi obtido por meio de um cronômetro digital, em três tentativas por condição. ANOVA para três fatores (circuito x iluminação x carga revelou que: as crianças demoraram mais tempo para realizar a tarefa quando carga foi adicionada; crianças mais jovens percorreram o circuito em tempo maior que crianças mais velhas; as condições não alteraram a locomoção dos adultos. Concluímos que crianças necessitam integrar as informações sensoriais e acoplá-las ao sistema efetor. Programas de intervenção são necessários para facilitar essa integração sem restrição da mobilidade das crianças.

  5. Producing colloids with microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannacci, Nicolas; Willaime, Herve; Tabeling, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Submicronic emulsions are commonly used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and material industries. Standard microfluidic tool is particularly convenient to produce in a very controlled way either droplets of typical diameter ranging from 10 to 300 microns with a perfect monodispersity (nanodrops in a way that is slightly dependent on the fluids used. The control on such a flow authorizes the adjustment of the diameter of the colloids formed. We will show brownian particles from 860 nm to 1.3 μm in diameter obtained in such way and their clustering into crystals thanks to their high monodispersity. These first experimental results are very promising and make evident the great potential of micro and nano-fluidics to produce nano-emulsions or colloids with very controlled size that metamaterials can require.

  6. Brachystemma calycinum D. Don Effectively Reduces the Locomotor Disability in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Moreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the beneficial effect of a whole plant extract of Brachystemma calycinum D. Don (BCD in naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA in dogs. Methods. Dogs had stifle/hip OA and poor limb loading based on the peak of the vertically oriented ground reaction force (PVF measured using a force platform. At baseline, PVF and case-specific outcome measure of disability (CSOM were recorded. Dogs (16 per group were then assigned to receive BCD (200 mg/kg/day or a placebo. The PVF was measured at week (W 3 and W6. Locomotor activity was recorded throughout the study duration using collar-mounted accelerometer, and CSOM was assessed biweekly by the owner. Results. BCD-treated dogs had higher PVF at W3 and W6 when compared to Baseline (P<0.001 and at W6 when compared to placebo-treated dogs (P=0.040. Higher daily duration (P=0.024 and intensity (P=0.012 of locomotor activity were observed in BCD-treated dogs compared to baseline. No significant change was observed in either group for CSOM. Conclusions. Treatment with BCD improved the limb impairment and enhanced the locomotor activity in dogs afflicted by naturally-occurring OA. Those preclinical findings provide interesting and new information about the potential of BCD as an OA therapeutic.

  7. Impaired terrestrial and arboreal locomotor performance in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) after exposure to an AChE-inhibiting pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuRant, Sarah E.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used AChE-inhibiting pesticide on terrestrial and arboreal sprint performance, important traits for predator avoidance and prey capture, in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Lizards were exposed to carbaryl (2.5, 25, and 250 μg/g) and were raced before and 4, 24, and 96 h after dosing. In the terrestrial setting, exposure to low concentrations of carbaryl had stimulatory effects on performance, but exposure to the highest concentration was inhibitory. No stimulatory effects of carbaryl were noted in the arboreal environment and performance in lizards was reduced after exposure to both the medium and highest dose of carbaryl. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to high concentrations of carbaryl can have important sublethal consequences on fitness-related traits in reptiles and that arboreal locomotor performance is a more sensitive indicator of AChE-inhibiting pesticide poisoning than terrestrial locomotor performance. - Exposure to an acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide alters locomotor performance in western fence lizards

  8. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 region modifies locomotor and cognitive deficits observed in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Marechal

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features.

  9. Means for producing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhelm, G.L.

    1929-01-22

    This patent describes a gas-generating apparatus which works in combination with a gas-generating receptacle. The process requires a means for supplying finely divided carbon to said receptable, means for supplying a flame under pressure to hold said carbon in suspension, a conduit for conducting the combustible gas produced from said receptacle, and synchronously operating mechanical means for controlling said carbon-supplying means and said flame-supplying means.

