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Sample records for beta-lactam antibiotic sensitization

  1. Evaluation of sensitivity of modified star protocol microbiological method for beta-lactame antibiotics detection in raw cow milk

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    Borović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues when present in animal tissues, through food chain, can enter human body, causing allergic reactions or facilitating the development of resistant bacterial strains. In order to determine the presence of antibiotics in animal tissues, it is appropriate to use convenient, reliable and sensitive methods. Microbiological methods applied for the detection of antibiotic residues in primary products of animal origin are based on the sensitivity of specific bacterial strains to a particular group of antibiotics. Regulatives on the amount of pesticides, metals and metalloids and other toxic substances, chemotherapeutics, anabolics and other substances which can be found in food ("Off. Gazette", No. 5/92, 11/92 - corr. and 32/02, state that milk and milk products can be used in commercial purposes only if not contain antibiotics in quantities that can be detected by reference methods. The applied method is modified STAR (Screening test for detection of antibiotics protocol, regulated by the CRL (Community Reference Laboratory Fougeres, France, in which the initial validation of the method had been carried out. In accordance with the demands of Regulative Commission EC No657/2002, the sensitivity of modified STAR protocol for beta lactam antibiotics group was examined , that is, there was carried out a contracted validation of the method, which initial validation had been performed at CRL. In a couple of series of experiments, 20 blank samples of raw cow milk originating from animals not treated by antibiotics, had been examined. By the beginning of the experiment samples were stored in a freezer at -20ºC. Samples of raw cow milk enriched by working solutions of seven beta-lactam antibiotics, in order to obtain concentrations at the level of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 MRL (Maximmum Residue Limit for each given antibiotic (Commission Regulation EC No. 37/2010. For detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, there was used Kundrat agar test with

  2. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains sensitive and intrinsically resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, T J

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of penicillin-sensitive and intrinsically resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with their respective inhibitory concentrations of penicillin caused rapid cell death. When the peptidoglycan syntheses of these two strains were examined in the presence of penicillin, the sensitive strain continued to make this cell wall polymer for an extended time, whereas the resistant strain underwent a rapid and marked depression in synthesis. Examination of the labeled sodium dodecyl sulfate-in...

  3. Evaluation of sensitivity of modified star protocol microbiological method for beta-lactame antibiotics detection in raw cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    Borović Branka; Spirić Danka; Velebit Branko; Đorđević Vesna; Lakićević Brankica; Baltić Tatjana; Spirić Aurelija

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic residues when present in animal tissues, through food chain, can enter human body, causing allergic reactions or facilitating the development of resistant bacterial strains. In order to determine the presence of antibiotics in animal tissues, it is appropriate to use convenient, reliable and sensitive methods. Microbiological methods applied for the detection of antibiotic residues in primary products of animal origin are based on the sensitivity...

  4. Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

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    Gabriel Hancu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes some thin layer chromatographic procedures that allow simple and rapid separation and identification of penicillins and cephalosporins from complex mixtures. Methods: Using silicagel GF254 as stationary phase and selecting different mobile phases we succeeded in the separation of the studied beta-lactamins. Our aim was not only to develop a simple, rapid and efficient method for their separation but also the optimization of the analytical conditions. Results: No system will separate all the beta-lactams, but they could be identified when supplementary information is used from color reactions and/or by using additional chromatographic systems. Conclusions: The right combination of solvent system and detection method allows the identification of the studied penicillins and cephalosporins and can be successfully used in the preliminary analysis beta-lactam antibiotics.

  5. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Nihad Fejzic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx, Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb. In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR. Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  6. The non-enzymatic inactivation of thirteen beta-lactam antibiotics in human faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Weissing, F; de Vries-Hospers, H; Tonk, R; van der Waaij, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain a method that could predict the in vitro inactivation of an antibiotic in the digestive tract, the non-enzymatic inactivation of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics by human faeces was investigated. Benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cloxacillin, piperacillin, temocill

  7. beta-Lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics: first and last line of defense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovetic, S.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Marcone, G.L.; Marinelli, F.; Tramper, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most infections are caused by bacteria, many of which are ever-evolving and resistant to nearly all available antibiotics beta-Lactams and glycopeptides are used to combat these infections by inhibiting bacterial cell-wall synthesis This mechanism remains an interesting target in the search for new

  8. Susceptibility of Nocardia asteroides to 46 antibiotics, including 22 beta-lactams.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Goldstein, F W; Kitzis, M D; Hautefort, B; Darmon, C; Acar, J F

    1983-01-01

    Twelve Nocardia asteroides isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 46 antibiotics by the agar dilution method. N-Formimidoyl thienamycin was the most active of 22 beta-lactam antibiotics, inhibiting 11 of the 12 strains at 1 microgram/ml. Penicillins, including ureidopenicillins, showed poor activity. Cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and especially cefuroxime had the best activities of the cephalosporins tested. Among the other antibiotics, amikacin and minocycline, respectively, inhibited a...

  9. Correlation of pharmacodynamic parameters of five beta-lactam antibiotics with therapeutic efficacies in an animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, F; García-Corbeira, P; Ponte, C; Fernández-Roblas, R.; Gadea, I.

    1996-01-01

    The MIC is the main microbiologic parameter used to predict the efficacies of antibiotics. However, it is well known that MICs may vary according to the inoculum size used (inoculum effect), especially with some beta-lactam antibiotics. In order to correlate the pharmacologic and microbiologic properties of some beta-lactams, an experimental model of intraperitoneal infection caused by Escherichia coli in nonneutropenic and neutro-penic mice was developed. The animals were treated with three ...

  10. [Bases of the antibacterial effect of beta lactam antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, H

    1991-12-01

    The primary antibacterial effect of betalactam antibiotics is due to the inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. Prerequisites for good antibacterial activity of such an antibiotic are --rapid penetration across the bacterial cell wall, --strong binding to the proper targets in the cytoplasmic membrane, i.e. the penicillin-binding proteins, --resistance to betalactamases which may be produced by the bacterial cell. PMID:1802833

  11. Validation study of a receptor-based lateral flow assay for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzied, Mohamed; Sarzynski, Michael; Walsh, Aaron; Wood, Heather; Mozola, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A validation study designed to meet the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Veterinary Medicine, was conducted for a receptor-based, immunochromatographic method (BetaStar US) for detection of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay was found to detect amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephapirin, cloxacillin, and penicillin G at levels below the FDA tolerance/safe levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. Results of the Part I (internal) and Part II (independent laboratory) dose-response studies using spiked samples were in very close agreement for all five drugs tested, with differences between the Part I and Part II 90/95% sensitivity values ranging from 0 to 1 ppb. The test was able to detect all five drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels when present as incurred residues in milk collected from cows that had been treated with the specific drug. A sixth drug, ceftiofur, was found to be undetectable at levels of 1000 control milk samples. The assay was found to be applicable to the testing of frozen raw milk samples. Results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the BetaStar US assay. Results of cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects certain other beta-lactam drugs (dicloxacillin and ticarcillin), but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to other classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no interference with the ability of the test to detect beta-lactams at tolerance/safe levels. PMID:19610391

  12. Validation study of the BetaStar plus lateral flow assay for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

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    Abouzied, Mohamed; Driksna, Dana; Walsh, Coilin; Sarzynski, Michael; Walsh, Aaron; Ankrapp, David; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A validation study designed to meet the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) was conducted for a receptor and antibody-based, immunochromatographic method (BetaStar Plus) for detection of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay was found to detect amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephapirin, cloxacillin, and penicillin G at levels below the FDA tolerance/safe levels, but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS). Results of the part I (internal) and part II (independent laboratory) dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in close agreement. The test was able to detect all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels when presented as incurred residues in milk collected from cows that had been treated with the specific drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing of 1031 control milk samples. Results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the BetaStar Plus assay. Results of cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects certain other beta-lactam drugs (dicloxacillin and ticarcillin), but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to other classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no interference with the ability of the test to detect beta-lactams at tolerance/safe levels. PMID:22970593

  13. [Survey of the antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in France and the distribution of beta-lactam resistance mechanisms: the GERPB 1999 study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J D; Leblanc, F; Fabre, R; Fourticq-Esqueöute, A

    2001-09-01

    A prospective survey was carried out in october 1999 in 15 french teaching hospitals. Average susceptibility rates, determined by minimal inhibitory concentrations, for the 738 non-repetitive strains of P. aeruginosa isolated were: ticarcillin, 58%, ticarcillin + clavulanic acid, 56%, piperacillin, 73%, piperacillin + tazobactam, 82%, ceftazidime, 76%, cefepime, 53%, cefpirome, 36%, aztreonam, 58%, imipenem, 81%, amikacin, 62%, tobramycine, 71% and, ciprofloxacin, 60%. Among the 75% serotypable strains, the most frequent serotypes were: O:6 (15.3%), O:11 (14.5%), O:1 (10.4%), O:3 (7.9%), O:4 (6.1%) and O:12 (6.1%). The serotype O:12 was the most resistant to antibiotics. Forty-two percent of the strains were resistant or presented an intermediate susceptibility to ticarcillin. Mechanisms were as follow: 14.5% non enzymatic mechanism, 12.5% overproduction of the constitutive cephalosporinase, 7.1% transferable betalactamase and, 6.9% combination of these mechanisms. Among the 67 transferable betalactamases: 48 (71.6%) were PSE-1, 12 (19.4%) TEM-2 and 6 (7.5%) oxacillinases. One extended spectrum betalactamase was characterized. Among the cephalosporines tested, cefepime was less affected by the overproduction of constitutive cephalosporinase. Ceftazidime, remained the best cephalosporin except against the strains overexpressing the chromosomal type 1 beta-lactamase. Resistance to tobramycin was mainly due to enzymatic mechanisms with a high level of resistance. Decreased susceptibility was more frequent for amikacin than for tobramycin. This was probably related with non enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:11642015

  14. Analysis of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection.

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    McWhinney, Brett C; Wallis, Steven C; Hillister, Tara; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2010-07-15

    A simple and economical high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routine analysis of 12 Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Carbapenem antibiotics in 200 microL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined were Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ertapenem, Cephalothin, Benzylpenicillin, Flucloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Piperacillin and Ticarcillin. There was a common sample preparation approach involving precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile and removal of lipid-soluble components by a chloroform wash. Separations were performed on a Waters X-bridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of three acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mobile phases. Detection was by UV at 210, 260 and 304 nm. Validation has demonstrated the method to be linear, accurate and precise. The method has been used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactams in critically ill patients. PMID:20561826

  15. Kinetics of enzyme acylation and deacylation in the penicillin acylase-catalyzed synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, WBL; de Vries, E; Floris, R; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Penicillin acylase catalyses the hydrolysis and synthesis of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics via formation of a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. The kinetic and mechanistic aspects of these reactions were studied. Stopped-flow experiments with the penicillin and ampicillin analogues 2-nitro-

  16. Treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in the critical care setting: is the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone broken beyond repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Welte, Tobias; Wunderink, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics form the backbone of treatment for Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. However, this beta-lactam antibiotic backbone is increasingly under pressure from emerging resistance across all geographical regions, and health-care professionals in many countries are rapidly running out of effective treatment options. Even in regions that currently have only low levels of resistance, the effects of globalization are likely to increase local pressures on the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone in the near future. Therefore, clinicians are increasingly faced with a difficult balancing act: the need to prescribe adequate and appropriate antibiotic therapy while reducing the emergence of resistance and the overuse of antibiotics. In this review, we explore the burden of Gram-negative pneumonia in the critical care setting and the pressure that antibiotic resistance places on current empiric therapy regimens (and the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone) in this patient population. New treatment approaches, such as systemic and inhaled antibiotic alternatives, are on the horizon and are likely to help tackle the rising levels of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. In the meantime, it is imperative that the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone of currently available antibiotics be supported through stringent antibiotic stewardship programs. PMID:26821535

  17. Assessment of a self-designed protocol on patients with adverse reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Guerra, F; Moreno, C; Miguel, R; Daza, J C; Sánchez Guijo, P

    1992-01-01

    Suspected adverse reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics are the most frequent reason for consultation in relation WMH drug allergy. Because of their therapeutical usefulness and wide use, we developed a protocol for confirmation or exclusion of this type of allergy. The proposed protocol is based on clinical, causal and laboratory criteria that are used to assign scores from 0 to 9 points. Patients with scores between 0 and 3 are considered to be highly prone to beta-lactam antibiotic allergy and are given an alternative therapy that is selected by applying skin provocation tests (SPT). Those with a score of 9 points are excluded. Finally, those with scores between 4 and 8 are subjected to skin tests with 5 antigens (penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin, Penkit PPL and Penkit MDM); if they give negative results they are subsequently subjected to oral provocation with beta-lactam antibiotics. In this work we report the results obtained from 150 patients analysed for 28 variables altogether. The results allowed us to rule out adverse reactions in 94 patients. Only 9 individuals yielded positive skin tests, and only one gave a positive oral provocation (bronchospasm, 6 hours after subjection to the test). The usefulness of the proposed protocol, the profitability of the test applied and the mechanisms involved are assessed. PMID:1292326

  18. Trace determination of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics in environmental and food samples by capillary liquid chromatography.

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    Bailón-Pérez, M I; García-Campaña, A M; del Olmo-Iruela, M; Gámiz-Gracia, L; Cruces-Blanco, C

    2009-11-20

    A sensitive and reliable method using capillary HPLC with UV-diode array detection (DAD) has been developed and validated for the trace determination of residues of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics of human and veterinary use, in milk, chicken meat and environmental water samples. The analytes included ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin V, penicillin G, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, piperacillin and clavulanic acid. Legal levels are regulated by the EU Council regulation 2377/90 in animal edible tissues for these compounds. For food analysis, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure consisting in a tandem of Oasis HLB and Alumina N cartridges was applied for off-line preconcentration and cleanup. For water analysis, the first step was only necessary. The limits of detection for the studied compounds were between 0.04-0.06 microg l(-1) for water samples and 0.80-1.40 microg l(-1) (or microg kg(-1)) in the case of foods derived from animals. Average recoveries for fortified samples at different concentration levels ranged between 82.9% and 98.2%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9%. The method showed the advantages of capillary HPLC for the detection of these widely applied antibiotics in different samples at very low concentration levels. PMID:19836022

  19. {beta}-Lactam antibiotics epitope mapping with STD NMR spectroscopy: a study of drug-human serum albumin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milagre, Cintia D. F.; Cabeca, Luis F.; Almeida, Wanda P.; Marsaioli, Anita J., E-mail: cmilagre@rc.unesp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Molecular recognition events are key issues in many biological processes. STD NMR (saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) is one of the techniques used to understand such biological interactions. Herein, we have investigated the interactions of four {beta}-lactam antibiotics belonging to two classes (cephalosporins and penicillins) with human serum albumin (HSA) by {sup 1}H STD NMR revealing that the interaction between the aromatic moiety and HSA is responsible for the binding efficiency. Thus, the structural differences from the five to six-membered thio ring in penicillins and cephalosporins do not seem to influence antibiotic albumin interactions. (author)

  20. Metallo-beta-lactamases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa--a novel mechanism resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Olszańska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since about twenty years, following the introduction into therapeutic of news beta-lactam antibiotics (broad-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams and carbapenems, a very significant number of new beta-lactamases appeared. These enzymes confer to the bacteria which put them, the means of resisting new molecules. The genetic events involved in this evolution are of two types: evolution of old enzymes by mutation and especially appearance of new genes coming for some, from bacteria of the environment. Numerous mechanisms of enzymatic resistance to the carbapenems have been described in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The important mechanism of inactivation carbapenems is production variety of b-lactam hydrolysing enzymes associated to carbapenemases. The metallo-beta-enzymes (IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM types are the most clinically significant carbapenemases. P. aeruginosa posses MBLs and seem to have acquired them through transmissible genetic elements (plasmids or transposons associated with integron and can be transmission to other bacteria. They have reported worldwide but mostly from South East Asia and Europe. The enzymes, belonging to the molecular class B family, are the most worrisome of all beta-lactamases because they confer resistance to carbapenems and all the beta-lactams (with the exception of aztreonam and usually to aminoglycosides and quinolones. The dissemination of MBLs genes is thought to be driven by regional consumption of extended--spectrum antibiotics (e.g. cephalosporins and carbapenems, and therefore care must be taken that these drugs are not used unnecessarily.

  1. High beta-Lactamase Levels Change the Pharmacodynamics of beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hengzhuang; Ciofu, Oana; Yang, Liang;

    2013-01-01

    , microtiter plates, and on alginate beads were treated with different concentrations of ceftazidime and imipenem. The kinetics of antibiotics on the biofilms was investigated in vitro by time-kill methods. Time-dependent killing of ceftazidime was observed in PAO1 biofilms, but concentration-dependent killing......Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is a frequent problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This resistance is mainly due to the hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase and biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the...... activity of ceftazidime was observed for beta-lactamase-overproducing biofilms of P. aeruginosa in all three models. Ceftazidime showed time-dependent killing on planktonic PAO1 and PA Delta DDh2Dh3. This difference is probably due to the special distribution and accumulation in the biofilm matrix of beta...

  2. Development of a novel and automated fluorescent immunoassay for the analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benito-Pena, E.; Moreno-Bondi, M.C.; Orellana, G.; Maquieira, K.; Amerongen, van A.

    2005-01-01

    An automated immunosensor for the rapid and sensitive analysis of penicillin type -lactam antibiotics has been developed and optimized. An immunogen was prepared by coupling the common structure of the penicillanic -lactam antibiotics, i.e., 6-aminopenicillanic acid to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Pol

  3. Penicillin G acylase from Achromobacter sp CCM 4824 An efficient biocatalyst for syntheses of beta-lactam antibiotics under conditions employed in large-scale processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bečka, Stanislav; Štěpánek, Václav; Vyasarayani, W. R.; Grulich, Michal; Maršálek, Jaroslav; Plháčková, Kamila; Dobišová, Marie; Marešová, Helena; Plačková, Martina; Valešová, Renata; Palyzová, Andrea; Datla, A.; Ashar, T. K.; Kyslík, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2014), s. 1195-1203. ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Achromobacter sp. * Penicillin G acylase * beta-Lactam antibiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.337, year: 2014

  4. Synthesis and anti Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity of substituted chalcones alone and in combination with non-beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh-Dao; Do, Tuong-Ha; Tran, Ngoc-Chau; Ngo, Trieu-Du; Huynh, Thi-Ngoc-Phuong; Tran, Cat-Dong; Thai, Khac-Minh

    2012-07-15

    A total of 30 chalcone analogues was synthesized via a base catalyzed Claisen Schmidt condensation and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) alone or in combination with non beta-lactam antibiotics namely ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin, doxycycline and gentamicin. In the checkerboard technique, fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) show that the following combinations like ciprofloxacin with 25 (4'-bromo-2-hydroxychalcone); doxycycline with 21 (4-hydroxychalcone); doxycycline with 25; and doxycycline with 4 (2',2-dihydroxychalcone) were synergistic against MRSA. In term SAR study, the relationship between chalcone structure and their antibacterial activity against S. aureus and synergy with tested antibiotics were discussed. Possible mechanisms for antibacterial activity of chalcones alone as well as the synergistic effect in combinations were proposed by molecular modeling studies, respectively. Combinations of chalcones with conventional antibiotics could be an effective alternative in the treatment of infection caused by MRSA. PMID:22727643

  5. Effects of beta-lactam antibiotics on peptidoglycan synthesis in growing Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including changes in the degree of O-acetylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, J K; Perkins, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Low concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics caused an increased uptake of radioactive glucosamine into the sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble peptidoglycan of growing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. There was no appreciable change in the (small) amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate-soluble polymer present in the cultures. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble product in control cells was only partially dissolved by egg-white lysozyme (about 40%), but could all be released by the Chalaropsis B muramidase. I...

  6. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Tahmasby; Sara Barati; Hassan Momtaz; Mohammad Rafiee Dolatabadi; Mohammad Ghasemi; Seied Vahid Ahmadi Salianeh; Samaneh Mehrabiyan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and metho...

  7. The Survey of Genes Encoding Beta-Lactamases, in Escherichia Coli Resistant to Beta-Lactam and Non-Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahcheraghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to the new generation of cephalosporins which is mediated by Extended-Spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs has been found amongEscherichia coli isolates throughout the world. These resistance genes and their producers, the micro-organisms carrying beta-lactamases, are responsible for serious clinical and therapeutic problems among inpatients and it is necessary to pay more attention to detection of ESBLs producing organisms.Materiasl and MethodsCollectively 260 isolates of E. coli were obtained from 6 hospitals in Tehran (Iran during April-2006 to April-2007. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT was carried out for screening of ESBLs. Microbroth dilution assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ceftazidime. Isolates showing MIC≥2 μg/ml were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX and blaPER genes. ResultsThe PCT showed that 48.08% of isolates are ESBL producers (125 of 260. The majority of cefotaxime resistant (90.8% and ceftazidime resistant (92.5% isolates were ESBL producers. The obtained results by PCR revealed that 5.77% (n=15 of 260 and 24.23 (n=63 of isolates can produce SHV and TEM type enzymes respectively. blaCTX was detected in 20.38% of isolates (n=53 and none of them could produce blaPER type beta-lactamases. ConclusionThe results of our study showed that the ESBL genes have high prevalence among clinical isolates of E. coli. Such high dissemination of ESBLs is a serious problem for public health and therefore, it's necessary to seek a program for monitoring ESBLs in hospitals.

  8. A method for determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Scott E; McWhinney, Brett C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2012-10-15

    With the clinical imperative to further research in the area of optimising antibiotic dosing in the intensive care setting, a simple high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routinely determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in 200 μL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined include three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cephazolin and cephalotin); two carbapenems (meropenem and ertapenem); and five penicillins (ampicillin, piperacillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin). There was a single common sample preparation method involving ultracentrifugation and stabilisation. Chromatography was performed on a Waters XBridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of four acetonitrile-phosphate buffered mobile phases. Peaks of interest were detected via ultraviolet absorbance at 210, 260 and 304 nm. The method has been validated and used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients. The significant variability in the level of protein binding that is common with antibiotics traditionally considered to have high protein binding (e.g. ceftriaxone, cephazolin, ertapenem, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin) suggests that this assay should be preferred for measuring the pharmacologically active concentration of beta-lactam antibiotics in a therapeutic drug monitoring programme. PMID:23026224

  9. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics as A Possible Novel Therapy for Managing Epilepsy and Autism, A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHANIZADEH, Ahmad; BERK, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a disorder of unknown etiology. There are few FDA approved medications for treating autism. Co-occurring autism and epilepsy is common, and glutamate antagonists improve some symptoms of autism. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, increases the expression of the glutamate transporter 1 which decreases extracellular glutamate levels. It is hypothesized that modulating astrocyte glutamate transporter expression by ceftriaxone or cefixime might improve some symptoms of autism. This case report of a child with autism and epilepsy suggests a decrease in seizures after taking cefixime PMID:25767546

  10. Beta-lactam antibiotics as a possible novel therapy for managing epilepsy and autism, a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a disorder of unknown etiology. There are few FDA approved medications for treating autism. Co-occurring autism and epilepsy is common, and glutamate antagonists improve some symptoms of autism. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, increases the expression of the glutamate transporter 1 which decreases extracellular glutamate levels. It is hypothesized that modulating astrocyte glutamate transporter expression by ceftriaxone or cefixime might improve some symptoms of autism. This case report of a child with autism and epilepsy suggests a decrease in seizures after taking cefixime. PMID:25767546

  11. Effects of beta-lactam antibiotics imipenem/cilastatin and cefodizime on cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochla, I; Ko, H L; Beuth, J; Roszkowski, K; Roszkowski, W; Pulverer, G

    1990-11-01

    The effects of a 7-day chemotherapy with two broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics (imipenem/cilastatin and cefodizime) on the humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c-mice were investigated. Antibiotic dosages were calculated on a body weight basis from therapeutical dosages in human medicine. Treatment of experimental mice with imipenem/cilastatin and cefodizime did not influence the production of immunoglobulines (IgM and IgG) nor the delayed type hypersensitivity to oxazolone. In vitro, exposure of human granulocytes to imipenem/cilastatin and cefodizime did not interfere with their phagocytic activity as determined by chemiluminescence assay. Subinhibitory concentrations of both antibiotics modified Staphylococcus aureus and made them more susceptible for granulocyte phagocytosis in chemiluminescence assays. PMID:2085374

  12. Activities of beta-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, G A; Carreras, I

    1990-01-01

    Seven extended-spectrum beta-lactamases related to TEM and four enzymes derived from SHV-1 were transferred to a common Escherichia coli host so that the activity of a variety of beta-lactams could be tested in a uniform genetic environment. For most derivatives, penicillinase activity was 10% or less than that of strains making TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 beta-lactamase, suggesting that reduced catalytic efficiency accompanied the broader substrate spectrum. Despite this deficit, resistance to az...

  13. Meropenem in cystic fibrosis patients infected with resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Burkholderia cepacia and with hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Jensen, Tim; Pressler, Tacjana;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of meropenem, administered on a compassionate basis to 62 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (age: 24plus minus6 years) with hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics and/or infection by bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. METHODS: Fifty......-seven patients were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 5 with Burkholderia cepacia. In total, 124 courses (1 to 6/patient) of meropenem, 2 g three times a day by intravenous infusion (10 to 15 min) for 14 days, were administered. RESULTS: During treatment for P. aeruginosa the mean increase in...... chronic infection with B. cepacia the post treatment FEV1 and FVC values were higher than the pre-treatment values, and all the inflammatory parameters decreased. The geometric means of minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) (microg/mL) for P. aeruginosa (B. cepacia) were: tobramycin 6 (59...

  14. Effects of reducing beta-lactam antibiotic pressure on intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nijssen (Saskia); A.C. Fluit (Ad); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); J. Top (Janetta); R.J.L. Willems (Rob); M.J.M. Bonten (Marc)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We determined the effects of two antibiotic policies (predominance of either β-lactam antibiotics or fluroquinolones) on acquisition with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and fluoroquinolone-resistant CRE (FCRE) in two ICUs, with monitoring of

  15. CesRK, a two-component signal transduction system in Listeria monocytogenes, responds to the presence of cell wall-acting antibiotics and affects beta-lactam resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H; Ingmer, Hanne; Gahan, Cormac G;

    2003-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can cause a variety of illnesses ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicemia. The beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin remains the drug of choice for the treatment of listeriosis. We have previously identified a response regulator of...

  16. Type 1 Ig-E mediated allergy to human insulin, insulin analogues and beta-lactam antibiotics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Pedro; Barros, Luísa; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Insulin, a crucial therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus, has been rarely associated with hypersensitivity events. We present a 69-year-old type-2 diabetic patient with urticariform lesions on the sites of subcutaneous injection of insulin. The patient denied any known allergies, except for an unspecific cutaneous reaction after intramuscular penicillin administration in childhood. Prick tests revealed positive reactions to all tested human insulins and insulin analogues. Serum IgE levels were above normal range and RAST tests were positive for human, bovine and porcine insulins, as well as beta-lactams. Type 1 IgE-mediated allergy to insulin analogues demands a prompt diagnosis and represents a significant therapeutic challenge in diabetic patients. PMID:23197216

  17. Activities of beta-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, G A; Carreras, I

    1990-05-01

    Seven extended-spectrum beta-lactamases related to TEM and four enzymes derived from SHV-1 were transferred to a common Escherichia coli host so that the activity of a variety of beta-lactams could be tested in a uniform genetic environment. For most derivatives, penicillinase activity was 10% or less than that of strains making TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 beta-lactamase, suggesting that reduced catalytic efficiency accompanied the broader substrate spectrum. Despite this deficit, resistance to aztreonam, carumonam, cefdinir, cefepime, cefixime, cefmenoxime, cefotaxime, cefotiam, cefpirome, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and E1040 was enhanced. For strains producing TEM-type enzymes, however, MICs of carumonam, cefepime, cefmenoxime, cefotiam, cefpirome, and ceftibuten were 8 micrograms/ml or less. Susceptibilities of cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, flomoxef, imipenem, meropenem, moxalactam, temocillin, FCE 22101, and Sch 34343 were unaffected. FCE 22101, imipenem, meropenem, and Sch 34343 were inhibitory for all strains at 1 microgram/ml or less. In E. coli an OmpF- porin mutation in combination with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase enhanced resistance to many of these agents, but generally by only fourfold. Hyperproduction of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase increased resistance to 7-alpha-methoxy beta-lactams but not that to temocillin. When tested at 8 micrograms/ml, clavulanate was more potent than sulbactam or tazobactam in overcoming resistance to ampicillin, while cefoperazone-sulbactam was more active than ticarcillin-clavulanate or piperacillin-tazobactam, especially against TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. PMID:2193623

  18. Partial characterization of an endemic strain of a methicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MARSA) homogeneously resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, J; Meers, P D

    1992-06-01

    Selected strains of methicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MARSA) were subjected to a preliminary examination. They were representative of a larger group collected in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory over a period of 2 years. MARSA was endemic in the associated hospital. The characteristics investigated were antimicrobial resistance, the production of beta-lactamase, free and bound coagulase, protein A, DNA-ase, urease, lipase and pigment. The MARSA strains were generally indistinguishable, other than in their antimicrobial resistances. The resistance to methicillin was completely homogeneous. Except with imipenem, growth extended to the edge of discs containing methicillin and the other beta-lactam antibiotics tested when the strains were cultured at 37 degrees C on media without added salt. Homogeneous resistance may confer an epidemiological advantage on strains of this phenotype. PMID:1353087

  19. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tahmasby

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and methods: Altogether 256 samples of cage birds (lovebirds, quails, nightingales, parrots, mynahs, goldfinchs, finches, kingbirds, peacocks, and pheasants faeces were collected with sterile cotton swabs from different areas of Shahrekord, Iran. Swabs were placed directly into Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB. In the laboratory, samples were streaked onto MacConkey agar and also Sorbitol MacConkey agar as selective plating media. Then, antibiogram tests were performed using disc diffusion method. Suspected colonies to E. coli O157:H7 were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: E. coli was isolated from 31 (12.1% out of 256 the samples. Resistance of isolates to Imipenem, Cefotaxime, Cefixime, Cefalexin, Amoxicillin, Penicillin G and Oxacillin was 0, 3.2, 16.1, 90.3, 100, 100 and 100% respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not found in any samples. Discussion and conclusion: Although cage birds were not sourcee or carriers of E. coli O157:H7 in the studied region, they harbored beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and could be an important component of drug-resistant infections transmission from cage-birds to human, especially to kids and can pose a potential risk to human health. For this reason, it is recommended to make pet birds owners and general public aware of potential dangers of cage bird keeping.

  20. Meropenem in cystic fibrosis patients infected with resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Burkholderia cepacia and with hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, Oana; Jensen, Tim; Pressler, Tacjana; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Koch, Christian; Høiby, Niels

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of meropenem, administered on a compassionate basis to 62 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (age: 24plus minus6 years) with hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics and/or infection by bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 5 with Burkholderia cepacia. In total, 124 courses (1 to 6/patient) of meropenem, 2 g three times a day by intravenous infusion (10 to 15 min) for 14 days, were administered. RESULTS: During treatment for P. aeruginosa the mean increase in pulmonary function (as a percentage of the predictive values) was 5.6% for FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second) and 8.6% for FVC (forced vital capacity). C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and leukocyte count decreased significantly. In courses administered for chronic infection with B. cepacia the post treatment FEV1 and FVC values were higher than the pre-treatment values, and all the inflammatory parameters decreased. The geometric means of minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) (microg/mL) for P. aeruginosa (B. cepacia) were: tobramycin 6 (59), ciprofloxacin 1.2 (9.7), piperacillin 49 (16.3), ceftazidime 26 (23), aztreonam 26 (35), imipenem 6.4 (not determined) and meropenem 5.1 (4.8). No statistically significant increase in the MICs of meropenem for either pathogen occurred during therapy. Of the 124 courses, 115 were tolerated without any clinical complaint. The following side effects were observed: nausea (0.8%), itching (4%), rash (3.2%), drug fever (1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Meropenem proved to be a valuable drug in the treatment of CF patients with chronic pulmonary infection with multiresistant P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia and with hypersensitivity reactions to other beta-lactam drugs. PMID:11866824

  1. [Strict anaerobic bacteria: comparative study of various beta-lactam antibiotics in combination with tazobactam or sulbactam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, L; Sedallian, A

    1991-05-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations of piperacillin (PIP) or cefotaxime (CTX) alone or in combination with tazobactam (TAZ) were determined against 168 anaerobes. All the strains were inhibited by PIP + TAZ, but certain strains resistant to CTX + TAZ were found among B. fragilis, Eubacterium and Peptostreptococcus. The second investigations included 30 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. Concentrations of 2, 4 and 8 mg/l of TAZ and sulbactam (SUL) were combined with piperacillin or cefotaxime. The two beta-lactamase-inhibitors had similar activities when used at 2 or 4 mg/l, but at 8 mg/l TAZ was more active than SUL. All B. fragilis strains were inhibited by PIP + TAZ or PIP + SUL, whereas resistance was observed with CTX + SUL or CTX + TAZ. On the same strains the activities of 6 beta-lactams (PIP, mezlocillin, ticarcillin (TIC), CTX, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) were determined in combination with either SUL 4 mg/l or TAZ 8 mg/l. Only PIP or TIC + SUL or TAZ were able to inhibit at least 90% of tested strains. No resistance could be detected with PIP + TAZ combination. As conclusion, the two inhibitors when combined with PIP or TIC offered greater activity against both Gram positive or negative anaerobes and PIP + TAZ remained the more potent combination. PMID:1652729

  2. Endopeptidase-Mediated Beta Lactam Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, Tobias; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    In many bacteria, inhibition of cell wall synthesis leads to cell death and lysis. The pathways and enzymes that mediate cell lysis after exposure to cell wall-acting antibiotics (e.g. beta lactams) are incompletely understood, but the activities of enzymes that degrade the cell wall (‘autolysins’) are thought to be critical. Here, we report that Vibrio cholerae, the cholera pathogen, is tolerant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis. In response to a wide variety of cell wall- acting ...

  3. Comprehensive identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with beta-lactam resistance within pneumococcal mosaic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Chewapreecha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of "mosaic genes" as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology.

  4. 76 FR 14024 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Risk Assessment: A CGMP Framework...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam... guidance for industry entitled ``Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Risk Assessment: A CGMP Framework.'' This... non- penicillin beta-lactam antibiotics. The draft guidance is intended to assist manufacturers...

  5. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics as A Possible Novel Therapy for Managing Epilepsy and Autism, A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed GHANIZADEH*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghanizadeh A, Berk M. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics as A Possible Novel Therapy for Managing Epilepsy and Autism, A Case Report and Review of Literature. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:99-102.AbstractAutism is a disorder of unknown etiology. There are few FDA approved medications for treating autism. Co-occurring autism and epilepsy is common, and glutamate antagonists improve some symptoms of autism. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, increases the expression of the glutamate transporter 1 which decreases extracellular glutamate levels. It is hypothesized that modulating astrocyte glutamate transporter expression by ceftriaxone or cefixime might improve some symptoms of autism. This case report of a child with autism and epilepsy suggests a decrease in seizures after taking cefixime.References Selassie AW, Wilson DA, Martz GU, Smith GG, Wagner JL, Wannamaker BB. Epilepsy beyond seizure: a population-based study of comorbidities. Epilepsy Res 2014;108(2: 305-315.Sansa G, Carlson C, Doyle W, Weiner HL, Bluvstein, Barr W, et al. Medically refractory epilepsy in autism. Epilepsia 2011; 52(6: 1071-1075.Ghanizadeh A. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism. Dis Markers; 2013;35(5: 281-286.Yamada T, Kawahara K, Kosugi T, Tanaka M.Nitric oxide produced during sublethal ischemia is crucial for the preconditioning-induced down-regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 in neuron/astrocyte co-cultures. Neurochem Res 2006:31(1: 49-56.Zeng, LH, Ouyang Y, Gazit V, Cirrito JR, Jansen LA, Ess KC, et al. Abnormal glutamate homeostasis and impaired synaptic plasticity and learning in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurobiol Dis 2007; 28(2: 184-196.Zeng LH, Bero AW, Zhang B, Holtzman D. M. , Wong M. Modulation of astrocyte glutamate transporters decreases seizures in a mouse model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

  6. Effects of some beta lactam antibiotics on (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding to intact human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borst, S.E.; Hui, K.K.; Conolly, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    Several antibiotics have been reported to cause a bleeding diathesis in man, characterized by reduced platelet aggregation. The authors investigated the effects of several of the penicillins and of moxalactam on the binding of (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine to intact human platelets. The (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding met the criteria for interaction at an alpha2 adrenergic binding site and showed low interindividual variability. Penicillin G, ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin and moxalactam all inhibited (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding, but at concentrations far in excess of clinically achievable plasma levels. They conclude that these compounds exert their antiplatelet effects by a mechanism other than competitive inhibition of catecholamine binding.

  7. A clinical investigation of pivmecillinam. A novel beta-lactam antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Reeves, D S; Symonds, J M; Wilkinson, P J

    1976-01-01

    Pivmecillinam (FL 1039) is the pivaloyloxymethyl ester of mecillinam (FL 1060) which has considerable in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae. 38 hospital inpatients who had proven urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam four times daily for 5-7 days. The MIC of mecillinam to the infecting organisms was determined as were the serum and urinary concentrations of the antibiotic. The patients were followed up for 4-6 weeks after the end of treatment. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 35 patients who were adequately followed up, 29 (83%) were classified as cured and there were 6 failures. Reported side effects were of a minor nature. PMID:181216

  8. In vitro selection of one-step mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to different oral beta-lactam antibiotics is associated with alterations of PBP2x.

    OpenAIRE

    Sifaoui, F; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L

    1996-01-01

    Many oral penicillins and cephalosporins are used to treat clinical infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, using different beta-lactams as selectors, we estimated the frequencies of one-step mutations leading to resistance. Resistant mutants were obtained from penicillin-susceptible, intermediately resistant, and penicillin resistant strains. For cefixime, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, the frequencies of mutation ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-8) when res...

  9. Streamlining methodology for the multiresidue analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in bovine kidney using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R

    2008-08-22

    A previously reported multiresidue method for the analysis of 11 important beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cloxacillin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide (DCCD), deacetylcephapirin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and penicillin G) in bovine kidney has been further streamlined. The method is based on a simple extraction using acetonitrile-water (4:1, v/v), followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up with C(18) sorbent, concentration of an extract aliquot, and filtration of the final extracts using syringeless filter vials, which are used for the sample introduction in the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The recoveries have been improved by adding the internal standard [(13)C(6)]sulfamethazine to the homogenized sample before the extraction step, which enabled a proper control of the volume changes during the sample preparation. Average recoveries of fortified samples were 87-103% for all beta-lactams, except for DCCD, which had an average recovery of 60%. Based on the results of the stability study and LC mobile phase tests, methanol has been eliminated from the entire method, including the LC-MS/MS analysis. The best overall LC-MS/MS (electrospray positive ionization) performance was achieved by using 0.1% formic acid as an additive in both parts of the mobile phase, in water and in acetonitrile. To prevent carry-over in the LC-MS/MS analysis, the LC method was divided into two parts: one serving as an analytical method for injection of the sample and elution of the analytes and the other one, starting at a highly organic mobile phase composition, being dedicated for injection of a solvent, washing of the system, and equilibration of the column to the initial conditions of the analytical method. In this way, a blank solvent is injected after each sample, but these in-between injections contribute minimally to the overall sample throughput. PMID:18656204

  10. Abundances of tetracycline, sulphonamide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different waste load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laht, Mailis; Karkman, Antti; Voolaid, Veiko;

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in...... abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted p<0.01) between the inflow and effluent were...... detected in only four cases. Effluent values for blaoxa-58 and tetC decreased in the two larger plants while tetM decreased in the medium-sized plant. Only blashv-34 increased in the effluent from the medium-sized plant. In all other cases the purification process caused no significant change in the...

  11. Comprehensive allergy work-up is mandatory in cystic fibrosis patients who report a history suggestive of drug allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Caimmi Silvia; Sanfiorenzo Céline; Caimmi Davide; Bousquet Philippe-Jean; Chiron Raphael; Demoly Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the general population, reports on suspected ß-lactam hypersensitivity are common. After a drug allergy work-up at best 20% of the selected patients are positive. However, these considerations have not been explored in cystic fibrosis patients for whom antibiotics are even more crucial. Methods The study, part of the Drug Allergy and Hypersensitivity (DAHD) cohort, was performed in the regional cystic fibrosis center of Montpellier, France. After identifying patients wi...

  12. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  13. [In vitro activity of meropenem and seven other beta-lactam antibiotics against K.pneumoniae and enterobacteriaceae producing beta-lactamases with extended spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J D; Fabre, R; Crenn, Y; Meyran, M

    1994-05-01

    Meropenem is a broad antibacterial spectrum carbapenem with a good activity on betalactam resistant Gram-negative bacilli. 120 non repetitive strains isolated from clinical samples from 1989 to 1992 were selected: 60 K. pneumoniae, 7 E. coli, 2 E. aerogenes and 1 S. marcescens with extended spectrum betalactamases (23 CTX-1, 18 SHV-2, 5 SHV-3, 16 SHV-4, 4 SHV-5, 3 CTX-1 + SHV-4, 1 CAZ-1), 10 K. pneumoniae with broad spectrum TEM-1 enzyme, and 40 K. pneumoniae with only SHV-1 chromosomal betalactamase. Determination of Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) was done by agar dilution method for meropenem and 7 other betalactams (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 2 mg/l, piperacillin + tazobactam 4 mg/l, cefoxitin, cefotetan, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem). All antibiotics except amoxicillin + clavulanic acid are active against strains with constitutive penicillinase. For strains with TEM-1 penicillinase, cephamycins, third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are active. For strains with different extended spectrum betalactamases only cephamycins and carbapenems are efficious. There is no difference according to the period of isolation: 1989-90 or 1991-92. Meropenem has the best in vitro activity (MIC50 = 0.03 mg/l) for all strains independently of the nature of betalactamase. PMID:7824297

  14. New molecules from old classes: revisiting the development of beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Malcolm G P; Heim, Jutta

    2009-09-01

    Beta-lactams are among the most successful classes of antibiotics, both medically and commercially. However, more than 60 years of extensive, and sometimes inappropriate, use has enabled bacteria to develop a broad range of resistance mechanisms. Nevertheless, the versatility of the beta-lactam core structure, combined with the innovation of medicinal chemists, has repeatedly led to the development of new generations of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of overcoming the problems caused by mounting bacterial resistance. In particular, two cephalosporin derivatives, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline (Forest Laboratories Inc/AstraZeneca plc), as well as the carbapenem razupenem (Novartis AG/Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co Ltd), have demonstrated potent activity against the gram-positive 'superbug' MRSA. CXA-101 (Calixa Therapeutics Inc) is a new member of the series of cephalosporins that are effective against gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compound has been demonstrated to be particularly stable to degradation by the class C beta-lactamases in P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, siderophore-containing monobactams such as BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) are inherently stable to hydrolysis by metallo-beta-lactamases, and act as 'Trojan horses' by being transported into gram-negative cells using endogenous bacterial iron-uptake systems. Considering the significant medical need for novel antibiotics that are active against resistant strains of bacteria, it is hoped several of the new generation of beta-lactam compounds that are in clinical development will soon reach the market. PMID:19697275

  15. Type 1 Ig-E mediated allergy to human insulin, insulin analogues and beta-lactam antibiotics Hipersensibilidade imediata a insulina humana, análogos de insulina e a antibióticos beta-lactâmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin, a crucial therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus, has been rarely associated with hypersensitivity events. We present a 69-year-old type-2 diabetic patient with urticariform lesions on the sites of subcutaneous injection of insulin. The patient denied any known allergies, except for an unspecific cutaneous reaction after intramuscular penicillin administration in childhood. Prick tests revealed positive reactions to all tested human insulins and insulin analogues. Serum IgE levels were above normal range and RAST tests were positive for human, bovine and porcine insulins, as well as beta-lactams. Type 1 IgEmediated allergy to insulin analogues demands a prompt diagnosis and represents a significant therapeutic challenge in diabetic patients.A insulina é um agente indispensável para o controlo da diabetes mellitus. Os efeitos adversos da sua administração, em particular fenómenos de hipersensibilidade, são raros. Apresentamos um doente de 69 anos, diabético do tipo 2, com episódios recorrentes de lesões urticariformes nos locais de administração subcutânea de insulina. Negava alergias medicamentosas, à excepção de reacção não especificada na infância após penicilina intramuscular. Foram realizados testes cutâneos por puntura (prick tests com diversos tipos de insulina humana e análogos, todos com reacções positivas, associando elevação dos níveis de IgE sérica e provas RAST positivas para as insulinas humana, bovina e porcina e para os antibióticos beta-lactâmicos. A alergia a análogos de insulina exige um diagnóstico precoce, originando um desafio terapêutico importante no doente diabético.