  10. Impact of Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands on Sensitisation to Methamphetamine Effects on Rat Locomotor Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Landa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The repeated administration of various drugs of abuse may lead to a gradually increased behavioural response to these substances, particularly an increase in locomotion and stereotypies may occur. This phenomenon is well known and described as behavioural sensitisation. An increased response to the drug tested, elicited by previous repeated administration of another drug is recognised as cross-sensitisation. Based on our earlier experiences with studies on mice, which confirmed sensitisation to methamphetamine and described cross-sensitisation to methamphetamine after pre-treatment with cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, we focused the present study on the use of another typical laboratory animal - the rat. A biological validity of the sensitisation phenomenon was expected to be enhanced if the results of both mouse and rat studies were conformable. Similar investigation in rats brought very similar results to those described earlier in mice. However, at least some interspecies differences were noted in the rat susceptibility to the development of sensitisation to methamphetamine effects. Comparing to mice, it was more demanding to titrate a dose of methamphetamine producing behavioural sensitisation. Furthermore, we were not able to provoke cross-sensitisation by repeated administration of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist methanandamide and similarly, we did not demonstrate the suppression of cross-sensitisation in rats that were repeatedly given combined pre-treatment with cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 and methamphetamine. Finally, unlike mice, an alternative behavioural change was registered after repeated methamphetamine treatment instead: the occurrence of stereotypic behaviour (nose rubbing.

  11. Attenuation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity in male and female mice by active immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Therese A; Shen, Xiaoyun Y; Kinsey, Berma M; Kosten, Thomas R; Orson, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy for drug addiction is being investigated in several laboratories but most studies are conducted in animals of one sex. Yet, women show heightened immune responses and are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than men. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an active anti-cocaine vaccine, succinyl-norcocaine conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, for its ability to elicit antibodies and alter cocaine-induced ambulatory activity in male versus female mice. Male and female BALB/c mice were vaccinated (n = 44) or served as non-vaccinated controls (n = 34). Three weeks after initial vaccination, a booster was given. Ambulatory activity induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) was assessed at 7 weeks and plasma obtained at 8 weeks to assess antibody levels. High antibody titers were produced in mice of both sexes. The vaccine reduced ambulatory activity cocaine-induced but this effect was greater in female compared to male mice. The efficacy of this anti-cocaine vaccine is demonstrated in mice of both sexes but its functional consequences are greater in females than males. Results point to the importance of testing animals of both sexes in studies of immunotherapies for addiction. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Effect and reporting bias of RhoA/ROCK-blockade intervention on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawick, Ralf; Sena, Emily S; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Brommer, Benedikt; Kopp, Marcel A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W; Schwab, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Blockade of small GTPase-RhoA signaling pathway is considered a candidate translational strategy to improve functional outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. Pooling preclinical evidence by orthodox meta-analysis is confounded by missing data (publication bias). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) blocking approaches to (1) analyze the impact of bias that may lead to inflated effect sizes and (2) determine the normalized effect size of functional locomotor recovery after experimental thoracic SCI. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science and hand searched related references. Studies were selected if they reported the effect of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors (C3-exoenzmye, fasudil, Y-27632, ibuprofen, siRhoA, and p21) in experimental spinal cord hemisection, contusion, or transection on locomotor recovery measured by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score or the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion. Two investigators independently assessed the identified studies. Details of individual study characteristics from each publication were extracted and effect sizes pooled using a random effects model. We assessed risk for bias using a 9-point-item quality checklist and calculated publication bias with Egger regression and the trim and fill method. A stratified meta-analysis was used to assess the impact of study characteristics on locomotor recovery. Thirty studies (725 animals) were identified. RhoA/ROCK inhibition was found to improve locomotor outcome by 21% (95% CI, 16.0-26.6). Assessment of publication bias by the trim and fill method suggested that 30% of experiments remain unpublished. Inclusion of these theoretical missing studies suggested a 27% overestimation of efficacy, reducing the overall efficacy to a 15% improvement in locomotor recovery. Low study quality was associated with larger estimates of neurobehavioral outcome. Taking into account