  16. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  17. Activity of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from February to October 2008. Methodology: A total of 190 consecutive non-duplicate isolates of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae from urine samples of in-patients were included in the study. Urinary samples from out-patients, repeat samples and non-ESBL producing isolates were excluded. Detection of ESBL was carried out by double disk diffusion technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 10. Results: Of the 190 ESBL isolates tested, 88 cases (46.31%) were sensitive and 6 cases (3.15%) were resistant to all three combinations, the rest 96 cases (50.52%) were resistant to at least one of the combinations. Susceptibility pattern of cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 95.26, 92.10, and 44.31 percent respectively. Conclusion: Cefoperazone/sulbactam exhibited the best activity against ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae followed by piperacillin/tazobactam. Hospital antibiotic policies should be reviewed periodically to reduce the usage of extended spectrum cephalosporins and replace them with beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations agent for treating urinary tract infections. (author)

  18. Comparison of the activity of imipenem and beta-lactams combined with sulbactam and clavulanic acid in beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M A; Castillo, A M; Liébana, J; Marín, A; Alados, J C; Piédrola, G

    1991-01-01

    We compared the "in vitro" activity of imipenem with 14 beta-lactams, both alone and in combination with clavulanic acid, and sulbactam against 110 beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The following antibiotics were tested: amoxycillin, penicillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cephazolin, cefamandole, cefmetazole, cefonicid, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, and ceftriaxone. In all cases, except those of cefoxitin and cefmetazole, these combinations showed a statistically significant increase in beta-lactam activity, which was, however, never higher than that of imipenem, the antibiotic which performed best against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:1940333

  19. Detection limits of four antimicrobial residue screening tests for beta-lactams in goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Morales, C T; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Gonzalo, C

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the detection limits (DL) of several antibiotic residue screening tests with the maximum residue limits (MRL) authorized by the EU according to the guidance for the standardized evaluation of microbial inhibitor tests of the International Dairy Federation. Composite antibiotic-free milk samples from 30 primiparous Murciano-Granadina goats in good health condition were used to prepare test samples spiked with different concentrations of each antimicrobial. In total, 5,760 analytical determinations of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin-G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, cefadroxyl, cefalexin, cefoperazone, and cefuroxime) were performed using 4 antibiotic residue screening tests: the brilliant black reduction test BRT AiM (AiM-Analytik in Milch Produktions-und Vertriebs GmbH, München, Germany), Delvotest MCS (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), Eclipse 100 (ZEU-Inmunotec SL, Zaragoza, Spain), and the Copan Milk Test (CMT; Copan Italia SpA, Brescia, Italy). For each method, we estimated the detection limits of the antimicrobial agents using a logistic regression model. Using the CMT and Delvotest on samples spiked with the 8 antibiotics for which MRL were available, DL were at or below the MRL. The BRT test provided DL at or below the MRL for all of the agents except cefalexin, whereas the Eclipse 100 method failed to detect 4 antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, and cefoperazone) at MRL or below. Logistic regression-determined levels of agreement were highest for the CMT method (98.6 to 100%) and lowest for Eclipse 100 (66.3 to 100%). In general, agreement levels indicated good correlation between observed results and those predicted by logistic regression. The lowest b values (closely related to test sensitivity) were recorded for the cephalosporins (0.074 to 0.430) and highest for penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin (11.270 to 11.504). Delvotest and CMT best

  20. Involvement of penicillin-binding protein 2 with other penicillin-binding proteins in lysis of Escherichia coli by some beta-lactam antibiotics alone and in synergistic lytic effect of amdinocillin (mecillinam).

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Vincent, S; Billot-Klein, D; Acar, J F; Mrèna, E; Williamson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Compared with cefotaxime, ceftazidime, moxalactam, and aztreonam, ceftriaxone produced the best lytic and bactericidal effects when each was added at about 10 times the MIC to Escherichia coli W7. When each of these antibiotics was added at its MIC, only bacteriostasis occurred, but the simultaneous addition of amdinocillin (mecillinam) was synergistic in causing rapid lysis and bactericidal effects. Induction of lysis of two E. coli mutants containing either a thermosensitive penicillin-bind...

  1. Prevalencia y perfil de resistencia a betalactámicos en estafilococos de perros y gatos Prevalence and resistance profile to beta-lactam antibiotics in staphylococci from dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Denamiel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de especies y perfil de resistencia a betalactámicos en estafilococos aislados de infecciones en caninos y felinos. En perros, de 207 aislamientos, el porcentaje de las especies identificadas fue: S. intermedius 29,5%, S. aureus y S. simulans 20,8%, S. saprophyticus 12,6%, S. chromogenes 10,6%, S. haemolyticus 3,9% y S. epidermidis 1,9%. De 63 aislamientos en gatos: S. simulans 33,3%, S. intermedius y S. aureus 15,4%, S. saprophyticus 11,1%, S. haemolyticus 6,34%, S. chromogenes y S. epidermidis 3,5%. En perros, el porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue: S. intermedius 47,5%, S. aureus 34,8% y S. saprophyticus 7,7%. Los aislamientos que expresaron meticilina resistencia correspondieron: S. intermedius 9,8% y S. saprophyticus 3,8%. En gatos los estafilococos resistentes a penicilina fueron S. saprophyticus 42,8%, S. aureus y S. intermedius 15,4% y S. simulans 9,5%. No se hallaron especies de estafilococos meticilino resistentes.The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence and resistance profile to betalactam antibiotics of staphylococci isolated from canine and feline infections. Staphylococci were isolated from 207 dog samples. The species frequency for identified staphylococci were: S. intermedius 29.5%, S. aureus and S. simulans 20.8%, S. saprophyticus 12.6%, S. chromogenes 10.6%, S. haemolyticus 3.9% and S. epidermidis 1.9%. Sixty three staphylococci isolates were from cats: S. simulans 33.3%, S. intermedius and S. aureus 15.4%, S. saprophyticus 11.1%, S. haemolyticus 6.34%, S. chromogenes and S. epidermidis 3.5%. Resistance to penicillin in samples from dogs were: S. intermedius 47.5%, S. aureus 34.8% and S. saprophyticus 7.7%. Methicillin-resistance was evidenced in S. intermedius 9.8% and S. saprophyticus 3.8%. In samples from cats, penicillin-resistant staphylococci were: S. saprophyticus 42.8%, S. aureus and S. intermedius 15.4% and S. simulans 9

  2. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from skin and soft tissue infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debadutta Mishra

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus exhibited high resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics like beta-lactams, fluroquinolones and fusidic acid. Hence, it is recommended to base the treatment upon culture and sensitivity report. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1458-1462

  3. Augmented renal clearance in critically ill patients: etiology, definition and implications for beta-lactam dose optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Fekade Bruck; Udy, Andrew A; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-10-01

    The renal clearance of antibiotics may be elevated in some critically ill patients. This paper reviews this recently described phenomenon, referred to as augmented renal clearance (ARC). ARC is considered to be driven by pathophysiological elevation of glomerular filtration, and is defined as a creatinine clearance >130mL/min/173m(2). This in turn promotes very low antibiotic concentrations. This effect may lead to adverse clinical outcomes, particularly with beta-lactam antibiotics, as they require prolonged exposure for optimal antibacterial activity. The use of extended or continuous infusions is an effective strategy to improve exposure. However, because the effect of ARC is potentially quite variable, regular therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be necessary to ensure all patients achieve effective concentrations. PMID:26119486

  4. Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigenemia To Determine Biological and Clinical Implications of Beta-Lactam Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Basile, Maria; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Souville, Didier; Gay, Frédérick; Philippe, Bruno; Bossi, Philippe; Danis, Martin; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Datry, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum with the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is useful for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. From May 2003 to November 2004, 65 patients who did not develop aspergillosis had at least two positive sera while receiving a beta-lactam treatment (GM index [GMI], ≥0.5). Of the 69 treatment episodes scored, 41 consisted of a beta-lactam other than piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 29), namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate (n = 25), amoxicillin (...

  5. In vitro synergistic activities of tobramycin and selected beta-lactams against 75 gram-negative clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, R C; Banevicius, M A; Nicolau, D. P.; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1997-01-01

    The microdilution checkerboard technique was utilized to distinguish synergistic activity between tobramycin and four beta-lactams: piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone. Beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combinations were tested against 75 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Citrobacterfreundii, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae. Despite in vitro susceptibilities, all isolates demonstrated either synergism or indi...

  6. Fully automated analysis of beta-lactams in bovine milk by online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Sibum, Martin; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damiá

    2009-06-01

    A fully automated method for the detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, including six penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and penicillin G) and four cephalosporins (cefazolin, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, and cefalexin) in bovine milk samples has been developed. The outlined method is based on online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography/electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/ESI-MS-MS). Target compounds were concentrated from 500 microL of centrifuged milk samples using an online SPE procedure with C18 HD cartridges. Target analytes were eluted with a gradient mobile phase (water + 0.1% formic acid/methanol + 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 10 min using a C-12 reversed phase analytical column. For unequivocal identification and confirmation, two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were acquired for each analyte in the positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI(+)). Method limits of detection (LODs) in milk were well below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union for all compounds. Limits of quantification in milk were between 0.09 ng/mL and 1.44 ng/mL. The developed method was validated according to EU's requirements, and accuracy results ranged from 80 to 116%. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of twenty real samples previously screened by the inhibition of microbial growth test Eclipse 100. This new developed method offers high sensitivity and accuracy of results, minimum sample pre-treatment, and uses for the first time an automated online SPE offering a high throughput analysis. Because of all these characteristics, the proposed method is applicable and could be deemed necessary within the field of food control and safety. PMID:19402673

  7. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA- an...... results indicate that the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of beta-lactann production in industrial strains of P. chrysogenum....

  8. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  9. In vitro activities of 15 oral beta-lactams against Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring new extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzis, M D; Liassine, N; Ferré, B.; Gutmann, L; Acar, J F; Goldstein, F.

    1990-01-01

    The activities of 15 oral beta-lactams against Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring new extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were studied. All compounds were affected by these enzymes, especially by the SHV derivatives. Except for ceftibuten, the compounds with the greatest intrinsic activity were more affected by the presence of these enzymes than were older compounds with moderate intrinsic activity.

  10. Mechanism of inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by beta-lactams. 2. Stability, reactivation kinetics, and products of beta-lactam-derived E-I complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G; Chabin, R; Mills, S; Underwood, D J; Shah, S K; Kuo, D; Gale, P; Maycock, A L; Liesch, J; Burgey, C S

    1995-11-01

    The monocyclic beta-lactams reported by Knight et al. [Knight, W. B., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 8160; Chabin, R., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8970] as inhibitors of human leucocyte elastase (HLE) produce stable HLE-inhibitor complexes that slowly reactivate with half-lives ranging from less than 1 to 15 h at 37 degrees C. The complexes produced between PPE and two C-3 dimethyl-substituted beta-lactams are less stable than those produced between HLE and analogous C-3 diethyl-substituted lactams. The stability of the HLE-I complexes is governed primarily by the structure of the substituted urea portion of the inhibitors and not by the identity or presence of a leaving group at C-4 of the lactam ring. In some cases substitutions on the urea portion of the inhibitors yielded complexes that displayed biphasic reactivation kinetics. This suggests the presence of at least two different complexes. The stereochemistry of the leaving group at C-4 has a small effect on the stability of the final complex (1.3-2-fold); therefore, the identity of the final complex is dependent upon the initial stereochemistry at that position. The stability of the complexes was relatively insensitive to hydroxylamine, which suggests that the acyl-enzymes are protected from nucleophilic "rescue". The rate of reactivation of the complex derived from L-680,833,[S-R*,S*)]-4-[(1-(((1-(4- methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-oxo-4-azetidinyl)ben zeneacetic acid, was pH independent, while the L-684,481, (R)-(1-(((1-(4-methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-azeti din one generated complex displayed a pH-dependent reactivation rate. In the latter case, the increase in reactivation rate with pH displayed a pKa of 7.2. This is consistent with the requirement for base catalysis by the active site histidine to regenerate enzymatic activity. Reactivation of the L-680,833-derived complex produced different products as a function of pH, suggesting two different pH-dependent routes

  11. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides – which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions – were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. -- Highlights: ► We tested the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs in vitro. ► In vitro assays were performed with moDCs and THP-1 cells. ► Beta-lactam antibiotics can be recognized as sensitizing compounds. ► They affect the expression of metabolic enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors. ► Sulfamethoxazole has no measurable effect on THP-1 cells and moDCs.

  12. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Katrin, E-mail: ksebastian@ukaachen.de [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Ott, Hagen [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele [IZKF (BIOMAT), RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens Malte [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides – which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions – were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. -- Highlights: ► We tested the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs in vitro. ► In vitro assays were performed with moDCs and THP-1 cells. ► Beta-lactam antibiotics can be recognized as sensitizing compounds. ► They affect the expression of metabolic enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors. ► Sulfamethoxazole has no measurable effect on THP-1 cells and moDCs.

  13. Ceftriaxone, a Beta-Lactam Antibiotic, Reduces Ethanol Consumption in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Youssef; Sakai, Makiko; Weedman, Jason M.; Rebec, George V.; Bell, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Changes in glutamatergic transmission affect many aspects of neuroplasticity associated with ethanol and drug addiction. For instance, ethanol- and drug-seeking behavior is promoted by increased glutamate transmission in key regions of the motive circuit. We hypothesized that because glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the removal of most extracellular glutamate, up-regulation or activation of GLT1 would attenuate ethanol consumption. Methods: Alcohol-preferring (P) rats w...

  14. Behavioural responses in rats; modulation with beta-lactam antibiotics and antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAVLI, Evren

    2014-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been in clinical practice for several decades as a mucolytic agent and has been used also for the treatment of paracetamol intoxication, doxorubicin- induced cardiotoxicity, stable angina pectoris, ischemia-reperfusion cardiac injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome bronchitis, chemotherapy-induced toxicity, HIV/AIDS, radio contrastinduced nephropathy, heavymetal toxicity and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and addiction. It has b...

  15. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in experimental aortic valve endocarditis caused by a multiply beta-lactam-resistant variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stably derepressed for beta-lactamase production.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, A S; Lindsay, P.; Yih, J; Hirano, L; Lee, D.; Blomquist, I K

    1986-01-01

    The emergence of multi-beta-lactam resistance is a limiting factor in treating invasive Pseudomonas infections with newer cephalosporins. The in vivo efficacy of ciprofloxacin, a new carboxy-quinolone, was evaluated in experimental aortic valve endocarditis caused by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is stably derepressed for beta-lactamase production and is resistant to ceftazidime and multiple other beta-lactam agents. A total of 51 catheterized rabbits with aortic catheters in place...

  16. Outcome of patients over 80 years of age on prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy for at least 6 months for prosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Prendki

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy is an alternative therapy in elderly patients with PJI when surgery is contraindicated and when the bacteria are susceptible to well-tolerated oral antimicrobial therapy such as beta-lactams.

  17. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian; Llarrull1, Leticia I.; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Shi, Qicun; Peng, Jeffrey; Baker, Brian M.; Mobashery, Shahriar (Notre)

    2012-10-29

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed the lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  18. Removal of antibiotic resistance gene-carrying plasmids from Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and characterization of the resulting daughter strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Anna; Connolly, Eamonn; Roos, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogens is primarily a consequence of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but there is concern that food-borne lactic acid bacteria may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes when distributed in large doses to the gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a commercially available probiotic strain which has been found to harbor potentially transferable resistance genes. The aims of this study were to define the location and nature of beta-lactam, tetracycline, and lincosamide resistance determinants and, if they were found to be acquired, attempt to remove them from the strain by methods that do not genetically modify the organism before subsequently testing whether the probiotic characteristics were retained. No known beta-lactam resistance genes was found, but penicillin-binding proteins from ATCC 55730, two additional resistant strains, and three sensitive strains of L. reuteri were sequenced and comparatively analyzed. The beta-lactam resistance in ATCC 55730 is probably caused by a number of alterations in the corresponding genes and can be regarded as not transferable. The strain was found to harbor two plasmids carrying tet(W) tetracycline and lnu(A) lincosamide resistance genes, respectively. A new daughter strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938, was derived from ATCC 55730 by removal of the two plasmids, and it was shown to have lost the resistances associated with them. Direct comparison of the parent and daughter strains for a series of in vitro properties and in a human clinical trial confirmed the retained probiotic properties of the daughter strain. PMID:18689509

  19. Antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase inpatients with cystic fibrosis are markers of the development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to beta-lactams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Giwercman, B; Walter-Rasmussen, J; Pressler, T; Pedersen, S S; Høiby, N

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal beta-lactamase production is considered to be the most important resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against beta-lactams. Recently we have detected serum and sputum antibodies against P. aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase (a beta ab), using immunoblotting techniques. In...

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of piperacillin/tazobactam in comparison with other broad-spectrum beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, R K; Mendes, R E; Silbert, S; Bolsoni, A P; Sader, H S

    2000-10-01

    Combining tazobactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, with the ureidopenicillin, piperacillin, successfully restores the activity of piperacillin against beta-lactamase producing bacteria. Thus, piperacillin/tazobactam is highly active against most clinically important species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including anaerobes. We evaluated the in vitro activity of piperacillin/tazobactam against clinical isolates from a tertiary university hospital located in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Its activity was compared to that of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, aztreonam, and imipenem against 820 isolates (608 Gram-negative and 212 Gram-positive) collected from hospitalized patients in 1999. The most frequent species tested were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (168/20%), Escherichia coli (139/17%), Acinetobacter spp. (131/16%), and Staphylococcus aureus (76/9%). Of the isolates studied, 30% were from the bloodstream, 16% from the lower respiratory tract, and 11% from surgical wounds or soft tissue. The isolates were susceptibility tested by the broth microdilution method according to NCCLS procedures. The isolates tested were highly resistant to most antimicrobial agents evaluated. Imipenem resistance was not verified among Enterobacteriaceae, and piperacillin/tazobactam was the second most active beta-lactams against this group of bacteria (80.0% susceptibility). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was very high among E. coli (approximately 20%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (approximately 40%). Imipenem was uniformly active against these species (100% susceptibility) and piperacillin/tazobactam was the second most active compound inhibiting 84.4% of isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant to all beta-lactams evaluated and piperacillin/tazobactam was the most active compound against this species. Our results demonstrate an extremely high level of antimicrobial resistance in the hospital

  1. Enhancement of antibiotic effect via gold:silver-alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira dos Santos, Margarida, E-mail: margarida.santos@fct.unl.pt; Queiroz, Margarida Joao; Baptista, Pedro V. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CIGMH, Departamento Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia (Portugal)

    2012-05-15

    A strategy for the development of novel antimicrobials is to combine the stability and pleiotropic effects of inorganic compounds with the specificity and efficiency of organic compounds, such as antibiotics. Here we report on the use of gold:silver-alloy (Au:Ag-alloy) nanoparticles, obtained via a single-step citrate co-reduction method, combined to conventional antibiotics to enhance their antimicrobial effect on bacteria. Addition of the alloy nanoparticles considerably decreased the dose of antibiotic necessary to show antimicrobial effect, both for bacterial cells growing in rich medium in suspension and for bacterial cells resting in a physiological buffer on a humid cellulose surface. The observed effect was more pronounced than the sum of the individual effects of the nanoparticles and antibiotic. We demonstrate the enhancement effect of Au:Ag-alloy nanoparticles with a size distribution of 32.5 {+-} 7.5 nm mean diameter on the antimicrobial effect of (i) kanamycin on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium), and (ii) a {beta}-lactam antibiotic on both a sensitive and resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium). Together, these results may pave the way for the combined use of nanoparticle-antibiotic conjugates towards decreasing antibiotic resistance currently observed for certain bacteria and conventional antibiotics.

  2. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles determined with an Escherichia coli gene knockout collection: generating an antibiotic bar code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2010-04-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  3. Characterization of Beta-lactam Resistance in the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Nadia Naeem

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and potentially stomach cancer. Treatment of patients with gastritis is warranted and normally done with a combination of antibiotics (such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin or others) and a proton pump inhibitor. Resistance to most of these antibiotics in H. pylori has been seen worldwide and is constantly increasing. The purpose of this thesis was to more systematically characterize the mechanisms of amoxicillin resistance in H. py...

  4. The non-enzymatic inactivation of thirteen β-lactam antibiotics in human faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Weissing, F; de Vries Hospers, H; Tonk, R; van der Waaij, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain a method that could predict the in vitro inactivation of an antibiotic in the digestive tract, the non-enzymatic inactivation of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics by human faeces was investigated. Benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cloxacillin, piperacillin, temocill

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Invasive Group B Streptococcal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei L. Castor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used for both group B streptococcal (GBS prevention and treatment. Active population-based surveillance for invasive GBS disease was conducted in four states during 1996—2003. Of 3813 case-isolates, 91.0% (3471 were serotyped, 77.1% (2937 had susceptibility testing, and 46.6% (3471 had both. All were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. Clindamycin and erythromycin resistance was 12.7% and 25.6%, respectively, and associated with serotype V (P<.001. Clindamycin resistance increased from 10.5% to 15.0% (X2 for trend 12.70; P<.001; inducible clindamycin resistance was associated with the erm genotype. Erythromycin resistance increased from 15.8% to 32.8% (X2 for trend 55.46; P<.001. While GBS remains susceptible to beta-lactams, resistance to alternative agents such as erythromycin and clindamycin is an increasing concern.

  6. Multiple antibiotic resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, A.; Martínez, J L

    1997-01-01

    A cryptic multidrug resistance (MDR) system in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the expression of which is selectable by tetracycline, is described. Tetracycline resistance was the consequence of active efflux of the antibiotic, and it was associated with resistance to quinolones and chloramphenicol, but not to aminoglycosides or beta-lactam antibiotics. MDR is linked to the expression of an outer membrane protein (OMP54) both in a model system and in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

  7. Amoxicillin treatment of experimental acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae with non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams: aspects of virulence and treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Melhus, A; Janson, H; Westman, E.; Hermansson, A.; Forsgren, A; Prellner, K

    1997-01-01

    Through alterations primarily in the penicillin-binding proteins, a non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams has evolved in Haemophilus influenzae. The virulence of these chromosomally changed strains has been questioned. To ascertain whether these alterations involve a reduction in virulence of H. influenzae and whether they could be advantageous for the bacterium during amoxicillin treatment of acute otitis media, a total of 70 Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with a suscep...

  8. Bactericidal interactions of a beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitors in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa endocarditis caused by a constitutive overproducer of type Id beta-lactamase.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, A S; Selecky, M; Babel, K; Hirano, L; Yih, J; Parr, T R

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of a combination of a beta-lactam (ceftazidime) and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (dicloxacillin) to synergistically kill a ceftazidime-resistant variant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA-48, which overproduces type Id cephalosporinase constitutively. In vitro, dicloxacillin plus ceftazidime exerted bactericidal synergy at approximately 10(5) CFU/ml of inoculum (but not at approximately 10(7)-CFU inoculum), whereas other beta-lactamase inhibitors (sulbac...

  9. Use of the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase of Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 to study potentially poor substrates and inhibitory beta-lactam compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Galleni, M; Franceschini, N; Quinting, B; Fattorini, L.; Orefici, G.; Oratore, A; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen different compounds usually considered beta-lactamase stable or representing potential beta-lactam inhibitors and inactivators were tested against the beta-lactamase produced by Mycobacterium fortuitum. The compounds exhibiting the most interesting properties were BRL42715, which was by far the best inactivator, and CGP31608 and ceftazidime, which were not recognized by the enzyme. These compounds thus exhibited adequate properties for fighting mycobacterial infections. Although cloxa...

  10. Thioridazine potentiates the effect of a beta-lactam antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus independently of mecA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Marianne Ø; Jacobsen, Kirstine; Thorsing, Mette; Kristensen, Nadia R D; Clasen, Julie; Lillebæk, Eva M S; Skov, Marianne N; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Klitgaard, Janne K

    2013-01-01

    The neuroleptic antipsychotic derivate thioridazine has been shown to increase the susceptibility of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate towards dicloxacillin. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinatorial effect of the two drugs on a broad selection of staphylococcal strains by analyzing a large collection of MRSA strains carrying different types of SCCmec, as well as MSSA strains. Transcription and translation of the resistance marker PBP2a encoded by mecA within the SCCmec cassette were analyzed by primer extension and western blotting. We observed increased susceptibility to dicloxacillin in the presence of thioridazine in all tested MRSA isolates. In contrast to previously published results, the synergistic effect was also applicable to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). We conclude that the combination of dicloxacillin and thioridazine potentiates the killing effect against S. aureus in a broad selection of clinical isolates. Additionally, the study indicates that the killing effect by the combinatorial treatment is independent of PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanisms. PMID:23089256

  11. Detection and reporting beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a multicenter proficiency study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, M Carmen; Mata, C; Navarro, F; Pascual, A

    2008-11-01

    The ability of 57 Spanish microbiology laboratories in detecting and reporting beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated. Laboratories received 6 well-characterized isolates expressing the most widespread extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Spain (4 CTX-M type, 1 TEM type, and 1 SHV type), 3 isolates producing AmpC-type enzymes (2 plasmid mediated and 1 E. coli hyperproducing its chromosomal AmpC), and 3 quality control strains. Ninety-one percent of laboratories recognized all ESBL producers correctly, and therefore, low error rates were observed when testing cephalosporins and aztreonam. The highest error rates were observed with combinations of penicillin plus beta-lactamase inhibitor, although more than 60% of cases were due to the interpretation made by the microbiologists. Correct recognition of all AmpC beta-lactamase-producing strains occurred in only 47.4% of laboratories. These isolates were wrongly reported as ESBL producers and penicillinase hyperproducers in 7.6 % and 5.8% of cases, respectively. Detection of the AmpC-type phenotype by Spanish laboratories needs to be improved. PMID:18692340

  12. Mass Spectral Profile for Rapid Differentiating Beta-Lactams from Their Ring-Opened Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hecheng; Huang, Haiwei; Cao, Jin; Chui, Dehua; Xiao, Shengyuan

    2015-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS) has been widely used for β-lactam antibiotics determination. However, its application to identify impurities of these frequently used drugs is not sufficient at present. In this job, characteristic profiles of the collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of both β-lactams and ring-opened β-lactams were extracted from the MS data of six β-lactam antibiotics and their forty-five impurities, and were confirmed by the MS data reported in the literature. These characteristics have been successfully applied to rapid differentiation of β-lactam and ring-opened β-lactam impurities in cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. However, these characteristic profiles can only be obtained under low activating voltage. They did not display in the high energy activated CID spectra. Diagnostic fragmentations for determining the localization of double bond and substituents on the thiazine ring and the side chain were also observed. In addition, several characteristic fragmentations are hopeful to be used to differentiate the configurations of C-2 on the thiazine ring of ring-opened impurities, which is generally disadvantageous of mass spectrometry. Taken together, forty-five impurities were identified from the capsules of cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. PMID:26090434

  13. Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: antibiotic sensitivity of dental plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, T W; McGowan, D. A.; Hunter, K; MacKenzie, D.

    1983-01-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from bacteraemia after dental extraction was compared with that of bacteria isolated from dental plaque samples from the same patient. The results supported the current practice of using penicillin and erythromycin empirically for prophylaxis. The prediction of the most appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis using dental plaque samples was most accurate when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plaque isolates were used. It appe...

  14. [Expert systems and antibiotic sensitivity test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandrois, J; Carret, G

    1991-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a part of computer science that deals with programs mimicking intelligence of man. Artificial intelligence is now used to check the quality of the determination of antibiotics susceptibility of bacteria. This application is useful because antibiotic susceptibility is subject to biological and technical variation that have to be detected. Three types of reasoning are used either by the biologist or by expert systems: low level quality checking dealing with individual results, microbiological interpretation of the whole set of results and medical interpretation of the results. The use of artificial intelligence in these fields is sustained by the structured nature of the knowledge. Two type of expert systems are already of routine use, either based on production rules (ATB plus EXPERT, bioMerieux, La Balme-les-Grottes, France and SIR, 12A, Montpellier, France), or on object-oriented representation of the knowledge (EXPRIM from our laboratory). The main problem is, as usually in artificial intelligence applications, to transfer human expertise into an adapted knowledge base. The advantage of experts systems over man are their reproducibility of answer and their availability. PMID:2064087

  15. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role. PMID:26608763

  16. Sensitivity of some local isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum against antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of five local isolates ofMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG strain and two standard MG isolates obtained from Australia were tested against antibiotics of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin using antibiogram disc method. The result showed that one, 2 and 3 local MG isolates were resistent to doxycycline, erythromycin and oxytetracycline respectively . MG isolate of ADA7 from Australia was found to be resistent to all antibiotics tested. None ofthe local MG isolates were sensitive against bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin.

  17. Beta-lactam induction of ISEcp1B-mediated mobilization of the naturally occurring bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase gene of Kluyvera ascorbata.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmann, Patrice; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    ISEcp1B is an insertion element associated with the emerging expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase bla(CTX-M) genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Because ISEcp1B-bla(CTX-M)positive strains may be identified from humans and animals, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the bla(CTX-M-2) gene was tested from its progenitor Kluyvera ascorbata to study the effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic and cefquinome as enhancers of transposition. These beta-lactam molecules are administered parenterally to ...

  18. Simultaneous pharmacodynamic analysis of the lag and bactericidal phases exhibited by beta-lactams against Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R C

    1996-01-01

    Antibiotic-bacterium interactions are complex in nature. In many cases, bacterial killing does not commence immediately after the addition of an antibiotic, and a lag period is observed. Antibiotic permeation and/or the intermediate steps that exist between antibiotic-receptor binding and expression of cell death are two major possible causes for such lag period. This study was primarily designed to determine the relationship, if any, between antibiotic concentrations and the lag periods by a...

  19. Phage selection restores antibiotic sensitivity in MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin K; Sistrom, Mark; Wertz, John E; Kortright, Kaitlyn E; Narayan, Deepak; Turner, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Increasing prevalence and severity of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has necessitated novel antibacterial strategies. Ideally, new approaches would target bacterial pathogens while exerting selection for reduced pathogenesis when these bacteria inevitably evolve resistance to therapeutic intervention. As an example of such a management strategy, we isolated a lytic bacteriophage, OMKO1, (family Myoviridae) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that utilizes the outer membrane porin M (OprM) of the multidrug efflux systems MexAB and MexXY as a receptor-binding site. Results show that phage selection produces an evolutionary trade-off in MDR P. aeruginosa, whereby the evolution of bacterial resistance to phage attack changes the efflux pump mechanism, causing increased sensitivity to drugs from several antibiotic classes. Although modern phage therapy is still in its infancy, we conclude that phages, such as OMKO1, represent a new approach to phage therapy where bacteriophages exert selection for MDR bacteria to become increasingly sensitive to traditional antibiotics. This approach, using phages as targeted antibacterials, could extend the lifetime of our current antibiotics and potentially reduce the incidence of antibiotic resistant infections. PMID:27225966

  20. "Neonatal Sepsis due to Klebsiella: Frequency, Outcome and Antibiotic Sensitivity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Malakan Rad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. The most common pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity patterns vary in different parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the most common pathogens and outcome of neonatal sepsis and also antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Klebsiella species. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out. The study was performed at a neonatal care unit in Kashan between October 2000 to October 2003.Only those neonates with positive blood culture were included. Patients with Klebsiella septicemia were categorized into two groups of early and late-onset sepsis. Patterns of the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates were studied by disc diffusion technique. Frequencies and Fisher’s Exact test was used to compare the early-onset outcome versus late –onset outcome. One hundred and thirty –six neonates had positive blood cultures out of 453 cases. The most common pathogens were Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and coagulase negative Staphylococci respectively. Overall crude mortality rate was 39% (Pseudomonas was the predominant cause. All Klebsiella species were resistant to ampicillin. Twenty-three percent of Klebsiella species were multiresistant considering our most common etiologic pathogens of bacterial sepsis and the significant number of resistant bacteria to ampicillin and gentamicin; it seems prudent to consider revising the present choice of empirical antibiotic treatment.

  1. Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiles Determined with an Escherichia coli Gene Knockout Collection: Generating an Antibiotic Bar Code ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  2. Alergia a beta-lactâmicos na clínica pediátrica: uma abordagem prática Allergy to beta-lactams in pediatrics: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Rosário

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma abordagem prática ao diagnóstico e conduta na alergia a antibióticos beta-lactâmicos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Periódicos da área de alergia indexados nas bases MEDLINE e LILACS, além de estudos e textos clássicos que tratam do tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A alergia à penicilina é relatada com freqüência, em muitos casos resultando na exclusão desse medicamento do arsenal terapêutico. Cerca de 10% dos relatos de alergia a drogas são confirmados. As manifestações clínicas decorrentes da reação alérgica à penicilina são bastante amplas, destacando-se os quadros cutâneos. Os quatro mecanismos de hipersensibilidade de Gell & Coombs estão envolvidos nas reações alérgicas. A penicilina é degradada em determinante maior (95% dos produtos e em determinantes menores (5% dos produtos. As reações imediatas, mediadas por IgE, e que determinam quadros de anafilaxia, estão relacionadas aos determinantes menores em 95% dos casos. A hipersensibilidade a esses produtos pode ser avaliada através de testes cutâneos realizados com os determinantes maior e menores, permitindo, assim, evitar o choque anafilático em indivíduos alérgicos. O texto ressalta conhecimentos básicos sobre a alergia à penicilina, propiciando um diagnóstico mais adequado desse evento e a conduta em casos de suspeita de alergia a beta-lactâmicos. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico de alergia à penicilina tem sido feito de forma inadequada, resultando em sua exclusão do arsenal terapêutico. O melhor reconhecimento dessas condições permitirá o uso da penicilina com diminuição dos riscos decorrentes da hipersensibilidade.OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics. SOURCES: Allergy journals indexed in MEDLINE and LILACS, as well as seminal studies and texts. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Allergy to penicillin is commonly reported. In many cases, this results in the decision not

  3. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk

    OpenAIRE

    M. Carmen Beltrán; Rafael L. Althaus; Ana Molina; M. Isabel Berruga; M. Pilar Molina

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics to treat mastitis and other infectious diseases in dairy sheep and goats is a widespread practice nowadays that can, when not properly applied, result in the contamination of the milk supply. Spanish legislation establishes the control of the presence of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk using screening methods that detect, at least, beta-lactam drugs. Microbial inhibitor tests using Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis and specific receptor-bindi...

  4. Antibacterial and toxicological evaluation of beta-lactams synthesized by immobilized beta-lactamase-free penicillin amidase produced by Alcaligenes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Jiaur R; Majee, Sutapa B; Das, Shuvendu; Samanta, Timir B

    2007-12-01

    Search for anti-beta-lactamase and synthesis of newer penicillin were suggested to overcome resistance to penicillin in chemotherapy. It was found that clavulanic acid, an ant-beta-lactamase was ineffective due to its structural modification by bacteria. Thus, there is a need for the synthesis of newer pencillins. Retro-synthesis was inspired by the success of forward reaction i.e.conversion of penicillin G to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) by biological process. In the present study a better enzymatic method of synthesis of newer pencillin by a beta-lactamase-free penicillin amidase produced by Alcaligenes sp. is attempted. Antibacterial and toxicological evaluation of the enzymatically synthesized beta-lactams are reported. Condensation of 6-APA with acyl donor was found to be effective when the reaction is run in dimethyl formamide (DMF 50% v/v) in acetate buffer (25 mM pH 5.0) at 37 degrees C. Periplasm entrapped in calcium alginate exihibited the highest yield (approximately 34%) in synthesis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthetic products against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi varied between 20-80 microg/ml. Some of the products exhibited antibacterial activity against enteric pathogens. It was interesting to note that product A was potent like penicillin G. LD50 value of three products (product A, B and C) was more than 12 mg/kg. Furthermore, these synthetic beta-lactams did not exihibit any adverse effect on house keeping enzymes viz., serum glutamate oxalacetate-trans-aminase, serum glutamate pyruvate -trans-aminase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase of the test animals. The hematological profile (RBC and WBC) of the test animals also remained unaffected. PMID:18254214

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. Mechanism of antibiotic resistance and target of the humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana

    2003-01-01

    The intensive antibiotic treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa has improved the survival rate and the clinical condition of Danish patients. Acquirement of resistance to anti-pseudomonal antibiotics is one of the main drawbacks of this...... therapeutic strategy and our results showed the development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to several antibiotics during 25 years of intensive antibiotic treatment. Our studies have been concentrating on the development of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. We have shown an association between the...... induction to even higher levels during treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics, were the most frequent phenotype found among resistant Danish P. aeruginosa CF isolates. We have also shown that the high alginate producing P. aeruginosa isolates, that characterize the chronic lung infection in CF patients, are...

  6. Coexistence of Antibiotic-Producing and Antibiotic-Sensitive Bacteria in Biofilms Is Mediated by Resistant Bacteria▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Narisawa, Naoki; Haruta, Shin; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotic-sensitive bacteria have been found to coexist with antibiotic-producing bacteria in biofilms, but little is known about how the former develop in such an environment. Here we isolated pyocyanin-sensitive bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacillus from a biofilm derived from soil extract and based on the preestablished biofilm of a pyocyanin producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain P1. In addition, pyocyanin-resistant strains belonging to the genus Raoultella were isolated from th...

  7. ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERNS OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE ISOLATED AT KING FAISAL HOSPITAL, KIGALI - A THREE YEARS STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Rangaiahagari; JP. Uwizeyimana; J. Nyirabanzi; E. Ngoga; Justin Wane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A great concern exists about the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The goal of this study is to delineate antibiotic sensitivity patterns at King Faisal Hospital. Methods: A three years study, from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011 was conducted in the Microbiology unit, department of Laboratory, King Faisal hospital, Rwanda. All the specimens and antibiotic sensitivity were processed according to the standard guidelines. Microorganisms and their sensitivity data were reviewed and...

  8. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  9. Relatively high antibiotic resistance among heterotrophic bacteria from arctic fjord sediments than water - Evidence towards better selection pressure in the fjord sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatha, A. A. Mohamed; Neethu, C. S.; Nikhil, S. M.; Rahiman, K. M. Mujeeb; Krishnan, K. P.; Saramma, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria from water and sediment of Kongsfjord. The study was based on the assumption that arctic fjord environments are relatively pristine and offer very little selection pressure for drug resistant mutants. In order to test the hypothesis, 200 isolates belonging to aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 114 isolates belonging to coliforms were tested against 15 antibiotics belonging to 5 different classes such as beta lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulpha drugs and tetracyclines. Resistance to beta lactam and extended spectrum beta lactam (ESBL) antibiotics was considerably high and they found to vary significantly (p antibiotic resistance against ESBL's extent and diversity of antibiotic resistance (as revealed by multiple antibiotic resistance index and resistance patterns), was high in the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Most striking observation was that isolates from fjord sediments (both heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms) in general showed relatively high prevalence of antibiotic resistance against most of the antibiotics tested, indicating to better selection pressure for drug resistance mutants in the fjord sediments.

  10. Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijuan; Gao, Weilu; Shu, Jie; Ying, Yibin; Kono, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    We have detected trace amounts of molecules of antibiotics (kanamycin sulfate) dispersed on metasurfaces with terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Utilizing the extraordinary optical transmission resonance of an array of square-shaped slits on a silicon substrate at ~0.3 THz, we were able to monitor varying concentrations of kanamycin sulfate as low as ~100 picogram/L. In contrast, the lowest detectable concentration of kanamycin sulfate on silicon without any metallic structure was ~1 gram/L. This dramatic ~10(10) times enhancement of sensitivity is due to the near-field enhancement of THz electric fields by the metamaterial structure. This result thus demonstrates the power and usefulness of metamaterial-assisted THz spectroscopy in trace molecular detection for biological and chemical sensing as well as for food product quality and safety inspection and control. PMID:25728144

  11. Antibiotic sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summaiya Mulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: It has been observed that various microorganisms are acquiring resistance to most of the available potent antibiotics; hence, there is a need for every hospital to follow the use of antibiotics according to antibiotic sensitivity pattern in that particular hospital or geographical area. It has been reported that Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms are increasingly acquiring resistance to many antibiotics and this resistance varies geographically. As there is a short of recent data with respect to Indian hospital, this particular study was designed with the aim of establishing sensitivity pattern of Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms to various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Data of antibiotic sensitivity from December 2010 to April 2011 of different Enterobacteriaceae was taken from the Department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Surat. Sensitivity of different Enterobacteriaceae was shown as using descriptive statistics. Results: E. coli (55.6% and Klebsiella (31.2% were the most frequent bacteria isolated. Enterobacteriaceae were very less sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (13.7%, chloramphenicol (7.6%, cefoperazone (14.4%, cefixime (15.7%, and cefuroxime (17.6. Sensitivity to aztreonam was 32.7%. Sensitivity to carbapenem group of drugs included in this study, i.e., meropenem was 69.8%. Highest sensitivity was shown for ceftazidime (74.1%. E. coli is more sensitive to meropenem as compared with Klebsiella. Conclusion: Sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms to known antibiotics is decreasing. Decreased sensitivity to carbapenem group of antibiotics is a matter of concern.

  12. Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins and Other Antibiotics by Enterobacteriaceae in Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okesola, A.O.; O. Makanjuola

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The emergence and spread of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are threatening to create species resistant to all currently available agents. The most common cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamases and many of the 2nd and 3rd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins were specifically designed to resist the hydrolytic action of major ß-lactamases. However new ß-lactamases em...

  13. Susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive foodborne pathogens to acid anionic sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J A

    1998-10-01

    Acid anionic sanitizers for treatment of fruits and vegetables were prepared using ingredients generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or anionic surfactants and organic acid food additives. They met the regulatory definition as sanitizers by showing bactericidal efficacy of 99.999% in 30 s against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229. These sanitizers showed a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium were equally susceptible to these sanitizers. The acid anionic sanitizers showed microbicidal efficacy equal to that of hypochlorite against Aeromonas hydrophila, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus. Unlike most other sanitizers, these agents do not covalently react with organic components of food; unlike cationic agents, they do not leave residues. The acid anionic sanitizers are prepared using stable, biodegradable, and nontoxic ingredients. Rapid microbicidal activity and the ease of storage, transportation, and use make these sanitizers an attractive alternative to hypochlorite for sanitizing fruits and vegetables. PMID:9798163

  14. Subclinical mastitis in sheep: Causes and their sensitivity to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The California mastitis test (CMT was used to examine the milk of 6609 sheep, actually, from 13218 mammary complexes. A total of 986 milk samples were found to contain an increased number of somatic cells, and causes of mastitis were isolated from 910 (92.3% of these samples. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were: E. coli isolated from 189 (20.76% samples, Micrococcus sp from 186 (20.43% samples, Bacillus sp. from 177 (19.45%, Staphylococcus aureus from 172 (18.9% samples, and Proteus sp. from 121 (13.29% samples of sheep milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated in a much smaller number, from 25 (2.74% samples, Streptococcus sp. was isolated from 19 (2.08% samples, Pseudomonas sp. from 14 (1.53% samples, haemolytic E. coli was isolated from only 6 (0.65% samples, and Streptococcus agalactiae from only one sample. Among the 25 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 16 (64% isolates were identified as Staphylococcus chromogenes, and 9 (36% isolates as Staphylococcus simulans. The sensitivity of the isolated causes of mastitis to antibiotics was examined using the disc diffusion method. .

  15. Effect of hyperproduction of TEM-1 beta-lactamase on in vitro susceptibility of Escherichia coli to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, P J; Shannon, K; Phillips, I

    1994-01-01

    The susceptibility of 173 TEM-1-producing isolates of Escherichia coli was assessed by determination of MICs by the agar dilution method. MICs of amoxicillin, mezlocillin, cephaloridine, and, to a smaller extent, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (but not cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or imipenem) were higher for isolates that produced large amounts of beta-lactamase than for isolates that produced smaller amounts. The effect of fixed concentrations of clavulanic acid on resistan...

  16. Recognition of peptidoglycan and beta-lactam antibiotics by the extracellular domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maestro, B.; Nováková, Linda; Hesek, D.; Lee, M.; Leyva, E.; Mobashery, S.; Sanz, J.M.; Branny, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 585, č. 2 (2011), s. 357-363. ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/07/P082; GA ČR GA204/08/0783; GA AV ČR IAA600200801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Signal transduction * Penicillin-binding protein and Ser/Thr protein kinase-associated domain * Peptidoglycan Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.538, year: 2011

  17. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit beta-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Martínez, Mª Carmen; Romero Rueda, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina Pons, Mª Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The Charm maximum residue limit P-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid. One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects P-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To asse...

  18. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Yamabe, S; Acar, J F

    1986-01-01

    YTR 830, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, combined with amoxicillin or carbenicillin, showed a synergistic effect similar to that observed with clavulanic acid, and generally better than that with sulbactam, against strains harboring chromosome-encoded penicillinases and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases or plasmid-determined beta-lactamases. With ampicillin, YTR 830 showed the best synergistic activity of the inhibitors against Proteus morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae and...

  19. Role of porins for uptake of antibiotics by Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilchanka, Olga; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Niederweis, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The outer membrane of mycobacteria presents an effective permeability barrier for many antibiotics. Transport pathways across this membrane are unknown for most drugs. Here, we examined which antibiotics utilize the porin pathway across the outer membrane of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. Deletion of the porins MspA and MspC drastically increased the resistance of M. smegmatis ML10 to beta-lactam antibiotics, while its beta-lactamase activity remained unchanged. These results are consistent with the ninefold-reduced outer membrane permeability of the M. smegmatis porin mutants for cephaloridine and strongly indicate that beta-lactam antibiotics rely on the porin pathway. The porin mutant ML10 accumulated less chloramphenicol and norfloxacin and was less susceptible to these antibiotics than wild-type M. smegmatis. These results demonstrated that small and hydrophilic antibiotics use the Msp porins for entering the cell. In contrast to norfloxacin, the hydrophobic moxifloxacin was 32-fold more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis, presumably because it was able to diffuse through the lipid membrane. Structural models indicated that erythromycin, kanamycin, and vancomycin are too large to move through the MspA channel. This study presents the first experimental evidence that hydrophilic fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol diffuse through porins in mycobacteria. Thus, mutations resulting in less efficient porins or lower porin expression levels are likely to represent a mechanism for the opportunistic pathogens M. avium, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum, which have Msp-like porins, to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:18559650

  20. Diversity, Distribution and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Goat and Lamb Slaughterhouse Surfaces and Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W.; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high ...

  1. Enhanced synergism of antibiotics with zinc oxide nanoparticles against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producers implicated in urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhande, Rashmi M., E-mail: bhanderashmi@gmail.com; Khobragade, C. N., E-mail: profcnkbt@rediffmail.com [Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, School of Life Sciences (India); Mane, R. S., E-mail: rsmane@rediffmail.com; Bhande, S., E-mail: sambhajibhande@gmail.com [Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, School of Physical Sciences (India)

    2013-01-15

    In this study, enhanced synergistic bioactivity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with {beta}-lactam antibiotics were evaluated against a panel of clinically isolated extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producers implicated in urinary tract infections. Chemically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 nm) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmittance electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selective area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Visible spectrophotometry techniques. The antimicrobial potency (10 {+-} 0.66, 12, 11.33 {+-} 1.10, and 0.7 {+-} 0.66 mm inhibiting zone) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (80, 60, 30, 50 {mu}g/ml) of ZnO NPs were tested separately whereas time-kill and membrane leakage assays were evaluated in combination with ZnO NPs+ cefotaxime, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefepime against the {beta}-lactamase producer strains of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. paucimobilis, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Time-kill curve dynamics of ZnO NPs with {beta}-lactam antibiotics revealed enhanced bactericidal activity (50, 85, 58, 50 % fold inhibition) by delaying the exponential and stationary phases of all isolates when tested separately. Posttime-kill effect was studied on cell membrane by assaying leakage of reducing sugars (130.2, 124.7, 137, and 115.8 {mu}g/bacterial dry weight of 1 mg ({mu}g/mg) and proteins (15, 10, 16, 18 {mu}g/mg). These assays revealed that membrane leakage was due to synergism of ZnO NPs+ {beta}-lactam antibiotics which successfully damage cell membrane thereby leading to death of all ESBL producers. The results demonstrate the utilization of ZnO NPs as a potentiator of {beta}-lactam antibiotics and suggest the possibility to use nanoparticles in a combination therapy to treat UTI.

  2. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB), “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB) and “Thap Maeo” (AAB) varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics ...

  3. Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Lim, Swee Hua Erin; Hu, Cai Ping; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2013-06-15

    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. PMID:23537749

  4. A New Twist to the Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Activity—Increasing Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens through Thermal Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Donald G. Gerbig Jr.; Jean Engohang-Ndong; Heather Aubihl

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic sensitivity and the effect of temperature on microbial growth are two standard laboratory activities found in most microbial laboratory manuals. We have found a novel way to combine the two activities to demonstrate how temperature can influence antibiotic sensitivity using a standard incubator in instructional laboratory settings. This activity reinforces the important concepts of microbial growth and temperature along with Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility testing. We found t...

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H., E-mail: msgjhlee@mju.ac.kr; Sohn, S. G., E-mail: sgsohn@mju.ac.kr; Jung, H. I., E-mail: jhinumber1@hanmail.net; An, Y. J., E-mail: anyj0120@hanmail.net; Lee, S. H., E-mail: sangheelee@mju.ac.kr [Myongji University, Drug Resistance Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates {beta}-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino {beta}-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 A. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  6. Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from different foods in turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from animal derived foods. With disc diffusion assay, all fourteen L. monocytogenes strains were susceptible to the antibiotics, including penicillin G, vancomycin, ...

  7. Mutation of Salmonella paratyphi A conferring cross-resistance to several groups of antibiotics by decreased permeability and loss of invasiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Billot-Klein, D; Williamson, R.; Goldstein, F W; Mounier, J; Acar, J F; Collatz, E

    1988-01-01

    A spontaneous one-step mutant of Salmonella paratyphi A selected on ampicillin showed cross-resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics except imipenem and to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and quinolones. It also grew as small colonies. Examination of the cell envelope of the mutant showed a quantitative decrease in three major outer membrane proteins of 40.6, 39.6 (presumably porins), and 24 kilodaltons and quantitative as well as qualitative modifications in th...

  8. ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERNS OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE ISOLATED AT KING FAISAL HOSPITAL, KIGALI - A THREE YEARS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Rangaiahagari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A great concern exists about the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The goal of this study is to delineate antibiotic sensitivity patterns at King Faisal Hospital. Methods: A three years study, from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011 was conducted in the Microbiology unit, department of Laboratory, King Faisal hospital, Rwanda. All the specimens and antibiotic sensitivity were processed according to the standard guidelines. Microorganisms and their sensitivity data were reviewed and compiled by using hospital information system. Results: Over the 3-year period, several Enterobacteriaceae pathogens declined in susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents. A total of 2153 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Most common isolate was Escherichia coli (1413 followed by Klebsiella species (550, Enterobacter species (110, Proteus species (165, Citrobacter Species (79, Shigella species (110 and other species. Most notable were the decreased sensitivities to cefuroxime: E. coli (84% to 72%, Klebsiella (78% to 33%, Enterobacter (50% to 41% Proteus(67% to 59% and Shigella to ciprofloxacin (100% to 96%. And also decreased sensitivities to Imipenem: E. coli (100% to 98% and Klebsiella species (100% to 94%. Conclusion: These decreased antibiotic sensitivities reflect increased bacterial selection pressure as a result of widespread antibiotic use. A combined approach involving infection-control specialists, infectious disease physicians, and hospital administrators is necessary to address this increasingly difficult problem.

  9. Variability of Botrytis cinerea sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by biological control agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajouz, Sakhr; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fabre, Frédéric; Leroux, Pierre; Nicot, Philippe; Bardin, Marc

    2011-01-01

    To establish a baseline sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by several biological control agents, 204 isolates were tested for sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin using a spore germination assay. The results showed that the isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, with an 8.4-fold difference in EC50 (effective concentration to reduce spore germination by 50% comparing to the control) values between the least and the most sensitive isolates. T...

  10. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae family representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kotsyuba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the basic medical scheme of antibiotics use for treatment of lesions caused by enterobacteria and mechanisms of resistance of Enterobacteriaceae to different classes of antibiotics. It is known that the main mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics are enzymatic inactivation, modification of the target, efflux, violation of conduct through the membrane and formation of metabolic shunt. The most common cases of resistance to beta-lactams among Enterobacteriaceae relate to production of plasmid and chromosomal beta-lactamases, violation of the permeability of the outer membrane, and modification of target penicillin binding proteins. Active release of antibiotics from the cell, or efflux, in Enterobacteriaceae is used for maintaining resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, carbapenems. Genes of efflux system are localized on plasmids and contribute to rapid spreading among Enterobacteriaceae. Mutations are the basis of resistance to novobiocinum and rifampicinum. Enzymatic inactivation by modifying is typical for resistance to aminoglycosides. Three groups of enzymes are engaged in the process, by adding the molecule of acetic acid, phosphate or adenine. Joining of these groups is irreversible and leads to complete loss of biological activity of the antibiotic. Resistance to aminoglycosides appears also due to inhibition of drug penetration, that is associated with genetically determined mechanisms of electron transport through the membrane. Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is associated with the modification of topoisomerase II and IV which are targets of these groups of antibiotics. Resistance is possible as a result of changes in the structure of the target, breaching of penetration into the cell, and active release from the cell. The highest level of resistance is develope in the case of two- or three-stage mutations in one or the other, or both, subunits in different genes. At the same time, for breaching of

  11. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations expected in the patient’s body. Strains with reduced susceptibility outcompeted the wild-type whenever antibiotics were present, even in low concentrations that did not affect the growth rates of both strains. Exposure of E. coli to amoxicillin caused moderate resistance to cefotaxime. The combined evidence suggests that initial treatment by amoxicillin has a negative effect on subsequent therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics.

  12. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Salah K; Ziad Abdel Haliem M; Hamdan Hamdan Z; Adam Ishag

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to g...

  13. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Katrin; Ott, Hagen; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2012-08-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides - which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions - were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. PMID:22609641

  14. Endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans: clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venincasa VD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vincent D Venincasa, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn Jr, Jayanth Sridhar, Darlene Miller Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report the clinical findings, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans.Methods: A consecutive case series of patients with vitreous culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by P. agglomerans from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2012 at a large university referral center. Findings from the current study were compared to prior published studies.Results: Of the three study patients that were identified, clinical settings included trauma (n=2 and post-cataract surgery (n=1. Presenting visual acuity was hand motion or worse in all three cases. All isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=1 and pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=2. At last follow-up, one patient had no light perception vision, while the other two had best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 and 20/400.Conclusion: All Pantoea isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones. All patients in the current study received at least one intravitreal antibiotic to which P. agglomerans was shown to be sensitive in vitro. In spite of this, the visual outcomes were generally poor.Keywords: ocular infection, trauma, antibiotic resistance

  15. Glyconanobiotics: Novel carbohydrated nanoparticle antibiotics for MRSA and Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeylath, Sampath C; Turos, Edward; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V

    2008-03-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of glycosylated polyacrylate nanoparticles that have covalently-bound antibiotics within their framework. The requisite glycosylated drug monomers were prepared from one of three known antibiotics, an N-sec-butylthio beta-lactam, ciprofloxacin, and a penicillin, by acylation with 3-O-acryloyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-5,6 bis((chlorosuccinyl)oxy)-d-glucofuranose (7) or 6-O-acetyl-3-O-acryloyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-5-(chlorosuccinyl)oxy-alpha-d-glucofuranose (10). These acrylated monomers were subjected to emulsion polymerization in a 7:3 (w:w) mixture of butyl acrylate-styrene in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant (3 weight %) and potassium persulfate as a radical initiator (1 weight %). The resulting nanoparticle emulsions were characterized by dynamic light scattering and found to have similar diameters ( approximately 40 nm) and size distributions to those of our previously studied systems. Microbiological testing showed that the N-sec-butylthio beta-lactam and ciprofloxacin nanoparticles both have powerful in vitro activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis, while the penicillin-bound nanoparticles have no antimicrobial activity. This indicates the need for matching a suitable antibiotic with the nanoparticle carrier. Overall, the study shows that even relatively large, polar acrylate monomers (MW>1000 amu) can be efficiently incorporated into the nanoparticle matrix by emulsion polymerization, providing opportunities for further advances in nanomedicine. PMID:18063370

  16. Antibiotic multiresistance analysis of mesophilic and psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces throughout the meat production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of pseudomonads isolated from surfaces of a goat and lamb slaughterhouse, which were representative of areas that are possible sources of meat contamination. Mesophilic (85 isolates) and psychrotrophic (37 isolates) pseudomonads identified at the species level generally were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, rifampin, and ceftazidime (especially mesophiles), as well as colistin and tetracycline (especially psychrotrophes). However, they generally were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, and kanamycin regardless of species identity. Worryingly, in the present study, we found multidrug resistance (MDR) to up to 13 antibiotics, which was related to intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, a link between various antimicrobial resistance genes was shown for beta-lactams and tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides. The distribution and resistome-based analysis of MDR pseudomonads in different slaughterhouse zones indicated that the main sources of the identical or related pseudomonad strains were the animals (feet and wool) and the slaughterhouse environment, being disseminated from the beginning, or entrance environment, to the environment of the finished meat products. Those facts must be taken into consideration to avoid cross-contamination with the subsequent flow of mobile resistance determinants throughout all slaughterhouse zones and then to humans and the environment by the application of adequate practices of hygiene and disinfection measures, including those for animal wool and feet and also the entrance environment. PMID:25172860

  17. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  18. Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Mieler, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided ophthalmologists with evidence-based management strategies to deal with endophthalmitis for the first time. However, since the completion of the EVS, numerous unresolved issues remain. The use of oral antibiotics has important implications for the ophthalmologist, particularly in the prophylaxis and/or management of postoperative, posttraumatic, or bleb-associated bacterial endophthalmitis. One can reasonably conclude that significant intraocular penetration of an antibiotic after oral administration may be a property unique to the newer-generation fluoroquinolones. Prophylactic use of mupirocin nasal ointment resulted in significant reduction of conjunctival flora with or without preoperative topical 5% povidone-iodine preparation. Ocular fungal infections have traditionally been very difficult to treat due to limited therapeutic options both systemically and intravitreally. Because of its broad spectrum of coverage, low MIC90 levels for the organisms of concern, good tolerability, and excellent bioavailability, voriconazole through various routes of administration may be useful to the ophthalmologist in the primary treatment of or as an adjunct to the current management of ocular fungal infections. PMID:26501865

  19. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, J S; Nasser, S

    2005-06-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30-50%). There is a low risk of cross reactions between penicillins and other non-beta-lactam classes of antibiotics in penicillin skin prick positive patients. Carbapenems should only be used with extreme caution in patients with positive skin prick tests to penicillin. However, aztreonam can be used safely in patients who are penicillin allergic with positive skin prick reactions. The aminoglycosides are a relatively uncommon cause of allergic reactions, but patients who react to one member of the family may cross react with other aminoglycosides. Desensitisation relies on the incremental introduction of small quantities of the allergen and has been used for penicillins, ceftazidime, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin and must be repeated before each course. Personalized cards should be regularly updated for patients who develop allergic reactions. Written instructions on the emergency treatment of allergic reactions should be provided to patients self-administering intravenous antibiotics at home. Further research is required to identify risk factors and predictors for antibiotic allergy. PMID:15923254

  20. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Strains Isolated from the Cholera Epidemic in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Mohammad S.; Mahmud, Zahid H.; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Faruque, Shah M.; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Shafiqul; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Mazumder, Ramendra N.; Khan, Azharul I.; Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Iqbal, Anwarul; Chitsatso, Owen; Mudzori, James; Patel, Sheetal; Midzi, Stanley M.; Charimari, Lincoln; Endtz, Hubert P.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper details the phenotypic, genotypic, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 88 Vibrio cholerae strains from Zimbabwe. Of the 88 strains, 83 were classified as "altered El Tor" and 5 as "hybrid El Tor" strains. All of the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin,

  1. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Beltrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat mastitis and other infectious diseases in dairy sheep and goats is a widespread practice nowadays that can, when not properly applied, result in the contamination of the milk supply. Spanish legislation establishes the control of the presence of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk using screening methods that detect, at least, beta-lactam drugs. Microbial inhibitor tests using Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis and specific receptor-binding assays are most widely employed for this purpose. The detection rates of screening tests routinely used in Spain have been calculated considering the frequency of use of veterinary drugs commonly applied in ovine and caprine livestock to treat and prevent mastitis as well as the test sensitivity toward these substances at safety levels. In general, the use of a single test allows detecting 62.8-82.4% of the antibiotics employed. For sheep milk, the total detection range achieved with microbial tests was significantly higher than that reached with rapid receptor tests. However, no significant differences between the two types of methods were found when goat’s milk was analysed. In both types of milk, the simultaneous use of two screening tests with a different analytical basis increases the total detection range significantly, reaching values ≥ 90% in some cases (81.5-90.1% for sheep and 84.7-92.6% for goats. However, the periodical use of screening tests able to detect quinolones, macrolides or aminoglycosides would be recommended to carry out more efficient screening and ensure the safety of milk and dairy products from sheep and goats.

  2. Role of the Stringent Stress Response in the Antibiotic Resistance Phenotype of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sandra; Tomasz, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) requires the presence of an acquired genetic determinant,mecAormecC, which encode penicillin-binding protein PBP2A or PBP2A', respectively. Although all MRSA strains share a mechanism of resistance, the phenotypic expression of beta-lactam resistance shows considerable strain-to-strain variation. The stringent stress response, a stress response that results from nutrient limitation, was shown to play a key role in determining the resistance level of an MRSA strain. In the present study, we validated the impact of the stringent stress response on transcription and translation ofmecAin the MRSA clinical isolate strain N315, which also carries known regulatory genes (mecI/mecR1/mecR2andblaI/blaR1) formecAtranscription. We showed that the impact of the stringent stress response on the resistance level may be restricted to beta-lactam resistance based on a "foreign" determinant such asmecA, as opposed to resistance based on mutations in the nativeS. aureusdeterminantpbpB(encoding PBP2). Our observations demonstrate that high-level resistance mediated by the stringent stress response follows the current model of beta-lactam resistance in which the native PBP2 protein is also essential for expression of the resistance phenotype. We also show that theStaphylococcus sciuri pbpDgene (also calledmecAI), the putative evolutionary precursor ofmecA, confers oxacillin resistance in anS. aureusstrain, generating a heterogeneous phenotype that can be converted to high and homogenous resistance by induction of the stringent stress response in the bacteria. PMID:26833147

  3. Highly sensitive homogeneous electrochemical aptasensor for antibiotic residues detection based on dual recycling amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Dong, Shanshan; Gai, Panpan; Duan, Rui; Li, Feng

    2016-08-15

    The ubiquitous presence of antibiotic residues in foodstuff have serious health consequences for consumers from allergic reactions to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To address this problem, a novel homogeneous electrochemical aptasensor with high sensitivity and specificity is designed for antibiotic residues detection based on target-induced and T7 exonuclease-assisted dual recycling signal amplification strategy. It was realized by the remarkable diffusivity difference between hairpin probe and the mononucleotides towards the negatively charged indium tin oxide electrode. For the proof-of-concept experiment, ampicillin, was employed as a model analyte to examine the desirable properties of this assay. A low detection limit of 4.0pM toward ampicillin with an excellent selectivity could be achieved, which has been successfully applied to assay antibiotic in milk. What's more, compared with the immobilization-based electrochemical means, the proposed sensing system avoids the tedious and time-consuming steps of electrode modification, making the experimental processes much simpler and more convenient. With the advantages of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and simple operation, it is believed that this strategy possesses great potential for the simple, easy and convenient detection of antibiotic residues in food safety field. PMID:27040941

  4. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of gram negative uropathogenic bacilli at a private hospital in Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah Yusuf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections affecting different age group of the patients. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to find out the spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens isolated from the UTI patients. Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted at a private clinic in Dhaka city during January to December, 2012 for a period of one year. Urine was collected from suspected cases of UTI patients. Isolation and identification was performed by standard methods. Antibiotic sensitivity and interpretation was done according to CLSI guidelines. Result: A total number of 501 clinical samples of urine were collected of which 141(28.0% showed significant bacterial growth. The commonest bacterium isolated from the culture positive urine sample was Klebsiella species (41.8% followed by Escherichia coli (39.7%, Pseudomonas species (15.6% and Proteus species (2.8%. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae were 80-100% sensitive to imipenem while they were found variably sensitive to other commonly used antibiotics. Sensitivity pattern of Pseudomonas species were also varied. Conclusion: In conclusion Klebsiella species is the most common bacteria causing UTI followed by E. coli with varied sensitivity pattern.

  5. Introducing Aztreonam The First Monobactam Antibiotic, A Suitable Substitution for the Aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jahanshahi M.Khajeh - Karamadeni S. Fazli Bazaz

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Aztreonam (Azactam for injection, squibb is the first member of a new and unique class of beta - lactam antibiotics designated by researchers at the Squibb Institute for Medical Research as monobactams (monocyclic bacterially produced beta - lactam antibiotics."nIn this research, for the first time, antimicrobial spectrum of aztrenoam was determined by Disk - Agar Diffusion (250 spp. and Macrodilution Broth Methods (150 Spp."nWe also compared this antibiotic with two routine aminoglycoside antibiotics (Amikacin, Gentamicin in Iran. The most active antibiotic in our study was aztreonam which had MIC50 & MIC90 of 4 & 32 ^g/ml specifically against Pseudomonas aeruginosa."nThis rate for the other aerobic gram - negative bacteria (E. coli, Kleb. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, enterobacter spp., Shigella Spp. and Salmonella Spp. was less than 0.5 & 4 g/ml respectively."nAztreonam's MIC90 for kleb pneumoniae was 8/jg/mI our results were Correlated to the other studies"nAll aerobic gram - negative bacteria has been obtained from the Qhaem's Medical Center in Mashhad - IRAN."nThe results of Disk - Agar Diffusion Method determines that all bacteria were 100% susceptible against aztreonam except Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 83% susceptibility.

  6. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E;

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  7. Species identification, antibiotic sensitivity and slime production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, M A; Franklin, J C; Spicer, W J; Balkau, B

    1988-08-01

    Two hundred and seventy-five consecutive clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, including strains associated with disease, contaminants and skin colonizers, were speciated, tested for slime production and for their sensitivity to a range of antibiotics. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most commonly identified species, comprising 63% of all isolates. Slime production was detected in half the strains of Staph. epidermidis, Staph. haemolyticus and Staph. saprophyticus but was rare in other species. Most Staph. haemolyticus strains and approximately half of the Staph. epidermidis strains were resistant to five or more antibiotics. A significant association was found between slime production and multiple antibiotic resistance. For catheter-associated strains, clinical relevance was predictable by species i.e. Staph. epidermidis. Multi-resistant slime-positive Staph. haemolyticus strains, although infrequently associated with disease, were common skin colonizers, presumably acquired from the hospital environment. We describe a practical and inexpensive scheme for the speciation of human coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates. PMID:3402550

  8. Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Darvish, Leili; Abounajmi, Mohammad; Zarei, Samira; Zare, Tahereh; Taheri, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources. Objectives In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones. Materials and Methods This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded. Results Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of

  9. Use of a radiorespirometric assay for testing the antibiotic sensitivity of catheter-associated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14C-radiorespirometric assay was used to show the sensitivity of fixed-film (sessile), catheter-associated and free-living (planktonic) cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to varying concentrations (100 micrograms/mL to 1000 micrograms/mL) tobramycin sulfate. This strain of P. aeruginosa has an MIC of 0.6 microgram/ml and an MBC of 50 micrograms/mL when tested by conventional methods. When 14C-glutamic acid was used as a substrate in this radiorespirometric assay, it could be completed in less than one hour and planktonic samples showed a significant reduction in mineralization activity (evolution of 14CO2) within eight hours of the antibiotic challenge. These changes in respiratory activity appeared to be dose and time dependent. Within 18 hr. at 1000 micrograms/mL, there was no significant residual respiratory activity in planktonic samples. Some residual respiratory activity was detected, however, in samples exposed to 100 micrograms/mL for 36 hours. The mineralization activity of sessile catheter-associated bacteria was unaffected by four hr. and eight hr. exposures to 1000 micrograms/mL of the antibiotic. A significant reduction in respiratory activity was recorded in catheter samples exposed for 18 hr. or more at each concentration examined. Unlike the planktonic samples, however, the antibiotic challenge failed to eradicate the metabolic activity of the attached bacteria. Antibiotic stressed, catheter-associated bacteria transferred to a post-exposure enrichment broth showed a limited ability to re-establish respiratory activity. This apparent recovery was limited to antibiotic exposures less than 24 hr. and was not observed in planktonic samples. The radioisotopic assay is a non-culture method which can be used to assess the antibiotic sensitivity of both planktonic bacteria and in situ biofilm populations

  10. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoh RC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RC Onoh,1 OUJ Umeora,1 VE Egwuatu,2 PO Ezeonu,1 TJP Onoh31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria; 3Department of Pathology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI.Methodology: This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software.Results: A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5% had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%, Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%, S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%, Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%, Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%, Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1

  11. Endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans: clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Venincasa VD; Kuriyan AE; Flynn Jr HW; Sridhar J; Miller D

    2015-01-01

    Vincent D Venincasa, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn Jr, Jayanth Sridhar, Darlene Miller Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report the clinical findings, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans.Methods: A consecutive case series of patients with vitreous culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by P. agglomerans from January 1,...

  12. Endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans: clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriyan, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Vincent D Venincasa, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn Jr, Jayanth Sridhar, Darlene Miller Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report the clinical findings, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans.Methods: A consecutive case series of patients with vitreous culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by P. agglomerans from Januar...

  13. Current Antibiotic Resistance Trend in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ravesh-Barakzai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus has remained always an important pathogen of common infections acquired in community and as  well as serious nosocomial infections. With advent of penicillins and cephalosporins, infections could be effectively treated, but with the global emergence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA physicians were  again left  with limited treatment options. This scenario of increasing resistance is even more intense and challenging for developing countries like Pakistan. Hence with this background the study was carried out to establish the frequency of MRSA in clinical specimens and look into the available antibiotic treatment options.Methods: Samples of  pus, blood, urine, body fluids and catheter tips submitted for culture  in  Microbiology department between  August  to  September  2012,  from outdoor and indoor adult patients of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, yielding growth of S. aureus were included in the study. After identification by  standard  methods, antibiotic susceptibility of  the  isolates  was performed by Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method. The study was retrospective descriptive and observational.Results: Total  106  S.  aureus  were  isolated. 45.3%  of  them  were  MRSA  and majorities were from pus samples of hospitalized patients. All MRSA were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, whereas 87.5% to chloramphenicol. To rest of the non – beta lactam drugs, resistance of 80% or more was noted.Conclusion: S. aureus is a common clinical isolate from patients in this region ofPakistan and significant number were MRSA especially from hospitalized patients. Treatment options are limited to vancomycin and chloramphenicol.

  14. A Highly Sensitive Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Method for the Determination of Penicillin Antibiotics with Potassium Ferricyanide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hui; LIU Zhong-Fang; LIU Shao-Pu; KONG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Heated in a boiling water bath, penicillin antibiotics such as amoxicillin, ampicillin, sodium cloxacillin, sodium carbenicillin and sodium benzylpenicillin could react with K3[Fe(CN)6] to form combined products in a dilute HCl medium.As a result, resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity was enhanced greatly and new RRS spectra appeared.The maximum scattering wavelengths of the five combined products are all located at 330 nm.The scattered intensity increments (△I) of the combined products are directly proportional to the concentrations of the antibiotics in a certain range.The methods exhibit high sensitivity, and the detection limits for the five penicillin antibiotics are between 4.61 and 5.62 ng·mL-1.The spectral characteristics of RRS and the optimum reaction conditions were investigated.The mechanism of reaction and the reasons for the enhancement of resonance light scattering were discussed.The effects of coexisting substances have been examined, and the results indicated that the method had a good selectivity.It can be applied to the determination of penicillin antibiotics in capsule, tablet, human serum and urine samples.

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maksum Radji; Siti Fauziah; Nurgani Aribinuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods, and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment, of which 249 (64.68%) were cultured positive and 136 (35.32%) were negative. The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.9%). P. aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin (95.3%), cefotaxime (64.1%), and ceftriaxone (60.9%). Amikacin was the most effective (84.4%) antibiotic against P. aeruginosa followed by imipenem (81.2%), and meropenem (75.0%). K. pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin (86.5%), ceftriaxone (75.7%), ceftazidime (73.0%), cefpirome (73.0%) and cefotaxime (67.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of causative organisms of neonatal septicemia in an urban hospital of Bangladesh

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    Forhad Monjur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information of the sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms is very important for effective control of septicemia in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and profile of pathogenic bacteria in the blood cultures of the neonates with clinically suspected septicemia and their susceptibility pattern to antimicrobial agents for developing a unified antibiotic treatment protocol. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted over a period of 3 year and 4 months (39 months. The study included 1000 patients admitted in the selected hospital in Bangladesh. Blood samples for culture were taken aseptically before starting antibiotic therapy. Microorganisms were isolated and identified by standard microbiological processes which include colony morphology, Gram stain, and biochemical profiles. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method against imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, netilmicin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Results: Among the patients, 633 (63.3% were males and 367 (36.7% were females. Blood cultures were found positive in 194 (19.4% neonates. The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (31.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%, Escherichia coli (7.2%, Acinatobactor (5.7%, Gram-negative Bacilli (4.1%, Flavobacterium spp. (3.6%, Serratia spp. (5.7%, Citrobacter fruendi (3.1%, Streptococcus species (2.6%, and Enterobacter spp. (1.0%. A majority of the bacterial isolates in neonatal sepsis were found sensitive to imipenem (91.8% and ciprofloxacin (57.2% and resistant to commonly used antibiotics, eg. ampicillin (96.4% and cephalexin (89.2%. Conclusion : The problem can be mitigated by careful selection and prudent use of available antibiotics.

  17. Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins and Other Antibiotics by Enterobacteriaceae in Western Nigeria

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    A. O. Okesola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The emergence and spread of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are threatening to create species resistant to all currently available agents. The most common cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamases and many of the 2nd and 3rd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins were specifically designed to resist the hydrolytic action of major ß-lactamases. However new ß-lactamases emerged against each of the new classes of ß-lactams that were introduced and caused resistance. This study was designed to determine the rate of resistance to 3rd-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics by the Enterobacteriaceae in this environment. Approach: One hundred bacteria isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae identified from different clinical specimens between October and December 2007 using standard bacteriological methods. These were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing to third-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics which included quinolones and an aminoglycoside using the Kirby-Bauer method of disc diffusion test. Results: Out of the total number of Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the study period, only 54.8% of the klebsiella species isolated were sensitive to ceftazidime, 48.4% to ceftriaxone and 30.7% to cefotaxime. With Escherichia coli however, the susceptibility pattern to the 3rd-generation cephalosporins was better (65.6% were sensitive to ceftazidime, 62.5% to ceftriaxone and 71.9% to cefotaxime. In proteus species, the susceptibility pattern was generally poor to the three classes of antibiotics(50% were sensitive to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, 0% to cefotaxime, 33.3% to ciprofloxacin, 50% to gentamycin and 0% to amoxycillin/clavulanate. Conclusion/Recommendations: The poor susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate demonstrated by all the isolates in this

  18. SENSITIVITY TO ANTIBIOTICS, ANTISEPTICAL NOSOCOMIAL PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, ISOLATED IN UROLOGICAL PATIENTS

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    Rymsha E.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the active introduction into clinical practice of new groups of antibiotics and antiseptics, the problem of treatment of purulent-inflammatory complications after prostatectomy and today is relevant. Of particular concern belated cases of diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications in urological practice patients receiving antibiotic therapy The use of traditional antibiotics is not prevents the development of infection, because the problem of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics and antiseptics remains relevant. The solution to the problem of development of infectious complications and prevent the formation of resistant clinical strains largely depends on the isolated pathogen, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents based on its bioavailability , ability to spread and penetrate into cells and tissues, selection of dose, interval, and route of administration to maintain minimum bactericidal concentration Material and methods. The study involved 145 patients who were treated in the urology Department of the Vinnytsia regional clinical hospital named of M. I. Pirogov. Patients underwent the surgical treatment of benign hypertrophic prostate. Material for bacteriological studies of purulent-inflammatory diseases were urine, pieces of the prostate, remote operationally, urinary catheters, through which conducted irrigation of the bladder. Specimen collection, transportation was carried out in accordance with modern requirements. Identification was done by morphological, cultural and biochemical properties. The definition of antibiotic resistance were performed according to "guidelines for the definition of sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by the method of diffusion in agar using discs" (No. 2675-83, Kiev, 2007 12 .]. Evaluation of the results of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was carried out on the basis of the determination of the zone of growth (mm of the studied

  19. The analysis of bacteria strains and sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics in acute obstructive cholangitis with suppuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾彬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the changes of bacteria stains in acute obstructive cholangitis with suppuration(AOSC) and sensitivity of different bacteria strains to antibiotics in recent decade. Methods The data of bacterial

  20. Results of Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests of Bacteria Causing Acute Otitis Media

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    M Khajeh Karameddini

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In a period of 12 months 241 children (2-12 years old with Otitis Media were examined. 98 bacteria were isolated from Otitis Media discharge and tested for sensitivity against 13 generic antibiotics. The disk-agar diffusion and macrodilution both methods were used for these tests. Staphylococcus aureus had the highest and streptococcus pneumonia the lowest rate of occurrence. Otitis Media cases caused by merely a single bacterium were 12 fold more than those caused by two bacteria and 4 fold more than those caused by more than two bacteria. The antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and amikacin was higher than that of other antibiotics in disk-agar diffusion method. The MIC rates of cefoperazone against four most frequently encountered bacteria were higher than that of Mezlocillin.

  1. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

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    Ghauch, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.ghauch@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107-2020 Beirut (Lebanon); Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107-2020 Beirut (Lebanon)

    2009-05-15

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe{sup 0}) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe{sup 0}) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe{sup 0} and nFe{sup 0}. Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the beta-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L{sup -1}) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 +- 3.1 and 43.5 +- 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t{sub 1/2} of about 11.5 +- 0.6 and 11.2 +- 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe{sup 0} consumption, shortening the service life of Fe{sup 0} treatment systems. - Fe{sup 0} is efficient for the aqueous removal of the beta-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  2. Spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria contaminating the upper gut in patients with malabsorption syndrome from the tropics

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    Naik Subhash R; Ranjan Piyush; Ghoshal Uday C; Ghoshal Ujjala; Ayyagari Archana

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Various causes of malabsorption syndrome (MAS) are associated with intestinal stasis that may cause small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Frequency, nature and antibiotic sensitivity of SIBO in patients with MAS are not well understood. Methods Jejunal aspirates of 50 consecutive patients with MAS were cultured for bacteria and colony counts and antibiotic sensitivity were performed. Twelve patients with irritable bowel syndrome were studied as controls. Results Cu...

  3. BACTERIAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN UPPER EGYPT

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    Gamal Agmy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI account for a considerable proportion of morbidity and antibiotic use. We aimed to identify the causative bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of hospitalized adult patients due to LRTI in Upper Egypt. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was performed at 3 University Hospitals for 3 years. Samples included sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL for staining and culture, and serum for serology. Samples were cultured on 3 bacteriological media (Nutrient, Chocolate ,MacConkey's agars.Colonies were identified via MicroScan WalkAway-96. Pneumoslide IgM kit was used for detection of atypical pathogens via indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: The predominant isolates in 360 patients with CAP were S.pneumoniae (36%, C. pneumoniae (18%, and M. pneumoniae (12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, macrolides, and cefepime. A higher of resistance was recorded for doxycycline, cephalosporins, and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors. The predominant isolates in 318 patients with HAP were, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA (23%, K. pneumoniae (14%, and polymicrobial in 12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Very high resistance was recorded for β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors and cephalosporins. The predominant organisms in 376 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD were H. influnzae (30%, S. pneumoniae (25%, and M. catarrhalis(18%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, macrolides and cefepime. A higher rate of resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and cephalosporins CONCLUSIONS: The most predominant bacteria for CAP in Upper Egypt are S. pneumoniae and atypical organisms, while that for HAP are MRSA and Gram negative bacteria. For acute exacerbation of COPD,H.influnzae was the commonest organism. Respiratory quinolones

  4. Use of antibiotics by primary care doctors in Hong Kong

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    Lam Tai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the use of antibiotics by primary care doctors. Methods General practitioners in Hong Kong were invited to fill in a short questionnaire on every patient with infection that they had seen on the first full working day once every three months for four consecutive quarters starting from December 2005. Results Forty six primary care doctors took part and a total of 3096 completed questionnaires were returned. The top three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (46.7%, gastrointestinal infection (8.2% and pharyngitis (7.1%. Thirty percent of patient encounters with infections were prescribed antibiotics but only 5.2% of patient encounters with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were prescribed antibiotics. Amino-penicillins were the most commonly used antibiotics while beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs were the second most commonly used antibiotics and they accounted for 16.5% and 14.0% of all antibiotics used respectively. Of all patients or their carers, those who demanded or wished for antibiotics were far more likely to be prescribed antibiotics (Pearson chi-square test, p Conclusion The antibiotic prescribing patterns of primary care doctors in Hong Kong are broadly similar to primary care doctors in other developed countries but a relatively low rate of antibiotics is used for URTI.

  5. Antibiotic innovation may contribute to slowing the dissemination of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: the example of ketolides.

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    Lulla Opatowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite increasingly frequent bacterial resistance to antibiotics, antibacterial innovation is rare. Ketolides constitute one of the very few new antibiotic classes active against Streptococcus pneumoniae developed during the last 25 years. Their mechanism of action resembles that of macrolides, but they are unaffected by common resistance mechanisms. However, cross-resistance to ketolides has been observed in some macrolide-resistant strains. We examined how new antibiotic exposure may affect overall pneumococcal resistance patterns in the population. The aims of this study were to assess the potential dissemination of newly emerged resistances and to control the selection of strains already multiresistant to existing antimicrobials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed an age-structured population model for S. pneumoniae transmission in a human community exposed to heptavalent vaccine, and beta-lactams, macrolides and ketolides. The dynamics of intra-individual selection of resistant strains under antibiotic exposure and interindividual transmission were simulated, with antibiotic-specific resistance mechanisms defining the path to co-resistances and cross-resistances, and parameters concerning the French situation. Results of this simulation study suggest that new antibiotic consumption could markedly slow the diffusion of multiresistant strains. Wider use was associated with slower progression of multiresistance. When ketolides were prescribed to all ages, resistance to them reached 10% after >15 years, while it took >40 years when they were prescribed only to adults. In the scenario according to which new antibiotics totally replaced former antimicrobials, the beta-lactam resistance rate was limited at 70%. CONCLUSIONS: In a context of widespread vaccination and rational use of antibiotics, innovative antibiotic, prescribed to all age groups, may have an added impact on multiresistant-strain dissemination in the

  6. Mannitol enhances antibiotic sensitivity of persister bacteria in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

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    Nicolas Barraud

    Full Text Available The failure of antibiotic therapies to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the key mortality factor for cystic fibrosis (CF patients, is partly attributed to the high tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Mannitol has previously been found to restore aminoglycoside sensitivity in Escherichia coli by generating a proton-motive force (PMF, suggesting a potential new strategy to improve antibiotic therapy and reduce disease progression in CF. Here, we used the commonly prescribed aminoglycoside tobramycin to select for P. aeruginosa persister cells during biofilm growth. Incubation with mannitol (10-40 mM increased tobramycin sensitivity of persister cells up to 1,000-fold. Addition of mannitol to pre-grown biofilms was able to revert the persister phenotype and improve the efficacy of tobramycin. This effect was blocked by the addition of a PMF inhibitor or in a P. aeruginosa mutant strain unable to metabolise mannitol. Addition of glucose and NaCl at high osmolarity also improved the efficacy of tobramycin although to a lesser extent compared to mannitol. Therefore, the primary effect of mannitol in reverting biofilm associated persister cells appears to be an active, physiological response, associated with a minor contribution of osmotic stress. Mannitol was tested against clinically relevant strains, showing that biofilms containing a subpopulation of persister cells are better killed in the presence of mannitol, but a clinical strain with a high resistance to tobramycin was not affected by mannitol. Overall, these results suggest that in addition to improvements in lung function by facilitating mucus clearance in CF, mannitol also affects antibiotic sensitivity in biofilms and does so through an active, physiological response.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF EAR DISCHARGE AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

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    Rama Chandra Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic Suppurative otitis media (CSOM is the most common condition encountered by otolaryngologists in day to day practice. The importance of chronic otitis media lies in its dreaded complications and deafness. AIM: This study was under taken to identify the microbiological isolates of the ear discharge in CSOM cases and their sensitivity to antibiotics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Tertiary care hospital in north costal Andhra Pradesh. It was a Prospective study. MATERIALS & METHODS: About 100 patients having ear discharge who attended ENT outpatient department from July 2013 to Feb 2014 for a period of 8months were studied. Aural swabs were sent to microbiology lab for culture &sensitivity. RESULTS: Culture reports showed aerobic bacterial isolates in 85 cases, fungi in 7 cases and sterile in 8 cases. Of the 85 cases of aerobic bacteria, staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 34 cases (40% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 29 cases (34%, klebsiella in 16 cases (18.8%, E.coli in 4 cases (4.7% and proteus in 2 cases. Antibiotic sensitivity reports showed Staphylococcus was more susceptible to netilmycin (97%, amoxiclav (91.7% and least sensitive to ceftazidime (64.7%. Pseudomonas was more sensitive to amikacin (96.5%, gentamycin (93.1% and least sensitive to amoxyclav (79.3%, ampicillin + sulbactum (82.75%. CONCLUSION: Mono microbial etiology, especially Staphylococcus species was found to be the most common organism causing chronic otitis media. Knowledge of the prevailing flora and their susceptibility to antimicrobials will guide the clinicians for early and effective treatment thereby avoiding complications.

  8. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital,Indonesia

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    Maksum; Radji; Siti; Fauziah; Nurgani; Aribinuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit(ICU) of a tertiary care of Falmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia.Methods:A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods,and(heir antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method.Results:Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment,of which 249(64.68%) were cultured positive and 136(35.32%) were negative.The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa)(26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae(K.pneumoniae)(15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis(14.9%).P.aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin(95.3%),cefotaxime(64.1%),and ceftriaxone(60.9%).Amikacin was the most effective(84.4%) antibiotic against P.aeruginosa followed by imipenem(81.2%),and meropenem(75.0%).K.pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin(86.5%),ceftriaxone(75.7%),ceftazidime(73.0%),cefpirome(73.0%) and cefotaxime(67.9%),respectively.Conclusions:Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins,and quinolone antibiotics.Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pallerns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  9. mecA-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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    Kamberović, Farah; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Uzunović, Selma; Budimir, Ana; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Forty-four mecA-positive and eight mecA-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates confirmed by PCR were further tested by disc-diffusion (DD) oxacillin and cefoxitin, oxacillin Epsilon (E)-test, and oxacillin and cefoxitin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) Strip methicillin-resistant phenotype in S. aureus (MRSA) tests. Among 44 mecA-positive S. aureus isolates, two (4·5%) were detected as MRSA by DD-oxacillin, 17 (38·6%) by DD-cefoxitin test, and seven (15·9%) by the E-test. In the cefoxitin MIC Strip MRSA test, 19 (43·2%) isolates were resistant. In the oxacillin MIC Strip MRSA test, 18 (40·9%) isolates were resistant and 26 (59·1%) were sensitive, i.e. oxacillin-sensitive MRSA (OS-MRSA) (MIC range 0·25-≤0·25 mg/l). Fifteen out of 26 OS-MRSA (57·7%) belonged to spa-CC 355/595, 78% of which belonged to the largest PFGE clone. Some discrepancies between the phenotypic methods for MRSA identification obtained in this study were caused by large proportion of OS-MRSA. Misidentification of OS-MRSA as MSSA might result in an appearance of highly resistant MRSA in patients treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:25112955

  10. Investigations of sensitivity to antibiotics of salmonella strain species originating from poultry from different epizootiological areas

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    Stošić Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1666 samples were examined, of which 512 samples of parenchymatous organs of dead or deliberately sacrtificed animals, 60 samples of non-hatched fertilized eggs, 202 samples of feces, 652 samples of cloacal smears, 221 samples of smears from walls of maintenance objects, incubator stations, and transport vehicles, 19 samples of beddings and shavings. The samples originated from poultry farms and which were taken to a laboratory immediately on sampling and sown the same day. A total of 104 strains of Salmonella were isolated: 94 strains from samples of parenchymatous organs of dead chicks, 1 strain from non-hatched eggs, 3 strains from feces samples, 1 strain from samples of cloacal smears, 4 strains from samples of surface smears of maintenance objects and transport vehicles, and 1 strain from samples of beddings and shavings. Serological typization established the presence of the following serovarieties: Salmonella Enteritidis 79 strains, Salmonella Hartford 17 strains, Salmonella Typohimurium 5 strains, Salmonella Mbandaka 2 strains, and Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain. We examined the sensitivity of Salmonella strains to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, enrofloxacine, norfloxacine, flumequin, erythromycin, lincospectin, colistin, fluorphenicol, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. In S. Enteritidis strains, no resistence was established to colistin, fluorphenicol and sulphamethoxasole+trimethoprim, in fact, the sensitivity to these antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was 100%. Prevalence resitence of 0.96%, in only one strain, was established for enrofloxacine. A high prevalence resistence of 33.6% was established for neomycin, while prevalence resistence of 3.86% was established for the related aminoglycozide antibiotic gentamycin. The highest prevalence resistance in S.Hartford strains was established for erythromycin, 15.38%, and streptomycin, 7.6%. Resistence of S. Tyohimurium was

  11. The clinical spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of staphylococcal pyodermas in the community and hospital

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    Shireen Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The uncontrolled use of antibiotics has resulted in a relentless spread of multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. There are studies conducted in medical colleges in Chandigarh, Chennai, Mumbai and Vellore comparing pyodermas in the community and hospital setting based on clinical and bacteriological parameters. Aims: This study, conducted over 1½ years from March 2009 to August 2010, aimed at analyzing the clinical spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of community and hospital-associated (HA staphylococcal pyoderma. It also assessed the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA in the community and hospital cohort settings. Subjects and Methods: The study comprised of 200 cases of staphylococcal pyodermas, derived from the community (150 cases and hospital (50 cases. Patients were evaluated based on their clinical presentation; antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical significance between individual attributes between the community and HA staphylococcal pyoderma groups was analyzed using Chi-square test and mean differences using student′s t-test. Results: Factors associated with community-associated (CA pyodermas were young age (P = 0.0021, primary pyodermas, and involvement of extremities, while those with HA pyodermas were middle age, secondary pyodermas, and significantly increased body surface involvement (P = 0.041. Incidence of CA-MRSA was 11.3%, while that of HA-MRSA was 18%. Conclusions: A high level of resistance to first-line drugs such as penicillin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was observed, more so in the hospital strain than in the community strain. S. aureus demonstrated good susceptibility to cephalosporins. Though the two strains of MRSA differed clinically, they showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin and linezolid.

  12. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

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    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  13. A Review of Antibiotic Use in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Bland, Christopher M; Griffin, Brooke; Stover, Kayla R; Eiland, Lea S; McLaughlin, Milena

    2015-11-01

    During pregnancy, untreated sexually transmitted or urinary tract infections are associated with significant morbidity, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion. Approximately one in four women will be prescribed an antibiotic during pregnancy, accounting for nearly 80% of prescription medications in pregnant women. Antibiotic exposures during pregnancy have been associated with both short-term (e.g., congenital abnormalities) and long-term effects (e.g., changes in gut microbiome, asthma, atopic dermatitis) in the newborn. However, it is estimated that only 10% of medications have sufficient data related to safe and effective use in pregnancy. Antibiotics such as beta-lactams, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, clindamycin, and fosfomycin are generally considered safe and effective in pregnancy. Fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are generally avoided in pregnancy. Physiologic changes in pregnancy lead to an increase in glomerular filtration rate, increase in total body volume, and enhanced cardiac output. These changes may lead to pharmacokinetic alterations in antibiotics that require dose adjustment or careful monitoring and assessment. PMID:26598097

  14. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

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    Ali Salah K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  15. Kinase Inhibitors that Increase the Sensitivity of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactam Antibiotics

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    Jay Vornhagen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus are Gram-positive bacteria that are the leading cause of recurrent infections in humans that include pneumonia, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. The emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA has imposed a significant concern in sustained measures of treatment against these infections. Recently, MRSA strains deficient in expression of a serine/threonine kinase (Stk1 or PknB were described to exhibit increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. In this study, we screened a library consisting of 280 drug-like, low-molecular-weight compounds with the ability to inhibit protein kinases for those that increased the sensitivity of wild-type MRSA to β-lactams and then evaluated their toxicity in mice. We report the identification of four kinase inhibitors, the sulfonamides ST085384, ST085404, ST085405, and ST085399 that increased sensitivity of WT MRSA to sub-lethal concentrations of β-lactams. Furthermore, these inhibitors lacked alerting structures commonly associated with toxic effects, and toxicity was not observed with ST085384 or ST085405 in vivo in a murine model. These results suggest that kinase inhibitors may be useful in therapeutic strategies against MRSA infections.