  13. Producing images by ionography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullan, B.R.; Dovas, T.; Mootes, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for producing images by ionography and recording and storing same for display, comprising means for forming and recording a latent ionographic image on an electrically insulating film within a gas ionisation chamber between electrodes, scanning the latent image formed by an X-ray source, by means of an array of scanning electrodes movable on a platform to scan the latent image, the output signals from said scanning electrodes being amplified and digitised and thereafter placed in a digital storage and display device. (author)

  14. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  15. Satisfaction and perceptions of long-term manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury upon completion of a locomotor training program with an overground robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany H; Vermette, Martin; Duclos, Cyril; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Ahmed, Sara; Kairy, Dahlia

    2017-12-19

    The main objectives of this study were to quantify clients' satisfaction and perception upon completion of a locomotor training program with an overground robotic exoskeleton. A group of 14 wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury, who finished a 6-8-week locomotor training program with the robotic exoskeleton (18 training sessions), were invited to complete a web-based electronic questionnaire. This questionnaire encompassed 41 statements organized around seven key domains: overall satisfaction related to the training program, satisfaction related to the overground robotic exoskeleton, satisfaction related to the program attributes, perceived learnability, perceived health benefits and risks and perceived motivation to engage in physical activity. Each statement was rated using a visual analogue scale ranging from "0 = totally disagree" to "100 = completely agree". Overall, respondents unanimously considered themselves satisfied with the locomotor training program with the robotic exoskeleton (95.7 ± 0.7%) and provided positive feedback about the robotic exoskeleton itself (82.3 ± 6.9%), the attributes of the locomotor training program (84.5 ± 6.9%) and their ability to learn to perform sit-stand transfers and walk with the robotic exoskeleton (79.6 ± 17%). Respondents perceived some health benefits (67.9 ± 16.7%) and have reported no fear of developing secondary complications or of potential risk for themselves linked to the use of the robotic exoskeleton (16.7 ± 8.2%). At the end of the program, respondents felt motivated to engage in a regular physical activity program (91.3 ± 0.1%). This study provides new insights on satisfaction and perceptions of wheelchair users while also confirming the relevance to continue to improve such technologies, and informing the development of future clinical trials. Implications for Rehabilitation All long-term manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury who participated in the

  16. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity is increased by prior handling in adolescent but not adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Antoniette M; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2005-11-15

    Adolescence is a period of transition that is associated with increased levels of stress and a heightened propensity to initiate drug use. Neuronal development is still occurring during this transitional period, which includes the continued development of the dopamine system during the adolescent period. In the present study, the effects of pre-test handling on cocaine-induced locomotor activity were investigated among female adolescent and young adult rats upon presentation to a novel environment. On postnatal days (PND) 41-44 and 56-59 animals were handled (b.i.d.) in the colony room for 3 min. On PND 45 or PND 60, animals were removed from the colony room, weighed, and administered an acute injection of either cocaine or saline and presented to a novel environment where behavior was recorded for 30 min. Adolescent females (PND 45) that were handled prior to cocaine administration demonstrated elevated levels of cocaine-induced activity relative to their age-matched non-handled counterparts and also to their handled-adult counterparts. In contrast, among non-handled animals, young adults (PND 60) exhibited elevated drug-induced locomotion at several time points during the trial. Non-handled adolescent animals demonstrated the previously described "hyporesponsive" behavioral profile relative to their non-handled adult counterparts. The results from the present experiment indicate that adolescent animals may be more sensitive to basic laboratory manipulations such as pre-test handling, and care must be taken when utilizing adolescent animals in behavioral testing. Handling appears to be a sensitive manipulation in elucidating differences in cocaine-induced behavioral activation between ages.

  18. Hyperleptinemia During Pregnancy Decreases Adult Weight of Offspring and Is Associated With Increased Offspring Locomotor Activity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kelly E; Stevens, Damaiyah; Pennington, Kathleen A; Thaisrivongs, Rose; Kaiser, Jennifer; Ellersieck, Mark R; Miller, Dennis K; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-10-01

    Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes mellitus have elevated leptin levels and their children have an increased risk for child and adult obesity. The goals of this study were to determine whether offspring weights are altered by maternal hyperleptinemia, and whether this occurs via behavioral changes that influence energy balance. We used 2 hyperleptinemic mouse models. The first was females heterozygous for a leptin receptor mutation (DB/+), which were severely hyperleptinemic, and that were compared with wild-type females. The second model was wild-type females infused with leptin (LEP), which were moderately hyperleptinemic, and were compared with wild-type females infused with saline (SAL). Total food consumption, food preference, locomotor activity, coordinated motor skills, and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in wild-type offspring from each maternal group at 3 postnatal ages: 4-6, 11-13, and 19-21 weeks. Half the offspring from each group were then placed on a high-fat diet, and behaviors were reassessed. Adult offspring from both groups of hyperleptinemic dams weighed less than their respective controls beginning at 23 weeks of age, independent of diet or sex. Weight differences were not explained by food consumption or preference, because female offspring from hyperleptinemic dams tended to consume more food and had reduced preference for palatable, high-fat and sugar, food compared with controls. Offspring from DB/+ dams were more active than offspring of controls, as were female offspring of LEP dams. Maternal hyperleptinemia during pregnancy did not predispose offspring to obesity, and in fact, reduced weight gain.

  19. [Diurnal rythm of locomotor activity in Admetus pumilio C. Koch (Arach., Amblypygi) from the neotropical rain forest. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L

    1972-03-01

    The locomotor activity of the exclusively dark-active species Admetus pumilio shows a bigeminal type of diurnal rhythm, modified by an interposed third peak of activity. In accordance with Aschoff's rule, the period length depends on light intensity and is shortened in DD. The phase-angle difference must be determined separately for each form of activity. The first movements at the resting place ("awakening") and departure from it are the most readily identifiable forms of activity. Awakening takes place earlier and earlier with decreasing light intensity, thus diverging from departure more and more.Differing degrees of activity in LL and LD of different intensities show that light stimulates or inhibits depending on its intensity. The turning point between the two effects lies between 10 -2 and 10 -3 lx. Below this limit differences in light intensity are not discerned, although LL is well discerned from LD.Diurnal temperature cycles with amplitudes up to 8° C are unable to synchronize the circadian rhythm of Admetus, but may have a strongly masking effect. Different levels of constant temperatures influence the phase-angle differences, which become increasingly positive with rising temperature. Activity also increases with temperature, but decreases in the extra-optimal range above approximately 30° C. The L-phase/D-phase ratio of activity shows a maximum at about 26° C.In Admetus the dependence of activity parameters upon light intensity is unidirectional and shows no optima. In contrast to the findings by Erkert (1967) is discussed that optima are only realized in dusk active animals and are lacking in day-active and night-active species.