  16. Kinase Inhibitors that Increase the Sensitivity of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornhagen, Jay; Burnside, Kellie; Whidbey, Christopher; Berry, Jessica; Qin, Xuan; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are Gram-positive bacteria that are the leading cause of recurrent infections in humans that include pneumonia, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. The emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) has imposed a significant concern in sustained measures of treatment against these infections. Recently, MRSA strains deficient in expression of a serine/threonine kinase (Stk1 or PknB) were described to exhibit increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. In this study, we screened a library consisting of 280 drug-like, low-molecular-weight compounds with the ability to inhibit protein kinases for those that increased the sensitivity of wild-type MRSA to β-lactams and then evaluated their toxicity in mice. We report the identification of four kinase inhibitors, the sulfonamides ST085384, ST085404, ST085405, and ST085399 that increased sensitivity of WT MRSA to sub-lethal concentrations of β-lactams. Furthermore, these inhibitors lacked alerting structures commonly associated with toxic effects, and toxicity was not observed with ST085384 or ST085405 in vivo in a murine model. These results suggest that kinase inhibitors may be useful in therapeutic strategies against MRSA infections. PMID:26506394

  17. Antibiotic sensitivity profile of bacterial pathogens in postoperative wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutanbala N Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the most common bacterial pathogens responsible for post-operative wound infection and their antibiotic sensitivity profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was carried out in patients of postoperative wound infection. Samples from wound discharge were collected using a sterile swab and studied for identification of isolates by Gram stains and culture growth followed by in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: Out of 183 organisms, 126 (68.85% isolated organisms were gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (26.23%, was the predominant organism. S. aureus was sensitive to rifampicin (89.58%, levofloxacin (60.42%, and vancomycin (54.17%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (83.78%, gatifloxacin (51.35%, and meropenem (51.35%. Escherichia coli was sensitive to levofloxacin (72.41% and ciprofloxacin (62.07%. Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (63.16%, levofloxacin (63.16%, gatifloxacin (63.16%, and linezolid (56.52%. Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (75% and linezolid (62.50. Proteus vulgaris was sensitive to ampicillin+sulbactam (57.14% followed by levofloxacin (50%. Conclusions: There is an alarming increase of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in the emergence of VRSA/VISA, meropenem, and third generation cephalosporin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linezolid showing sensitivity against Gram negative bacteria.

  18. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Blood Isolates of Acinetobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Shareek; Sureshkumar, D; Ramgopalakrishnan; Ramasubramanian, V.; K. A. Ghafur; M. A. Thirunarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter bacterium is one of the major causes of sepsis in ICUs in tertiary care hospitals in India. In this report we describe the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Acinetobacter species isolated from blood over a one year period at a tertiary care hospital. Approach: We retrospectively analyzed the sensitivity pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from blood during the period 1/6/2010 to 31/5/2011. Isolation and identification were performed...

  19. Development of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during two decades of antipseudomonal treatment at the Danish CF Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Giwercman, B; Pedersen, S S;

    1994-01-01

    At the Danish CF Center patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection were treated 3-4 times a year (from 1976) with a 2-week intravenous antipseudomonal course which included preferentially an aminoglycoside and a beta-lactam antibiotic. We investigated the development of antibiotic...... 1991 (100 strains). All the strains were screened and assayed semiquantitatively for beta-lactamase activity by use of nitrocefin. We found a significant (p < 0.005) increase in the MIC values of the P. aeruginosa strains against piperacillin and ceftazidime. However, no significant correlation was...... found between the MIC and the number of antipseudomonal courses of antibiotics. The proportion of resistant in vivo selected P. aeruginosa strains, presumed to be stably derepressed producers of chromosomal beta-lactamase, also increased significantly during the period studied. Our results confirm that...

  20. Investigation of the sensitivity of E. coli strains isolated from domestic animals to antibiotics and hemiotherapeutics in vitro

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    Gavrović Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics is not a modern phenomenon. On the contrary, penicillin resistance in some bacterial strains developed quickly after its introduction into daily practice. At the same time some bacterial strains developed resistance to almost all known antibiotics, vancomycin included. Vancomycin was for a long time the only efficient antibiotic against staphylococcal infections. It is of special concern the fact that antibiotics are in everyday exploitation in agriculture and veterinary clinical practice which use them not only as a mean of therapeutic treatment, but as an additive in animal feedstuffs in order to promote growth and prevent bacterial infections. The same antibiotics are used in human medicine, which is a persistent problem. In such a way it is possible to develop resistance which can be transferred to human pathogenic bacteria via mobile genetic elements. The incidence of resistant bacterial strains increases year after year not only on a local level, but on a global scale, as well. Monitoring of the use of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in the Republic of Serbia is not established as such, our intention was to study a number of bacteria isolated from cattle, pigs, poultry, dogs and cats. At this time we are presenting the results for pathogenic strains of E. coli in order to determine the use of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics of the old and new generations in domestic animals. E. coli sensitivity was investigated with the disc diffusion test for: ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftriaxon, sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and florfenicol. E. coli strains resistant to three or more antibiotics were tested by means of agar dilution method for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The tested E. coli strains resulted

  1. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

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    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  2. Synergistic interaction of eugenol with antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemaiswarya, S; Doble, M

    2009-11-01

    Eugenol, the principal chemical component of clove oil from Eugenia aromatica has been long known for its analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The interaction of the eugenol with ten different hydrophobic and hydrophilic antibiotics was studied against five different Gram negative bacteria. The MIC of the combination was found to decrease by a factor of 5-1000 with respect to their individual MIC. This synergy is because of the membrane damaging nature of eugenol, where 1mM of its concentration is able to damage nearly 50% of the bacterial membrane. Eugenol was also able to enhance the activities of lysozyme, Triton X-100 and SDS in damaging the bacterial cell membrane. The hydrophilic antibiotics such as vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics which have a marginal activity on these gram negative bacteria exhibit an enhanced antibacterial activity when pretreated with eugenol. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to slow down the onset of antibiotic resistance as well as decrease its toxicity. Experiments performed with human blood cells indicated that the concentration of eugenol used for the combination studies were below its cytotoxic values. Pharmacodynamic studies of the combinations need to be performed to decide on the effective dosage. PMID:19540744

  3. The Structural Bases of Antibiotic Resistance in the Clinically Derived Mutant beta-Lactamases TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    Widespread use of {beta}-lactam antibiotics has promoted the evolution of {beta}-lactamase mutant enzymes that can hydrolyze ever newer classes of these drugs. Among the most pernicious mutants are the inhibitor-resistant TEM {beta}-lactamases (IRTs), which elude mechanism-based inhibitors, such as clavulanate. Despite much research on these IRTs, little is known about the structural bases of their action. This has made it difficult to understand how many of the resistance substitutions act as they often occur far from Ser-130. Here, three IRT structures, TEM-30 (R244S), TEM-32 (M69I/M182T), and TEM-34 (M69V), are determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.00, 1.61, and 1.52 {angstrom}, respectively. In TEM-30, the Arg-244 {yields} Ser substitution (7.8 {angstrom} from Ser-130) displaces a conserved water molecule that usually interacts with the {beta}-lactam C3 carboxylate. In TEM-32, the substitution Met-69 {yields} Ile (10 {angstrom} from Ser-130) appears to distort Ser-70, which in turn causes Ser-130 to adopt a new conformation, moving its O{gamma} further away, 2.3 {angstrom} from where the inhibitor would bind. This substitution also destabilizes the enzyme by 1.3 kcal/mol. The Met-182 {yields} Thr substitution (20 {angstrom} from Ser-130) has no effect on enzyme activity but rather restabilizes the enzyme by 2.9 kcal/mol. In TEM-34, the Met-69 {yields} Val substitution similarly leads to a conformational change in Ser-130, this time causing it to hydrogen bond with Lys-73 and Lys-234. This masks the lone pair electrons of Ser-130 O{gamma}, reducing its nucleophilicity for cross-linking. In these three structures, distant substitutions result in accommodations that converge on the same point of action, the local environment of Ser-130. TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the predominant source of resistance to {beta}-lactams, such as the penicillins. TEM-1 and related class A {beta}-lactamases confer resistance by hydrolyzing the {beta}-lactam ring of these antibiotics

  4. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF ADVANCED CASES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations are significant and frequent events in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Majority of these exacerbations are of infectious aetiology, bacteria being responsible for 30-50% of these cases. With not many studies of similar type being conducted in the Indian context, this study was undertaken with the purpose of determining the bacteriology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospitalized patients with advanced disease and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to formulate a cost effective algorithm for antibiotic usage while at the same time reducing the chances of emergence of drug resistance. Sputum sample from a total of 338 patients were send for Gram’s stain and culture sensitivity testing using an array of the commonly used antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 203 (60.1% samples. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 79.8 percent (162/203 cases while the rest were Gram positive. Klebsiella species were the commonest (49.2%; 100/203 Gram negative isolates from the sputum samples. Among the gram negative organisms, Carbapenem had the highest sensitivity (90.2% followed by Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. Linezolid was found to be 100 percent sensitive amongst the Gram positive organisms while both Amoxicillin Clavulanate and Azithromycin showed a rather low sensitivity profile overall. 5.0 percent of the Klebsiella infections were multi drug resistant. It was thereby concluded that either Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin or Piperacillin-Tazobactam for be considered for Gram negative organisms and Linezolid be considered for Gram positive organisms as first line antibiotics in empirical therapy while Carbapenems may be kept as reserve drugs should the first line drugs fail.

  5. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates in a tertiary health institution in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwo Emmanuel Onwubiko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a persistent nosocomial and community acquired pathogen has become a global health concern. It has a remarkable capability of evolving different mechanisms of resistance to most antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study is to establish the incidence of S. aureus in clinical specimens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antibiotics in this locality. METHODS: One hundred and fifty consecutive isolates of S. aureus obtained from various clinical specimens between January and December 2009 sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH were confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was carried out by disc diffusion method. RESULTS: The age group with the highest number of isolates was (0-10yrs while wound infection had the highest frequency of S. aureus isolates (30.7% in the study. Males (62.0% were more infected than females (38.0%. The sensitivity pattern of S. aureus to the following antibiotics; Gentamicin, Amoxycillin/clavulanate, Streptomycin, Cloxacillin, Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Amoxycillin and vancomycin were 92.4%, 63.0%, 44.2%, 35.8%, 52.4%, 61.9%, 15.5%, 31.2%, 7.1%, 78.9%, 76.6%, 100%, 71.4%, 30.7% and 100% respectively. Methicillin resistant isolates were sensitive to Levofloxacin 93.7% and Ofloxacin 68.7%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that the fluoroquinolones are effective in the management of Staphylococcus aureus infections including methicillin resistant strains in this environment.

  6. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    and Hg were less toxic to pigmented bacteria than Cd. Pigmented strains were resistant to antibiotics, particularly at higher concentrations. All the strains, irrespective of their pigments, showed multiple metal and drug resistance...

  7. [L forms of Staphylococcus aureus. Behavior of coagulase, hemolytic and desoxyribonuclease activities and antibiotic sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschiavo, F; Giarrizzo, S

    1977-01-01

    L Forms derived from strains of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, have, on the whole, preserved their DNAsic, haemolitic and coagulastic activities. L. forms showed high resistence to antibiotics acting on the bacterial cell-wall. The sensibility to other antibiotics was, roughly, analogous for the L forms as well as for the bacterial strains ones, with the exception of the clortetraciclin and the diidrostreptomicin, ehich proved to be comparatively more active on the L forms. PMID:614141

  8. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern in blaNDM-1-positive and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Mulla, Summaiya; Charan, Jaykaran; Rajdev, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies published in recent time revealed that many bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae group are multi-antibiotic-resistant because of the production enzymes carbapenemase particularly New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase encoded by gene called blaNDM-1. Looking at public health importance of this issue there is a need for studies at other centers to confirm or refute published findings. Objectives: This study was designed with the aim of exploring antibiotic resistance in Enteroba...

  9. Radiorespirometric testing of antibiotic sensitivity in urinary tract infections: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric method, based on inhibition of 14CO2 release from bacterial metabolism of C-14-labeled glucose, was applied to test the susceptibility of urinary organisms to antibiotics. The testing was also carried out by the routine disc diffusion method after isolation of the organisms. Results of susceptibility to antibiotics could be obtained within 2 to 4 hr by the radiometric technique, compared with the 48 hr required for the disc method

  10. [A comparative study of various evaluation methods of the antibiotic sensitivity of strict anaerobic bacteria of the subgingival flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagate, A; Kone, D; Coulibaly, N T; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2001-09-01

    The study on the sensitiveness of slow-growing anaerobes bacteria to antibiotics is delicate when you consider the technical motives that make it difficult to transpose the standard methods frequently used in microbiological laboratories. The three main methods used to determine susceptibility to antibiotics are: disk-diffusion test, antibiotics containing microdilution plates and ATB ANA (bioMérieux). The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of each of these methods on severe anaerobes bacteria isolated in sub-gingival flora of patients suffering from developing periodontitis (rapidly progressive periodontitis, refractory periodontitis, active stage of adult chronic periodontitis). The observed bacteria are: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Peptostreptococcus micros. Antibiotics used are: ampicilline, amoxicilline, tetracycline, erythromycine, metronidazole. The comparison of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (M.I.C) of each of these methods has permitted to show a strict correlation in the results observed with these three methods, if only the growth of the severe anaerobes bacteria on agar medium does not exceed 72 hours. PMID:11808376

  11. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Blood Isolates of Acinetobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Shareek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter bacterium is one of the major causes of sepsis in ICUs in tertiary care hospitals in India. In this report we describe the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Acinetobacter species isolated from blood over a one year period at a tertiary care hospital. Approach: We retrospectively analyzed the sensitivity pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from blood during the period 1/6/2010 to 31/5/2011. Isolation and identification were performed using the best alert system and VITEK2 respectively. Sensitivities were determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution using VITEK2 -AST cards. Results: The total number of Acinetobacter species isolated during the study period was 72, out of which 57 (79% were A. baumanii, 7 (9.7% were A. Iwofii and 3 (5.2% were A. Junii. One each from A. calcoaceticus, A. ursingii and A. denitrificans were isolated. All of the baumanii isolates were sensitive to polymyxin B and 61.4% were sensitive to tigecycline. Only 25% of the isolates in baumanii group were sensitive to meropenem and imipenem. In the non-baumanii group however, 73% were sensitive to carbapenems. Conclusion: There is a very high incidence of resistance to most antibiotics, including carbapenems. All of the Acinetobacter isolates tested are sensitive to polymyxin B. Tigecycline is the only other drug with reasonable susceptibilities, but this drug is not recommended for primary bacteriemias. If Acinetobacter sepsis is suspected, empiric therapy with polymyxins, followed by de-escalation after sensitivity results are back, is advisable.

  12. Species distribution and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from various clinical specimens

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    Mohan U

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 192 strains of Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS showed that Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species, 158 (82.29% isolated from all clinical specimens followed by S. saprophyticus (30, 15.62% isolated mainly from urine. Slime production was exhibited by 77 (48.7% strains of S. epidermidis and 8 (26.6% of S. saprophyticus and the difference in the slime producing activity was statistically significant (p<0.005. Antibiotic susceptibility testing against 15 commonly used antibiotics showed multidrug resistance with more than 90% resistance to penicillin, more than 50% to cephalexin and ciprofloxacin and more than 20% to methicillin, thus, highlighting the importance of species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing for clinical isolates of CONS.

  13. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae/Staphylococcaceae isolates from artisanal raw milk cheeses, and potential implications on cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-Otero, C; Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility against 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated in isolates of the genera Lactococcus (46 isolates), Leuconostoc (22), Lactobacillus (19), Staphylococcus (8), Enterococcus (7), and Microccoccus/Kocuria (5) obtained from the predominant microflora of nonrecent and recent types of artisanal raw cow's milk cheeses. Beta-lactams showed broad activity against all genera, although leuconostocs and lactobacilli were highly resistant to oxacillin (80% to 95.5%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was frequent for lactococci and enterococci (particularly for streptomycin), whereas lower rates of resistance were detected for lactobacilli and leuconostocs. Technologically interesting traits for the food industry were distributed among isolates that showed different degrees of resistance to common antibiotics. However, isolates showing resistance to less than 2 antibiotics were mainly those with properties of greatest technological interest (acidifying activity, proteolytic/lipolytic activities, or diacetyl production). PMID:19723213

  14. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco‐2 cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics can act as signal molecules and affect bacterial gene expression, physiology and virulence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations alter gene expression and physiology of Listeria monocytogenes. Using an agar‐based screening assay with...... promoter fusions, 14 of 16 antibiotics induced or repressed expression of one or more stress and/or virulence genes. Despite ampicillin‐induced up‐regulation of PinlA‐lacZ expression, Caco‐2 cell invasion was not affected. Subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and tetracycline caused up‐ and down......‐regulation of stress response genes, respectively, but both antibiotics caused increased sensitivity to acid stress. Six combinations of gene‐antibiotic were quantified in broth cultures and five of the six resulted in the same expression pattern as the agar‐based assay. Antibiotics affect virulence and...

  15. Attitudes and behaviors of Family Physicians regarding use of antibiotics

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    Selma Çakır

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobials are the most widely used drug groups and antibiotic resistance due to irrational antimicrobial usage is a major problem in the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate attitudes of family physicians antimicrobial prescribing.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in November 2006 in Bolu and Duzce provinces where the first family physician practices were initiated in Turkey. The records of family physicians were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ data, social security institution of the patients, the diagnosis and prescribed antibiotics, duration, dosage and routes of antibiotic administration were recorded.Results: A total of 4,497 patients were included in the study consisting of 1,752 (39% men, and 2,745 (61% women. The mean age of the patients was 36.6 ± 22.7 years. Antimicrobials were prescribed to 1,167 patients (25.9%. Among 1,167 antibiotics, 1,064 (91.2% were administered orally, 77 (6.6% were paranteral and 26 (2.2% were taken through other routes. In 39 (3.3% patients, there was no indication for antimicrobial use. In 103 patients (9.1% from the accurate antibiotic indication group, the choice of the agent was not consistent with the guidelines. In 273 patients (23.4% on antimicrobial therapy, duration of the antibiotic was inappropriate. The most common indication of the antibiotic prescription was tonsillopharyngitis and the most prescribed antibiotics for this diagnosis were beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors.Conclusions: In conclusion, there is still considerable overuse of antibiotics by primary care patients, especially the ones suffering respiratory tract infections. Educational interventions on antimicrobial use could be useful. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(2: 53-57

  16. Intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A.

    2001-05-01

    I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy has become the mainstay of antibiotic therapy for the majority of patients. I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is inappropriate for critically ill patients who require i.v. antibiotic therapy and should not be considered in patients who have the inability to absorb drugs. These exceptions constitute a very small percentage of hospitalized patients for which i.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is ideal. I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is best achieved with antibiotics that have high bioavailability that result in the same blood and tissue concentrations of antibiotic as their intravenous counterpart and have few gastrointestinal side effects. Antibiotics ideal for i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs include chloramphenicol, clindamycin, metronidazole, TMP-SMX, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, doxycycline, minocycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and linezolid. Antibiotics that may be used in i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs that have lower bioavailability but are effective include beta-lactams and macrolides. For antibiotics with no oral formulation, e.g., carbapenems, equivalent coverage must be provided with an oral antibiotic from an unrelated class. Excluding gastrointestinal malabsorptive disorders, disease state is not a determinant of suitability for i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs. I.v.-to-p.o. switch programs should be used in patients with any infectious disease disorder for which there is effective oral therapy and is not limited to certain infectious diseases. Oral absorption of antibiotics is near normal in all but the most critically ill patients. Therefore, even in sick, hospitalized individuals, p.o. therapy is appropriate. I.v-to-p.o. switch therapy has several important advantages including decreasing drug cost (i.v. vs. p.o.), decreasing length of stay permitting earlier discharge and optimal reimbursement and decreasing or eliminating i.v. line phlebitis and sepsis with its cost implications. Clinicians should consider all

  17. Spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria contaminating the upper gut in patients with malabsorption syndrome from the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Subhash R

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various causes of malabsorption syndrome (MAS are associated with intestinal stasis that may cause small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Frequency, nature and antibiotic sensitivity of SIBO in patients with MAS are not well understood. Methods Jejunal aspirates of 50 consecutive patients with MAS were cultured for bacteria and colony counts and antibiotic sensitivity were performed. Twelve patients with irritable bowel syndrome were studied as controls. Results Culture revealed growth of bacteria in 34/50 (68% patients with MAS and 3/12 controls (p 2 to 1015 (median 105 in MAS and 100 to 1000 (median 700 CFU/ml in controls (p 0.003. 21/50 (42% patients had counts ≥105 CFU/ml in MAS and none of controls (p Escherichia coli respectively. The isolated bacteria were more often sensitive to quinolones than to tetracycline (ciprofloxacin: 39/47 and norfloxacin: 34/47 vs. tetracycline 19/47, Conclusions SIBO is common in patients with MAS due to various causes and quinolones may be the preferred treatment. This needs to be proved further by a randomized controlled trial.

  18. A capacitive DNA sensor-based test for simple and sensitive analysis of antibiotic resistance in field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Hedström, Martin; Chen, Dongfeng; Fan, Xiaolong; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-02-15

    To meet urgent needs for solving serious worldwide drug-resistance problems, a sensitive label-free capacitive sensor developed in our group was investigated as a tool to be applied in the field of antibiotic resistance genotyping, for instance the detection of ampicillin resistance gene (ampR). Proof-of-concept data demonstrated its detection sensitivity of pico-molar without any signal amplification step and a dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude. The detection limits of less than 1 pM for the single-stranded ampR oligonucleotide and 4 pM for the double-stranded target can reliably be achieved after only 2.5 min sample reaction. Reusability of the probe-functionalized disposable electrode was investigated by comparing different regeneration solutions; mix of 25 mM NaOH/30% formamide was employed to regenerate the electrode for at least six cycles without significant loss of sensing ability. Assay is performed automatically and result is retrieved in 20 min. The developed sensitive genotyping tool is expected to provide simple, fast and affordable screening for monitoring spread of antibiotic resistances, which is suitable for testing in field setting. PMID:25238540

  19. Sensitivity of ribosomes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocchetta, M; Huber, R.; Cammarano, P

    1996-01-01

    A poly(U)-programmed cell-free system from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus has been developed, and the susceptibility of Aquifex ribosomes to the miscoding-inducing and inhibitory actions of all known classes of aminoglycoside antibiotics has been assayed at temperatures (75 to 80 degrees C) close to the physiological optimum for cell growth. Unlike Thermotoga maritima ribosomes, which are systematically refractory to all known classes of aminoglycoside compounds (P. Londei...

  20. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De Briyne, N.; J. Atkinson; Pokludová, L.; Borriello, S P; S. Price

    2013-01-01

    The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and...

  1. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

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    Justo JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Julie Ann Justo, P Brandon Bookstaver Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Abstract: Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. Keywords: antibiotic lock, biofilm, bacteremia, catheter-related bloodstream infection

  2. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic

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    Roberts Jason A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. Methods DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. Discussion The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  3. Antibiotics prescribing pattern in the in-patient departments of a tertiary care hospital

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    Ambili Remesh

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out in six inpatients departments (Surgery, Orthopedics, ENT, Ophthalmology, Medicine, and Pediatrics of a 550-bed tertiary care hospital in Trivandrum, India for two months (July-August 2012. Institutional Research and Ethics Committee clearance were obtained prior to the study. Materials and Methods: The data were collected in a predesigned performa from the medical case sheets, drug charts, and laboratory investigations of 100 in-patients. The enrolled patients were observed from admission till discharge. Descriptive statistics were applied to the collected data and analyzed using Microsoft Excel software. Results: The mean duration of hospitalization among the study population was 5.48 (±4.28 days. Of the 410 medicines prescribed, antibiotics contributed 151 (36.8%. They were mostly indicated for respiratory infections, and the most common antibiotic was Beta-lactams (91 (60.2%. Interestingly, 89 antibiotics (60% were administered as injections. About 70 (46% of the antibiotics were prescribed without any combinations. The adherences to World Health Organization′s essential medicines list were 122 (81%. A total of seven adverse drug reactions were reported in the current study. Of which, none were serious, and five (70% were cutaneous reactions. Conclusions: Of the 100 patients analyzed from six in-patient departments, it was observed that the hospital physicians prescribed antibiotics more rationally with no banned drugs and less newer drugs. Rational prescribing of antibiotics would help avoid polypharmacy and prevent drug resistances.

  4. Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity of the Causative Organisms of Sub-clinical Mastitis in Sheep and Goats

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    Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1,5, Md. Sabbir Ahamed2, Md. Shahin Alam1, Md. Masudur Rahman3, Tazminaz Sultana4, Yoon-Seok Roh5 and Bumseok Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate and identify organisms responsible for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in goats and sheep for the determination of point prevalence of SCM and antibiotic sensitivity of the identified organisms. For this purpose 50 each of lactating sheep and goats were examined with the commercially available Leucocytest® SCM detection kit. It was found that 4 and 36% sheep and goats suffered from SCM, respective. The prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM was 4 and 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. Milk samples were collected individually from sheep and goats with SCM and were cultured in different media including nutrient agar, blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar. The bacteria were further characterized by biochemical tests. In both goats and sheep, the organisms responsible for SCM were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The organisms were found most sensitive to gentamicin (Gn. After Gn treatment to goats and sheep with SCM, total bacterial counts decreased and milk production significantly increased compared to levels prior to treatment. It is suggested from the study that early detection of SCM and treatment with proper antibiotics can control SCM in goats and sheep.

  5. One year surveillance of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of different antibiotics on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli with comparison of resistance against different antibiotics in four major cities in Bangladesh

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    Shamema Nasrin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of study was to provide supportive implications for proper treatment of E. coli induced infections and related complications regarding antibiotic resistance. Methods: Total 600 isolates of E. coli from four major cities of Bangladesh were included in studies which were isolated from clinical diagnostic facilities in Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi and Khulna. The antimicrobial sensitivity test of each E. coli isolate to 16 antimicrobial agents was carried out by the Kirby-Bauser disc diffusion method. Results: In the present investigation, the most effective antimicrobial against E. coli was found to be antibiotics of Carbapenem group; Doripenem 98.67% sensitive in Dhaka and Chittagong, 100% sensitive at Rajshahi and Khulna, Meropenem 89.33, 92.67, 95.33 and 97.33%, Imipenem 84.00, 86.00, 95.33 and 97.33 in Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi and Khulna respectively. Apart from these third generation antibiotics like Cefixime 80.00% (D, 78.67% (C,78.00% (R, 82.00% (K and Ceftriaxone 78.00% (D, 76.67(C, 65.33(R, 66.67(K were shown satisfactory amount of sensitivity against E. Coli. Our research reveals that in Bangladesh commonly used conventional older, common, cheaper antibiotics used against E. coli were shown alarming rate of resistance to E. coli strains. Among them Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, Cloxacillin and Nalidixic Acid showed more than 80% resistance in most of the areas. Most widely used antibiotic Ciprofloxacin has become 39.99 to 49.99% resistant. Conclusion: These findings suggest urgent need for creating greater public awareness about antibiotic. It is also important that healthcare providers effectively communicate with their patients, to improve treatment compliance and health outcomes. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 607-612

  6. Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns and Molecular Typing of Shigella sonnei Strains Using ERIC-PCR.

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigella sonnei is considered as a major cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries. Iran is one of the endemic areas of shigellosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility and genetic relatedness of S. sonnei strains isolated from pediatric patients in Tehran, Iran.The study included all S. sonnei strains isolated from pediatric patients with diarrhea admitted to several hospitals in Tehran, Iran, during 2008-2010. Shigella spp. strains were recovered from patients using standard microbiological methods. S. sonnei strains were further studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC - PCR analysis.Eighty nine Shigella isolates were isolated. S. sonnei was themost prevalent Shigella species (60.7% followed by, S. flexneri (31.5%. Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns (R1-R11 were identified among S. sonnei isolates. The majority of the strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftizoxime and chloramphenicol. All strains were typable by ERIC-PCR. Five ERIC-PCR patterns (E1-E5 were found among S. sonnei isolates; however the half of the isolates was clustered in E4 pattern.The antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among S. sonnei strains. Moreover, a predominant clone or limited clones of S. sonnei were responsible for shigellosis caused by this Shigella species in pediatric patients in Tehran, Iran.

  7. A novel strategy to improve the sensitivity of antibiotics determination based on bioelectrocatalysis at molecularly imprinted polymer film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun

    2015-11-15

    A new strategy for the sensitive detection of kanamycin (KA) and other antibiotics based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and bioelectrocatalysis was developed in the present study. The KA-polypyrrole MIP films were electropolymerized on the surface of pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes, with pyrrole (PY) serving as the monomer and KA as the template. Because KA is electro-inactive, electroactive K3[Fe(CN)6] was used as the probe in the cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements. The difference of the CV reduction peaks of K3[Fe(CN)6] at electrodes between the MIP films after KA removal and KA-rebinding MIP films could thus be used to determine KA quantitatively. When horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2 were added into the testing solution, the detection sensitivity of the system was greatly amplified because the electrochemical reduction of H2O2 could be catalyzed by HRP and mediated by K3[Fe(CN)6]. With the bioelectrocatalysis amplification, the limit of detection (LOD) for KA fell as low as 28 nM, approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that for the MIP films in the absence of enzymatic catalysis. The strategy demonstrated the generality. Not only KA but also other antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline (OTC), could be determined by this method. More significantly, in addition to the K3[Fe(CN)6]-HRP-H2O2 system, other bioelectrocatalysis systems, such as Fc(COOH)2-GOD-glucose (Fc(COOH)2=ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, GOD=glucose oxidase), could also be used to amplify the CV signal and realize the sensitive detection of KA for the MIP film system, thereby illustrating the great potential and prospects of the strategy. PMID:26079673

  8. Crystal Structures of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 From Penicillin-Susceptible And -Resistant Strains of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Reveal An Unexpectedly Subtle Mechanism for Antibiotic Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, A.J.; Tomberg, J.; Deacon, A.M.; Nicholas, R.A.; Davies, C.

    2009-05-21

    Penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) from N. gonorrhoeae is the major molecular target for {beta}-lactam antibiotics used to treat gonococcal infections. PBP2 from penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae harbors an aspartate insertion after position 345 (Asp-345a) and 4-8 additional mutations, but how these alter the architecture of the protein is unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-susceptible strain FA19, which shows that the likely effect of Asp-345a is to alter a hydrogen-bonding network involving Asp-346 and the SXN triad at the active site. We have also solved the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-resistant strain FA6140 that contains four mutations near the C terminus of the protein. Although these mutations lower the second order rate of acylation for penicillin by 5-fold relative to wild type, comparison of the two structures shows only minor structural differences, with the positions of the conserved residues in the active site essentially the same in both. Kinetic analyses indicate that two mutations, P551S and F504L, are mainly responsible for the decrease in acylation rate. Melting curves show that the four mutations lower the thermal stability of the enzyme. Overall, these data suggest that the molecular mechanism underlying antibiotic resistance contributed by the four mutations is subtle and involves a small but measurable disordering of residues in the active site region that either restricts the binding of antibiotic or impedes conformational changes that are required for acylation by {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  9. Febrile neutropenia in paediatric peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, in vitro sensitivity data and clinical response to empirical antibiotic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the in-vitro sensitivity data and clinical response in order to determine the changes required in empiric antibiotic therapy for management of febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated according to institutional protocol for febrile neutropenia. Empirical antibiotics include Ceftriaxone and Amikacin. In non-responders, changes made included Imipenem and Amikacin, Piperacillin Tazobactum/Tiecoplanin or Vancomycin/Cloxacilin/Ceftazidime. In non-responders, amphotaracin was added until recovery. Out of 52 patients, 5 did not develop any fever; in the remaining 47 patients there were 57 episodes of febrile neutropenia. The mean days of febrile episodes were 4.71 (range 3-8). Fever of unknown origin (FUO) occurred in 31 (54.3%) episodes. Microbiologically documented infection (MDI) occurred in 17 (29.8%) episodes of fever. Clinically documented infection (CDI) occurred in 9 (15.7%) episodes. Gram-negative organisms were isolated in 10 while gram-positive organisms in 7. Klebseilla, S. aureus were the most common isolates. Empirical therapy was effective in 12 of the 33 (36%) episodes. Out of 28, 26 (92%) responded to Imipenem/Amikacin as second line therapy while those who received any other second line combination, only 11 out of 22 (50%) showed response. Systemic Amphotericin was used in 4 patients, 2 responded. Infection related mortality rate was 4%. (author)

  10. COMMON ORGANISMS AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF E COLI IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

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    Shanavas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI includes a spectrum of Asymptomatic Bacteruria (ABU, Cystitis, Prostitis and Pyelonephritis. Except in ABU, UTI is represented by symptomatic disease that warrants antimicrobial therapy. 1 Many of the studies have shown increasing antibiotic resistance to these agents. This study consists of a retrospective observational study of culture and sensitivity of 150 urinary samples, collected from patients who presented with symptoms of UTI, in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Northern Kerala, irrespective of their age and sex for a period of six months from June 2015 to November 2015. These results are then analyzed to find common organisms causing UTI in different age groups in either sex and their respective antibiotic resistance are noted. Out of 150 urinary samples 69.34% were sterile, while 30.66% were culture positive. Among the culture positive patients sex distribution was almost equal, with a slight female predominance, having a contribution of 54.35% females and 45.65% males. The most common organism was found to be E.coli, which contributed more than 50 per cent of total culture positivity (54.35%. Others include Staphylococci, Klebsiella Pnuemoniae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas, Enterococci, Candida Albicans etc. Collateral damage is an ecological adverse effect that resist the use of a highly efficacious drug to be considered as first line agent. Our study shows that drugs causing minimal collateral damages like Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin can be used as first line agent for treatment of UTI.

  11. False-positive serum and bronchoalveolar lavage Aspergillus galactomannan assays caused by different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Niyompattama, Anuchit; Teosirimongkol, Chalermporn; Sriwanichrak, Kanchana

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to identify false-positive serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid galactomannan (GM) tests caused by various antibiotics commonly used in general practice. Serum and BAL samples from patients who did not have the diagnostic criteria of invasive aspergillosis and received different antibiotics were prospectively analyzed for GM. Serum and BAL samples were also collected from patients who did not receive antibiotics. At the cut-off index of >or=0.5, false-positive serum results were found in patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, and cefoperazone-sulbactam (26.7%, 58.3%, 14.3%, and 66.7%, respectively). Fungal colonization in BAL samples had a higher BAL GM than those without fungal colonization. In 71 patients who had a negative BAL culture for fungi, at the cut-off value of >or=1.0, false-positive BAL fluid results were found in patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanate (27.3%), piperacillin-tazobactam (50%), cefepime (16.7%), carbapenem (45.5%), and ceftriaxone (45.5%). False-positive serum and BAL GM assays were also detected in patients who did not receive any antibiotics. In summary, this study demonstrates the false-positive GM levels in serum and BAL caused by beta-lactam antibiotics that are commonly used in general practice. Physicians should be aware of this possible interference. PMID:20192889

  12. Health risks associated with the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in greywater

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    Juan Moretton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal and disposal of waste from domestic activities is a major health problem in densely populated urban areas. In many areas of Greater Buenos Aires, greywater is disposed in open ditches and risk potential of this has not been adequately quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and its resistance profile present in raw greywater obtained from a channel located in the area of Ingeniero Budge Buenos Aires Province. Thus, the prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in greywater, their typing, and resistance to other antibiotics were determined. The prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Of all the antibiotics tested, the highest prevalence of resistant heterotrophic bacteria was detected with cephalothin (19% and ampicillin (8%. With regard to Gram-negative bacteria, the highest prevalence of resistance was given by coliforms ampicillin (34% and cephalothin (17%. A total of 38% of enterococci with low level resistance to vancomycin was detected. The multiresistant isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These results indicate that greywater can be considered as a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, thus increasing their health risk.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Three Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria From Fermented Fish Product, Budu

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    Liasi, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the fermented food product, Budu, were identified as genus lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei LA17, Lactobacillus plantarum LA22 and L. paracasei LA02, and the highest population was Lb. paracasei LA02. The antibacterial agent produced by the isolates inhibited the growth of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity test to 18 different types of antibiotic were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. Inhibition zone diameter was measured and calculated from the means of five determinations and expressed in terms of resistance or susceptibility. All the LAB isolates were resistant to colestin sulphate, streptomycin, amikacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, mecillinam, sulphanethoxazole/ trimethoprim, kanamycin, neomycin, bacitracin and gentamycin but susceptible to erythromycin, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin and nitrofurantion.

  14. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik Torkil; Zinn, Christina Scheel; Rosdahl, Vibeke Thamdrup

    2004-01-01

    usage of therapeutical subgroups of antimicrobials varied significantly between hospitals. A positive correlation was found between S. aureus resistance to methicillin (MRSA) and consumption of beta-lactam combinations, between resistance to quinolones and consumption of beta-lactam combinations and...... carbapenems and resistance to aminoglycosides and consumption of beta-lactam combinations. The consumption of beta-lactamase-sensitive antibiotics was negatively correlated to resistance to methicillin, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. Usage of the different antimicrobial therapeutical subgroups was also...... correlated. Consumption of beta-lactamase-sensitive antibiotics (penicillin) was positively correlated to consumption of beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins and negatively correlated to consumption of carbapenems, quinolones, and glycopeptides, whereas consumption of cephalosporins was positively correlated...

  15. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

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    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  16. Rapid and sensitive screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in human urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. This method allowed the injection of 200 μL urine extract. The 200-μL injection volume used in this method increased the absolute sensitivity for target antibiotics in solvent by an average 13.3 times, with a range from 8.4 to 28.5 times, compared with the 10-μL conventional injection volume. A 96-well solid phase extraction procedure was established to eliminate the contamination on the chromatographic column resulting from the large-volume injection and increase the throughput of sample preparation. Fourteen target antibiotics from six common categories (β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicols) were selected as model compounds, and a database containing an additional 74 antibiotics was compiled for posttarget screening. The limit of detection of the target antibiotics, defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 0.04 to 1.99 ng/mL. The mean interday recoveries ranged between 79.6 and 121.3 %, with a relative standard deviation from 2.9 to 18.3 % at three spiking levels of 20 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied in 60 real urine samples from schoolchildren aged 8-11 years, and four target antibiotics (azithromycin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline) and two posttarget antibiotics (sulfadimidine and cefaclor) were found in the urine samples. This method can be used as a large-scale biomonitoring tool for exposure of the human population to antibiotics. PMID:25354887

  17. Investigation of the sensitivity of E. coli strains isolated from domestic animals to antibiotics and hemiotherapeutics in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrović Miloš; Ašanin Ružica; Mišić D.; Jezdimirović Milanka; Žutić M.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is not a modern phenomenon. On the contrary, penicillin resistance in some bacterial strains developed quickly after its introduction into daily practice. At the same time some bacterial strains developed resistance to almost all known antibiotics, vancomycin included. Vancomycin was for a long time the only efficient antibiotic against staphylococcal infections. It is of special concern the fact that antibiotics are in everyday ex...

  18. Antibiotic Sensitivity of Clostridium perfringens Isolated From Faeces in Tabriz, Iran

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    Akhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium that produces at least 16 virulence factors including 12 toxins (α-ν, enterotoxin, hemolysin and neuraminidase, can create variable pathogenic condition, ranging from a food poisoning to life-threatening myonecrosis. Among C. perfringens strains, resistance to the drug choices such as penicillin as well as to alternatives of penicillin like metronidazole and clindamycin has also been observed. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of isolated toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. perfringens strains against common antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, a total of 136 stool specimens were collected. At first, cooked meat medium enrichment method was performed on samples at 45°C. Thereafter, a loopful of the enriched culture was transferred to blood agar and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24-72 hours. Colonies with double zone of hemolysis were identified by different biochemical tests such as phospholipase C (lecithinase test, indole and urease production. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for common antibiotics was determined by Etests (Epsilometer and duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR reaction was performed with specific primers for amplification of cpe (426 bp and plc (283 bp Genes. Results Of 136 stool samples including diarrhea [48] and non-diarrhea [88] ones, 83 (61.02% C. perfringens were cultured. Of these 83, 79 C. perfringens isolates showed the alpha-toxin (phospholipase C production gene by PCR. Respectively, 3 (9.09% and 2 (4.34% cpe genes were present in diarrhea and non-diarrhea samples. Of 79 isolates of C. perfringens, 34 (43.03% cases showed no resistance, 18 (22.78% had one resistance and 27 (34.17% isolates had multiple resistance to imipenem, metronidazole, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and penicillin. Conclusions Periodic evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility for

  19. Antibiotic Sensitivity of Clostridium perfringens Isolated From Faeces in Tabriz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Bidar Asl, Saeid; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Naghili, Behruz; Yeganeh, Fatemeh; Memar, Yousef; Mohammadzadeh, Yalda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium that produces at least 16 virulence factors including 12 toxins (α-ν), enterotoxin, hemolysin and neuraminidase, can create variable pathogenic condition, ranging from a food poisoning to life-threatening myonecrosis. Among C. perfringens strains, resistance to the drug choices such as penicillin as well as to alternatives of penicillin like metronidazole and clindamycin has also been observed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of isolated toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. perfringens strains against common antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, a total of 136 stool specimens were collected. At first, cooked meat medium enrichment method was performed on samples at 45°C. Thereafter, a loopful of the enriched culture was transferred to blood agar and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24-72 hours. Colonies with double zone of hemolysis were identified by different biochemical tests such as phospholipase C (lecithinase) test, indole and urease production. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for common antibiotics was determined by Etests (Epsilometer) and duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) reaction was performed with specific primers for amplification of cpe (426 bp) and plc (283 bp) Genes. Results: Of 136 stool samples including diarrhea [48] and non-diarrhea [88] ones, 83 (61.02%) C. perfringens were cultured. Of these 83, 79 C. perfringens isolates showed the alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) production gene by PCR. Respectively, 3 (9.09%) and 2 (4.34%) cpe genes were present in diarrhea and non-diarrhea samples. Of 79 isolates of C. perfringens, 34 (43.03%) cases showed no resistance, 18 (22.78%) had one resistance and 27 (34.17%) isolates had multiple resistance to imipenem, metronidazole, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and penicillin. Conclusions: Periodic evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility for C

  20. [Sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria to therapeutic agents (Zurich 1984)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, J; Hardegger, U

    1985-12-28

    There are several reports in the literature on resistance of anaerobic bacteria against antimicrobial agents. Therefore, 231 anaerobic strains of various bacterial genera, isolated from clinical specimens during fall 1984, were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents active against anaerobic bacteria. Whereas 23% of the Bacteroides species not belonging to the B. fragilis group were resistant to penicillin, the anaerobic bacteria were still susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin and the nitroimidazoles. The resistance rate against the various new beta-lactam antibiotics was comparable to results of other studies. Due to the increasing resistance it is recommended that the susceptibility of clinically important anaerobes be tested by appropriate techniques. The agar diffusion test must not be used due to unreliable results. Instead, the minimal inhibitory concentration should be determined or the "broth-disk" test performed. PMID:4089587

  1. Whole genome and transcriptome analyses of environmental antibiotic sensitive and multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exposed to waste water and tap water

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Thomas; Armant, Olivier; Bretschneider, Nancy; Hahn, Alexander; Kirchen, Silke; Seifert, Martin; Dötsch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of sensitive and resistant P seudomonas aeruginosa in different aquatic environments depends on genetic capacities and transcriptional regulation. Therefore, an antibiotic-sensitive isolate PA30 and a multi-resistant isolate PA49 originating from waste waters were compared via whole genome and transcriptome Illumina sequencing after exposure to municipal waste water and tap water. A number of different genomic islands (e.g. PAGIs, PAPIs) were identified in the two environmental is...