  20. Improved Ventilatory Efficiency with Locomotor Muscle Afferent Inhibition is Strongly Associated with Leg Composition in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Ross, Manda L; Johnson, Bruce D; Carter, Rickey E; Joyner, Michael J; Eisenach, John H; Curry, Timothy B; Olson, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy contributes to increased afferent feedback (group III and IV) and may influence ventilatory control (high VE/VCO2 slope) in heart failure (HF). This study examined the influence of muscle mass on the change in VE/VCO2 with afferent neural block during exercise in HF. 17 participants [9 HF (60±6 yrs) and 8 controls (CTL) (63±7 yrs, mean±SD)] completed 3 sessions. Session 1: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and graded cycle exercise to volitional fatigue. Sessions 2 and 3: 5 min of constant-work cycle exercise (65% of peak power) randomized to lumbar intrathecal injection of fentanyl (afferent blockade) or placebo. Ventilation (VE) and gas exchange (oxygen consumption, VO2; carbon dioxide production, VCO2) were measured. Peak work and VO2 were lower in HF (pLeg fat was greater in HF (34.4±3.0 and 26.3±1.8%) and leg muscle mass was lower in HF (63.0±2.8 and 70.4±1.8%, respectively, pleg muscle mass (r2=0.58, pleg fat mass (r2=0.73, pleg muscle mass had the greatest improvement in VE/VCO2 with afferent blockade with leg fat mass being the only predictor for the improvement in VE/VCO2 slope. Both leg muscle mass and fat mass are important contributors to ventilatory abnormalities and strongly associated to improvements in VE/VCO2 slope with locomotor afferent inhibition in HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consequences of Fatherhood in the Biparental California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus): Locomotor Performance, Metabolic Rate, and Organ Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Jacob R; Saltzman, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Although effects of motherhood on mothers have been well documented in mammals, the effects of fatherhood on fathers are not well known. We evaluated effects of being a father on key metabolic and performance measures in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. California mice are genetically monogamous in the wild, and fathers show similar parental behavior to mothers, with the exception of lactation. To investigate the impact of fatherhood on fathers, focal males were paired with an intact female (breeding males), a tubally ligated female (nonbreeding males), or another male (virgins). Starting 3-5 d after the birth of each breeding pair's first litter, males were tested for locomotor performance (maximum sprint speed, treadmill endurance), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximum oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]). At the end of the 11-d test period, mice were euthanized, hematocrit was determined, and organs were weighed. Speed, endurance, and [Formula: see text] were significantly repeatable between two replicate measurement days but did not differ among groups, nor did BMR. Breeding males had significantly larger hind limb muscles than did nonbreeding males, whereas virgin males had heavier subcutaneous fat pads than did nonbreeding and breeding males. Several correlations were observed at the level of individual variation (residuals from ANCOVA models), including positive correlations for endurance with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with testes mass, and some of the digestion-related organs with each other. These results indicate that fatherhood may not have pronounced performance, metabolic, or morphological effects on fathers, at least under standard laboratory conditions and across a single breeding cycle.

  2. Hindlimb muscle fiber types in two frogs (Rana catesbeiana and Litoria caerulea) with different locomotor behaviors: histochemical and enzymatic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Christy J; Peters, Susan E

    2008-03-01

    To test how differences in locomotor behaviors may be reflected in muscle fiber-type diversity within anurans, a comparison of hindlimb muscles between the powerful terrestrial hopper, Rana catesbeiana, and the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, was done. One postural muscle (tibialis posticus, TP) and one primary hopping muscle (plantaris longus, PL), were characterized to identify muscle fiber types using standard histochemical methods. In addition, spectophotometric analysis of activity levels of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were done in each muscle. In spite of presumed differences in behavior between the species, we found no significant differences in the proportions of the identified fiber types when the muscles were compared across species. In addition, there were no significant differences in the proportions of the different fiber types between the postural versus phasic muscles within species. Within Rana, the postural muscle (TP) had greater oxidative capacity (as measured by CS activity) than did the phasic muscle (PL). Both muscles had equivalent LDH activities. Within Litoria, PL and TP did not differ in either LDH or CS activities. Both PL and TP of Litoria had less LDH activity and greater CS activity than their homologs in Rana. Thus, in spite of the uniform populations of fiber types between muscles and species, the metabolic diversity based on enzyme activity is consistent with behavioral differences between the species. These results suggest that the range of functional diversity within fiber types may be very broad in anurans, and histochemical fiber typing alone is not a clear indicator of their metabolic or functional properties.

  3. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Loos

    Full Text Available Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BA