  2. Analysis of pathogens and drug sensitivity of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly%老年性社区获得性肺炎病原菌及药敏结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爽; 邓旺; 王导新

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the pathogen distribution and antibiotic sensitivity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from the elderly patients in order to provide references for clinical treatment and scientific use of the antibacterial drugs.Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on the results of sputum culture of 165 elderly with CAP in the People’s Hospital of Hechuan District from 2012 to 2014.Results Among the 112 totally-isolated strains of bacteria, the leading 5 bacteria wereKlebsiella pneumoniae (28 strains, 25.0%),Escherichia coli (17 strains, 15.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12 strains, 10.7%),Streptococcus pneumoniae (11 strains, 9.8%), andHaemophilus influenzae (10 strains, 8.9%). The results of drug sensitivity test showed that,K.pneumoniae,E.coli,P. aeruginosa and Str. pneumoniae had good sensitivity to beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitor and imipenem. But most strains ofStre. pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin.Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogenic bacteria in CAP in the elderly. Empirical selection of antibiotics with beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitor compound preparation is more appropriate for the treatment.%目的:分析老年性社区获得性肺炎(CAP)的病原菌分布及药物敏感情况,为临床治疗和科学使用抗菌药物提供数据支持。方法对2012~2014年重庆市合川区人民医院收治的165例老年性CAP患者的痰培养结果进行回顾性统计分析。结果共分离出细菌112株,前5位分别是肺炎克雷伯菌28株(25.0%)、大肠埃希菌17株(15.1%)、铜绿假单胞菌12株(10.7%)、肺炎链球菌11株(9.8%)、流感嗜血菌10株(8.9%)。药敏试验结果显示,肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎链球菌均对β−内酰胺类/β−内酰胺酶抑制剂及亚胺培南有良好敏感性,肺炎链球菌对青霉素耐药率较高。结论老年CAP以革兰阴性杆菌感染为主,在经验选择

  3. Use of antibiotics to treat bacteriuria of pregnancy in the Nordic countries. Which antibiotics are appropriate to treat bacteriuria of pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B

    2001-04-01

    Bacteriuria in pregnancy with or without clinical symptoms is frequent and increases the risk of pyelonephritis, preterm labour, and low birth weight infants. Commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (pivampicillin), amoxicillin, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide are currently associated with a high degree of resistance of the most common pathogen in the urinary tract, Escherichia coli. During the past few decades a number of new and efficient antibacterial antibiotics have been developed. The presumption that a specific drug is safe for both the pregnant woman and the foetus depends on how widely the drug has been used. A recent survey among general practitioners and obstetricians in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden confirmed that the beta-lactam antibiotic pivmecillinam and nitrofurantoin are the most commonly used agents in the treatment of bacteriuria in pregnancy in the Nordic countries. However, a surprisingly high number of physicians reported that they prescribe sulphonamides during the first two trimesters in spite of resistance of E. coli and possible adverse effects on the foetus. PMID:11295409

  4. Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dry milk samples in Mexico: occurrence and antibiotic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Suárez, O R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Fernández, F J; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2013-09-01

    Dry milk is a particular concern in Mexico, as approximately 150,000 metric tons of dry milk are imported every year at a cost of around $250 million. Dry milk is used to make many products, most of which are dairy products widely distributed among the population covered by welfare programs. The purpose of the study described in this article was to determine the presence of Listeria spp. in imported dry milk samples in Mexico, and to determine the sensitivity of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates to different antimicrobial agents. Listeria isolates (7.8% of 550 bacterial isolates) were identified as L. monocytogenes (53.49%), L. innocua (30.23%), L. seeligeri (13.95%), and L. ivanovii (2.33%). L. monocytogenes strains isolated showed multiresistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, dicloxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9%-14%). The results provide additional evidence of the emergence of multiresistant Listeria strains both in nature and in widely consumed dairy products, representing a potential threat to human health. PMID:24073487

  5. Spectrum of Microbial Flora in Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Its Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern in Tertiary Care Hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A Prospective study “Spectrum of Microbial flora in diabetic foot ulcer and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern” was carried out in a tertiary care hospital, Ahmedabad on 125 patients in which 85 were male patients and 40 were female patients. Material and Methods: Swabs samples were collected from the edge and margins of ulcers and organism were identified by gram staining culture and biochemical reactions. Results: Out of 125 specimens 108 specimens showed growth of organisms. Total 157 aerobic organisms were isolated from culture positive specimens. It represents an average of 1.25 organisms per case. Among these organisms, 130 gram negative and 27 gram positive organisms were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.57% was predominant organism followed by Klebsiella spp. (22.29%. Staphylococcus aureus were 12.74% in which Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 55%. Conclusion: incidence of growth was 86.4% in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.57% is most common isolate. Organisms in mixed infections showed multidrug resistance as compared to single isolated strain. Diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial in nature. As the Wagner’s grade increased, the prevalence of isolates also increased. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 354-357

  6. Macrophage adaptation leads to parallel evolution of genetically diverse Escherichia coli small-colony variants with increased fitness in vivo and antibiotic collateral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Ricardo S; Costa, Henrique; Gordo, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Small-colony variants (SCVs) are commonly observed in evolution experiments and clinical isolates, being associated with antibiotic resistance and persistent infections. We recently observed the repeated emergence of Escherichia coli SCVs during adaptation to the interaction with macrophages. To identify the genetic targets underlying the emergence of this clinically relevant morphotype, we performed whole-genome sequencing of independently evolved SCV clones. We uncovered novel mutational targets, not previously associated with SCVs (e.g. cydA, pepP) and observed widespread functional parallelism. All SCV clones had mutations in genes related to the electron-transport chain. As SCVs emerged during adaptation to macrophages, and often show increased antibiotic resistance, we measured SCV fitness inside macrophages and measured their antibiotic resistance profiles. SCVs had a fitness advantage inside macrophages and showed increased aminoglycoside resistance in vitro, but had collateral sensitivity to other antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline). Importantly, we observed similar results in vivo. SCVs had a fitness advantage upon colonization of the mouse gut, which could be tuned by antibiotic treatment: kanamycin (aminoglycoside) increased SCV fitness, but tetracycline strongly reduced it. Our results highlight the power of using experimental evolution as the basis for identifying the causes and consequences of adaptation during host-microbe interactions. PMID:27606007

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of the sensitivity of Yersinia pestis to antibiotics%鼠疫菌对抗生素的敏感性综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏荣杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立鼠疫菌对抗生素敏感性综合评价方法,并用该方法就鼠疫菌对6种抗生素的敏感性进行综合评价。方法 通过查阅文献,收集鼠疫菌对抗生素敏感性实验数据,以抗生素对强毒141菌株、弱毒EV76paris菌株和云南分离菌株的抑菌情况,即抑菌环直径作为评价指标,用层次分析法综合评价鼠疫菌对所选6种抗生素(头孢他啶、氨苄青霉素、头孢唑啉、环丙沙星、诺佛沙星、链霉素)的敏感性。结果 鼠疫菌对不同抗生素的敏感性存在差异,鼠疫菌对所选6种抗生素的敏感性由高到低依次为头孢他啶、氨苄青霉素、头孢唑啉、环丙沙星、诺佛沙星、链霉素,综合评分指数分别为1.730 77、1.631 77、1.581 95、1.567 80、1.449 48、0.999 99。结论 运用层次分析法评价鼠疫菌对不同抗生素的敏感性可以取得合理、客观和较为准确的评价结果,可以利用该方法及其评价结果为进一步筛选适宜的鼠疫治疗药物提供参考依据。%Objective To establish a comprehensive evaluation method on sensitivity of Yersinia pestis to different antibiotics, then use the method to evaluate the sensitivity of Yersinia pestis to 6 antibiotics. Methods Through literature review, related articles were consulted and sensitivity testing data to antibiotics were collected,and the sensitivity of Yersinia pestis to the 6 antibiotics was assessed with analytic hierarchy process. The sensitivity of Yersinia pestis to the 6 antibiotics(Cefotaxime penicillin, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ciprofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin Buddha's, and Streptomycin) was evaluated comprehensively with analytic hierarchy process from the antibacterial situation of the antibiotics to Yersinia pestis of 141 strains of virulent, attenuated EV76paris strains and isolates of the bacteria of Yunnan. Results The evaluation showed that the sensitivity of Yersinia pestis to antibiotics was different. The rank

  8. Which antibiotics are appropriate for treating bacteriuria in pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B

    2000-09-01

    Bacteriuria in pregnancy, with or without clinical symptoms, is frequent. If left untreated, it can in 20-30% of cases lead to acute pyelonephritis, which is a serious threat to the mother and fetus, increasing the risk of preterm labour and low birthweight infants. This paper is a review of the literature concerning antibacterial treatment of bacteriuria in pregnancy. It is crucial to ensure that drugs to be used in pregnancy are safe and effective. Established first-line drugs such as ampicillin (pivampicillin) and amoxycillin, and other commonly used treatments such as trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, are associated with a high degree of resistance in Escherichia coli, the most common pathogen in the urinary tract. A recent survey of physicians in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden confirms that beta-lactam antibiotics (particularly pivmecillinam) and nitrofurantoin are the drugs of first choice in the treatment of bacteriuria in pregnancy in the Nordic countries. No teratogenic effects have been associated with these agents. In contrast to nitrofurantoin, pivmecillinam is also efficient against pyelonephritis. In spite of resistance in E. coli and possible adverse effects on the fetus, many physicians still prescribe sulphonamides during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. PMID:11051621

  9. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination. PMID:25479100

  10. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract. PMID:24903814

  11. Antibiotic and metal resistance in a ST395 Pseudomonas aeruginosa environmental isolate: A genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro; Tacão, Marta; Alves, Artur; Henriques, Isabel

    2016-09-15

    We analyzed the resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa E67, an epiphytic isolate from a metal-contaminated estuary. The aim was to identify genetic determinants of resistance to antibiotics and metals, assessing possible co-selection mechanisms. Identification was based on phylogenetic analysis and average nucleotide identity value calculation. MLST affiliated E67 to ST395, previously described as a high-risk clone. Genome analysis allowed identifying genes probably involved in resistance to antibiotics (e.g. beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol) and metals (e.g. mercury and copper), consistent with resistance phenotypes. Several genes associated with efflux systems, as well as genetic determinants contributing to gene motility, were identified. Pseudomonas aeruginosa E67 possesses an arsenal of resistance determinants, probably contributing to adaptation to a polluted ecosystem. Association to mobile structures highlights the role of these platforms in multi-drug resistance. Physical links between metal and antibiotic resistance genes were not identified, suggesting a predominance of cross-resistance associated with multidrug efflux pumps. PMID:27371958

  12. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  13. Healthy Farms in Slovakia: Antibiotic Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Chicken and Ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was determine of antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of chicken and ram from two different conventional breeding from Slovakia. For the antibiotic susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used. A tested bacterium, Escherichia coli was exposed against four antibiotics: amikacin, gentamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. For the identification of this strain, we used Chromogenic coliform agar, Triple sugar iron agar and biochemical test (ENTEROtest 24. For genetic identification of Escherichia coli Step One Real Time PCR with using special primer was used. Was determined that antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli was not found. Was found susceptibility in all cases of Escherichia coli isolates. Antibiotic resistance is a biological danger. Bacteria, which we study, are considered to reservoirs of resistant genes and they are facultative and obligate pathogens. If these pathogen bacteria cause diseases those these diseases are difficult to treat. In this study, we determined that we have healthy farms in Slovakia too. In this farm antibiotic was not use and we do not determined any resistance to antibiotics, which we used in experiment.

  14. The global problem of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootz, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Amid the recent attention justly focused on the potential problem of microbial sources for weapons of bioterrorism, it is also apparent that human pathogens frequently isolated from infections in patients from community and hospital sources have been growing more resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Much of the growth of multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens can be contributed to the overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobial products. However, an equally troubling and often overlooked component of the problem involves the elegant ways in which pathogenic bacteria continually evolve complex genetic systems for acquiring and regulating an endless array of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Efforts to develop new antimicrobials have over the past two decades been woefully behind the rapid evolution of resistance genes developing among both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Several new agents that are best suited for use in the hospital environment have been developed to combat staphylococci resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials following acquisition of the mecA gene. However, the dramatic spread in the US of the now common community strain of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 has shifted the therapeutic need for new antibiotics useful against MRSA to the community. As the pharmaceutical industry focused on discovering new agents for use against MRSA, hospitals in many parts of the world have seen the emergence of gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae that are clinically resistant to almost all available antimicrobials. Such MDR isolates usually contain multiple-resistance determinants, including loss of outer membrane porins via gene inactivation by chromosomally encoded insertion sequences, up-regulation of inate efflux pumps, as well as acquisition of drug-inactivating enzymes whose genes are encoded on self-transmissible plasmids, integrons, and complex transposable elements

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial strains isolated from newborn infants Sensibilidad a los antibióticos de bacterias aisladas de neonatos hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Uribe; Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1990-01-01

    Eighty nine bacterial strains isolated from newborn infants hospitalized at a Special Care Unit in Medellin, Colombia, were studied. The sensitivity of each one was determined by the Minimallnhibitory Concentration method against 21 antibiotics; a high frequency of resistance was found toward gentamycin, netilmycin, oxacillin, penicillin G and ampicillin, that are often employed as initial therapy in newborn inf...

  16. Study on isolation, molecular detection of virulence gene and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from milk and milk products

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. Brahmbhatt; H. C. Thaker; J. B. Nayak; P. K. Virpari

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate pathogenic E. coli from milk and various milk products, detection of virulence gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Altogether 250 milk and various milk products samples consisting of raw milk (50), cheese (50), ice-cream (50), mawa (50) and dahi (50) were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city, under aseptic precautions. For the enrichment of th...

  17. Aquaculture changes the profile of antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic element associated genes in Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muziasari, Windi I; Pärnänen, Katariina; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Karkman, Antti; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture and they can change the environmental resistome by increasing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Sediment samples were collected from two fish farms located in the Northern Baltic Sea, Finland, and from a site outside the farms (control). The sediment resistome was assessed by using a highly parallel qPCR array containing 295 primer sets to detect ARGs, mobile genetic elements and the 16S rRNA gene. The fish farm resistomes were enriched in transposon and integron associated genes and in ARGs encoding resistance to antibiotics which had been used to treat fish at the farms. Aminoglycoside resistance genes were also enriched in the farm sediments despite the farms not having used aminoglycosides. In contrast, the total relative abundance values of ARGs were higher in the control sediment resistome and they were mainly genes encoding efflux pumps followed by beta-lactam resistance genes, which are found intrinsically in many bacteria. This suggests that there is a natural Baltic sediment resistome. The resistome associated with fish farms can be from native ARGs enriched by antibiotic use at the farms and/or from ARGs and mobile elements that have been introduced by fish farming. PMID:26976842

  18. A multiple antibiotic and serum resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae MB45 having novel dfrA30, is sensitive to ZnO QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Pinak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe a novel trimethoprim resistance gene cassette, designated dfrA30, within a class 1 integron in a facultatively oligotrophic, multiple antibiotic and human serum resistant test strain, MB45, in a population of oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the river Mahananda; and to test the efficiency of surface bound acetate on zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs as bactericidal agent on MB45. Methods Diluted Luria broth/Agar (10-3 media was used to cultivate the oligotrophic bacteria from water sample. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were selected by employing replica plate method. A rapid assay was performed to determine the sensitivity/resistance of the test strain to human serum. Variable region of class 1 integron was cloned, sequenced and the expression of gene coding for antibiotic resistance was done in Escherichia coli JM 109. Identity of culture was determined by biochemical phenotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on representative trimethoprim resistance-mediating DfrA proteins retrieved from GenBank. Growth kinetic studies for the strain MB45 were performed in presence of varied concentrations of ZnO QDs. Results and conclusions The facultatively oligotrophic strain, MB45, resistant to human serum and ten antibiotics trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, kanamycin and streptomycin, has been identified as a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A novel dfr gene, designated as dfrA30, found integrated in class 1 integron was responsible for resistance to trimethoprim in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MB45. The growth of wild strain MB45 was 100% arrested at 500 mg/L concentration of ZnO QDs. To our knowledge this is the first report on application of ZnO quantum dots to kill multiple antibiotics and serum resistant K. pneumoniae strain.

  19. Occurrence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in river biofilms after wastewater inputs in small rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proia, Lorenzo; von Schiller, Daniel; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Sabater, Sergi; Borrego, Carles M; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and their subsequent release into the environment may have direct consequences for autochthonous bacterial communities, especially in freshwater ecosystems. In small streams and rivers, local inputs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may become important sources of organic matter, nutrients and emerging pollutants, such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we evaluated the effect of WWTP effluents as a source of ARGs in river biofilms. The prevalence of genes conferring resistance to main antibiotic families, such as beta-lactams (blaCTX-M), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), sulfonamides (sul I), and macrolides (ermB), was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in biofilm samples collected upstream and downstream WWTPs discharge points in four low-order streams. Our results showed that the WWTP effluents strongly modified the hydrology, physico-chemistry and biological characteristics of the receiving streams and favoured the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance in microbial benthic communities. It was also shown that the magnitude of effects depended on the relative contribution of each WWTP to the receiving system. Specifically, low concentrations of ARGs were detected at sites located upstream of the WWTPs, while a significant increase of their concentrations was observed in biofilms collected downstream of the WWTP discharge points (particularly ermB and sul I genes). These findings suggest that WWTP discharges may favour the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance among streambed biofilms. The present study also showed that the presence of ARGs in biofilms was noticeable far downstream of the WWTP discharge (up to 1 km). It is therefore reasonable to assume that biofilms may represent an ideal setting for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants and thus be considered suitable biological indicators of anthropogenic pollution by active

  20. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michèle; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains (72%) and many of the Enterobacteriaceae (20%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. Singly nalidixic acid-resistant strains were frequent regardless of the sampling site for Aeromonas, whereas they were more common upstream from the discharge for enterobacteria. The most common resistances to antibiotics other than quinolones were to tetracycline (24.3%) and beta-lactams (20.5%) for Enterobacteriaceae and to tetracycline (27.5%) and co-trimoxazole (26.6%) for Aeromonas. The rates of these antibiotic resistances increased downstream from the discharge at similar degrees for the two bacterial groups; it remained at high levels for enterobacteria but decreased along the 30-km study zone for Aeromonas. Genetic analysis of representative strains demonstrated that these resistances were mostly (enterobacteria) or exclusively (Aeromonas) chromosomally mediated. Moreover, a reference strain of Aeromonas caviae (CIP 7616) could not be transformed with conjugative R plasmids of enterobacteria. Thus, the urban effluent resulted in an increase of the rates of resistance to antibiotics other than quinolones in the riverine bacterial populations, despite limited genetic exchanges between enterobacteria and Aeromonas. Quinolone resistance probably was selected by heavy antibiotic discharges of unknown origin upstream from the urban effluent. PMID:10618213

  1. Oral streptococcal strains isolated from odontogenic infections and their susceptibility to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancescu, Gabriela; Dumitriu, Silvia; Bancescu, Adrian; Pana, Marina; Andrei, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify at species level and to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility of oral streptococcal strains isolated from 100 pus samples collected from Romanian patients with different odontogenic infections. The isolates were identified at species level using the Rapid ID 32 STREP system and their susceptibility was testing by the Etest, against: penicillin G, ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. For the investigation of erythromycin resistance phenotype the disk diffusion test was used. The isolates belonged to several species, with Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis predominating. Reduced susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics was found only among the isolates belonging to S. mitis and S. sanguinis groups. Resistance to erythromycin was detected among all species, except for: S. constellatus, S. intermedius and S. gordonii, and the M phenotype was established, while resistance to tetracycline was detected within all species but S. gordonii. In contrast, clindamycin was fully active. As most odontogenic infections are mixed infections, often involving strictly anaerobic bacteria, which are frequently beta-lactamase producers, the association of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor, like Amoxiclav, is recommended when the antimicrobial treatment is necessary. PMID:17438917

  2. Dual Recognition Strategy for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Bacteria Using Aptamer-Coated Magnetic Beads and Antibiotic-Capped Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Yu, Mengqun; Fu, Fei; Han, Weiye; Li, Gan; Xie, Jianping; Song, Yang; Swihart, Mark T; Song, Erqun

    2016-01-01

    Food poisoning and infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are serious public health concerns. A method of specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of such bacteria is essential and important. This study presents a strategy that combines aptamer and antibiotic-based dual recognition units with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection to achieve specific and sensitive quantification of SA in authentic specimens and in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria. Aptamer-coated magnetic beads (Apt-MB) were employed for specific capture of SA. Vancomycin-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Van) were prepared by a simple one-step process and used for sensitive quantification of SA in the range of 32-10(8) cfu/mL with the detection limit of 16 cfu/mL via a fluorescence intensity measurement. And using this strategy, about 70 cfu/mL of SA in complex samples (containing 3 × 10(8) cfu/mL of other different contaminated bacteria) could be successfully detected. In comparison to prior studies, the developed strategy here not only simplifies the preparation procedure of the fluorescent probes (AuNCs@Van) to a great extent but also could sensitively quantify SA in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria directly with good accuracy. Moreover, the aptamer and antibiotic used in this strategy are much less expensive and widely available compared to common-used antibodies, making it cost-effective. This general aptamer- and antibiotic-based dual recognition strategy, combined with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection of trace bacteria, shows great potential application in monitoring bacterial food contamination and infectious diseases. PMID:26641108

  3. Antibiotics Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  4. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Mosaferi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  5. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of gram negative bacilli isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients in the intensive care unit

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    Goel Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs are the most frequent infections among patients in Intensive care units (ICUs. Aims: To know the bacterial profile and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the lower respiratory tract isolates from patients admitted to the ICU. Settings and Design: Tertiary care hospital, retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Transtracheal or bronchial aspirates from 207 patients admitted to the ICU were cultured, identified, and antibiotic sensitivity was performed by standard methods. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software was used for calculation of % R of 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: Of 207 specimens, 144 (69.5% were culture positive and 63 (30.4% showed no growth. From 144 culture positives, 161 isolates were recovered, of which 154 (95.6% were Gram negative bacilli (GNB. In 17 (11.0% patients, two isolates per specimen were recovered. The most common GNB in order of frequency were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35%, Acinetobacter baumannii (23.6%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.6%. A very high rate of resistance (80-100% was observed among predominant GNB to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, co-trimoxazole, and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination. Least resistance was noted to meropenem and doxycycline. Conclusion: Nonfermenters are the most common etiological agents of LRTIs in ICU. There is an alarmingly high rate of resistance to cephalosporin and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor group of drugs. Meropenem was found to be the most sensitive drug against all GNB. Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. showed good sensitivity to doxycycline.

  6. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samad Mosaferi; Reza Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mansoor Khakpoor; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Amir Maleksabet; Faezeh Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99)%, (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (3/33%), (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (9/99)% and (6/66)%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  7. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from curry samples and its sensitivity to commercial antibiotics and aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) and Trachyspermum ammi (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanes Gunasegaran; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Kathiresan Sathasivam; Sasidharan Sreenivasan; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To isolate Salmonella from curry samples and to evaluate the drug sensitivity of the food-borne Salmonella and its susceptibility to specific plant extracts. Methods: Salmonella was isolated from the curry samples by standard microbiological methods and was confirmed by biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted by disc diffusion method using commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and penicillin. In addition, the susceptibility of the food-borne Salmonella was also evaluated against the aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) Theaceae (tea leaves) and the Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Apiaceae ( ajwain or omum seeds). Results: Out of fifty curry samples, only seven samples were identified to have Salmonella contamination. The Salmonella isolates showed a significant drug resistance pattern except for kanamycin. The plant extracts showed a considerable antibacterial activity against the isolates, indicating the presence of antimicrobial principle which can be exploited after complete pharmacological investigations. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates the occurrence of Salmonella in the curry samples, and shows significant drug resistance against most of the commercially available antibiotics, except kanamycin. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts against the food-bone Salmonella suggests that dietary including medicinal herbs would be one strategy to manage food borne pathogens.

  8. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván; Barboza-Corona, José E.; A. Arianna Lechuga-Arana; Mauricio Valencia-Posadas; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Carlos Cedillo-Pelaez; Erika A. Martínez-Ortega; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages f...

  9. Combinations of β-lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotics with plectasin are synergistic against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Yanmin Hu

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain the leading killer worldwide which is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. In particular, methicillin-sensitive (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are prevalent and the latter can be difficult to treat. The traditional strategy of novel therapeutic drug development inevitably leads to emergence of resistant strains, rendering the new drugs ineffective. Therefore, rejuvenating the therapeutic potentials of existing antibiotics offers an attractive novel strategy. Plectasin, a defensin antimicrobial peptide, potentiates the activities of other antibiotics such as β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides against MSSA and MRSA. We performed in vitro and in vivo investigations to test against genetically diverse clinical isolates of MSSA (n = 101 and MRSA (n = 115. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by the broth microdilution method. The effects of combining plectasin with β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides were examined using the chequerboard method and time kill curves. A murine neutropenic thigh model and a murine peritoneal infection model were used to test the effect of combination in vivo. Determined by factional inhibitory concentration index (FICI, plectasin in combination with aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin or amikacin displayed synergistic effects in 76-78% of MSSA and MRSA. A similar synergistic response was observed when plectasin was combined with β-lactams (penicillin, amoxicillin or flucloxacillin in 87-89% of MSSA and MRSA. Interestingly, no such interaction was observed when plectasin was paired with vancomycin. Time kill analysis also demonstrated significant synergistic activities when plectasin was combined with amoxicillin, gentamicin or neomycin. In the murine models, plectasin at doses as low as 8 mg/kg augmented the activities of amoxicillin and gentamicin in successful treatment of MSSA and MRSA

  10. Evolution of beta-lactam : Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hæggman, Sara

    2010-01-01

    K. pneumoniae is recognized as a common opportunistic pathogen. Numerous reports have been published worldwide on outbreaks in different healthcare settings. K. pneumoniae is inherently resistant to penicillins, including semisynthetic broad-spectrum penicillins. The drug of choice for empirical treatment is often a cephalosporin. However, the use of cephalosporins is known to select for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. The focus of this thesis ...

  11. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to antibiotic agents at super specialty hospital, Amravati city, India

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    Hrishikesh Sawdekar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is one of the health problems that is caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Information on local pathogens and sensitivity to antimicrobial agent is crucial for successful treatment of wounds. So the present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among patients with wound infection in Suyash super speciality hospital, from January 2012 to December 2013. Wound swab was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed for bacterial isolation and susceptibility testing to Systemic antimicrobial agents. Results: In this study 78 bacterial isolates were recovered from 258 specimens showing an isolation rate of 31.2%. The predominant bacteria isolated from wounds were gram positive staphylococci 36 (46.2%, followed by gram negative streptococci 18 (23.1% gram negative pseudomonas 12 (15.4 % and gram negative proteus 8 (10.4%. The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 68 (87.2% and 10 (12.8% of bacterial isolates; respectively. Conclusion: In the present study most of the pathogens isolated from wound isolates showed high rate of resistance to most commonly used newer antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Therefore, rational use of antibiotics should be practiced. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 433-439

  13. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Early-Late Onset Neonatal Sepsis among Newborns in Shiraz, Iran 2004-2007

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    Mozhgan Shahian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortalityand morbidity, especially in developing countries. The goal ofthe present study was to determine the bacterial etiology andantibiotic sensitivity patterns of neonatal sepsis.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 208neonates admitted with clinically suspected sepsis over a periodof 30 months. Sepsis was divided into early onset sepsis(EOS, ≤5 days of age and late onset sepsis (LOS, >5 days ofage. The two groups were further divided into proven (culturepositive ± abnormal markers and probable (culture negative +abnormal markers subgroups. Blood culture was performedusing Bactec.Results: Of 208 cases, 90 had neonatal sepsis consisting of 38(26 proven presented as EOS and 52 (42 proven as LOS. In theEOS, Escherichia coli (E. coli was the most common organismfollowed by klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus.As for LOS, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS were themost common organism followed by Enterococcus spp, S.aureus. The antibiogram on the isolated E. coli and klebsiella spprevealed a greater combined sensitivity to cefotaxime. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus had 100% and Enterococcusspp 90% sensitivity to vancomycin.Conclusion: Escherichia coli and CONS were the most commonorganisms causing EOS and LOS, respectively. Since theantibiotic sensitivity patterns of these organisms are changed,it seems necessary to conduct bacterial etiology studies and todetermine antibiotic sensitivity patterns periodically in orderto promote the empirical therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 293-298.

  14. Study on isolation, molecular detection of virulence gene and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from milk and milk products

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    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate pathogenic E. coli from milk and various milk products, detection of virulence gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Altogether 250 milk and various milk products samples consisting of raw milk (50, cheese (50, ice-cream (50, mawa (50 and dahi (50 were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city, under aseptic precautions. For the enrichment of the organism from the collected samples, MacConkey broth was used and inoculation was carried out on MacConkey agar and EMB agar. Later on, to confirm the isolates, various biochemical tests such as IMViC test, Urease test were performed. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli was assessed by disk diffusion method. Finally the E. coli isolates were screened for the presence of virulence associated genes by PCR . Results: The prevalence of E. coli was observed 32 % in the samples comprising of milk (52.00%, cheese (28.00%, icecream (20.00%, mawa (44.00%, and dahi (16.00%. Antibiotic sensitivity was recorded high for Co-trimoxazole (100% followed by Gentamicin (96.73%, Trimithoprime (93.47% and Doxycycline hydochloride (92.39%. Least sensitivity was recorded for Ampicillin (8.69%. In this study, out of 80 E. coli isolates, 25 isolates (31.25% were positive for stx genes, of which 7 (8.75% isolates were positive for stx1 gene only, while 12 (15.00% isolates were positive for stx2 gene only and 5 (6.25% isolates were positive for both stx1 and stx2, 7 isolates (8.75% were positive for eaeA gene and all the isolate were negetive for rfb O157 gene. Conclusions: Current study supports the finding that raw milk and various milk products can be regarded as critical source of pathogenic E. coli This explains the need of strict monitoring and surveillance for effective measures of hygiene and sanitary practice during production of milk and various milk

  15. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. PMID:26840514

  16. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Luís; Simões, Catarina; Taborda, Marco; Diogo, Catarina; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs) assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level identification only. The phenotypic identification formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test system. We failed to obtain identification for 14 OTUs, while 32 OTUs comprised organisms producing mixed identifications. Forty-two OTUs covered species not included in the API system databases. The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, the lowest ratio of unidentified results and the highest agreement to the results of 16S rRNA assignments. Isolates affiliated to the Bacilli and Bacteroidia showed the highest antibiotic multi-resistance indices and microorganisms of the Clostridia displayed the most antibiotic sensitive phenotypes. PMID:26512991

  17. [Antibiotic sensitivity to epidemic strains of Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae 1 isolated in Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J D; Niel, L; Talarmin, A; Dubrous, P

    1995-01-01

    Multiresistance or epidemic enteric bacteria to antibiotics greatly complicates treatment, and in some cases prophylaxis, of severe invasive gastroenteritis. During the summer of 1994, two epidemics of diarrhea, one due to Vibrio cholerae and the other to Shigella dysenteriae 1 isolated from the Goma and Bukavu camps was determined by measurement of the Agar Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. Multiresistance to tetracyclins, aminopenicillins, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and nifuroxazide was observed. After intensive treatment mutant forms of both bacteria resistant to nalidixic acid rapidly appeared. Only fluoroquinolones remained active on these mutant strains, but the availability of this agent in Africa is restricted due to cost. The most effective way of preventing resistance is to limit the spread of enteric infections by health education and improvement of hygiene. This can be difficult during wartime. PMID:8830219

  18. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

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    Charles W Knapp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water-column and sediment samples during the dry-and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba. Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated greater ARG transport downstream during the wet season. Water-column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas, the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  19. In vitro activity of fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin and seven other antibiotics against Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Nicodemo A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the level of resistance of S. pneumoniae to beta-lactam and/or macrolides has increased around the world including some countries in South America. Because of this resistance, it is necessary to test the therapeutic alternatives for treating this pathogen, including the newer quinolones. This study was carried out in order to compare the in vitro activity of fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin, to penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cufuroxime sodium, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and clarithromycin, against 300 strains of S. pneumoniae. Of the 300 samples tested, 18.6% were not susceptible to penicillin (56 strains and 7% (21 strains were resistant to the second generation cephalosporin. Among the macrolides, resistance ranged from 6.7% for clarithromycin to 29.6% for azithromycin. Susceptibility to the newer quinolones was 100% including the 56 strains not susceptible to penicillin. Among the 10 antibiotics evaluated, the fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin displayed high levels of in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae.

  20. Sensitive monitoring of penicillin antibiotics in milk and honey treated by stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolith and LC-electrospray MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Chen, Linli; Chen, Meng; Yuan, Dongxing; Nong, Shuyu

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, a convenient and sensitive method for determination of six penicillin antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin) in milk and honey samples was developed. Milk and honey samples were diluted with water, then directly treated by stir bar sorptive extraction based on poly (vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) monolithic material as coating. The analytes were analyzed by LC/ESI- MS/MS. Several extraction parameters including extraction and desorption time, pH value, and ionic strength in sample matrix were investigated in detail. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the calculated detection limits for the target compounds were as low as 0.23-2.66 ng/kg in milk and 0.18-1.42 ng/kg in honey, respectively. Good linearity was obtained for analytes with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.997. Excellent method reproducibility was achieved in terms of intraday and interday precisions, indicated by the RSDs of <5.0 and <10.0%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of penicillin antibiotics residues in different milk and honey samples. PMID:23378165

  1. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  2. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Turkey

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    Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.

  4. Gold nanocluster sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays for visible-light driven photoelectrocatalytic removal of antibiotic tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbiao; Yao, Qiaofeng; Wu, Xuejun; Chen, Tiankai; Ma, Ying; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    It is of technical interest to develop low-cost, high-quality and scalable photosensitizers that could efficiently harvest visible light. Here we design an efficient photoelectrocatalyst by integrating a recently developed gold nanocluster (AuNC, as a photosensitizer) into two types of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs, as substrates to host the photosensitizers). The TNA electrodes used in this study are a short TNA (~0.5 µm in length, synthesized by the anodic oxidation in an aqueous hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution) and a long TNA (~4.5 µm in length, synthesized by the anodic oxidation in a fluorinated ethylene glycol (EG) solution). A number of characterization techniques (e.g., FESEM, XRD and XPS) were applied to study the as-synthesized nanocomposites. In particular, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photochemical measurements suggest that the AuNC-coated TNA electrodes have successfully extended visible light absorption and improved their photochemical performance. Compared with the blank TNAs, the as-designed nanocomposites exhibit an evidently enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance towards tetracycline (an emerging antibiotic contaminant in aquatic environment) decomposition, where the removal efficiency increases from 65% to 81% for AuNC/long-TNA and from 46% to 73% for AuNC/short-TNA electrodes, respectively. The improved performance is largely attributed to the photo-electro-chemical synergetic effect. The photochemical performance of the as-designed nanocomposites could be further improved by fine tuning the size, composition, and surface of the AuNC-based photosensitizers.It is of technical interest to develop low-cost, high-quality and scalable photosensitizers that could efficiently harvest visible light. Here we design an efficient photoelectrocatalyst by integrating a recently developed gold nanocluster (AuNC, as a photosensitizer) into two types of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs, as substrates to host the

  5. Gold nanocluster sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays for visible-light driven photoelectrocatalytic removal of antibiotic tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbiao; Yao, Qiaofeng; Wu, Xuejun; Chen, Tiankai; Ma, Ying; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2016-05-21

    It is of technical interest to develop low-cost, high-quality and scalable photosensitizers that could efficiently harvest visible light. Here we design an efficient photoelectrocatalyst by integrating a recently developed gold nanocluster (AuNC, as a photosensitizer) into two types of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs, as substrates to host the photosensitizers). The TNA electrodes used in this study are a short TNA (∼0.5 µm in length, synthesized by the anodic oxidation in an aqueous hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution) and a long TNA (∼4.5 µm in length, synthesized by the anodic oxidation in a fluorinated ethylene glycol (EG) solution). A number of characterization techniques (e.g., FESEM, XRD and XPS) were applied to study the as-synthesized nanocomposites. In particular, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photochemical measurements suggest that the AuNC-coated TNA electrodes have successfully extended visible light absorption and improved their photochemical performance. Compared with the blank TNAs, the as-designed nanocomposites exhibit an evidently enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance towards tetracycline (an emerging antibiotic contaminant in aquatic environment) decomposition, where the removal efficiency increases from 65% to 81% for AuNC/long-TNA and from 46% to 73% for AuNC/short-TNA electrodes, respectively. The improved performance is largely attributed to the photo-electro-chemical synergetic effect. The photochemical performance of the as-designed nanocomposites could be further improved by fine tuning the size, composition, and surface of the AuNC-based photosensitizers. PMID:27121049

  6. Development of the rapid detection strip for β-lactam antibiotics in dairy%乳品中β-内酰胺类抗生素快速检测试纸条研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓琴; 刘琳; 刘文芳; 崔彦虎; 余厚美

    2012-01-01

    通过β-内酰胺类抗生素-载体蛋白偶联物的合成,单克隆抗体的制备与纯化,胶体金标记物的制备,β-内酰胺类抗生素单克隆抗体-胶体金标记物的制备并冻干到微孔试剂,样品吸收垫和反应膜的制备等研究过程,研制出乳制品中β-内酰胺类抗生素的快速检测试纸条。检测限分别为:青霉素G2μg/L、氨苄青霉素4μg/L、阿莫西林5μg/L、苯唑青霉素/邻青霉素/双青霉素均为6μg/L、头孢洛宁10μg/L、萘夫西林20μg/L、头孢喹肟20μg/L、头孢曲松25μg/L、头孢哌酮50μg/L、头孢噻呋90μg/L;本试纸条特异性好、假阳性率不高于3%、假阴性率为0,检测时间不超过15min,检测限量达到了我国和欧盟的要求,适用于乳品流通环节乳品中β-内酰胺类抗生素残留的检测。%This study developed a strip which can detect β-lactam antibiotics in dairy products quickly,through producing class antibiotic rapid detection strip,through the synthesis of the conjugate of β-lactam antibiotics and carrier protein,preparation and purification of monoclonal antibody,preparation of colloidal gold markers,preparation of the conjugate of β-lactam antibiotics monoclonal antibody and colloidal gold markers,preparation of sample absorption mat and reaction film and any other process.The strip can detect for penicillin G 2μg/L,ampicillin 4μg/L,amoxicillin 5μg/L,oxacillin,cloxacillin,dicloxacillin 6μg/L,cefalonium 10μg/L,nafcillin,20μg/L,cefquinome 20μg/L,ceftriaxone 25μg/L,cefoperazone 50μg/L,ceftiofur 90μg/L,the detection sensitivity was respectively.The false positive rate was less than 3%,and the false negative rate was 0.The detection time was less than 15min.The reported results indicated that the developed assay had the potential to emerge into a screening assay for routine use.For this purpose current work was ongoing to include all beta-lactams for which MRLs were set,to extend the range of matrices and to perform a

  7. Use of a temperature-sensitive, protoplast-forming Neurospora crassa strain for the detection of antifungal antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Selitrennikoff, C P

    1983-01-01

    Protoplasts of the temperature-sensitive osmotic-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa grew and divided as cell wall-less cells when incubated under certain conditions at 37 degrees C. Each protoplast regenerated cell wall and formed a mycelium when the temperature was shifted to 22 degrees C. Cell wall regeneration, but not cell growth, was prevented by the inhibition of cell wall assembly functions. Thus, the inhibition of cell wall regeneration could serve as an indicator of the mode of action of ...

  8. Development and validation of sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of moxifloxacin antibiotic in pure and commercial tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2015-04-01

    New, accurate, sensitive and reliable kinetic spectrophotometric method for the assay of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOXF) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method involves the oxidative coupling reaction of MOXF with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored product with lambda max at 623 and 660 nm. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 623 nm as a function of time. The initial rate and fixed time methods were adopted for constructing the calibration curves. The linearity range was found to be 1.89-40.0 μg mL-1 for initial rate and fixed time methods. The limit of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods is 0.644 and 0.043 μg mL-1, respectively. Molar absorptivity for the method was found to be 0.89 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in tablet dosage form with no interference from the excipients. The results are compared with the official method.

  9. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by microchip capillary electrophoresis along with time-resolved sensitized luminescence of their terbium(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the time-resolved detection of the three fluoroquinolone (FQs) antibiotics ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR) and flumequine (FLU). On addition of terbium(III) ions, the terbium(III)-FQs chelates are formed in-situ in an on-capillary derivatization reaction of a microfluidic system. The laser-induced terbium(III)-sensitized luminescence of the chelates is measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 337/545 nm. The analytes can be separated and quantified within less than 4 min. A solid phase extraction step for analyte preconcentration can be included prior to chelation and microchip capillary electrophoresis. The analytical ranges of the calibration graphs for CIP, ENR and FLU are from 10.6 to 60.0, 10.3 to 51.0, and 11.5 to 58.8 ng mL−1, respectively, and the detection limits are 3.2, 3.1 and 3.6 ng mL−1, respectively. The precision was established at two concentration levels of each analyte and revealed relative standard deviations in the range from 3.0 to 10.2 %. The method was applied to the analysis of FQ-spiked water samples. (author)

  10. High-throughput profiling of antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Like; Ouyang, Weiying; Qian, Yanyun; Su, Chao; Su, Jianqiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in surface water and often cannot be completely eliminated by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Improper elimination of the ARG-harboring microorganisms contaminates the water supply and would lead to animal and human disease. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the most effective ways by which DWTPs can eliminate ARGs. Here, we tested water samples from two DWTPs and distribution systems and detected the presence of 285 ARGs, 8 transposases, and intI-1 by utilizing high-throughput qPCR. The prevalence of ARGs differed in the two DWTPs, one of which employed conventional water treatments while the other had advanced treatment processes. The relative abundance of ARGs increased significantly after the treatment with biological activated carbon (BAC), raising the number of detected ARGs from 76 to 150. Furthermore, the final chlorination step enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in the finished water generated from both DWTPs. The total enrichment of ARGs varied from 6.4-to 109.2-fold in tap water compared to finished water, among which beta-lactam resistance genes displayed the highest enrichment. Six transposase genes were detected in tap water samples, with the transposase gene TnpA-04 showing the greatest enrichment (up to 124.9-fold). We observed significant positive correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the distribution systems, indicating that transposases and intI-1 may contribute to antibiotic resistance in drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the diversity and abundance of ARGs in drinking water treatment systems utilizing high-throughput qPCR techniques in China. PMID:26890482

  11. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide mutant screen for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a biocontrol antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) is an antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens that plays a key role in the ability of the bacterium to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. 2,4-DAPG has broad antibiotic activity, affecting organisms ranging from bacteria to higher plants. The biosynthesis and...

  13. Uncomplicated E Coli Urinary Tract Infection in College Women: A Follow-Up Study of E Coli Sensitivities to Commonly Prescribed Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbach, Robert K.; Dybus, Karen; Bergeson, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) has changed in the past few years with researchers advocating empiric treatment for shorter periods of time without the use of cultures. Researchers report that antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E coli) to commonly prescribed antibiotics in uncomplicated UTIs has been increasing.…

  14. The Efficiency of Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) on Increasing the Sensitivity of antibiotic Resistant S. aureus and P. aeruginosa Isolated from Human Infected Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus. Aureus and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa were exposed to hematoporphyrin dihydrochloride (Hp) as a photo sensitizer and photodynamic visible light to eliminate them from infected skin. Dark toxicity for S. aureus increased with increasing Hp concentration and reached the maximum reduction percentage in viable count (20%) at 250 μg/ml. However, P. aeruginosa showed no dark toxicity for the same Hp concentrations. Twenty five μg/ml of Hp and light dose of 27 J/cm2 for 30 min. were able to reduce 50.4% of S. aureus viability while it had no effect on P. aeruginosa. S. aureus was relatively sensitive to photo sensitizer in the absence of light while P. aeruginosa was not . Twenty five hundred μ g/ml of Hp combined with light dose of 27 J/cm2 for 30 min. reduced the viable count of S.aureus and P. aeruginosa to 100% and 66.7%, respectively .In absence of photo sensitizer laser light reduced 10.1% of S.aureus and 26.2% of, P. aeruginosa respectively. Low fluency rate (4.5 J/cm2) combined with 100 μ g/ml of Hp photodynamic reduced 20% of S .aureus cells .The reducing percentage gradually increased to 35% ,50 % and 93% at fluency rate 9 J/cm2,18 J/cm2 and 27 J/cm2. Low fluency rate (4.5 J/cm2) combined with 250 μ g/ml of Hp reduced the viability of P .aeruginosa cells by 6.7% .By increasing the fluency rate to 9,18, and 27 J/cm2,the reducing percentage was gradually increased to 30%, 43.3% to 66.7% , respectively. Treatment of P. aeruginosa cells with EDTA ( 10 mM) for one hour before application of (PDI) showed a great increase in reduction percentage of viable count (99.9%) compared to 66.7 % achieved by PHI in absences of EDTA. The effect of acetic acid at the concentrations between 0.5 and 4 % to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa was tested. The optimum concentration of acetic acid to kill about 99.5% of P. aeruginosa without harming the surrounding tissues was about 3.0%.

  15. Forgotten antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, Céline; Bush, Karen; Craig, William A;

    2012-01-01

    disease specialists in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. An international expert panel selected systemic antibacterial drugs for their potential to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria or their unique value for specific criteria. Twenty-two of the 33 selected antibiotics were...... available in fewer than 20 of 38 countries. Economic motives were the major cause for discontinuation of marketing of these antibiotics. Fourteen of 33 antibiotics are potentially active against either resistant Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Urgent measures are then needed to ensure better...

  16. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  17. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  19. 广西柳州地区罗非鱼链球菌病病原药敏性分析%The antibiotic sensitivity of streptococcus SPP. isolated from tilapia in Liuzhou, Guangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杰; 罗福广; 杨军; 左跃; 易弋; 黄稀

    2013-01-01

      罗非鱼链球菌病近年在国内迅速蔓延,严重制约我国罗非鱼产业的健康发展。文章从柳州地区患病罗非鱼体内分离病原菌并进行药敏性分析。试验结果显示,分离菌株对试验药物均有一定程度的耐药性,且对各药物的敏感性不同,敏感率最高为青霉素G,为36.4%。通过药敏性试验筛选敏感药物进行链球菌病治疗能达到较好的效果。%In recent years, the streptococcus disease of tilapia, which restricted the healthy development of the tilapia industry, spread rapidly in our country. This paper isolated pathogenic bacteria from sick tilapia in Liuzhou, and analysed the antibiotic sensitivity. The results showed that the isolated strains all had a certain degree of resistance to antibiotic, and the sensitivity was different. The strains had the highest rate in the sensitive to penicillin G, up to 36.4%. Screening drugs by antibiotic sensitivity analysis was a recommended way for streptococcus disease treatment.

  20. Impact of microbiology cascade reporting on antibiotic de-escalation in cefazolin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L S; Patel, D; King, E A; Maslow, J N

    2016-07-01

    Cascade reporting (CR) involves reporting the susceptibilities of broad-spectrum agents only when the organism is resistant to more narrow-spectrum agents. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of CR on antibiotic de-escalation practices and to characterize the impact of CR on clinical outcomes. CR rules were implemented in the microbiology laboratory at Atlantic Health System (AHS) in June 2013. A retrospective chart review was conducted at two community teaching hospitals in adult patients who had a blood culture positive for a Gram-negative organism susceptible to cefazolin and who were empirically treated with broad-spectrum beta-lactam (BSBL) antibiotics. De-escalation practices were compared in the pre-CR (July 2012-December 2012) and post-CR (July 2013-December 2013) periods. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients whose BSBL agent was de-escalated to agents listed on the post-CR antibiotic susceptibility report within 48 h of the final report. Secondary endpoints include the difference in pre-CR and post-CR periods in terms of hospital length of stay, in-hospital mortality, 30-day readmission, Clostridium difficile infections, and re-initiation of a BSBL agent within 7 days. A total of 73 patients were included; 31 in the pre-CR and 42 in the post-CR period. Patients had similar baseline characteristics. Therapy was de-escalated in 48 % of pre-CR vs 71 % of post-CR patients (p = 0.043). No significant differences were observed in secondary endpoints between patients in the pre-CR and post-CR periods. CR resulted in significant improvements in de-escalation practices without affecting safety outcomes. PMID:27130036

  1. Highly sensitive simultaneous determination of sulfonamide antibiotics and one metabolite in environmental waters by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; García-Galán, M Jesús; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    The present work describes the development of a highly sensitive analytical method based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) for the determination of nine sulfonamide antibiotics and one N4-acetylated metabolite in environmental waters (wastewater, surface water and groundwater) and bottled mineral water. Special emphasis was devoted to the elimination of matrix components during solid-phase extraction (SPE) by the evaluation of three different extraction/purification strategies: single cartridges (Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX) and tandem (TD) extraction (combination of both). The method developed proved to be suitable for sulfonamide determination in all kinds of waters tested. The method was shown to be linear in a wide concentration range, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999 for all compounds except for sulfadimethoxine (R2 0.997). The overall instrumental repeatability was satisfactory, with the exception of the metabolite (RSD 34%). Method limits of detection achieved for sulfonamides were in the range 0.01-1.13 ng L(-1) and for the metabolite 0.08-461 ng L(-1). Recovery rates were estimated at 500 ng L(-1) spike level in the four water matrices selected. The highest recovery achieved in all matrices was that corresponding to the Oasis HLB cartridge. In environmental waters, recovery values obtained were higher than 61% for the surface water and, in general, higher than 90% for groundwater and wastewater. Bottled mineral water exhibited recovery rates higher than 92%, with the exception of sulfamethoxypiridazine (82%) and sulfapyridine (86%) In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method, several water samples were analyzed. Results evidenced the requirement for consideration of N4-acetylated metabolites of sulfonamides in environmental residue analysis to avoid the underestimation of removal rates of such pharmaceutical compounds during wastewater treatments. PMID:18440009

  2. Synthesis and mode of action of hydrophobic derivatives of the glycopeptide antibiotic eremomycin and des-(N-methyl-D-leucyl)eremomycin against glycopeptide-sensitive and -resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printsevskaya, Svetlana S; Pavlov, Andrey Y; Olsufyeva, Evgenia N; Mirchink, Elena P; Isakova, Elena B; Reznikova, Marina I; Goldman, Robert C; Branstrom, Arthur A; Baizman, Eugene R; Longley, Clifford B; Sztaricskai, Ferenc; Batta, Gyula; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2002-03-14

    Des-(N-methyl-D-leucyl)eremomycin was obtained by Edman degradation of eremomycin. Derivatives with a hydrophobic substituent at the exterior of the molecule were then synthesized, and their antibacterial activities were compared with similar derivatives of eremomycin. Comparison of derivatives of eremomycin containing the n-decyl or p-(p-chlorophenyl)benzyl substituent in the eremosamine moiety (N') and n-decyl or p-(p-chlorophenyl)benzylamides with similar derivatives of eremomycin possessing the damaged peptide core (a defective binding pocket) showed that compounds of both types are almost equally active against glycopeptide-resistant strains of enterococci (GRE), whereas eremomycin derivatives are more active against staphylococci. Hydrophobic 7d-alkylaminomethylated derivatives of eremomycin (9, 10) demonstrated similar antibacterial properties. Since the basic mode of action of glycopeptide antibiotics involves binding to cell wall intermediates terminating in -D-Ala-D-Ala and this interaction is seriously decreased in the hexapeptide derivatives (lacking the critical N-methyl-D-leucine), we suggest that these hydrophobic derivatives may inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis in the absence of dipeptide binding. NMR binding experiments using Ac-D-Ala-D-Ala show that binding constants of these hexapeptide derivativies are decreased in comparison with the corresponding heptapeptides with intact binding pocket. This is in agreement with the decreased biological activity of the hexapeptide derivatives against vancomycin-sensitive strains in comparison with the activity of parent compounds. Binding to the lactate cell wall analogue Ac-D-Ala-D-Lac with decylamide of eremomycin 8 was not observed, demonstrating that the interaction with this target in GRE does not occur. While hydrophobic glycopeptide derivatives retain the ability to inhibit the synthesis of peptidoglycan in manner of natural glycopeptides, biochemical investigation supports the hypothesis that they

  3. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Fresh Milk (POLA SENSITIVITAS ANTIBIOTIK TERHADAP STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DAN ESCHERICHIA COLI YANG DIISOLASI DARI SUSU SAPI SEGAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Ratna Winata Muslimin; Firzan Nainu; Rochmat Himawan

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity of S.aureus and E. coli isolated fromfresh milk against against several antibiotics and to determine the safety of the milk for humancomsumsion. Milk was collected from milking diary cow and was used for the bacterial isolation. E.coli were were identified using Total Plate Count (TPC), Gram staining, their growth on Endo Agarand Eosin MethyleneBlue Agar, Biochemical analysis including glucose, lactose, sucrose,maltose, andsorbitol woul...

  4. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Fresh Milk (POLA SENSITIVITAS ANTIBIOTIK TERHADAP STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DAN ESCHERICHIA COLI YANG DIISOLASI DARI SUSU SAPI SEGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ratna Winata Muslimin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity of S.aureus and E. coli isolated fromfresh milk against against several antibiotics and to determine the safety of the milk for humancomsumsion. Milk was collected from milking diary cow and was used for the bacterial isolation. E.coli were were identified using Total Plate Count (TPC, Gram staining, their growth on Endo Agarand Eosin MethyleneBlue Agar, Biochemical analysis including glucose, lactose, sucrose,maltose, andsorbitol would be followed by Sorbitol Mac Conkey Agar Test for the identification of E.coliO157:H7.The isolation and identification of S.aureus were performed using Gram stain, TPC, growth on BairdParker Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were differentiated by coagulaseand catalase tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests for both S. aureus and E.coli were carried out usingthe following antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, vancomycin, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cefotamine,cefuroxime, cefepime, cefazoline, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, doxycycline, amikacin,kanamycin, neomycin, ertapenem, meropenem, imipenem, erythromycin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid,ciprofloxacin, levofloxacine, norfloxacine, ofloxacin, and novobiocin. Fresh milk obtained from thefarm was positive for S.aureus and E.coli and resistant to most antibiotics tested. The best antibioticsfor S. aureus were imipenem (54.1 mm, ampicillin (42.3 mm, cefazolin (41.6 mm, doxycycline (41.15mm, and for E.coli were Imipenem (30.1 mm, ertapenem (29.5 mm, and meropenem (25.35 mm. Thebovine fresh milk examined was contaminated by S.aureus and E.coli and to some extent, were alsoresistant to most antibiotics tested.

  5. Escherichia coli membrane-associated energy-dependent processes and sensitivity toward antibiotics changes as responses to low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-04-01

    Escherichia coli K-12(λ) was sensitive toward low-intensity (non-thermal, flux capacity 0.06 mW cm(-2)) electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of extremely high frequency-70.6 and 73 GHz. 1 h exposure to EMI markedly depressed growth and cell viability of bacteria. Membrane-associated processes-total H(+) efflux and H(2) evaluation by whole cells during glucose fermentation were shown to be lowered as well. At the same time, the F(0)F(1)-ATPase activity of membrane vesicles was little depressed with 70.6 GHz irradiation only. This finding was in conformity with non-changed N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive H(+) efflux. Furthermore, for understanding the different frequencies action mechanisms, the effects of antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, kanamycin, and tetracycline) on irradiated cells growth and survival were determined. EMI with the frequencies of 70.6 and 73 GHz as with 51.8 and 53.0 GHz enhanced the sensitivity of bacteria toward antibiotics, but comparison revealed that each frequency had a different portion. Probably, EMI of specific frequency triggered changes in biological processes and afterward in growth and viability of bacteria, creating conditions when the action of antibiotics became facilitated. PMID:22101511

  6. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources of...... antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug...

  7. The Prevalence Of Nosocomial Infections Caused By Enterobacter Cloacae And Antibiotic Resistant Patterns In Samples Isolated From Patients In Two Hospitals In Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soleymanzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing use of β-lactam antibiotics in clinics for the treatment of different bacterial infections since early 1980s has led to increased rates of resistant bacteria isolated from patients. One of the problems in the treatment of nosocomial infections is related to resistant bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae due to cross resistance through extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. cloacae from different clinical specimens collected from hospitalized patients. Methods: In the present study, 101 E. cloacae confirmed by standard specific microbiologic tests were collected from different specimens in Milad and Motahri hospitals in Tehran, Iran during February 2010 and September 2011. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted according to the process recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for 13 antibiotics of choice. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains were screened for by combined disk method as a phenotypic diagnostic test. Results: From a total of 101 E. cloacae, 33 (33% were shown to produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamase by phenotypic tests; 5% of the bacteria were resistant to imipenem too. Conclusion: This study clearly showed the high prevalence of resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics in the isolated E. cloacae among which 5% were multi drug resistant. All the isolated E. cloacae were susceptible to Colistin. These results can be alarming for physicians treating resistant E. cloacae infections, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing species.

  8. Detection of Beta-Lactamase and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase of Pathogens Isolated from Pig and Chicken and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics or their combinations with inhibitor sulbactum against non-lactamaseproducing strains, lactamase-producing and ESBLs-producing isolates was evaluated with twofold dilution method after pathogens isolated from pigs and chickens were detected, respectively, for beta-lactamase and extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). The results revealed that most of 43 clinically isolated strains could produce beta-lactamase and 3strains of shigella isolated from chicken samples produced ESBLs. All of 30 lactamase-producing strains isolated and only one of 16 non-lactamase-producing strains were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin. MICs of ampicillin against lactamaseproducing isolates decreased 10-40 and 10-20 times respectively, when it was conbined with sulbactam at ration of 1:2 and 1:4. All clinical isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. The MICs of third-generation cephalosporins against lactamase-producing isolates did not change when they were conbined with sulbactam. MICs of ceftiofur and ceftriaxone against ESBLs-producing isolates decreased 2-4 times when they were conbined with sulbactam.

  9. Elazığ Belediyesi Atıksu Arıtma Tesisi Giriş Sularında Antibiyotik Kalıntılarının Varlığının Araştırılması / Investigation Of The Presence Of Antibiotic Residues Influent Of Elazig Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Topal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Elazığ Belediyesi Atıksu Arıtma Tesisi giriş sularında antibiyotik kalıntılarının varlığının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç için, arıtma tesisi giriş suyundan kompozit numune alınmış ve analizler yapılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre Elazığ Belediyesi Atıksu Arıtma Tesisi giriş sularında makrolidler (azitromisin, klaritromisin, eritromisin, beta laktamlar (aztreonam, sefalosporinler (sefamandol, sefepim, sefiksim, rifampisin (rifamisin ve sülfonamid (tetroksoprim antibiyotikleri bulunmuştur. Investigation Of The Presence Of Antibiotic Residues Influent Of Elazig Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant In this study, it was aimed to determine the presence of antibiotic residues in influents of Elazığ Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. For this aim, composite sample was taken from the influents of the treatment plant and analyses were done. According to the results of the analyses, macrolides (azitromycin, clarithromycin, erithromycin, beta lactams (aztreonam, cefalosporines (cefamondole, cefepime, cefixime, rifampicine (rifamycin and sulfonamide (tetroxoprim antibiotics were obtained in influents of Elazig Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.

  10. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli forms filaments as an initial response to cefotaxime treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Olsen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: beta-lactams target the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall and most beta-lactam antibiotics cause filamentation in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria at low concentrations. The objective was to determine the initial morphological response of cephalosporin resistant CTX-M-1...

  11. Spontaneous nisin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes mutants with increased expression of a putative penicillin-binding protein and their sensitivity to various antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Anne; Sorensen, K.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Knochel, S.

    2001-01-01

    A concern regarding the use of bacteriocins, as for example the lantibiotic nisin, for biopreservation of certain food products is the possibility of resistance development and potential cross-resistance to antibiotics in the target organism. The genetic basis for nisin resistance development is as...

  12. Antibiotic sensitivity and molecular analyses demonstrate a lack of IncA/C plasmid in modified live Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance was first discovered in Edwardsiella ictaluri in the early 1990’s and in 2007, an E. ictaluri strain harboring an IncA/C plasmid was isolated from a moribund channel catfish infected with the bacterium. Due to the recent identification of IncA/C plasmids in aqu...

  13. Etiología y sensibilidad antibiótica de las infecciones extrahospitalarias más frecuentes Aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity of the most frequent outpatient infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín Salas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La difusión de los perfiles de sensibilidad antibiótica es una práctica recomendada para mejorar la prescripción de antibióticos y controlar la aparición y diseminación de resistencias. Durante los años 2003 y 2004, se recogieron los datos de sensibilidad a antibióticos de las principales bacterias aisladas de urocultivos, coprocultivos, frotis faringoamigdalares y óticos extrahospitalarios, en el área de salud de Pamplona que atiende a una población aproximada de 400.000 habitantes. De los 9.495 uropatógenos aislados, el 90% fueron sensibles a amoxicilina-clavulánico, el 96,4% a cefalosporinas de 2ª generación, el 95,3% a fosfomicina y el 97,7% a nitrofurantoína. El 1,8% de las cepas de Escherichia coli aisladas en orina fueron productores de b-lactamasas de espectro extendido, mientras que el 0,5% de los aislamientos urinarios de Klebsiella pneumoniae fueron productores de este tipo de β-lactamasas. El 96,5% de los 797 aislamientos de Salmonella serotipo Enteritidis fueron sensibles a cotrimoxazol y el 97,5% de los 1057 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni fueron sensibles a eritromicina. De las 319 bacterias aisladas en otitis media, el 96,5% fueron sensibles a amoxicilina. Los bacilos Gram negativos productores de otitis externa presentaron una sensibilidad superior al 90% para ciprofloxacino, gentamicina y polimixina B. El 29,7% de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pyogenes fueron resistentes a la eritromicina. El 14,3% y el 17.4% de los Staphylococcus aureus aislados durante los años 2003 y 2004 respectivamente fueron resistentes a la meticilina. El conocimiento del mapa de sensibilidad antibiótica de los microorganismos circulantes en cada área geográfica es una información necesaria para la elección empírica del tratamiento antibiótico.The diffusion of the outlines of antibiotic sensitivity is a practice that is recommended for improving the prescription of antibiotics and for controlling the appearance and

  14. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  15. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    França, Luís; Simões, Catarina; Taborda, Marco; Diogo, Catarina; da Costa, Milton S.

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recov...

  16. Beyond Antibiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMMI Canada meeting in March 2006 hosted a symposium exploring the potential alternatives to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infection. Four papers summarizing talks from that session are published in this issue of the Journal (1-4. These reviews address the scientific underpinnings for a number of proposed concepts, and summarize the current status of clinical use. The approaches - probiotics, bacteriophage therapy, and manipulation of innate immunity - are all intriguing but are still removed from immediate practical applications.

  17. DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karim

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk and milk products containing antibiotics especially penicillin may present a health hazard to individuals who are super sensitized to penicillin. A total of 620 samples of raw milk which were delivered to Tehran pasteurization plant were examined. 294 samples were antibiotic-negative and 326 samples showed to contain antibiotic. Considering the results obtained, certain recommendations were made to prevent public health hazards and economic losses.

  18. Study of sensitivity test to neisseria gonorrhoeae antibiotic drug in NanTong district%南通地区2006~2008年淋球菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚军; 袁建芬; 喻海忠

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the sensitivity of Neisseria Gonorrhoea in Nantong to antibiotic remedy.Methods To select and identify 147 cases of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae specimens.Then drug sensitivity test was carried out through making five sorts of antibiotics.Results Of all the 3 antibiotic agents,the higher resistances to Neisseria Gonorrhoeae were penicillin,acheomycin, ciprofloxacin in turn,the percentages of resistance were 72.10%,68.08% and 8.85% respectively.On the other hand,the higher susceptibilities to Neisseria Gonorrhoeae were ceftriaxone and spectinomycin the percentages of susceptibility were 100% and 94.56% respectively.Conclusion Ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can still be used as primary agents to cure the disease like Neisseria Gonorrhoeae specimens in Nantong,but clinical doctors need to pay more attention to the fact that resistant strains to spectinomycin have come into existence.The result suggests that these antibiotics may be used under guidance of drug sensitivity test in clinic .%目的 探讨南通地区淋病奈瑟菌(NG) 对抗菌药物的敏感性.方法 选择147株NG标本进行菌株鉴定和5种抗菌药物的敏感试验.结果 NG对青霉素、四环素及环丙沙星的耐药率分别为72.10%、68.08%和8.85%,NG对菌必治(头孢三嗪)、壮观霉素的敏感率为100.00%、94.56%.结论 菌必治(头孢三嗪)和壮观霉素仍可作为南通地区淋病治疗的首选药物,但淋球菌对壮观霉素已出现耐药株,应引起临床医生的高度警惕;建议临床应在药敏试验的指导下用药.

  19. Study on the Sensitivity of Dactylococcopsis rhaphidioides to Common Antibiotics%针晶蓝纤维藻对几种常用抗生素的敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂昌金; 麻晓霞; 石勋祥; 马丽萍; 马玉龙

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨针晶蓝纤维藻(Dactylococcopsis rhaphidioides)对5种常用抗生素的敏感性.[方法]采用分光光度法研究了青霉素、链霉素、头孢唑啉钠、硫酸庆大霉素和氯霉素5种常用抗生素对针晶蓝纤维藻生长的影响.[结果]5种抗生素对针晶蓝纤维藻生长均有不同程度的抑制作用,其中氯霉素和链霉素抑制作用较强,而头孢唑啉钠和青霉素相对较弱.[结论]针晶蓝纤维藻培养中除菌可选用青霉素或头孢唑啉钠.%[Objective] The aim was to explore the sensitivity of Dactylococcopsis rhaphidioides to 5 kinds of common antibiotics. [Method] Effects of common antibiotics such as penicillin,streptomycin ,cefazolin sodium,gentamicin sulfate.and chloramphenicol on the growth of Dactylococcopsis rhaphidioides were studied by spectrophotometric method. [ Result ] D. Rhaphidioides displayed differently sensitive to the tested antibiotics. Both chloramphenicol and streptomycin exhibited a relatively strong inhibition to D. Rhaphidioides, while penicillin and cefazolin sodium had a weak inhibitory effect. [Conclusion] Penicillin and cefazolin sodium may be used as antimicrobial agent for the axenic culture of D. Rhaphidioides.

  20. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  1. Characterization and sensitivity to antibiotics of bacteria isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients hospitalized in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Medell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This observational study described the characterization of bacteria isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The demonstration of isolated microorganism resistance to antibiotics and a time-trend analysis of infection comparing a 48-month period were also other objectives. METHOD: Semi-quantitative assays of 1254 samples taken from 741 ventilated patients were performed, while pathogens were identified using the Enterotube II assay and VITEK 2 Compact equipment. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and time-trend analysis of infection was based on data recorded by hospital microbiology laboratories. RESULTS: The most prevalent isolated bacteria from the patient's lower respiratory tract were with Gram-negative bacteria (67.8% mostly represented by: Acinetobacter spp. (25.2%, Pseudomonas spp. (18.3% and Klebsiellas spp. (9.4%. Acinetobacter spp. showed moderate high to very high resistance to ceftriaxone (CRO, gentamicin (CN, amikacin (AK, meropenem (MRP, aztreonam (ATM and piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP. Some isolates of Acinetobacter spp. resistant to colistin (CS were identified in this patient population. Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. were very highly resistant to ampicillin/sublactam (AMS and with moderate or low resistance to CRO, ATM, MRP, AK, CN and TZP. A decrease in the Pseudomonas spp. prevalence rate was observed, whereas an increase in Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. prevalence rates were observed in a 48-month period. CONCLUSION: This research corroborated that these nosocomial infections are a relevant medical problem in our context. The most prevalent bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients were by Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. The panel of antibiotics used as preventive therapy was not the solution of infections and probably induced

  2. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  3. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  4. Crystallographic Studies of Two Bacterial AntibioticResistance Enzymes: Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (2')-Ic and GES-1\\beta-lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynes, Laura; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-10-31

    Guiana Extended-Spectrum-1 (GES-1) and Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (2')-Ic (APH(2')-Ic) are two bacteria-produced enzymes that essentially perform the same task: they provide resistance to an array of antibiotics. Both enzymes are part of a growing resistance problem in the medical world. In order to overcome the ever-growing arsenal of antibiotic-resistance enzymes, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of their action. Accurate structures of these proteins have become an invaluable tool to do this. Using protein crystallography techniques and X-ray diffraction, the protein structure of GES-1 bound to imipenem (an inhibitor) has been solved. Also, APH(2')-Ic has been successfully crystallized, but its structure was unable to be solved using molecular replacement using APH(2')-Ib as a search model. The structure of GES-1, with bound imipenem was solved to a resolution of 1.89A, and though the inhibitor is bound with only moderate occupancy, the structure shows crucial interactions inside the active site that render the enzyme unable to complete the hydrolysis of the {beta}-lactam ring. The APH(2')-Ic dataset could not be matched to the model, APH(2')-Ib, with which it shares 25% sequence identity. The structural information gained from GES-1, and future studies using isomorphous replacement to solve the APH(2')-Ic structure can aid directly to the creation of novel drugs to combat both of these classes of resistance enzymes.

  5. BOVINE MASTITIS: SENSITIVITY OF ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO ANTIBIOTICS AND CHEMOTHERAPICS MASTITE BOVINA: SENSIBILIDADE DE AGENTES ETIOLÓGICOS A ANTIBIÓTICOS E QUIMIOTERÁPICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dias Carvalho Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    590 samples of mi1k collected from 701 cows in the milk area around Goiânia were submitted to the Whiteside/CMT test and all suspect or positive. It was also done the bacterial sensibility test “in vitro” to antibiotics and chemotherapics of the aetiological agents isolated from the lactocultures. The antibiotics and chemioterapics tested were as follow: trimetropim-sulfametazole, tetracicline, streptomicine, chloranfenicol, kanamicine, penicilin G, furadantine, neomicine, eritromicine and novobiocine. The drugs which had better action were: trimetropim-sulfametazole, chloranfenicol and furadantine; on the other side, a higher resistance was observed for penicilin G, streptomicine and eritromicine.

    Foram analisadas 590 amostras de leite procedentes de 701 vacas da bacia leiteira de Goiânia, que apresentaram ao teste de Whiteside/CMT resultado suspeito ou positivo. Foi feito o teste de sensibilidade bacteriana “in vitro” a antibióticos e quimioterápicos dos agentes etiológicos isolados das lactoculturas. Os antibióticos e quimioterápicos testados foram: trimetropim-sulfametazole, tetraciclina, streptomicina cloranfenicol, kanamicina, penicilina G, furadantina, neomicina, eritromicina e novobiocina. As drogas que mostraram a maior ação foram: trimetropim-sulfametazole, cloranfenicol e furadantina; por outro lado, maior resistência foi observada para a penicilina G, streptomicina e eritromicina.

  6. Local Collagen-Gentamicin for Prevention of Sternal Wound Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Örjan

    2006-01-01

    In cardiac surgery, sternal wound infection (SWI) continues to be one of the most serious postoperative complications. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become the most common causative agents of SWI. Prophylaxis with intravenous beta-lactam antibiotics (cephalosporins or in Sweden most commonly isoxazolyl penicillins) is routinely practised. However, many CoNS species are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Vancomycin is often the only effective antibiotic available for treatmen...

  7. Gene-Drug Interactions and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Adam Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance is shaped by interactions between genes, the chemical environment, and an antibiotic's mechanism of action. This thesis explores these interactions with experiments, theory, and analysis, seeking a mechanistic understanding of how different interactions between genes and drugs can enhance or constrain the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Chapter 1 investigates the effects of the chemical decay of an antibiotic. Tetracycline resistant and sensitive bac...

  8. Swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Penaeidae post larvae: Identification of causing pathogenic bacteria and their sensitivity to some antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Aftabuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swollen Hindgut syndrome (SHG of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798post larvae has been reported from Bangladesh shrimp hatcheries in recent years. At present SHG is abudding problem causing significant economic loss to the shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh. Unlike therapid mortalities associated with viral disease such as white spot syndrome and yellow head virus,progression of SHG is gradual leading to low level mortalities without affecting swimming activity. Thesign of SHG are a bloated or swollen in hind gut area, with the posterior digestive tract convolutingthrough the last abdominal segment. This syndrome tends to occur at later PL stages, typically afterPL10. Two types of Vibrio spp. were isolated from the swollen hindgut syndrome post larvae, identified asVibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936and Vibrio alginolyticus (Miyamoto, Nakamura & Takizawa1961. Among these V. alginolyticus was dominant to V. harveyi. The bacterial isolates showed sensitiveto oxytetracycline (OTC, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to penicillin, ampicillin andamoxycillin. The luminous V. harveyi showed resistant to many antibiotics and susceptibility to only twodrugs. The cause of swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG was probably bacterial infections and poor waterquality, possibly heavy metal i.e. iron, the presence of toxic substances from chemical prophylactics andlow quality or diseased nauplii.

  9. Infecção bacteriana na leishmaniose cutânea: padrão bacteriano e sensibilidade a antibióticos Bacterial infection in cutaneous leishmaniasis: bacterial pattern and sensitivity to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa da Graça do Rosário Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a flora bacteriana em úlceras leishmanióticas, destacando-se o encontro das espécies aeróbicas Staphylococus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. O estudo da sensibilidade destas espécies a antibióticos mostrou sensibilidade à vancomicina, à amicacina e ao cloranfenicol em 100% dos isolados testados de Staphylococus aureus e à amicacina, à gentamicina e à tobramicina em 100% dos isolados testados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Estas espécies foram, em geral, resistentes às penicilinas e à tetraciclina.The bacterial flora from leishmanial ulcers was studied. The aerobic species Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found most frequently. Evaluation of the sensitivity of these species to antibiotics showed that 100% of these isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to vancomycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, while 100% of the isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. These species were generally resistant to penicillins and tetracycline.

  10. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  11. Long-term field application of sewage sludge increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinglin; An, Xinli; Li, Hu; Su, Jianqiang; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge and manure are common soil amendments in crop production; however, their impact on the abundance and diversity of the antibiotic resistome in soil remains elusive. In this study, by using high-throughput sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR, the patterns of bacterial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a long-term field experiment were investigated to gain insights into these impacts. A total of 130 unique ARGs and 5 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected and the long-term application of sewage sludge and chicken manure significantly increased the abundance and diversity of ARGs in the soil. Genes conferring resistance to beta-lactams, tetracyclines, and multiple drugs were dominant in the samples. Sewage sludge or chicken manure applications caused significant enrichment of 108 unique ARGs and MGEs with a maximum enrichment of up to 3845 folds for mexF. The enrichment of MGEs suggested that the application of sewage sludge or manure may accelerate the dissemination of ARGs in soil through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Based on the co-occurrence pattern of ARGs subtypes revealed by network analysis, aacC, oprD and mphA-02, were proposed to be potential indicators for quantitative estimation of the co-occurring ARGs subtypes abundance by power functions. The application of sewage sludge and manure resulted in significant increase of bacterial diversity in soil, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla (>10% in each sample). Five bacterial phyla (Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Bacteroidetes) were found to be significantly correlated with the ARGs in soil. Mantel test and variation partitioning analysis (VPA) suggested that bacterial community shifts, rather than MGEs, is the major driver shaping the antibiotic resistome. Additionally, the co-occurrence pattern between ARGs and microbial taxa revealed by network analysis indicated that four

  12. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  13. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Early-Late Onset Neonatal Sepsis among Newborns in Shiraz, Iran 2004-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Shahian; Narjes Pishva; Mehdi Kalani

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortalityand morbidity, especially in developing countries. The goal ofthe present study was to determine the bacterial etiology andantibiotic sensitivity patterns of neonatal sepsis.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 208neonates admitted with clinically suspected sepsis over a periodof 30 months. Sepsis was divided into early onset sepsis(EOS, ≤5 days of age) and late onset sepsis (LOS, >5 days ofage). The two groups were furt...

  14. Prevalence of CTX-M Genes in Bacterial Strain Isolated from Patients Hospitalized in ICUs in The City of Qom, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Sharifi; Abbas Morovvati; Azadeh Abedzadeh; Ali Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathogenic bacteria because of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes are dangerous to society. This resistance due to ESBL genes, plasmids and transposons that by receiving or mutation occurs. The most important factor beta-lactam antibiotic resistance is beta lactamase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hospital opportunistic pathogenic bacteria producing ESBL and CTX-M genes identified are molecular methods.Methods : In this study, 500 isolates...

  15. The KPC type beta-lactamases: new enzymes that confer resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Wieczorek; Jadwiga Jaworowska; Alina Ostas; Paweł Sacha; Dominika Ojdana; Jerzy Ratajczak; Elzbieta Tryniszewska

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance due to the continuous selective pressure from widespread use of antimicrobials in humans, animals and agriculture has been a growing problem for last decades. KPC beta-lactamases hydrolyzed beta-lactams of all classes. Especially, carbapenem antibiotics are hydrolyzed more efficiency than other beta-lactam antibiotics. The KPC enzymes are found most often in Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, these enzymes have been found in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetoba...

  16. Strengthening Control of Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EthelLu

    2005-01-01

    IT is a well-known fact that buy-ng guns is much easier than purchasing antibiotics in the United States. In China, however, the situation is different. According to a recent WHO survey,about 80 percent of Chinese inpatients take antibiotic medicines, and 58 percent of them are prescribed multifunctional antibiotics,

  17. Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-15

    This podcast provides a brief background about antibiotics and quick tips to help prevent antibiotic resistance.  Created: 4/15/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  18. Antibiotic resistant in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial agents are necessary for use in veterinary medicine including the production of food producing animals. Antibiotic use is indicated for the treatment of bacterial target organisms and/or disease for which the antibiotic was developed. However, an unintended consequence of antibiotic ...

  19. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  20. Sensitivity Evaluation of Chlorella Protothecoides to Six Common Antibiotics%原壳小球藻对6种常用抗生素的敏感性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    淦志兵; 李美芽; 施春雷; 史贤明

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价原壳小球藻对6种常用抗生素的敏感性,找到合适的抗生素作为藻株遗传改造的抗性标记.方法:在固体培养基中筛选最适合用于原壳小球藻筛选的抗生素,然后在液体培养基中加入不同浓度的抗生素,分别在第4天,第7天,第14天和第21天测定藻液的OD440值并计算抗生素对藻的生长抑制率(P%).根据抑制率(P%)与抗生素浓度(C)的关系来评估原壳小球藻对抗生素的敏感性.结果:经过2周的筛选试验,在固体培养基中,潮霉素的致死剂量为20μg/mL,链霉素、卡那霉素、壮观霉素、氯霉素的致死剂量分别超过100、500、100、600 ug/mL.而在G418质量浓度为5ug/mL时,原壳小球藻的生长就受到显著的抑制;当质量浓度为10 ug/mL时已经完全抑制了原壳小球藻的生长,因此,对于G418而言,10 ug/mL是原壳小球藻生长的致死剂量.在液体培养基中,G418的作用剂量与固体培养基中的剂量一致,并且5ug/mL对原壳小球藻生长的抑制率维持在80%以上,10ug/mL对原壳小球藻生长的抑制率维持在95%左右.结论:原壳小球藻对氯霉素不敏感,对卡那霉素、链霉素、壮观霉素较为敏感,对潮霉素表现出高度敏感性,对G418最敏感.与其它5种抗生素相比,G418更适合作为原壳小球藻遗传转化的抗生素抗性选择标记.%Objective: Sensitivities of Chlorella protothecoides to six common antibiotics were evaluated to find out a suitable concentration of right antibiotic as a marker for its genetic modification. Method: Chlorella protothecoides cells after 4~5 days' cultivation were used as test materials. Antibiotics: Hygromycin (Hyg), Streptomycin (Str), Kanamycin (Km), Spectinomycin (Spe), Chloramphenicol (Cm) at various concentrations were used for tests in solid culture, and Ceneticin (C418) was used in both of solid and liquid cultures. The relationship of the inhibition ratio (P%) and the G418 concentration (C) was

  1. REDUCTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jaiswal et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant bacteria have been posing a major challenge to the effective control of bacterial infections for quite some time. One of the main causes of antibiotics drug resistance is antibiotic overuse, abuse, and in some cases, misuse, due to incorrect diagnosis. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a significant issues faced by various industries, including the food and agricultural industries, the medical and veterinary profession and others. The potential for transfer of antibiotics resistance, or of potentially lethal antibiotic resistant bacteria, for example from a food animal to human consumer, is of particular concern. A method of controlling development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria include changes in antibiotic usage and pattern of usage of different antibiotics. However, the ability of bacteria to adapt to antibiotic usage and to acquire resistance to existing and new antibiotics usage overcomes such conventional measures, and requires the continued development of alternative means of control of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Alternative means for overcoming the tendency of bacteria to acquire resistance to antibiotic control measures have taken various forms. This article explains one method evaluated for control, that is reducing or removing antibiotic resistance is so called “curing” of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is formed in the chromosomal elements. Thus elimination of such drug-resistance plasmids results in loss of antibiotics resistance by the bacterial cell. “Curing” of a microorganism refers to the ability of the organism to spontaneously lose a resistance plasmid under the effect of particular compounds and environmental conditions, thus recovering the antibiotic sensitive state.

  2. Evaluation of Offline Tandem and Online Solid-Phase Extraction with Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Antibiotics in Ambient Water and Comparison to an Independent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Lee, E.A.; Ferrell, G.M.; Bumgarner, J.E.; Varns, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the performance of an offline tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and an online SPE method that use liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of 23 and 35 antibiotics, respectively, as used in several water-quality surveys conducted since 1999. In the offline tandem SPE method, normalized concentrations for the quinolone, macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics in spiked environmental samples averaged from 81 to 139 percent of the expected spiked concentrations. A modified standard-addition technique was developed to improve the quantitation of the tetracycline antibiotics, which had 'apparent' concentrations that ranged from 185 to 1,200 percent of their expected spiked concentrations in matrix-spiked samples. In the online SPE method, normalized concentrations for the quinolone, macrolide, sulfonamide, and tetracycline antibiotics in matrix-spiked samples averaged from 51 to 142 percent of their expected spiked concentrations, and the beta-lactam antibiotics in matrix-spiked samples averaged from 22 to 76 percent of their expected spiked concentration. Comparison of 44 samples analyzed by both the offline tandem SPE and online SPE methods showed 50 to 100 percent agreement in sample detection for overlapping analytes and 68 to 100 percent agreement in a presence-absence comparison for all analytes. The offline tandem and online SPE methods were compared to an independent method that contains two overlapping antibiotic compounds, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, for 96 and 44 environmental samples, respectively. The offline tandem SPE showed 86 and 92 percent agreement in sample detection and 96 and 98 percent agreement in a presence-absence comparison for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. The online SPE method showed 57 and 56 percent agreement in sample detection and 72 and 91 percent agreement in presence-absence comparison for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. A linear regression with

  3. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Subjects with Successful and Failing Dental Implants. A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Christos; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : To investigate the prevalence of the bacterial genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracyclines and metronidazole respectively, in subjects with successful and failing dental implants and to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA gene encoding for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the same samples. Materials and Methodology: The subject sample included 20 participants with clinically healthy osseointegrated implants and 20 participants with implants exhibiting peri-implantitis. Clinical parameters were assessed with an automated probe, samples were collected from the peri-implant sulcus or pocket and analyzed with Polymerase Chain Reaction for blaTEM, tetM, tetQ and nim genes, S. aureus and MRSA using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. Results: Findings have shown high frequencies of detection for both groups for the tetracycline resistance genes tetM (>30%), tetQ (>65%) with no statistical differences between them (z-test with Bonferroni corrections, p<0.05). The blaTEM gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactams, was detected in <15% of the samples. The nim gene, which encodes resistance to metronidazole, S.aureus and the mecA gene encoding for MRSA were not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Conclusions: Healthy peri-implant sulci and peri-implantitis cases often harbor bacterial genes encoding for resistance to the tetracyclines and less often for beta-lactams. Thus, the antimicrobial activity of the tetracyclines and to a lower extent to beta-lactams, might be compromised for treatment of peri-implantitis. Since no metronidazole resistance genes were detected in the present study, its clinical use is supported by the current findings. S.aureus may not participate in peri-implant pathology. PMID:25646133

  4. Radiation sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following classes of radiosensitizers are discussed: electron affinic compounds, pyrimidine analogs, and antibiotics. Metronidazole and nitroimidazole are discussed as examples of electron-affinic compounds. Studies on the enhancement ratio for sensitization of x-irradiated hamster cells showed that these drugs sensitize at concentrations much lower than the toxic concentrations. Criteria for a clinically useful hypoxic cell sensitizer are listed and mechanisms of electron-affinic sensitizers are discussed. The radiosensitizing effects of the pyrimidine analogs, BUDR, BCDR, IUDR, CUDR, and FUDR, are examined and the enhancement of radiation effects by the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil, is discussed. Other agents discussed are methotrexate, actinomycin D, bleomycin, and adriamycin

  5. 不同年龄段婴幼儿抗生素性腹泻与乳糖不耐受的相关性研究%Relationship between Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea and Lactose Intolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海珍; 任立红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同年龄段婴幼儿应用β-内酰胺类抗生素后出现腹泻与乳糖不耐受的相关性.方法 选择近3个月以乳糖乳制品为主食的住院应用β-内酰胺类抗生素的患儿80例,根据年龄分为4组,应用β-内酰胺类抗生素出现腹泻后,采用尿半乳糖测试盒进行测试,并记录乳糖不耐受的发生情况,同时对患儿进行便常规、便一般细菌培养、便轮状病毒检测,并记录其检测结果.结果 80例样本中便常规示:红细胞:无或0~1个/HP;白细胞:无或0~1个/HP;脂肪滴:(-).便一般细菌培养均为阴性.便轮状病毒检测阴性77例(96.25%),阳性3例(4.75%)(其中2例乳糖不耐受阳性,1例乳糖不耐受阴性).乳糖不耐受结果阳性44例(55.00%),阴性36例(45.00%).不同年龄组乳糖不耐受阳性率比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.95,P<0.001).结论 β-内酰胺类抗生素可破坏肠道乳糖酶活性致腹泻,即药物性腹泻继发乳糖不耐受.%Objective To discuss the relationship between the onset of diarrhea after application of beta lactam antibiotics and lactose intolerance among infants of different ages. Methods Eighty infants fed on lactose for the latest 3 months and admitted for beta lactam antibiotics treatment were divided into four age groups. Urinary galactose assay kit was applied and lactose intolerance was recorded after diarrhea onset. At the same time, feces routine, feces routine bacterial culture, and rotaviruses detection were carried out. Results Results of feces routine of the 80 patients : red blood cells, none or 0~1/HP; white blood cells: none or 0~1/HP; fat droplets: ( - ). No noticeable pathogenic bacteria were found during the feces routine bacterial culture. Results of rotavirus detection were negative in 77 cases ( 96.25%) and positive in 3 cases ( 4.75%) ( of which 2 were with positive lactose intolerance results and 1 was with negative lactose intolerance results ) . Lactose intolerance

  6. Replicon typing of plasmids encoding resistance to newer beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Miriagou, Vivi; Bertini, Alessia; Loli, Alexandra; Colinon, Celine; Villa, Laura; Whichard, Jean M; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. PMID:16836838

  7. Biosynthesis of monobactam compounds: origin of the carbon atoms in the beta-lactam ring.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, J; Gillum, A M; Aklonis, C A; Souser, M L; Sykes, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    The biosynthesis of monobactams by strains of Chromobacterium violaceum, Acetobacter sp., and Agrobacterium radiobacter was studied. Monobactams were produced during logarithmic growth by C. violaceum and Acetobacter sp. and during late log growth on glycerol and in stationary phase by A. radiobacter. The addition of various amino acids failed to significantly stimulate monobactam production in any of the producing organisms. Several 14C-amino acids and pyruvate were incorporated in vivo into...

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole and beta-lactam moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K F Ansari; C Lal

    2009-11-01

    A number of 1-substituted-2-methyl benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral and elemental methods of analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds was done by disc diffusion method using Gram-positive (S. aureus, S. mutans and B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa) bacteria and fungi (C. albicans, A. flavus and A. niger). Among the compounds tested 5a, 5b, 5d, 5i, 5j and 5k exhibited good antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacteria, while 5d and 5i also showed notable antifungal activity. Specially compounds 5a and 5b exhibited appreciable activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis comparable to reference drugs.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogenic E. coli among people in Zakho, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Fouad Polse

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in uropathogenic E. coli is of major concern worldwide due to its increasing resistance to several commonly prescribed antibiotics. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and to evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of uropathogenic E. coli among people in Zakho city, Iraq. Methods: 1120 urine samples were collected from people. Samples were screened for E. coli isolates and their susceptibility to different antibiotics was analyzed. Results: Diagnoses tests showed that only 106 (9.4% isolates were E. coli. Females (90, 85% were more susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs than males (16, 15% (p <0.05. The age 11-21 years old (23, 21.7% was the most affected group (p <0.05. All isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and aztreonam. While, all these isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Conclusions: The incidence of uropathogenic E. coli among people is comparable with reports from elsewhere. E. coli isolates are highly susceptible towards imipenem, and meropenem antibiotics, and highly resistant towards beta-lactam and cephalosporins antibiotics. Education programs and improving the hygienic measures are necessary to prevent contaminations with E. coli and minimize the use of beta-lactam and cephalosporin antibiotics. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1219-1223

  10. A Community Intervention to Decrease Antibiotics Used for Self-Medication Among Latino Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Carnemolla, Mark

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Recent evidence in Latino communities indicates substantial self-medication with antibiotics obtained without a prescription (WORx). We implemented and evaluated a culturally sensitive educational intervention to decrease antibiotic self-medication.

  11. Frontline antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan, Alasdair; Albur, Maha

    2013-06-01

    The need to use front-line antibiotics wisely has never been greater. Antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistant infection, driven by antibiotic use, remain major public health and professional concerns. To overcome these infection problems, use of older antibiotics active against multi drug-resistant pathogens is increasing - for example, colistin, fosfomycin, pivmecillinam, pristinamycin, temocillin and oral tetracyclines. The number of new antibacterials reaching clinical practice has reduced significantly in the last 20 years, most being focused on therapy of Gram-positive infection - eg linezolid, daptomycin, telavancin and ceftaroline. Recent guidance on antibiotic stewardship in NHS trusts in England is likely to provide a backdrop to antibiotic use in hospitals in the next 5 years. PMID:23760700

  12. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    a high proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial...... individuals with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received...... risk of the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, and interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics should therefore primarily be targeted children and elderly people....

  13. Understanding Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart-Touma, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance arises have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing antibiotics (Andersson DI et al.2011) and antibiotic cycling (Andersson DI et al. 2005, Bergstrom CT et al. 2004). Part of the problem may be that those effor...

  14. Antibiotics: Miracle Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    The overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance among bacteria, making antibiotics ineffective in treating certain conditions. This podcast discusses the importance of talking to your healthcare professional about whether or not antibiotics will be beneficial if you’ve been diagnosed with an infectious disease.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  15. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a Mixing versus a Cycling Strategy of Antibiotic Use in Critically-Ill Medical Patients: Impact on Acquisition of Resistant Microorganisms and Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Solé, Mar; Castro, Pedro; Torres, Jorge Luis; Rinaudo, Mariano; De Lazzari, Elisa; Morata, Laura; Hernández, Cristina; Fernández, Sara; Soriano, Alex; Nicolás, José María; Mensa, Josep; Vila, Jordi; Martínez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of two strategies of antibiotic use (mixing vs. cycling) on the acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections and other clinical outcomes. Methods Prospective cohort study in an 8-bed intensive care unit during 35- months in which a mixing-cycling policy of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam) and fluoroquinolones was operative. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Target microorganisms included methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters. Results A total of 409 (42%) patients were included in mixing and 560 (58%) in cycling. Exposure to ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in mixing while exposure to meropenem was higher in cycling, although overall use of antipseudomonals was not significantly different (37.5/100 patient-days vs. 38.1/100 patient-days). There was a barely higher acquisition rate of microorganisms during mixing, but this difference lost its significance when the cases due to an exogenous Burkholderia cepacia outbreak were excluded (19.3% vs. 15.4%, OR 0.8, CI 0.5–1.1). Acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to the intervention antibiotics or with multiple-drug resistance was similar. There were no significant differences between mixing and cycling in the proportion of patients acquiring any infection (16.6% vs. 14.5%, OR 0.9, CI 0.6–1.2), any infection due to target microorganisms (5.9% vs. 5.2%, OR 0.9, CI 0.5–1.5), length of stay (median 5 d for both groups) or mortality (13.9 vs. 14.3%, OR 1.03, CI 0.7–1.3). Conclusions A cycling strategy of antibiotic use with a 6-week cycle duration is similar to mixing in terms of acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections, length of stay and mortality. PMID:26982807

  17. Evaluation of a Mixing versus a Cycling Strategy of Antibiotic Use in Critically-Ill Medical Patients: Impact on Acquisition of Resistant Microorganisms and Clinical Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of two strategies of antibiotic use (mixing vs. cycling on the acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections and other clinical outcomes.Prospective cohort study in an 8-bed intensive care unit during 35- months in which a mixing-cycling policy of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was operative. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Target microorganisms included methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters.A total of 409 (42% patients were included in mixing and 560 (58% in cycling. Exposure to ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in mixing while exposure to meropenem was higher in cycling, although overall use of antipseudomonals was not significantly different (37.5/100 patient-days vs. 38.1/100 patient-days. There was a barely higher acquisition rate of microorganisms during mixing, but this difference lost its significance when the cases due to an exogenous Burkholderia cepacia outbreak were excluded (19.3% vs. 15.4%, OR 0.8, CI 0.5-1.1. Acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to the intervention antibiotics or with multiple-drug resistance was similar. There were no significant differences between mixing and cycling in the proportion of patients acquiring any infection (16.6% vs. 14.5%, OR 0.9, CI 0.6-1.2, any infection due to target microorganisms (5.9% vs. 5.2%, OR 0.9, CI 0.5-1.5, length of stay (median 5 d for both groups or mortality (13.9 vs. 14.3%, OR 1.03, CI 0.7-1.3.A cycling strategy of antibiotic use with a 6-week cycle duration is similar to mixing in terms of acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections, length of stay and mortality.

  18. [Sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics (Zurich, 2000)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, R; Pfyffer, G E; Wüst, J

    2001-12-13

    This paper describes the frequency of susceptibility of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria against antibacterial agents. Data are based on all susceptibility tests performed at the Department of Medical Microbiology of the University of Zurich in 2000. The evaluation of the results from 1987 to 2000 shows that susceptibilities against the antimicrobial agents tested have not markedly changed with the following exceptions: 7% of Staphylococcus aureus are resistant against methicillin, 8% of pneumococci have a reduced susceptibility to penicillin, 1% is resistant to penicillin, and 10% are resistant to macrolides. 9% of group A streptococci are resistant to macrolides. Quinolone resistance is markedly high in the medical practice with 10% of E. coli strains and 32% of Campylobacter sp. Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli producing extended spectrum betalactamases are isolated occasionally. Of all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from clinical specimens in 2000, 4% were multi-drug resistant. The tables may be a help for the physician in his decision for a "calculated chemotherapy" of bacterial infections. PMID:11793839

  19. The future of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to spread even as society is experiencing a market failure of new antibiotic research and development (R&D). Scientific, economic, and regulatory barriers all contribute to the antibiotic market failure. Scientific solutions to rekindle R&D include finding new screening strategies to identify novel antibiotic scaffolds and transforming the way we think about treating infections, such that the goal is to disarm the pathogen without killing it or modulate the host response to the organism without targeting the organism for destruction. Future economic strategies are likely to focus on 'push' incentives offered by public-private partnerships as well as increasing pricing by focusing development on areas of high unmet need. Such strategies can also help protect new antibiotics from overuse after marketing. Regulatory reform is needed to re-establish feasible and meaningful traditional antibiotic pathways, to create novel limited-use pathways that focus on highly resistant infections, and to harmonize regulatory standards across nations. We need new antibiotics with which to treat our patients. But we also need to protect those new antibiotics from misuse when they become available. If we want to break the cycle of resistance and change the current landscape, disruptive approaches that challenge long-standing dogma will be needed. PMID:25043962

  20. Immunomodulatory actions of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antimicrob drugs and immune system interaction has been studied since the pioneer works of Metchnikoff. After the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice this area has attracted little attention of investigators, because of the lack of standards. This is the reason that the studying of the influence of antibiotics on immune system is still at its beginning. Aim: To point out the immunomodulatory action of some antibiotics on certain components of immune system. Methods and results. The literaure findings show that antibiotics exspress immunomodulatory action on some components of immune system such as fagocytes (polymorphonucleary, macrophages, monocytes, cytokines, immunoglobulines, and on cellular immunity. The principles of antibiotics action on phagocyte are the inhibition of chemotaxis and oxidants production. Macrolides applied for a short time enchance the phagocytic functions while their long use leads to immunosupression. Some cephalosporines and rifampicin in therapeutic doses inhibit the oxydative metabolism of macrophages. Tetracyclines, clindamycines, chloramphenicol and tobramycin inhibit the synthesis of superoxyd anione. The action of some antibiotics on cytokine and specific antibodies is also important. Cellular immunity can be affected as well. After administration of certain antibiotics it takes 1-2 weeks to reestablish normal cellular immunity, and for other even more. Conclusion. There is still no clear standing on real effects of antibiotics on the immune system. Clinicians should search for more information from this new-old field of investigation in order to give more adequate therapy to patients.

  1. Antibiotics concentrations in a patient with postoperative endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Hirsbein, David; Genevois, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of endophthalmitis who underwent a vitreous biopsy to assess sensitivity and to inject broad-spectrum intraocular antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of antibiotics against a coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Proprionibacterium acnes were also assessed. PMID:18025662

  2. Extraction and detection of antibiotics in the rhizosphere metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important mechanism of natural disease suppression is the production of antibiotics by soil microbes. Antibiotics are small organic molecules of microbial origin that at low concentrations are deleterious to the growth or metabolism of other microorganisms. Soilborne pathogens are sensitive to ma...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of hybrid CTX-M type beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates from human and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chunjiao; 刘春娇

    2014-01-01

    A novel and effective mechanism of forming resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by producing hybrid CTX-M-type beta-lactamases through genetic recombination was reported recently, albeit sporadically. Its primary introductory factor is the horizontal resistant gene transfer that occurs within the 876 bp 〖bla〗_(CTX-M) gene in Escherichia coli isolates, followed by the extensive application of beta-lactam antimicrobials. 〖bla〗_(CTX-M) originated from the nonpathogenic commensal Kluyvera spp., ...

  4. First identification of class A carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, C

    2009-04-02

    The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was detected in a carbapenem-resistant respiratory isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in an Irish hospital. This is the first report of a KPC-producing isolate in the Republic of Ireland. The isolate was resistant to all beta-lactams. Furthermore, it had reduced susceptibility to three other classes of non-beta-lactam antibiotics. The isolate was not associated with travel abroad. Detection of KPC-producing bacteria has important infection control and public health implications.

  5. Macrophytes may not contribute significantly to removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance in model surface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Beattie, Sarah A; Bartel, Caitlin N; Elliott, Ashley D; Montero, Oscar F; Lokesh, Sheetal; Favreau, Alex; Kozlova, Tatiana A; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Outdoor shallow wetland mesocosms, designed to simulate surface constructed wetlands to improve lagoon wastewater treatment, were used to assess the role of macrophytes in the dissipation of wastewater nutrients, selected pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Specifically, mesocosms were established with or without populations of Typha spp. (cattails), Myriophyllum sibiricum (northern water milfoil), and Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort). Following macrophyte establishment, mesocosms were seeded with ARG-bearing organisms from a local wastewater lagoon, and treated with a single pulse of artificial municipal wastewater with or without carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen (each at 7.6μg/L), as well as sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine (each at 150μg/L). Rates of pharmaceutical dissipation over 28d ranged from 0.073 to 3.0d(-1), corresponding to half-lives of 0.23 to 9.4d. Based on calculated rate constants, observed dissipation rates were consistent with photodegradation driving clofibric acid, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine removal, and with sorption also contributing to carbamazepine and fluoxetine loss. Of the seven gene determinants assayed, only two genes for both beta-lactam resistance (blaCTX and blaTEM) and sulfonamide resistance (sulI and sulII) were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. Genes disappeared relatively rapidly from the water column, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 99d. In contrast, detected gene levels did not change in the sediment, with the exception of sulI, which increased after 28d in pharmaceutical-treated systems. These shallow wetland mesocosms were able to dissipate wastewater contaminants rapidly. However, no significant enhancement in removal of nutrients or pharmaceuticals was observed in mesocosms with extensive aquatic plant communities. This was likely due to three factors: first, use of naïve systems with an unchallenged capacity for nutrient assimilation and

  6. Antibiotic Susceptibility in Neonatal Invasive Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a 2-Year Nationwide Surveillance Study in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fluegge, Kirsten; Supper, Sven; Siedler, Anette; Berner, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 296 invasive neonatal group B streptococcus isolates from a nationwide 2-year surveillance study in Germany was investigated. All isolates were susceptible to beta-lactams, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and vancomycin. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was found in 10.1 and 5.7%, respectively. The ermB, ermTR, or mefA gene was detected in all but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates.

  7. Targeting Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellat, Mathieu F; Raguž, Luka; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Finding strategies against the development of antibiotic resistance is a major global challenge for the life sciences community and for public health. The past decades have seen a dramatic worldwide increase in human-pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to one or multiple antibiotics. More and more infections caused by resistant microorganisms fail to respond to conventional treatment, and in some cases, even last-resort antibiotics have lost their power. In addition, industry pipelines for the development of novel antibiotics have run dry over the past decades. A recent world health day by the World Health Organization titled "Combat drug resistance: no action today means no cure tomorrow" triggered an increase in research activity, and several promising strategies have been developed to restore treatment options against infections by resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27000559

  8. Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel M; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Diverticulitis is an inflammatory complication to the very common condition diverticulosis. Uncomplicated diverticulitis has traditionally been treated with antibiotics with reference to the microbiology, extrapolation from trials on complicated intra-abdominal infections and clinical experience....

  9. Antibiotic induced meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with antibiotic induced meningitis, one following penicillin with seven episodes, are reported on--the first well documented description of penicillin induced meningitis. In this patient episodes of headache and nuchal rigidity appeared with and without CSF pleocytosis. Two patients had a total of five episodes of antibiotic induced meningitis after trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) administration. The features common to all three patients were myalgia, confusion ...

  10. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website w...

  11. [Analysis of antibiotic usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balpataki, R; Balogh, J; Zelkó, R; Vincze, Z

    2001-01-01

    Economic analysis is founded on the assumption that resources are limited and that should be used in a way that maximizes the benefits gained. Pharmacoeconomics extends these assumptions to drug treatment. Therefore, a full pharmacoeconomic analysis must consider two or more alternative treatments and should be founded on measurement of incremental cost, incremental efficacy, and the value of successful outcome. Antibiotic policy based only on administrative restrictions is failed, instead of it disease formularies and infectologist consultation system are needed. Equally important are various programmes that encourage the cost-conscious use of the antibiotics chosen. Some of the methods evaluated in the literature include: streamlining from combination therapy to a single agent, early switching from parenteral to oral therapy, initiating treatment with oral agents, administering parenteral antibiotic at home from outset of therapy, and antibiotic streamlining programmes that are partnered with infectious disease physicians. The solution is the rational and adequate use of antibiotics, based on the modern theory and practice of antibiotic policy and infection control, that cannot be carried out without the activities of experts in this field. PMID:11769090

  12. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  13. [Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, G; Iacob, Simona; Cojocaru, Inimioara

    2007-01-01

    Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversial issue. Some neurosurgeons consider that there are strong arguments against the use of antimicrobials (promotion of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, superinfection and adverse drug reactions) and meticulous aseptic techniques could be more usefully than prophylactic antibiotics. On the other hand, despite of being rare, the consequences of a neurosurgical infection can be dramatic and may result in a rapid death, caused by meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation or sepsis. Clinical studies emphasized that the most important factors influencing the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is the patient's immune status, virulence of the pathogens and the type of surgery ("clean contaminated"--procedure that crosses the cranial sinuses, "clean non-implant"--procedure that does not cross the cranial sinuses, CSF shunt surgery, skull fracture). Prophylaxis has become the standard of care for contaminated and clean-contaminated surgery, also for surgery involving insertion of artificial devices. The antibiotic (first/second generation of cephalosporins or vancomycin in allergic patients) should recover only the cutaneous possibly contaminating flora (S. aureus, S. epidermidis) and should be administrated 30' before the surgical incision, intravenously in a single dose. Most studies pointed that identification of the risk factors for infections, correct asepsis and minimal prophylactic antibiotic regimen, help neurosurgeons to improve patient care and to decrease mortality without selecting resistant bacteria. PMID:18293694

  14. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  15. Determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics using complex compounds of chromotropic acid bisazoderivatives with rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of complex formation of bisazo derivatives of chromotropic acid with rare earth ions and aminoglycoside antibiotics have made it possible to choose carboxyarsenazo, orthanyl R and carboxynitrazo as highly sensitive reagents for determining aminoglycoside antibiotics. Conditions have been found for the formation of precipitates of different-ligand complexes containing rare earth ions, bisazo derivatives of chromotropic acid and aminogylcoside antibiotics. A procedure has been worked out of determining the antibiotics in biological samples with carboxyarsenazo

  16. Phages limit the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance in experimental microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens, often resulting from de novo mutations, is creating a public health crisis. Phages show promise for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the efficacy of which, however, may also be limited by resistance evolution. Here, we suggest that phages may be used as supplements to antibiotics in treating initially sensitive bacteria to prevent resistance evolution, as phages are unaffected by most antibiotics and there should be ...

  17. Ecological antibiotic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiby, N

    2000-09-01

    Development of resistance to antibiotics is a major problem worldwide. The normal oropharyngeal flora, the intestinal flora and the skin flora play important roles in this development. Within a few days after the onset of antibiotic therapy, resistant Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus epidermidis can be detected in the normal flora of volunteers or patients. Horizontal spread of the resistance genes to other species, e.g. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, occurs by conjugation or transformation. An ecologically sound antibiotic policy favours the use of antibiotics with little or no impact on the normal flora. Prodrug antibiotics which are not active against the bacteria in the mouth and the intestine (before absorption) and which are not excreted to a significant degree via the intestine, saliva or skin are therefore preferred. Prodrugs such as pivampicillin, bacampicillin, pivmecillinam and cefuroxime axetil are favourable from an ecological point of view. Experience from Scandinavia supports this, since resistance to mecillinam after 20 years of use is low (about 5%) and stable. PMID:11051626

  18. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati eSengupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, which have been a very powerful tool in the clinical management of bacterial diseases since the 1940s. However, benefits offered by these magic bullets have been substantially lost in subsequent days following the widespread emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains. While it is obvious that excessive and imprudent use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic-resistance is also observed in natural bacteria of remote places unlikely to be impacted by human intervention. Both antibiotic biosynthetic genes and resistance-conferring genes have been known to evolve billions of years ago, long before clinical use of antibiotics. Hence it appears that antibiotics and antibiotics resistance determinants have some other roles in nature, which often elude our attention because of overemphasis on the therapeutic importance of antibiotics and the crisis imposed by the antibiotic-resistance in pathogens. In the natural milieu, antibiotics are often found to be present in subinhibitory concentrations acting as signalling molecules supporting quorum sensing and biofilm formation. They also play an important role in the production of virulence factors and influence host-parasite interactions (e.g., phagocytosis, adherence to the target cell and so on. The evolutionary and ecological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance in the naturally occurring microbial community are little understood. Therefore, the actual role of antibiotics in nature warrants in-depth investigations. Studies on such an intriguing behaviour of the microorganisms promise insight into the intricacies of the microbial physiology and are likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This article highlights some of the recent findings on the role of antibiotics and genes that confer resistance to antibiotics in

  19. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  20. [Antibiotical prophylaxy in gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhumenský, J; Menzlová, E; Zmrhal, J; Kučera, E

    2013-08-01

    Gynecological surgery is considered to be clear with possible contamination by gram-positive cocci from the skin, gram-negatives from the perineum or groins or polymicrobial biocenosis from vagina, depending on the surgical approach. Antibiotical prophylaxy enforces the natural mechanisms of immunity and helps to exclude present infection. There were presented many studies comparing useful effect of prophylaxis in gynecological surgery. The benefits of antibiotical prophylaxy before IUD insertion, before the cervical surgery and before hysteroscopies were not verified. On the other hand the prophylaxy of vaginal surgery including vaginal hysterectomy decreases the number of postoperative febrile complications. The positive influence of prophylaxis before the simple laparoscopy and laparoscopy without bowel injury or the opening of the vagina was not evidently verified. In abdominal hysterectomy the antibiotical prophylaxy decreases the incidence of postoperative complications significantly. The administration of 2 g of cefazolin can be recommended. In procedures taking more than 3 hours the repeated administration of cefazolin is suitable. New urogynecological procedures, using mesh implants, were not sufficiently evaluated as for postoperative infections and the posible antibiotical effect. The presence of implant in possibly non sterile area should be considered as high risc of postoperative complications. PMID:24040985

  1. Antibiotics in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range and number of interventional procedures is rapidly increasing each year. A major complication associated with many procedures is infection, which can result in serious adverse outcomes for the patient. Consequently, antibiotics are amongst the most common pharmaceuticals used by the interventionist, particularly for non-vascular procedures, yet almost no randomized controlled trial data exist to inform our decision when formulating appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the utilization of antibiotics for common interventional radiology procedures, focusing on timing and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. - Highlights: • Prophylaxis when necessary should be given immediately prior to the procedure for optimum effect. • Where possible single agents with a narrow spectrum of activity should be used. • Account should be taken of the clinical circumstances of the patient, including surgical history. • Continuous review of agents is necessary, ideally with input from the local microbiology department. • The importance of maximum sterile precautions cannot be overstated

  2. Probing minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2016-06-15

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies. PMID:26852201

  3. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most widespread multiresistant bacteria. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms by photosensitizers (PS) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of new PS cationic porphyrin Zn-TBut4PyP was tested on two strains of S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus). It is shown that Zn-TBut4PyP has high photodynamic activity against both strains

  4. Polylactide-polyglycolide antibiotic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kevin; Feschuk, Connie

    2005-08-01

    Surgeons continually struggle to reduce orthopaedic infections, but no current treatment offers minimum side effects with maximum effectiveness. Antibiotics mixed in plaster of paris have been successful in treating large bony defects in patients with chronic osteomyelitis, and have the advantage of being well tolerated and absorbed by the body. Antibiotics impregnated in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have offered local antibiotic delivery with some success. However, the effect of the antibiotic on the bone cement, the inconsistent elution of the antibiotic, and the need to remove the PMMA implant drives the need for a better system of antibiotic delivery. Polymers or copolymers of antibiotic-impregnated polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid or polyparadioxanone may provide an absorbable system for localized antibiotic delivery. Similar biodegradable systems used to treat small bone fractures have been successful with minimal side effects. In vitro studies have shown promising results of antibiotic elution from bioabsorbable microspheres and beads. Animal in vivo tests have shown that antibiotic impregnated polymers can successfully treat induced osteomyelitis in rabbits and dogs. These studies have provided consistent reproducible results, and now it is time to plan human trials to assess the efficacy of antibiotic microspheres implanted in infected bone and to plan in vivo and in vitro animal testing to investigate the feasibility of antibiotic-polymer-coated components. PMID:16056034

  5. Enhancement of antibiotic effect via gold:silver-alloy nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy for the development of novel antimicrobials is to combine the stability and pleiotropic effects of inorganic compounds with the specificity and efficiency of organic compounds, such as antibiotics. Here we report on the use of gold:silver-alloy (Au:Ag-alloy) nanoparticles, obtained via a single-step citrate co-reduction method, combined to conventional antibiotics to enhance their antimicrobial effect on bacteria. Addition of the alloy nanoparticles considerably decreased the dose of antibiotic necessary to show antimicrobial effect, both for bacterial cells growing in rich medium in suspension and for bacterial cells resting in a physiological buffer on a humid cellulose surface. The observed effect was more pronounced than the sum of the individual effects of the nanoparticles and antibiotic. We demonstrate the enhancement effect of Au:Ag-alloy nanoparticles with a size distribution of 32.5 ± 7.5 nm mean diameter on the antimicrobial effect of (i) kanamycin on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium), and (ii) a β-lactam antibiotic on both a sensitive and resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium). Together, these results may pave the way for the combined use of nanoparticle–antibiotic conjugates towards decreasing antibiotic resistance currently observed for certain bacteria and conventional antibiotics.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance in Childhood with Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Resistance to antibiotics is better. Between should not be in capitals. Antibiotics resistant has been increasing in pneumococci that cause serious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis in recent years. The resistance rates vary between geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to determine antibiotic resistance rates in pneumococcal infections in our region. Material and Method: This study included 31 pneumococcal strains isolated from blood, CSF and urine samples of patients with meningitis, sepsis and urinary tract infections who admitted Dicle University Medicine School Children Clinic and Diyarbakir Pediatric Hospital Between December 2004-April 2007. Reproducing clinical specimens with alpha-hemolysis, optochin-sensitive, bile soluble and gram-positive diplococci morphology was defined as S. pneumoniae. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains were measured by the E-test method. MIC values of penicillin against pneumococci was accepted as <0.06 mg / ml value of the sensitive, 0.12-1μg/ml mid-level resistance, ≥ 2 mg / ml value of the high-level resistance. Results: It was found 16% mid-level penicillin resistance and 3.2% high-level penicillin resistance by E-test method. 80.7% of Strains were percent of the penicillin-sensitive. Seftiriakson resistance was found as 3.2%. there was not Vancomycin resistance. Discussion: We think penicillin therapy is enough effective for pneumococcal infections except serious conditions such as meningitis and sepsis. Also we think it should be supported by multicenter studies.

  7. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  8. Radioactivity measurements for determining bacterial increase and sensibility to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors elaborated a sensitive and objective measuring method for determining the bacteria increase in biological material and the sensibility to antibiotics. When 14C glucose is added to the medium as the single source of sugar, the respiratory carbon dioxide formed by the bacteria reflects the rate of increase. The released 14C dioxide can be measured continuously without loss to the environment and the degree of bacterial infection and the antibiotic activity, respectively, can be determined. (author)

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Bloody Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedi Abdolkarim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial dysentery, aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration is especially indicated whenever malnutrition is present. First-line drugs include ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX; however multidrug-resistance has occurred and careful antibiotic selection must be considered in prescribing .When epidemiologic data indicate a rise in resistancy, fluoroquinolones may be used in adults and oral third-generation cephalosporins and nalidixic acid in children. All children (n=2400 with acute diarrhea who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Dr.sheykh Hospital Mashhad, Iran from March 2004 to March 2005 were selected and their stool culture were obtained, then positive cultures (312 cases,13% were evaluated by antibiogram. This study showed that in heavily populated areas of IRAN like Mashhad, 97% shigella strain isolated from children with bloody diarrhea were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and rarely susceptible to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. There is increasing resistance of Shigella to most of the antibiotics in use, and for this reason, careful selection of antibiotics must use considered in each area. Development and use of new drugs are expensive and have severe limitations in the third world. Simple prophylactic alternatives are therefore, required, such as awareness of hygienic child care practices and early promotion of breast feeding. For treatment of shigellosis in infants Ceftriaxon, and in children Nalidixic Acid is recommended.

  10. Chromosomal beta-lactamase is packaged into membrane vesicles and secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Beveridge, T J; Kadurugamuwa, J; Walther-Rasmussen, J; Høiby, N

    2000-01-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from one beta-lactam-sensitive and three beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase in the membrane vesicles was shown by electron microscopy and...... enzymatic studies. This is the first report of extracellular secretion of beta-lactamase in P. aeruginosa and it seems that the enzyme is packaged into membrane vesicles....

  11. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Klugman, K P

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumo...

  12. Antibiotics in dental practice

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The oral cavity and it surrounding tissue are habitats for many bacteria. Therefore a rationale for the use of antibacterial agents rises. During my time as a dental student, me often meet conditions were antibiotics are pointed out as the treatment of chose, as indicated or not recommended. According to Norwegian drug regulations (Tørisen 2007) dentists have: The right to requisition necessary medical agents in connection with dental treatment and prevention and treatment of diseases in the...

  13. Vicissitude of antibiotic sensitivity of Gram negative bacilli in patients with infection in emergency departments in Beijing during 2005 to 2007%2005-2007年北京市5家三级甲等医院急诊科感染患者革兰阴性杆菌药敏变迁情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 钱远宇; 刘刚; 黎檀实; 孟庆义

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查北京市大型医院急诊科感染患者革兰阴性杆菌药敏状况及抗生素耐药变迁规律.方法 对北京市5家三级甲等医院2005-2007年急诊科感染患者细菌培养结果进行回顾性分析,了解革兰阴性杆菌的分布状况及抗生素耐药变迁规律.结果 共分离革兰阴性杆菌2 285株,占64.62%,居前5位的为铜绿假单胞菌(占23.89%)、大肠埃希菌(占19.91%)、鲍曼不动杆菌(占17.59%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(占8.05%)、嗜麦芽窄食单胞菌(占3.94%).2005-2007年,细菌的抗生素敏感率出现了明显的下降趋势,尤以常用抗生素如头孢菌素类、碳青霉烯类和喹诺酮类下降显著,其中铜绿假单胞菌对亚胺培南的耐药率2005、2006、2007年分别为17.30%、22.53%、31.92%,鲍曼不动杆菌对亚胺培南的耐药率分别为13.87%、12.09%、23.56%.结论 大型综合医院急诊科细菌谱趋向于医院感染的特点,细菌的抗生素敏感率出现明显下降的趋势,抗生素耐药形势不容乐观.%Objective To investigate changes in antibiotic sensitivity of Gram negative bacilli infections among emergency patients in large hospitals in Beijing during 2005 to 2007. Methods Retrospective analysis of all the identified strains of Gram negative bacilli, and their sensitivity to antibiotic obtained in the emergency departments of 5 top first-class hospitals in Beijing for recent 3 years. Results Two thousand two hundred and eighty-five strains of Gram negative bacilli had taken 64.62% of all, the priority 5 of which were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.89%), Escherichia coli (19.91%), Acinetobacter baumanii (17.59%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.05%) and Staphylococcus maltophilia (3.94%). The sensitivity of commonly used antibiotics plummeted greatly in recent 3 years, especially carbapenems, cephalosporins and quinolones. The resistance of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 17.30%, 22.53%, 31.92% respectively. The resistance of imipenem

  14. Social interaction, noise and antibiotic-mediated switches in the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanni Bucci

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota plays important roles in digestion and resistance against entero-pathogens. As with other ecosystems, its species composition is resilient against small disturbances but strong perturbations such as antibiotics can affect the consortium dramatically. Antibiotic cessation does not necessarily restore pre-treatment conditions and disturbed microbiota are often susceptible to pathogen invasion. Here we propose a mathematical model to explain how antibiotic-mediated switches in the microbiota composition can result from simple social interactions between antibiotic-tolerant and antibiotic-sensitive bacterial groups. We build a two-species (e.g. two functional-groups model and identify regions of domination by antibiotic-sensitive or antibiotic-tolerant bacteria, as well as a region of multistability where domination by either group is possible. Using a new framework that we derived from statistical physics, we calculate the duration of each microbiota composition state. This is shown to depend on the balance between random fluctuations in the bacterial densities and the strength of microbial interactions. The singular value decomposition of recent metagenomic data confirms our assumption of grouping microbes as antibiotic-tolerant or antibiotic-sensitive in response to a single antibiotic. Our methodology can be extended to multiple bacterial groups and thus it provides an ecological formalism to help interpret the present surge in microbiome data.

  15. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Nader-Macías

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.

  16. Optimizing Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes Through Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Huslage, Kirk; Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families. PMID:27621341

  17. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL......, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases revealed one randomized trial and 17 observational studies concerning the prophylactic effect of intracameral antibiotic administration on the rate of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The effect of topical antibiotics on endophthalmitis rate was reported by one...... with the use of intracameral antibiotic administration of cefazolin, cefuroxime and moxifloxacin, whereas no effect was found with the use of topical antibiotics or intracameral vancomycin. Endophthalmitis occurred on average in one of 2855 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were used compared to...

  18. Determination of antibiotic hypersensitivity among 4,000 single-gene-knockout mutants of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamae, Cindy; Liu, Anne; Kim, Katherine; Sitz, Daniel; Hong, Jeeyoon; Becket, Elinne; Bui, Ann; Solaimani, Parrisa; Tran, Katherine P; Yang, Hanjing; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2008-09-01

    We have tested the entire Keio collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to one of seven different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin, vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, or metronidazole). We used high-throughput screening of several subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic and reduced more than 65,000 data points to a set of 140 strains that display significantly increased sensitivities to at least one of the antibiotics, determining the MIC in each case. These data provide targets for the design of "codrugs" that can potentiate existing antibiotics. We have made a number of double mutants with greatly increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, and these overcome the resistance generated by certain gyrA mutations. Many of the gene knockouts in E. coli are hypersensitive to more than one antibiotic. Together, all of these data allow us to outline the cell's "intrinsic resistome," which provides innate resistance to antibiotics. PMID:18621901

  19. Antibiotics in otorhinolaryngology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study investigated utilization of antibacterial agents at the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman and at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, in the period February - March 2001. Material and methods All antibacterial agents were classified as group J, regarding Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification. Data on drug utilization were presented in Defined Daily Doses (DDD. Patients who were under observation were all treated with antibiotics. Results In regard to prescribed treatment in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, most outpatients were treated with macrolide antibiotics - in 26.21%; combination of penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors in 20.83% and pyranosides in 16.12%. At the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, macrolides and lincosamines were most frequently used - in 20.46%; cephalosporins in 19.87% and penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase in 18.85%. It is extremely positive and in agreement with current pharmacotherapeutic principles that in both institutions peroral ampicillins have not been prescribed. Aminoglycosides have been prescribed in less than 1% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, whereas they were much more frequently prescribed at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad - in 11.25%. Although there is a positive postantibiotic effect in regard to these antibiotics and it is recommended to use them once a day, in both examined institutions aminoglycosides were given twice a day. In regard to bacterial identification it was done in 80.76% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, while in the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center

  20. Selective advantage of resistant strains at trace levels of antibiotics: a simple and ultrasensitive color test for detection of antibiotics and genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Fong, Amie; Becket, Elinne; Yuan, Jessica; Tamae, Cindy; Medrano, Leah; Maiz, Maria; Wahba, Christine; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Kim; Tran, Katherine P; Yang, Hanjing; Hoffman, Robert M; Salih, Anya; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2011-03-01

    Many studies have examined the evolution of bacterial mutants that are resistant to specific antibiotics, and many of these focus on concentrations at and above the MIC. Here we ask for the minimum concentration at which existing resistant mutants can outgrow sensitive wild-type strains in competition experiments at antibiotic levels significantly below the MIC, and we define a minimum selective concentration (MSC) in Escherichia coli for two antibiotics, which is near 1/5 of the MIC for ciprofloxacin and 1/20 of the MIC for tetracycline. Because of the prevalence of resistant mutants already in the human microbiome, allowable levels of antibiotics to which we are exposed should be below the MSC. Since this concentration often corresponds to low or trace levels of antibiotics, it is helpful to have simple tests to detect such trace levels. We describe a simple ultrasensitive test for detecting the presence of antibiotics and genotoxic agents. The test is based on the use of chromogenic proteins as color markers and the use of single and multiple mutants of Escherichia coli that have greatly increased sensitivity to either a wide range of antibiotics or specific antibiotics, antibiotic families, and genotoxic agents. This test can detect ciprofloxacin at 1/75 of the MIC. PMID:21199928

  1. Selective Advantage of Resistant Strains at Trace Levels of Antibiotics: a Simple and Ultrasensitive Color Test for Detection of Antibiotics and Genotoxic Agents▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Fong, Amie; Becket, Elinne; Yuan, Jessica; Tamae, Cindy; Medrano, Leah; Maiz, Maria; Wahba, Christine; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Kim; Tran, Katherine P.; Yang, Hanjing; Hoffman, Robert M.; Salih, Anya; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have examined the evolution of bacterial mutants that are resistant to specific antibiotics, and many of these focus on concentrations at and above the MIC. Here we ask for the minimum concentration at which existing resistant mutants can outgrow sensitive wild-type strains in competition experiments at antibiotic levels significantly below the MIC, and we define a minimum selective concentration (MSC) in Escherichia coli for two antibiotics, which is near 1/5 of the MIC for ciprofloxacin and 1/20 of the MIC for tetracycline. Because of the prevalence of resistant mutants already in the human microbiome, allowable levels of antibiotics to which we are exposed should be below the MSC. Since this concentration often corresponds to low or trace levels of antibiotics, it is helpful to have simple tests to detect such trace levels. We describe a simple ultrasensitive test for detecting the presence of antibiotics and genotoxic agents. The test is based on the use of chromogenic proteins as color markers and the use of single and multiple mutants of Escherichia coli that have greatly increased sensitivity to either a wide range of antibiotics or specific antibiotics, antibiotic families, and genotoxic agents. This test can detect ciprofloxacin at 1/75 of the MIC. PMID:21199928

  2. Role of antibiotic production by Erwinia herbicola Eh252 in biological control of Erwinia amylovora.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanneste, J L; Yu, J.; Beer, S V

    1992-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola Eh252 is a nonpathogenic epiphytic bacterium that reduces fire blight incidence when sprayed onto apple blossoms before inoculation with Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Eh252 was found to produce on minimal medium an antibiotic that inhibited the growth of E. amylovora. This antibiotic was inactivated by histidine but not by Fe(II), was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, and showed a narrow host range of activity. To determine the role of this antibiotic i...

  3. The resistance of Enterobacteriaceae members and Pseudomonas species to p-laktam antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Dr. Bengül; ÖZEROL, Dr. İ Halil; Şahin, Dr. Kazını; Tekerekoğlu, Dr. M. Sait; Köroğlu, Dr. Mehmet

    1997-01-01

    This study was performed in İnönü University Turgut ÖZAL Medical Center to asses the resistance of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species to P-laktam antibiotics. From October 1995 to February 1997, 1126 Gram negative bacilli were isolated. 1022 (91) of isolates were Enterobacteriaceae members whereas 104 (9%) of them were Pseudomonas species. Sensitivities of pathogens P-laktam antibiotics were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Following antibiotics were effective as: cefta...

  4. Antibiotic resistances in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica isolated from foods with animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández; Joaquín Hernández-Godoy

    2004-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotics in both human and animal health and in cattle production has generated resistant microorganisms to common antibiotics. Resistances spread caused by human and animal therapeutic is well known, but we know poorly frecuency of resistant bacteria in foods with animal origin and destinated to human consumers. In this paper, sensitivity to nineteen antibiotics was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from foods with animal orig...

  5. Selective Conditions for a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid Depend on the Sociality of Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bottery, Michael; Wood, A. Jamie; Brockhurst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids frequently carry antibiotic resistance genes conferring qualitatively different mechanisms of resistance. We show here that the antibiotic concentrations selecting for the RK2 plasmid in Escherichia coli depend upon the sociality of the drug resistance: the selection for selfish drug resistance (efflux pump) occurred at very low drug concentrations, just 1.3% of the MIC of the plasmid-free antibiotic-sensitive strain, whereas selection for cooperative drug ...

  6. Impact of Low Procalcitonin Results on Antibiotic Administration in Hospitalized Patients at a Tertiary Care Center

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Meghan B.; Osterby, Kurt; Schulz, Lucas; Lepak, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin is a sensitive and specific marker of bacterial infection; low results allow clinicians to safely de-escalate antibiotics. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the effect of low procalcitonin results on withholding, discontinuing, or de-escalating antibiotics in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care center. Antibiotics were initiated or continued without de-escalation in 55% of patients with low procalcitonin results. Among patients with low procalcitonin result...

  7. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  8. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity test of dairy cow recessive mammitis streptococcus%奶牛隐性乳房炎链球菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昆; 蒋成砚; 王会英; 周文树; 唐秀华; 汪镜

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria separated from fresh milk in the Mengzi area of Yunnan Province were morphologically and biochemically identified via bacterial culture,and their susceptibilities to 7 common antibiot-ics were also tested.The results showed that the 7 separated streptococcus strains (MZ1—MZ7)were respectively 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (MZ1 and MZ6),3 strains of S.uberis (MZ4,MZ5 and MZ7)and 2 strains of S.dysgalactive (MZ2 and MZ3)according to traditional morphology,physiology and biochemistry as well as The Common Manual ofDeterminative Bacteriology;All the above strains were susceptible to tetracycline,cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin,but low susceptible to gentamicin,vancomycin and penicillin.%从云南省蒙自地区奶牛乳样中采集病原菌,通过细菌培养,进行形态和生化试验鉴定及药敏试验。结果表明:从牛奶中分离得到的7株链球菌(编号为 MZ1—MZ7),按照传统的形态学和生理生化并参照《常见细菌系统鉴定手册》,2株是无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)(MZ1和 MZ6)、3株是乳房链球菌(S.uberis)(MZ4、MZ5和 MZ7)和2株停乳链球菌(S.dysgalactive)(MZ2和 MZ3);这些菌株对四环素、头孢噻吩、环丙沙星和苯唑西林4种药物敏感,对庆大霉素、万古霉素和青霉素3种药物敏感性较低。

  9. Antibiotic Therapy in Pyogenic Meningitis in Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To isolate and identify the causative pathogen, antibiotic sensitivity testing and success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy in pyogenic meningitis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to July 2012. Methodology: The study was performed on 72 culture positive meningitis cases in children less than 15 years of age. This therapy was evaluated by monitoring the patient's clinical picture for 14 - 21 days. The collected data was analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Seventeen different bacteria were isolated. The most commonly occurring bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococci (25%), E. coli (12.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.3%). All the bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin (96.7%), meropenem (76.7%), amikacin (75%), ciprofloxacin (65.3%), chloramphenicol (46.5%), ceftazidime (44.2%), cefepime (41.9%), co-amoxiclav (38.0%), oxacillin (34.8%), cefotaxime (21.4%), penicillin (20.7%), ceftriaxone (18.6%), cefuroxime (14%) and ampicillin (6.9%). The combination of sulbactam and cefoperazone showed antimicrobial sensitivity of 81.4%. The success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was 91.7%. Conclusion: It was found that Gram negative bacteria were the major cause of pyogenic meningitis. Mostly there were resistant strains against all commonly used antibiotics except vancomycin. All empirical antibiotic therapies were found to be most successful. (author)

  10. Antibiotics for Causative Microorganisms of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeili

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is a common bacterial disease in children which may cause chronic renal failure and hypertention. Many reports suggest that the rate of antibiotic resistance to infectious organisms is increasing. Therefore periodic surveillance of resistance rates is needed to ensure that appropriate recommendations can be made for better management & preventing of late sequelae. Methods In this cross sectional descriptive study we investigate the results of urinalysis, urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated organisms in the urine of 1556 children aged under 10 years in Mashhad city between April 2001 and June 2002. Described parameters are age, sex, incidence of significant bacteriuria, leucocyturia, causative bacterial agents, and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Findings: The most common age group in both sexes was infantile period. Median age was 20.3 months in boys and 47.5 months in girls. E.coli, klebsiella and proteus were the causative organisms in 87.3%. They were sensitive to cefotaxime, cefixime, cephalotin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and gentamicin in more than 96% while resistant to trimetoprim-sultamethoxazol in about 75%. Conclusion: We recommend, with regard to continuous changing in causative microorganisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern, as a guideline for physicians, to determine bacterial sensitivity in populations yearly.

  11. ANTIBIOTIC USAGE IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS OF TABRIZ IMAM REZA HOSPITAL, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehr Taghizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy is one of the most important factors in providing community health. In a proper selection of an antibiotic for curing an infection, the kind of infective agent and its sensitivity to the utilized drugs must be regarded. The patients whom are admitted in ICUs are 5 to 7 folds more vulnerable to infection. The studies has been done in past decades have shown various amounts of inappropriate antibiotic use. The files of 234 patients whom were admitted during 6 months in ICUs (Surgery, Neurosurgery, Neurology and Pulmonary diseases of Imam Reza Hospital of Tabriz County studied for manner of antibiotic therapy, antibiotic changes during therapy, number of prescribed antibiotics 64% of patients were male and 36% were female. Average age of patients was 43.9±23.9 years. The most admission of patients was in Surgery ICU (69.2%. The most prescribed antibiotic was Cephalosporin family and ceftriaxone was the most utilized antibiotic. In 59.7% of patients, the antibiotics were prescribed empirically and in 35% of cases antibiotics changed during treatment. 28.1% of cases treated with monotherapy while others treated with combination therapy. In 61% of cases, the prescribed antibiotics were inappropriate with final diagnosis of patients. The majority of antibiotics were prescribed according to physician’s clinical experiment and combination therapy is used much more than monotherapy.

  12. 痰热清注射液联合敏感抗菌药物治疗肺癌合并肺部感染的系统评价%Meta-analysis of Tanreqing Injection plus Sensitive Antibiotics for Treatment of Pulmonary Infection in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰新宇; 陈士伟; 陈莉; 肖莉; 张生潭

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tanreqing injection plus sensitive antibiotics for pulmonary infection associated with lung cancer .METHODS:The pertinent clinical literature about Tanreqing injection plus sensitive antibiotics for treatment of pulmonary infection associated with lung cancer between 1996 and 2013 was retrieved from CBMdisc , China Journal Net , Wanfang database and VIP database , meanwhile all the fulltext literature was retrieved manually , with quality evaluation performed by two reviewers respectively .Revman 5.1 software was used for meta-analysis of the improvement rate of clinical symptoms and the incidences of adverse drug reactions and superinfection .RESULTS: A total of 12 randomized controlled trials ( RCTs ) were included .Meta-analysis on the comparison of improvement rates in clinical symptoms in patients treated with Tanreqing injection plus sensitive antibiotic therapy vs .those with sensitive antibiotic therapy alone showed P=0.93 in heterogeneity test , indicating the homogeneity of the data , thus the fixed effect model was applied , with the combined effect size OR=3.78, 95%CI=2.61-5.47( P0.05 ), and the difference was not statistically significant . CONCLUSIONS:Addition of Tanreqing injection to sensitive antibiotics resulted in better improvement rate in clinical symptoms but no better efficacy in reducing the incidences of adverse drug reactions /superinfection than did sensitive antibiotics alone in treatment of lung cancer associated with lung infections .%目的:系统评价痰热清注射液联合敏感抗菌药物治疗肺癌合并肺部感染的疗效与安全性。方法:使用计算机检索1996—2013年中国生物医学文献数据库、中国期刊网、万方数据库、维普数据库有关痰热清注射液治疗肺癌合并肺部感染的临床研究文献,并配合手工检索所有文献全文,由2位评价者分别对资料进行质量评价,采用Revman 5.1软件对临床症状改

  13. [Antibiotic stability in magistral collyria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihărău, A; Voiculescu, E; Vancea, S; Teodorescu, A; Cherecheş, S

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on physicochemical and and microbiological stability of collyria with such antibiotics as: Kanamicin, Oxacilin, Colistin, Erythromycin and Rifampicin. The authors insist on the necessity of preparing the ophthalmic solution with the antibiotics studies, with solvent for eye drops as provided for by RF IX and keeping at +4 degrees C, at dark. PMID:2101048

  14. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Davydova N.V.; Suyetenkov D.Ye.; Firsova I.V.; Oleynikova N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Identify options for the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis in children's dental reception. The analysis of publications shows that the basis of current trends prevention of postoperative wound infection in pediatric surgery should be measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the influence of risk factors, as well as the use of antibiotic prophylaxis

  15. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova N.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identify options for the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis in children's dental reception. The analysis of publications shows that the basis of current trends prevention of postoperative wound infection in pediatric surgery should be measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the influence of risk factors, as well as the use of antibiotic prophylaxis

  16. The Antibiotic Resistance Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "antibiotic" was first proposed by Vuillemin in 1889 but was first used in the current sense by Walksman in 1941. An antibiotic is defined as a "derivative produced by the metabolism of microorganisms that possess antibacterial activity at low concentrations and is not toxic to the host." In this article, the author describes how…

  17. InterProScan Result: AV404393 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404393 AV404393_2_ORF1 A68847BA533C513E PRINTS PR00118 BLACTAMASEA 2.6e-40 T IPR000871 Beta-la ... ivity (GO:0008800)|Biological Process: beta-lactam antibiotic ... catabolic process (GO:0030655)|Biological Process: ... response to antibiotic ... (GO:0046677) ...

  18. EST Table: AV404393 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404393 pg--0930 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0008800(beta-lactamase activity)|GO:0030655(beta-lactam antibiotic ... ibiotic catabolic process)|GO:0046677(response to antibiotic ) 10/09/28 100 %/137 aa gb|ADE19118.1| extended-spe ...

  19. InterProScan Result: AV404393 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404393 AV404393_2_ORF1 A68847BA533C513E PROSITE PS00146 BETA_LACTAMASE_A NA T IPR000871 Beta-l ... ivity (GO:0008800)|Biological Process: beta-lactam antibiotic ... catabolic process (GO:0030655)|Biological Process: ... response to antibiotic ... (GO:0046677) ...

  20. 78 FR 22887 - Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Drugs: A Current Good Manufacturing Practices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Current Good Manufacturing Practices Framework for Preventing Cross- Contamination; Availability AGENCY... health risks associated with cross-reactivity. Although the existing current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) regulations require separation of manufacturing facilities to avoid cross-contamination, the...

  1. Differential fate of erythromycin and beta-lactam resistance genes from swine lagoon waste under different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles W., E-mail: charles.knapp@strath.ac.u [David Livingstone Centre for Sustainability, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 50 Richmond Street, Glasgow, G1 1XN (United Kingdom); School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Wen; Sturm, Belinda S.M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Graham, David W. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The attenuation and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase (erm) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamse (bla) genes were quantified over time in aquatic systems by adding 20-L swine waste to 11,300-L outdoor mesocosms that simulated receiving water conditions below intensive agricultural operations. The units were prepared with two different light-exposure scenarios and included artificial substrates to assess gene movement into biofilms. Of eleven genes tested, only erm(B), erm(F), bla{sub SHV} and bla{sub TEM} were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. The genes disappeared rapidly from the water column and first-order water-column disappearance coefficients were calculated. However, detected gene levels became elevated in the biofilms within 2 days, but then disappeared over time. Differences were observed between sunlight and dark treatments and among individual genes, suggesting that ecological and gene-specific factors play roles in the fate of these genes after release into the environment. Ultimately, this information will aid in generating better predictive models for gene fate. - The disappearance and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase and beta-lactamase genes were monitored in outdoor mesocosms under different light conditions.

  2. Differential fate of erythromycin and beta-lactam resistance genes from swine lagoon waste under different aquatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attenuation and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase (erm) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamse (bla) genes were quantified over time in aquatic systems by adding 20-L swine waste to 11,300-L outdoor mesocosms that simulated receiving water conditions below intensive agricultural operations. The units were prepared with two different light-exposure scenarios and included artificial substrates to assess gene movement into biofilms. Of eleven genes tested, only erm(B), erm(F), blaSHV and blaTEM were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. The genes disappeared rapidly from the water column and first-order water-column disappearance coefficients were calculated. However, detected gene levels became elevated in the biofilms within 2 days, but then disappeared over time. Differences were observed between sunlight and dark treatments and among individual genes, suggesting that ecological and gene-specific factors play roles in the fate of these genes after release into the environment. Ultimately, this information will aid in generating better predictive models for gene fate. - The disappearance and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase and beta-lactamase genes were monitored in outdoor mesocosms under different light conditions.

  3. In vitro activities of quinolones, beta-lactams, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Fass, R J; Barnishan, J; M C Solomon; Ayers, L W

    1996-01-01

    From 1991 to 1995, 8,975 nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were isolated from patients at The Ohio State University Medical Center: 71% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14% Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 7.6% Acinetobacter baumannii, and < 2% each of 25 other species. The MICs of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219), ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, imipenem, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) we...

  4. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of antimicrobial drugs : a systematic review on oxazolidinones, rifamycines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and Beta-lactams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Panday, Prashant N; Pranger, Arianna D; Kosterink, Jos G W; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2011-01-01

    Like any other drug, antimicrobial drugs are prone to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. These drug interactions are a major concern in clinical practice as they may have an effect on efficacy and toxicity. This article provides an overview of all published pharmacokinetic studies on drug interactio

  5. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne;

    An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006). In...... F. M. Aarestrup. 2004. Prevalence of ß-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark. Micr. Drug Res. 10:334-340. Petersen, A., J. P. Christensen, P. Kuhnert, M. Bisgaard, J. E. Olsen. 2006. Vertical transmission of a fluoroquinolone...

  6. Molecular genetic analysis of cephalosporinase production and its role in beta-lactam resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, M H; Honore, N; Jarlier, V; Philippon, A; Cole, S T

    1987-01-01

    Two strains of Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from a patient before (strain MHN1) and during (strain MHN2) treatment with moxalactam and gentamicin. Strain MHN1 exhibited inducible ampC cephalosporinase production. In contrast, strain MHN2 expressed the enzyme constitutively at a 3,000-fold higher level. With the Escherichia coli ampC gene as a hybridization probe it was shown that the genomic arrangement of the ampC region was the same in both strains. To gain more insight into regulator...

  7. In vitro susceptibility of cephalothin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Amikacin and selected new beta-lactam agents.

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, B T; Meyer, R D; Pasiecznik, K A

    1982-01-01

    Amikacin was evaluated in vitro by agar dilution testing against 148 different clinical isolates of cephalothin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in parallel with cephalothin, cefoxitin, moxalactam, N-formimidoyl thienamycin, ceftriaxone, and cefmenoxime. Cefsulodin was also evaluated against 39 isolates of P. aeruginosa. More than 80% of all isolates tested were also gentamicin resistant, as determined by disk testing. Moxalactam and amikacin had comparable high activit...

  8. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. PMID:27252395

  9. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  10. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Borisenko, Oleg V; Kovanen, Niina;

    2008-01-01

    antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis in adults. We included trials with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, whether or not confirmed by radiography or bacterial culture. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened search results, extracted......BACKGROUND: Expert opinions vary on the appropriate role of antibiotics for sinusitis, one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions among adults in ambulatory care. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether antibiotics are effective in treating acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes are the...... most effective. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 3); MEDLINE (1950 to May 2007) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2007). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics with placebo or...

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pseudomonas corneal ulcers in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : P. aeruginosa was highly sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. All cases were resistant to cefazolin. Resistance to multiple antibiotics might be a significant concern in patients with corneal ulcers. In referral centers dealing with corneal ulcers, the initial antibiotic regimens should be changed from time to time to prevent this phenomenon.

  12. Ecological consequences of antibiotic exposure to periphyton in naturally colonizing stream mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetracycline and its derivatives are extensively used human and animal antibiotics, and enter stream ecosystems via point and non-point sources. Laboratory studies indicate that microbial organisms are more sensitive to antibiotics than invertebrates or fish, and may indicate t...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mehr-Movahed; J. Nikkhah

    1987-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  14. High throughput LSPR and SERS analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeating, Kristy S; Couture, Maxime; Dinel, Marie-Pier; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2016-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, and are often dispensed only in severe cases due to their adverse side effects. Patients undergoing treatment with these antibiotics are therefore commonly subjected to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to ensure a safe and effective personalised dosage. The ability to detect these antibiotics in a rapid and sensitive manner in human fluids is therefore of the utmost importance in order to provide effective monitoring of these drugs, which could potentially allow for a more widespread use of this class of antibiotics. Herein, we report on the detection of various aminoglycosides, by exploiting their ability to aggregate gold nanoparticles. The number and position of the amino groups of aminoglycoside antibiotics controlled the aggregation process. We investigated the complementary techniques of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for dual detection of these aminoglycoside antibiotics and performed an in-depth study of the feasibility of carrying out TDM of tobramycin using a platform amenable to high throughput analysis. Herein, we also demonstrate dual detection of tobramycin using both LSPR and SERS in a single platform and within the clinically relevant concentration range needed for TDM of this particular aminoglycoside. Additionally we provide evidence that tobramycin can be detected in spiked human serum using only functionalised nanoparticles and SERS analysis. PMID:27412506

  15. Characterization of multi-drug resistant ESBL producing nonfermenter bacteria isolated from patients blood samples using phenotypic methods in Shiraz (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneli Amin Shahidi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The emergence of  nonfermenter bacteria that are resistant to multidrug resistant ESBL  are  nowadays a principal problem  for hospitalized patients. The present study aimed at surveying the emergence of nonfermenter bacteria resistant to multi-drug ESBL producing isolated from patients blood samples using BACTEC 9240 automatic system in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4825 blood specimens were collected from hospitalized patients in Shiraz (Iran, and positive samples were detected by means of  BACTEC 9240 automatic system. The isolates  containing nonfermenter bacteria were identified based on biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system. Antibiotic sensitivity  test was performed  and identification of  ESBL producing strains were done  using phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates(DDST according to CLSI(2013 guidelines.   Results: Out of 4825 blood samples, 1145 (24% specimen were gram-positive using BACTEC system. Among all isolated microorganisms, 206 isolates were non-fermenting gram- negative bacteria. The most common non-fermenter isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48%, Acinetobacter spp. (41.7% ,and Stenotrophomonas spp. (8.2%. Seventy of them (81.4% were  Acinetobacter spp. which were ESBL positive. Among &beta-lactam antibiotics, Pseudomonas spp. showed  the best sensitivity to piperacillin-tazobactam (46.5%.  Conclusion: It was found that  &beta-lactam antibiotics are not effective against more than 40% of Pseudomonas spp. infections and 78% Acinetobacter infections. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains that are resistant to most antibiotic classes is a major public health problem in Iran. To resolve this problem using of practical guidelines is critical.

  16. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick I. Mackie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  17. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  18. Using steric hindrance to design new inhibitors of class C beta-lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trehan, Indi; Morandi, F.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases confer resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. However, {beta}-lactams that form an acyl-intermediate with the enzyme but subsequently are hindered from forming a catalytically competent conformation seem to be inhibitors of {beta}-lactamases. This inhibition may be imparted by specific groups on the ubiquitous R1 side chain of {beta}-lactams, such as the 2-amino-4-thiazolyl methoxyimino (ATMO) group common among third-generation cephalosporins. Using steric hindrance of deacylation as a design guide, penicillin and carbacephem substrates were converted into effective {beta}-lactamase inhibitors and antiresistance antibiotics. To investigate the structural bases of inhibition, the crystal structures of the acyl-adducts of the penicillin substrate amoxicillin and the new analogous inhibitor ATMO-penicillin were determined. ATMO-penicillin binds in a catalytically incompetent conformation resembling that adopted by third-generation cephalosporins, demonstrating the transferability of such sterically hindered groups in inhibitor design.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty strains of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from 321 high vaginal swabs over a period of five months were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Sixty eight per cent of all isolates were resistant to metronidazole while 76% were sensitive to clindamycin. All the strains isolated from cases with recurrence of infection were resistant to metronidazole. Clindamycin therapy has a better clinical efficacy than metronidazole in cases of recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

  20. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP, can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  1. 沈阳地区奶牛乳房炎细菌分离鉴定与优势菌株药敏试验%Bacteria isolation and identification of cow mastitis and antibiotic sensitivity test of the predominant strains in Shenyang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳芳; 何剑斌

    2014-01-01

    为更好地制定奶牛乳房炎防治措施,本研究采集了沈阳地区6个奶牛场289头临床型乳房炎患牛的乳样进行细菌的分离鉴定,共分离得到4类9种细菌共计354株细菌,主要为大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌、乳房链球菌,并对高发的大肠杆菌菌株进行了19种常见抗生素的药敏试验,发现其对哌拉西林、氧氟沙星等高度敏感,对克林霉素、万古霉素等高度耐药。%In order to better develop prevention measures of cow mastitis, 6,289 milk samples from dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis in Shenyang area were collected and used for bac-terial isolation and identification. Four classes totaling 3, 549 kinds of bacteria were isolated, mainly Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus uber-is. The antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that E. coli strains were highly sensitive to piper-acillin, ofloxacin , clindamycin, and vancomycin.

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of the Gram-Negative Bacteria Based on Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Ruf, Claude; Crussard, Steve; Franceschi, Christine; Orenga, Sylvain; Ouattara, Jasmine; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Surre, Jérémy; Matic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly treating infections with adequate antibiotics is of major importance. This requires a fast and accurate determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. The most frequently used methods are slow because they are based on the measurement of growth inhibition. Faster methods, such as PCR-based detection of determinants of antibiotic resistance, do not always provide relevant information on susceptibility, particularly that which is not genetically based. Consequently, new methods, such as the detection of changes in bacterial physiology caused by antibiotics using flow cytometry and fluorescent viability markers, are being explored. In this study, we assessed whether Alexa Fluor® 633 Hydrazide (AFH), which targets carbonyl groups, can be used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbonylation of cellular macromolecules, which increases in antibiotic-treated cells, is a particularly appropriate to assess for this purpose because it is irreversible. We tested the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antibiotics from the three classes: β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In addition to AFH, we used TO-PRO®-3, which enters cells with damaged membranes and binds to DNA, and DiBAC4 (3), which enters cells with depolarized membranes. We also monitored antibiotic-induced morphological alterations of bacterial cells by analyzing light scattering signals. Although all tested dyes and light scattering signals allowed for the detection of antibiotic-sensitive cells, AFH proved to be the most suitable for the fast and reliable detection of antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:27507962

  3. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus phage types and their correlation to antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most devastating human pathogen. The organism has a differential ability to spread and cause outbreak of infections. Characterization of these strains is important to control the spread of infection in the hospitals as well as in the community. Aim: To identify the currently existing phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus, their prevalence and resistance to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Study was undertaken on 252 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples. Strains were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined following standard microbiological procedures. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test was used to compare the antibiotic susceptibility between methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strains. Results: Prevalence of MRSA and MSSA strains was found to be 29.36% and 70.65% respectively. Of these 17.56% of MRSA and 40.44% of MSSA strains were community acquired. All the MSSA strains belonging to phage type 81 from the community were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested including clindamycin and were resistant to penicillin. Forty five percent strains of phage group III and 39% of non-typable MRSA strains from the hospital were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Conclusion: The study revealed that predominant phage group amongst MRSA strains was phage group III and amongst MSSA from the community was phage group NA (phage type 81. MSSA strains isolated from the community differed significantly from hospital strains in their phage type and antibiotic susceptibility. A good correlation was observed between community acquired strains of phage type 81 and sensitivity to gentamycin and clindamycin.

  5. Studies on New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamse-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from donor swab in a tertiary eye care centre, India and structural analysis of its antibiotic binding interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sowmiya, Murali; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Muthukumaran, Sivashanmugan; Madhavan, Hajib Naraharirao; Malathi, Jambulingam

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermentors with resistance to carbapenems and metallo beta-lactams are the major cause of concern in clinical problems in current human healthcare. The most highly emerging dreadful Metallo Beta-lactamses is New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (blaNDM-1) which confers resistance to carbapenems; susceptible only to colistin and, less consistently to tigecycline, leading to no therapeutic options. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of...

  6. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember antibiotics have side effects. Prevent infections by practicing good hand hygiene and getting recommended vaccines. View ... program that includes, at a minimum, this checklist : Leadership commitment: Dedicate necessary human, financial, and IT resources. ...

  7. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.;

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute...... to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum...

  8. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari A; Agarwal J; Garg A

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic ...

  9. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kapoor; Ranjan Malhotra; Vishakha Grover; Deepak Grover

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, pr...

  10. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further...

  11. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is

  12. [Self-medication with antibiotics in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olczak, A.; Grzesiowski, P.; Hryniewicz, W.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, the important public health threat, depends on antibiotic overuse/misuse. Self-medication with antibiotics is of serious medical concern. The aim of the study, as a part of SAR project (Self-medication with antibiotic in Europe) was to survey the incidence of this phenomenon.

  13. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-05-01

    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. 糖尿病足合并骨髓炎患者革兰阴性菌感染的临床特点及药敏分析%Clinical Features and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Gram-Negative Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申翔; 丁群; 孙茜; 王鹏华; 禇月颉; 李代清

    2013-01-01

    -bacteria were the most frequent pathogens (48.2%), following by G+ bacteria (47.3%) and fungi (4.5%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the majority of the G-bacteria. Comparing the two groups, the rate of antibiotic use within the previous 6 months was significantly higher in G-group (75.0%) than that of G+group (52.4%, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the other indicators between two groups. The Logistic re-gression analysis revealed that the history of antibiotic use was the independent risk factor of G-bacterial infections in DFO patients. Antibiotics susceptibilities reflected G- bacteria were more prevalent to resist to cephalosporins and quinolonem, but sensitive to imipenem, ceftazidine and cefperazone-sulbactam. Conclusion Gram negative bacteria were not only the main pathogens isolated from DFO patients, but also frequently resistant to several popular antibiotics in China. The proper bacteria culture and antibiotic sensitivity test are especially emphasized to patients with DFU.

  15. Documenting Penicillin Allergy: The Impact of Inconsistency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav S Shah

    Full Text Available Allergy documentation is frequently inconsistent and incomplete. The impact of this variability on subsequent treatment is not well described.To determine how allergy documentation affects subsequent antibiotic choice.Retrospective, cohort study.232,616 adult patients seen by 199 primary care providers (PCPs between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014 at an academic medical system.Inter-physician variation in beta-lactam allergy documentation; antibiotic treatment following beta-lactam allergy documentation.15.6% of patients had a reported beta-lactam allergy. Of those patients, 39.8% had a specific allergen identified and 22.7% had allergic reaction characteristics documented. Variation between PCPs was greater than would be expected by chance (all p<0.001 in the percentage of their patients with a documented beta-lactam allergy (7.9% to 24.8%, identification of a specific allergen (e.g. amoxicillin as opposed to "penicillins" (24.0% to 58.2% and documentation of the reaction characteristics (5.4% to 51.9%. After beta-lactam allergy documentation, patients were less likely to receive penicillins (Relative Risk [RR] 0.16 [95% Confidence Interval: 0.15-0.17] and cephalosporins (RR 0.28 [95% CI 0.27-0.30] and more likely to receive fluoroquinolones (RR 1.5 [95% CI 1.5-1.6], clindamycin (RR 3.8 [95% CI 3.6-4.0] and vancomycin (RR 5.0 [95% CI 4.3-5.8]. Among patients with beta-lactam allergy, rechallenge was more likely when a specific allergen was identified (RR 1.6 [95% CI 1.5-1.8] and when reaction characteristics were documented (RR 2.0 [95% CI 1.8-2.2].Provider documentation of beta-lactam allergy is highly variable, and details of the allergy are infrequently documented. Classification of a patient as beta-lactam allergic and incomplete documentation regarding the details of the allergy lead to beta-lactam avoidance and use of other antimicrobial agents, behaviors that may adversely impact care quality and cost.

  16. Macrolide antibiotics and the airway: antibiotic or non-antibiotic effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D M

    2010-03-01

    The macrolides are a class of antibiotics widely prescribed in infectious disease. More recently, there has been considerable interest in potential indications for these agents, in addition to their simple antibacterial indications, in a number of lung pathophysiologies.

  17. Resistance of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli in pregnant women and other women in generative ages in comparison with antibiotics consumption in Zagreb

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Leppée,; Ana Mlinarić-Džepina,; Josip Čulig; Jasmina Vraneš,

    2010-01-01

    Aim To compare resistance of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) to antibiotics in women in generative ages and pregnant women during two year period (2004 and 2008) in Zagreb, andcomparison of resistance and the consumption of antibiotics. Methods The standard disk-diffusion method was used for sensitivity testing to 16 different antibiotics.Data on antibiotic utilization were used to calculate the number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per 1000 inhabitants using Anatomical...

  18. A new approach for the discovery of antibiotics by targeting non-multiplying bacteria: a novel topical antibiotic for staphylococcal infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Hu

    Full Text Available In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates.

  19. Antibiotic use in Lithuania, 2003 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Beržanskytė, Aušra

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is mainly caused by inappropriate and abundant use of antibiotics. To enlighten the most relevant problematic areas in antibiotic use, where the decisions should be made, the different levels were analysed in this study: the self-medication with antibiotics of the population, ambulatory and also hospital antibiotic use. The results showed that wrong perception about antibiotics is characteristic to Lithuanian population, as there is lack of privity, while traditions o...

  20. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescribing antibiotics for dental conditions.

  1. The Effect of Rapid Antigen Detection Test on Antibiotic Prescription Decision of Clinicians and Reducing Antibiotic Costs in Children with Acute Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Engin; Sirin Kose, Seda; Akca, Deniz; Yildiz, Kerem; Elmas, Cengizhan; Baris, Mustafa; Anil, Murat

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, its impact on antibiotic prescription decision of pediatricians and influence on reduction of antibiotic treatment costs in children with pharyngitis. The study group consisted of 223 patients who were diagnosed with pharyngitis by pediatricians. The sensitivity and specificity of RADT were 92.1% (95% Cl: 78.6-98.3%) and 97.3% (95% Cl: 93.8-99.1%), respectively. In the first assessment, before performing RADT, pediatricians decided to prescribe antibiotics for 178 (79.8%) patients with pharyngitis. After learning RADT results, pediatricians finally decided to prescribe antibiotics for 83 (37.2%) patients with pharyngitis, and antibiotic prescription decreased by 42.6%. Antibiotic costs in non-Group A streptococcus pharyngitis, Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and all subjects groups decreased by 80.8%, 48%, and 76.4%, respectively. Performing RADT in children with pharyngitis has an important impact on treatment decision of clinicians, reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic costs. PMID:26999012

  2. Induction of changes in antibiotic susceptibility of certain Bacteria using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotic sensitivity tests of cultures isolated from environment of high radiation intensity of the facility were studied. Standard strains of ATCC, NTCC and those from air of clean area in the vicinity of the facility were used for comparison. The following isolated cultures from the environment of the radiation facility were studied in the present work B. Cereus, B. Licheniformis and Staph Aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed before and after exposure to radiation doses in the range from 0.1 kGy to 2.5 kGy depending on the radiation resistance of the studied strain. The obtained results showed changes in the antibiotic sensitivities of the studied isolates after their exposure to certain doses of gamma radiation. These induced changes were found to have similar trend for all strains except in the case of Staph Aureus with the antibiotic tetracycline

  3. Ecology of Anti-Biofilm Agents I: Antibiotics versus Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Abedon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, have for decades been successfully used to combat antibiotic-resistant, chronic bacterial infections, many of which are likely biofilm associated. Antibiotics as anti-biofilm agents can, by contrast, be inefficacious against even genetically sensitive targets. Such deficiencies in usefulness may result from antibiotics, as naturally occurring compounds, not serving their producers, in nature, as stand-alone disruptors of mature biofilms. Anti-biofilm effectiveness by phages, by contrast, may result from a combination of inherent abilities to concentrate lytic antibacterial activity intracellularly via bacterial infection and extracellularly via localized population growth. Considered here is the anti-biofilm activity of microorganisms, with a case presented for why, ecologically, bacteriophages can be more efficacious than traditional antibiotics as medically or environmentally applied biofilm-disrupting agents. Four criteria, it can be argued, generally must be met, in combination, for microorganisms to eradicate biofilms: (1 Furnishing of sufficiently effective antibacterial factors, (2 intimate interaction with biofilm bacteria over extended periods, (3 associated ability to concentrate antibacterial factors in or around targets, and, ultimately, (4 a means of physically disrupting or displacing target bacteria. In nature, lytic predators of bacteria likely can meet these criteria whereas antibiotic production, in and of itself, largely may not.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MEAT, MILK AND EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological tests are widely used to detect antibiotic residues in the meat, milk and eggs for better care of the quality and health safety. In the present study microbiological inhibition test i.e. Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF was developed indigenously for screening of animal foods for presence of antibiotic residues. In this test local isolated culture of Bacillus subtilis was used as a test microorganism due to its high sensitivity to detect a wide range of antibiotics commonly used in animal disorders. The concentration of spore suspension of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 used in the formation of STAF plate was optimized at 2x107 spores/ ml. At this concentration, inhibition zone around Neomycin control disc was 10-16 mm. Nutrient agar was used as a medium in spore suspension and 0.4% dextrose was added as a constituent of medium. Zones of inhibition around swab samples and Neomycin control disc were observed and the diameter was measured. All swab samples showing a minimum of 2 mm wide inhibition zone around them were considered as positive for presence of antibiotic residues. The swab samples showing no zone of inhibition or a zone measuring less than 2 mm were considered as negative. Results of application of STAF test was on animal food samples revealed the high incidence of antibiotic residues.

  5. Determining of antibiotic resistance profile inStaphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Motamedi; Hadis Mirzabeigi; Tahere Shirali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance amongStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from clinical specimens and to identify community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA)in specimens that have been collected from patients referring to one of the hospitals of Ahvaz.Methods:S. aureus isolates from a hospital in Ahvaz were screened for resistance to various antibiotics including methicillin. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. TheMRSA was also treated with ethidium bromide to find the origin of resistance.Results: Among the bacterial isolates, all of 11S. aureus were resistant to methicillin and cefixime,2 were resistant to ciprofloxacine,6 were resistant to tetracycline and the reminder were sensitive or intermediate to other antibiotics. The treated isolates were reminded resistant to methicillin and this suggested that the plasmid was not the origin of resistance in these isolates.Conclusions: These results showed that infection due toMRSA is widespread in Ahvaz and with respect to the spread of vancomycin resistance among MRSA and appearance of overwhelming infections. It is necessary to identify continuously the profile of antibiotic resistance amongS. aureus isolates in other regions and finding appropriate antibiotic for infection control and eradication.

  6. Cardiac dysrhythmia resulting from antibiotic abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Nwaneri Okeahialam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are commonly used to combat infections and could be used in treating some connective diseases. They are not without side effects especially when used without regard to age, gender, diseases and their severity, comorbidity, and idiosyncrasies. This is more likely to occur when dispensed by unqualified persons to selves or others. Consequences of inappropriate use include various morbidities and in some instances death. This is a report of a middle-aged man with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, who on the side had chronic osteomyelitis. Wound swab grew organisms sensitive to levofloxacin, and he had the drug prescribed to him by the attending orthopedic surgeon. With reduction in discharge to the point that he no longer bound his foot in bandage, he went on using the drug beyond the duration of prescription without reverting to his orthopedic surgeon until he developed sudden onset palpitation and shortness of breath. With this was an unusual tachyarrhythmia which defied initial measures. This prompted further review of his drug history when he admitted to taking levofloxacin for up to 3 months. Suspecting it to be the culprit, he was advised to discontinue it. With this, his symptoms started to abate, alongside gradual improvement in electrocardiograms till eventual normalization. This report is made to highlight the possibility that some antibiotics have the propensity to induce arrhythmias that can be very serious especially in cardiovascular disease-burdened patients. Such patients then go into heart failure and it becomes difficult to tell which came first, the arrhythmia or the heart failure. Resolving the order of onset assists in proper management. As a result, it is being recommended that patients with unexplained arrhythmias with or without heart failure should have their drug histories evaluated. Uncontrolled prescription and use of antibiotics should also be discouraged.

  7. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  8. Background antibiotic resistance patterns in antibiotic-free pastured poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a significant public health issue, and agroecosystems are often viewed as major environmental sources of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens. While the use of antibiotics in agroecosystems can potentially increase AR, appropriate background resistance levels in th...

  9. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Augustine; S P Bhavsar; B P Kapadnis

    2005-03-01

    In all 312 actinomycete strains were isolated from water and soil samples from different regions. All these isolates were purified and screened for their antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi. Out of these, 22% of the isolates exhibited activity against fungi. One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by other molds and yeasts. The antibiotic was stable at different temperatures and pH tested and there was no significant loss of the antifungal activity after treatment with various detergents and enzymes. Synergistic effect was observed when the antibiotic was used in combination with hamycin. The antibiotic was fairly stable for a period of 12 months at 4°C. The mode of action of the antibiotic seems to be by binding to the ergosterol present in the fungal cell membrane resulting in the leakage of intracellular material and eventually death of the cell. The structure of the antibiotic was determined by elemental analysis and by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography mass spectra (LCMS). The antibiotic was found to be a straight chain polyhydroxy, polyether, non-proteinic compound with a single double bond, indicating a nonpolyene antifungal antibiotic.

  10. Relationship between antibiotic- and disinfectant-resistance profiles in bacteria harvested from tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadia; Beattie, Tara K; Knapp, Charles W

    2016-06-01

    Chlorination is commonly used to control levels of bacteria in drinking water; however, viable bacteria may remain due to chlorine resistance. What is concerning is that surviving bacteria, due to co-selection factors, may also have increased resistance to common antibiotics. This would pose a public health risk as it could link resistant bacteria in the natural environment to human population. Here, we investigated the relationship between chlorine- and antibiotic-resistances by harvesting 148 surviving bacteria from chlorinated drinking-water systems and compared their susceptibilities against chlorine disinfectants and antibiotics. Twenty-two genera were isolated, including members of Paenibacillus, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Sphingomonas and Dermacoccus species. Weak (but significant) correlations were found between chlorine-tolerance and minimum inhibitory concentrations against the antibiotics tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin, but not against ciprofloxacin; this suggest that chlorine-tolerant bacteria are more likely to also be antibiotic resistant. Further, antibiotic-resistant bacteria survived longer than antibiotic-sensitive organisms when exposed to free chlorine in a contact-time assay; however, there were little differences in susceptibility when exposed to monochloramine. Irrespective of antibiotic-resistance, spore-forming bacteria had higher tolerance against disinfection compounds. The presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria surviving in drinking-water systems may carry additional risk of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26966812

  11. 某地区2008~2010年泌尿生殖道支原体感染状况及其耐药性演变%The detection and analysis of drug sensitivity and antibiotic resistance profil of gential tract Mycoplasma in outpatients from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春霞; 刘斌; 曹小秋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect and analyze the drug sensitivity and resistance of Mycoplasma hominis(Mh) and Ureaplasma urealyticum(Uu)in genitourinary tract infection outpatients from Nantong region and to provide evidences for the etiological diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma infection. Methods The Mycoplasma diagnostic kit was used for culture,identification and antibiotics sensitivity test of Mycoplasma in the samples from the outpatients. Results Out of 1 053 patients,527 patients were found to be positive for Mycoplasma infection. The detection rate for simple Mycoplasma infection in female was significantly higher than that in male(P0.01).药敏结果显示,3年中米诺环素和多西环素对支原体的敏感性较高,稳定性也较好,耐药性均低于4%;交沙霉素、克拉霉素、四环素、罗红霉素、阿奇霉素则出现了不同程度的耐药性;喹诺酮类耐药性最高,在60%以上.分析中还发现多重耐药支原体156株.结论 随着抗生素的广泛使用,支原体对抗生素的耐药率越来越高,根据各地区不同的支原体流行情况及其药敏结果进行临床治疗十分重要.

  12. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  13. Identificação laboratorial dos patógenos oculares mais freqüentes e sua suscetibilidade in vitro aos agentes antimicrobianos Laboratory identification of the most frequent ocular pathogens and their in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Uesugui

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estabelecer os agentes mais comumente isolados nas ceratites, conjuntivites e endoftalmites no Laboratório de Microbiologia da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, assim como determinar o perfil de sensibilidade destes agentes aos antibióticos. Métodos: Realizamos estudo retrospectivo analisando todos os prontuários oftalmológicos do banco de dados do Laboratório de Microbiologia da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Foram coletados os dados de todos os pacientes submetidos à colheita de material ocular nos últimos 5 anos (1994-1999. Selecionamos para o estudo apenas os pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de conjuntivite, ceratite e endoftalmite. Os respectivos antibiogramas foram realizados e somente dados de antibiótico com aplicação em oftalmologia foram analisados. Resultados: Dos 568 casos pesquisados, foram encontrados 282 casos de ceratite bacteriana (49,6%, 214 de conjuntivites (37,7%, 72 de endoftalmites (12,7%. Obtivemos cultura negativa em 333 casos (58,9%. O agente mais freqüentemente isolado foi S. aureus (73 casos; 31,0%. Nas conjuntivites, o segundo agente mais freqüente foi Candida sp (6,6% e 38,3% das culturas foram negativas. Nas ceratites, Pseudomonas aeruginosa apresentou 3,9% de positividade. Nas endoftalmites, nas quais houve apenas 32% de positividade, o segundo agente mais freqüente foi o S. pneumoniae (4,2%. Conclusão: Culturas negativas foram achado mais freqüente. Quando nos deparamos com uma infecção ocular, as chances de o causador ser S. aureus são muito grandes, portanto antes mesmo de se obter o resultado da cultura, tratamento que inclua S. aureus pode ser indicado.Purpose: To establish the most frequently isolated agents in keratitis, conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis by the Laboratory of Microbiology/ Santa Casa of São Paulo, and to determine their antimicrobial sensitivity. Methods: A retrospective study including all ophthalmologic charts of the Laboratory of Microbiology/ Santa

  14. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    . Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years....... Additionally, culture-independent functional characterization of the resistance genes from the microbiome has demonstrated a close evolutionary relationship between resistance genes in the microbiome and in pathogens. Application of these techniques and novel cultivation methods are expected to significantly...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  15. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J.; Nasser, S.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30–50%). There is a low...

  16. Resistance of Xanthomonas maltophilia to antibiotics and the effect of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, H C; Saha, G; Chin, N X

    1989-01-01

    We examined the susceptibility of 50 isolates of Xanthomonas maltophilia and the effect of beta-lactamase inhibitors upon the susceptibility. The majority of isolates were resistant to azlocillin, piperacillin, mezlocillin, ticarcillin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime. All isolates were resistant to imipenem, CGP 31608, aztreonam, and carumonam. Although disk susceptibility tests showed that the combination of clavulanate with ticarcillin inhibited many isolates, at a ratio of 1:20 few isolates were susceptible to the combination. Addition of clavulanate to aztreonam and to imipenem failed to make organisms susceptible. Sulbactam combined with cefoperazone made some organisms susceptible, but ampicillin-sulbactam was ineffective, whereas tazobactam combined with piperacillin at a ratio of 1:4 made half the isolates have MICs of 32 micrograms/ml or less. The beta-lactamases from the isolates hydrolyzed all of the beta-lactams. PMID:2791491

  17. Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Farrukh; Khan, M Sajjad A; Owais, Mohd; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like

  18. Impact of Low Procalcitonin Results on Antibiotic Administration in Hospitalized Patients at a Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meghan B; Osterby, Kurt; Schulz, Lucas; Lepak, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Procalcitonin is a sensitive and specific marker of bacterial infection; low results allow clinicians to safely de-escalate antibiotics. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the effect of low procalcitonin results on withholding, discontinuing, or de-escalating antibiotics in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care center. Antibiotics were initiated or continued without de-escalation in 55% of patients with low procalcitonin results. Among patients with low procalcitonin results, the primary service, but not measures of patient complexity, disease severity, or underlying disease process (lower respiratory tract infection evaluation versus systemic inflammatory response syndrome/possible sepsis) was associated with initiation or continued broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Provider-level factors may be an important variable in the initiation or continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for patients with low procalcitonin levels. PMID:27251126

  19. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it. PMID:27092975

  20. Use of Antibiotics in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the use of systemic antibiotics among children in Denmark. Methods: National data on drug use in Denmark were extracted from the Danish National Prescription Database. We used prescription data for all children in Denmark aged 0 to 11 years from January 1, 2000 to...

  1. ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR ENT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Turovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines basic principles of and new approaches to antibiotic therapy for ENT and upper respiratory tract infections, from point of view of the authors, on the basis of the data available in Russian and foreign literature.

  2. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  3. Do We Need New Antibiotics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spížek, Jaroslav; Novotná, Jitka; Janata, Jiří

    Seoul : COEX Convention and Exhibition Center , 2009. s. 218-218. [Annual World Congress of Industrial Biotechnology 2009 /2./. 05.04.2009-07.04.2009, Seoul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : antibiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta V; Yadav A; Joshi R

    2002-01-01

    Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urina...

  5. A study of antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Radzeviciene-Jurgute, R.; Jurgutis, A.; Lazarus, J.V.; Ovhed, I.; Strandberg, E.L.; Bjerrum, L.

    2012-01-01

    clinically or pharmacologically. Methods. 22 Lithuanian and 29 Russian GPs participated in five focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results. We identified four main thematic categories: patients' faith in antibiotics as medication for upper respiratory tract infections...

  6. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  7. Note on the effect of gamma-rays on cefamandole and oxacillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.P.; Dobrilovic, L.; Raghavan, N.; Carpenter, D.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of the radiation sterilization of two ..beta..-lactam antibiotic powders, cefamandole nafate and oxacillin sodium, has been examined by subjecting them to a range ..gamma..-radiation doses, followed by chemical and microbiological analyses. It would appear feasible to radiation sterilize oxacillin sodium. The radiation sterilization of cefamandole nafate may be realistic at low doses or under conditions that minimize radiolysis.

  8. Disease: H01072 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TC:J01FA] Cephalosporin [ATC:J01DB J01DC J01DD J01DE] Tetracycline [ATC:J01AA] Co-amoxyclav [DR:D06485] Moraxella catarrhalis is expe...cted to be resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics includin

  9. Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, Ulrich; Roumagnac, Philippe; Feldkamp, Mirjam;

    2008-01-01

    A small number of clonal lineages dominates the global population structure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resulting in the concept that MRSA has emerged on a few occasions after penicillinase-stable beta-lactam antibiotics were introduced to clinical practice, followed...

  10. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla;

    2008-01-01

    results. Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics beta-lactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis...

  11. Commensal Streptococci Serve as a Reservoir for β-Lactam Resistance Genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Valdórsson, Oskar; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. The incidence of S. pneumoniae isolates that are not susceptible to penicillin has risen worldwide and may be above 20% in some countries. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in pneumococci is...

  12. Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2015-10-01

    CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection.

  13. Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159392.html Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome' C-section birth ... microbiomes" are altered by cesarean births, antibiotics and formula feeding. "The microbiome is really important in how ...

  14. Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines into Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160702.html Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines Into Dentists Seeing their prescription rates leads some to change ... 30, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Dentists are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for patients ...

  15. FDA Bolsters Warnings about Class of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html FDA Bolsters Warnings About Class of Antibiotics Fluoroquinolones such as Cipro, Levaquin should be reserved for ... label warnings on a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones because the drugs can lead to disabling side ...

  16. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don’t work against them. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires ... child gets sick? To minimize the risk of bacterial resistance, keep these tips in mind: Take antibiotics only ...

  17. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first- ...

  18. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    D. Chandrasekaran; Venkatesan, P; K. G. Tirumurugaan; A. P. Nambi; P. S. Thirunavukkarasu; Kumanan, K.; Vairamuthu, S.; Mr. S. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119), Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104) and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA...

  19. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescr...

  20. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, K.S.; Wehrli, S; Roder, H; Rogers, M.; Forrest, J N; McCrimmon, D; Zasloff, M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of low molecular weight antibiotics have been isolated from diverse animal species. These agents, which include peptides, lipids, and alkaloids, exhibit antibiotic activity against environmental microbes and are thought to play a role in innate immunity. We report here the discovery of a broad-spectrum steroidal antibiotic isolated from tissues of the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble antibiotic, which we have named squalamine, exhibits potent bact...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mehr-Movahed

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  2. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD5/COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H2O2/COD and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H2O2/COD and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD5/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H2O2/COD molar ratio 2, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  3. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  4. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL−1 can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples

  5. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Li, E-mail: lishen97@163.com [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); Chen, Jing; Li, Na [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); He, Pingli [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  6. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  7. SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS AND OXYTOCIN IN THE TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRITIS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad, N. Ahmad. M.K. Mansoor and H.A. Samad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of oxytocin with or without intrauterine antibiotics infusion, on conception rates in 150 endometritic mares. Uterine swabs were collected from each mare and processed for antibiotic sensitivity tests. Samples from 135 mares showing bacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity were divided into following groups: Control given oxytocin only, Gentamicin or gentamicin + Oxytocin, Chloramphenicol or Chloramphenicol + Oxytocin, Streptopenicillin + Kanamycin or Streptopenicillin + Kanamycin + Oxytocin and Norfloxacin or Norfloxacin + Oxytocin. After treatment for five days one heat was missed and on second heat mares were bred through natural. mating and examined for pregnancy at least 60 days after service. The overall conception rate in mares of groups treated using antibiotics without oxytocin (62.22% was significantly higher (P<0.05 as compared to 40.00% in the control group. However, conception rates in mares of former groups did not differ from one , another. Similarly. overall conception rate in mares treated using antibiotic + oxytocin combination (82.62% was significantly higher (P<0.05 than overall conception rate in mares treated with antibiotics alone (62.22% or control (40.00%. It was concluded that oxytocin alongwith some suitable antibiotic (s may be used for the treatment of endometritis and improvement of conception rates in endometritic mares

  8. Microbial assessment and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in polluted Oluwa River, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ayandiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are emerging environmental contaminants, causing both short-term and long-term alterations of natural microbial communities due to their high biological activities. The antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria from anthropogenic polluted Oluwa River, Nigeria was carried out. Microbial profiling and antibiotic sensitivity tests were carried out on water and sediment samples using 13 different antibiotics. Microorganisms isolated include those in the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Proteus and Staphylococcus. The microbial count of isolates from water samples ranged between 94.10 × 102 Cfu/100 ml and 156.20 × 102 Cfu/100 ml while that of sediment samples ranged from 2.55 × 104 Cfu g−1 to 14.30 × 104 Cfu g−1. From the water isolates, 100% resistance to antibiotics was found in Micrococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. while another Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Bacillus spp. showed between 40% and 90% resistances. From the sediment isolates, 100% resistance to antibiotics was found in a Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. while another Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Proteus spp. showed between 70% and 90% resistances. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was shown by all the isolates and Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest resistances (100% to all antibiotics. Thus, Oluwa River is not safe for public consumption.

  9. Puerperal sepsis: predominant organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha S. Tamboli

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Puerperal sepsis is the common life threatening condition in the postnatal period, particularly following vaginal delivery. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of puerperal sepsis can make the difference between life and death. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 762-765

  10. Subclinical mastitis in sheep: Causes and their sensitivity to antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Vakanjac Slobodanka; Todorović Igor

    2010-01-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) was used to examine the milk of 6609 sheep, actually, from 13218 mammary complexes. A total of 986 milk samples were found to contain an increased number of somatic cells, and causes of mastitis were isolated from 910 (92.3%) of these samples. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were: E. coli isolated from 189 (20.76%) samples, Micrococcus sp from 186 (20.43%) samples, Bacillus sp. from 177 (19.45%), Staphylococcus aureus from 172 (18.9%) samples, an...

  11. Lab-on-a-chip for multiplexed biosensing of residual antibiotics in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Guillaume; Jin, Young-Hyun; Auerswald, Janko; Berchtold, Stefan; Knapp, Helmut F.; Diserens, Jean-Marc; Leterrier, Yves; Månson, Jan-Anders E.; Voirin, Guy

    2009-01-01

    A multiplexed immunoassay-based antibiotic sensing device integrated in a lab-on-a-chip format is described. The approach is multidisciplinary and involves the convergent development of a multi-antibiotic competitive immunoassay based on sensitive wavelength interrogated optical sensor (WIOS) technology and a polymer-based self-contained microfluidic cartridge. Immunoassay solutions are pressure-driven through external and concerted actuation of a single syringe pump and multiposition valve. ...

  12. Nanomechanical detection of antibiotic-mucopeptide binding in a model for superbug drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ndieyira, J. W.; Watari, M.; Barrera, A. Donoso; Zhou, D; Vögtli, M; Batchelor, M.; Cooper, M. A.; Strunz, T; Horton, M. A.; Abell, C; Rayment, T.; Aeppli, G.; McKendry, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The alarming growth of the antibiotic-resistant superbugs methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is driving the development of new technologies to investigate antibiotics and their modes of action. We report the label-free detection of vancomycin binding to bacterial cell wall precursor analogues (mucopeptides) on cantilever arrays, with 10 nM sensitivity and at clinically relevant concentrations in blood serum. Differential measurements...

  13. Screening alternative antibiotics against oxytetracycline-susceptible and -resistant Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kochansky, Jan; Knox, David; Feldlaufer, Mark; Pettis, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    International audience Since resistance of the causative organism of American foulbrood, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, to oxytetracycline (OTC) is becoming widespread in the United States, we began a search for effective alternative antibiotics. We investigated the sensitivity of P. l. larvae to 27 antibiotics, which were primarily ones already registered with the US Food and Drug Administration for agricultural uses. Bacterial resistance to OTC also conferred resistance to other tet...

  14. Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and ESBL production in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca among hospitalized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Mohsina, Kaniz; Sarker, Palash Kumar; Alam, Md. Zahangir; Karim, M Ismail Abdul; Sayem, S M Abu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca are the two most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections in humans and are of great concern for developing multidrug resistance. In the present study, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca from clinical samples were evaluated for their antibiotic sensitivity patterns against commonly used antibiotics and production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Materials and Methods: The isolates were obtained from tracheal s...

  15. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, Callie H; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and fema...

  16. Surface modeling of soil antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen-jiao; Yue, Tian-xiang; Du, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zong; Li, Xue-wen

    2016-02-01

    Large numbers of livestock and poultry feces are continuously applied into soils in intensive vegetable cultivation areas, and then some veterinary antibiotics are persistent existed in soils and cause health risk. For the spatial heterogeneity of antibiotic residues, developing a suitable technique to interpolate soil antibiotic residues is still a challenge. In this study, we developed an effective interpolator, high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) combined vegetable types, to predict the spatial patterns of soil antibiotics, using 100 surface soil samples collected from an intensive vegetable cultivation area located in east of China, and the fluoroquinolones (FQs), including ciprofloxacin (CFX), enrofloxacin (EFX) and norfloxacin (NFX), were analyzed as the target antibiotics. The results show that vegetable type is an effective factor to be combined to improve the interpolator performance. HASM achieves less mean absolute errors (MAEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for total FQs (NFX+CFX+EFX), NFX, CFX and EFX than kriging with external drift (KED), stratified kriging (StK), ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW). The MAE of HASM for FQs is 55.1 μg/kg, and the MAEs of KED, StK, OK and IDW are 99.0 μg/kg, 102.8 μg/kg, 106.3 μg/kg and 108.7 μg/kg, respectively. Further, RMSE simulated by HASM for FQs (CFX, EFX and NFX) are 106.2 μg/kg (88.6 μg/kg, 20.4 μg/kg and 39.2 μg/kg), and less 30% (27%, 22% and 36%), 33% (27%, 27% and 43%), 38% (34%, 23% and 41%) and 42% (32%, 35% and 51%) than the ones by KED, StK, OK and IDW, respectively. HASM also provides better maps with more details and more consistent maximum and minimum values of soil antibiotics compared with the measured data. The better performance can be concluded that HASM takes the vegetable type information as global approximate information, and takes local sampling data as its optimum control constraints. PMID:26613514

  17. Study of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Phenotypic Detection of ESBLs in Klebsiella Pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Imipenem and Ceftazidim Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yousefi Mashouf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in gram negative bac-teria, particularly Klebsiella pneumonia strains, is the production of Extended-Spectrum ? lactamase enzymes (ESBLs. Encoding genes of ESBLs are usually located on the plasmid and they are able to transfer to other gram-negative bacteria. Thus, due to the importance of resistance pattern recognition and its sensitivity to the ?- lactam antibiotics, the above men-tioned issue was examined in this study. Materials & Methods: In this study different clinical samples of Boroujerd and Hamadan Hos-pitals during 6 months were collected and identified by biochemical tests and Enterosystem kit. To confirm the strains, the Ure D gene was used as the internal gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae by PCR method. Antibiotic resistance by Disk diffusion method was performed. Phenotypic confirmatory test was used to determine the presence of ESBLs. MIC antibiotics of Ceftazidime and imipenem by E test method were determined. Results: The results showed that the highest rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistance was related to Cefexime antibiotics 46.7%, Ceftriaxone 43.3%, Azthrunam 43.3%, Cefo-taxime 41.7%, Cotrimaksazol 40.8% , Ceftazidim 36.7% and the least resistance was related to antibiotics Imipenem 0% Sprofluksasin 16.7%, Cefepime 25% and Gentamicin 26.7%. 56 strains( 46.7% were identified as ESBL –positive strains. Using E-test strip for Ceftazidim antibiotic, 66 strains were resistant , 10 strains intermediate ,and 44 strains were sensitive to Ceftazidim and by E test method for Imipenem antibiotic ,120 strains were sensitive. Conclusion: The high prevalence of antibiotic resistance and ESBLs production in the cities which were studied indicates the need for screening of ESBLs in clinical samples by labora-tory and prescribing appropriate antibiotics with ?-lactamase inhibitory power and antibiotics together with clavulanic by physicians. (Sci J Hamadan Univ

  18. Use of antibiotics in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, V O; Duffy, B

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are essential for control of bacterial diseases of plants, especially fire blight of pear and apple and bacterial spot of peach. Streptomycin is used in several countries; the use of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and gentamicin is limited to only a few countries. Springtime antibiotic sprays suppress pathogen growth on flowers and leaf surfaces before infection; after infection, antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics are applied when disease risk is high, and consequently the majority of orchards are not treated annually. In 2009 in the United States, 16,465 kg (active ingredient) was applied to orchards, which is 0.12% of the total antibiotics used in animal agriculture. Antibiotics are active on plants for less than a week, and significant residues have not been found on harvested fruit. Antibiotics have been indispensable for crop protection in the United States for more than 50 years without reports of adverse effects on human health or persistent impacts on the environment. PMID:22849276

  19. Biosynthesis of Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lanen, Steven G.; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The enediyne polyketides are secondary metabolites isolated from a variety of Actinomycetes. All members share very potent anticancer and antibiotic activity, and prospects for the clinical application of the enediynes has been validated with the recent marketing of two enediyne derivatives as anticancer agents. The biosynthesis of these compounds is of interest because of the numerous structural features that are unique to the enediyne family. The gene cluster for five enediynes has now been...

  20. Uncialamycin, a new enediyne antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Julian; Wang, Hao; Taylor, Terry; Warabi, Kaoru; Huang, Xin-Hui; Andersen, Raymond J

    2005-11-10

    [structure: see text] Laboratory cultures of an undescribed streptomycete obtained from the surface of a British Columbia lichen produce uncialamycin (1), a new enediyne antibiotic. The structure of uncialamycin (1) has been elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. Uncialamycin (1) exhibits potent in vitro antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:16268546